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COLLECTED

WORKS

OF JOHN

VOLUME

XXV

STUART

MILL

Newspaper

Writings

by JOHN

STUART

MILL

December

1847 - July

1873

Edited by

ANN

P.

ROBSON

Associate Professor of History, University of Toronto

and

JOHN M. ROBSON

University Professor and Professor of English, University of Toronto

Introduction

by

ANN

P.

ROBSON

Textual Introduction

by

JOHN

M.

ROBSON

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS

ROUTLEDGE & KEGAN PAUL

© University

of Toronto

Press

1986

Toronto

and Buffalo

Printed

in Canada

ISBN 0-8020-2602-8

London:

Routledge

& Kegan

Paul

ISBN 0-7102-0983-5

Printed on acid-free

paper

Canadian

Cataloguing

Mill,

John Stuart,

in Publication

1806-1873.

Collected

[Works]

works

of John Smart

Mill

Data

Includes

Partial contents:

bibliographies

and indexes.

v. 22-25.

Newspaper

writings /

edited by Ann P. Robson

and John M. Robson.

ISBN

0-8020-2602-8

(v. 22-25).

1. Philosophy

-

Collected

works.

 

2. Political

science

- Collected

works.

3. Economics

-

Collected

works.

 

I. Robson,

John M.,

1927-

 

II. Title.

BI602.A2

1963

192

C64-188-2

rev.

This volume

has been published

with the assistance

of a grant

from the Social Sciences

and Humanities

Research

of Canada

Council

Contents

December

1847 to July 1858

 

1089

369.

Eugene Sue

1089

370.

The Provisional Government

in France

1091

371.

George Sand 1094

 

372.

England and Ireland 1095

 

373.

The Reform Debate 1101

374.

On Reform 1104

 

375.

Electoral Districts 1107

 

376.

French Affairs 1110

 

377.

Landed Tenure in Ireland 1112

 

378.

The French Law against the Press 1115

379.

Bain's On the Applications of Science to Human Health and Well-Being 1118

 

380.

Grote's History of Greece [3] 1121

 

381.

Grote's History of Greece [4] 1128

382.

The Attempt to Exclude Unbelievers from Parliament 1135

 

383.

Corporal Punishment 1138

 

384.

The Czar and the Hungarian Refugees in Turkey [1] 1141

 

385.

The Czar and the Hungarian Refugees in Turkey [2] 1143

386.

M. Cabet 1144

 

387.

Lechevalier's Declaration 1146

 

388.

The Californian Constitution 1147

389.

The Case of Mary Ann Parsons [1] 1151

390.

The Case of Anne Bird 1153

391.

Grote's History of Greece [5] 1157

392.

The Case of Mary Ann Parsons [2] 1164

393.

The Case of Susan Moir 1167

394.

Questionable

Charity

1170

395.

The Law of Assault

1172

396.

Punishment of Children 1176

 

vi

Contents

398.

Stability of Society

1180

399.

Religious Sceptics 1182

 

400.

Wife Murder 1183

401.

Street Organs 1187

402.

The Rules of the Booksellers' Association

[1] 1188

403.

The Rules of the Booksellers' Association [2] 1189

404.

The India Bill, I 1189

 

405.

The India Bill, II 1194

406.

A Recent Magisterial Decision 1196

407.

The Law of Lunacy 1198

March 1863 to July 1873

 

1201

408. Poland 1201

 

409. The Civil War in the United States

1204

410. England

and Europe

1205

 

411. On Hate's

Plan

1208

412. The Westminster

Election

[ 11

1210

 

413. Romilly's Public Responsibility and the Ballot 1212

 

414. The Westminster

Election

[2]

1217

415. The Ballot

1218

 

416. Gladstone for Greenwich 1219

 

417. Bouverie versus Chadwick

1220

 

418. New England

Woman's

Suffrage Association

1220

419. The Case of William Smith

1221

 

420. The Education

Bill

1222

 

421. The Treaty of 1856 [1]

1223

422. The Treaty of 1856 [2]

1224

423. De Laveleye on the Eastern Question 1226

 

424. The Society of Arts

1226

 

425. Advice to Land Reformers

1227

 

426. Should Public

Bodies Be Required to Sell Their Lands?

1232

427. The Right of Property

in Land

1235

APPENDICES

Appendix A.

Cavaignac's Defence ( 1831)

 

1247

Appendix B.

Lettre/t

Charles Duveyfier

(1832)

1251

Appendix C.

Enfantin's

Farewell Address

(1832)

 

1256

Appendix D.

George Sand (1848)

 

1260

Appendix E.

Death of Francis Place (1854)

1262

Appendix F.

Textual Emendations

1266

Contents

vii

Appendix G.

Corrections

to Mill's

List of His Published

 

Articles

1277

Appendix H.

Signatures

1280

Appendix

I.

Newspapers

for Which

Mill

Wrote

1282

Appendix J.

Index of Persons

and Works Cited,

with

Variants and Notes

 

1284

Ir_D_X

1509

FACSIMILE

 

The Case of William Smith Draft letter to the Daily News 1869 to early 1870]

[late

 

ix

NEWSPAPER

WRITINGS

BY JOHN

STUART

December

1847 to July 1873

MILL

• .- December

1847 to July

369. EUGENE

SUE

1858

EXAMINER,11 DEC., 1847, p. 787

The Daily News had published a seriesof articles on 26 Oct., and 2, 9, 25, and 29 Nov., 1847, entitled "The Literature of the Lower Orders," by William Hepworth Dixon

(1821-79), journalist, historian, and traveller. The editor of the Examiner, John Forster

excerpted from and endorsed these articles in pieces entitled "The Moral

Epidemic," 30 Oct., pp. 690-1, and "Literature of the Lower Orders," 6 Nov., p. 709. Mill's response, in a letter to the editor, in which Harriet Taylor probably had a hand, is his fast contribution to the Examiner since August 1842 (No. 293). It appears in the "Political Examiner," headed as rifle, with the subhead, "To the Editor of the Examiner." It is described in Mill's bibliography as "A letter signed J.S. in the Examiner of llth December 1847 remonstrating against an attack on Sue's novel of Martin l'Enfant trouvC' (MacMinn, p. 69).

(1812-76),

sm,--You

publicity and weight to some articles in the Daily News, which purported to give an account of "The Literature of the Lower Orders," meaning the cheap

periodicals, and publications in series.

entertainment provided for the "lower orders" (if they are really the purchasers

be

commended

delegated the office of examining the publications in question to a person so little worthy of the judicial trust reposed in him, as to heap all the terms of moral reprobation in his vocabulary upon works with which he seems entirely unacquainted. He has already been under the necessity of retracting the words in which he had accused one publication (the production, too, of a woman), of "looseness, warmth of colouring in criminal scenes, and a false glow cast round guilty indulgences. ,,1 Among the other works which he has designated by name as forming the literature which he terms "a chaos of corruption, ''2 there is one

have

lately

quoted

with

approval,

The

and

thereby

of the

given

additional

food

is

and

to

quality

mental

News

of this cheap literature)

for

is so important

attention

to

a subject,

it;

but

that the Daily

that

paper

has

directing

unfortunately

characterised

by him

in the following

words,

which

have

been

quoted

in the

Exam/ner.

IForster, "Literature of the Lower Orders," Examiner, 6 Nov., 1847, p. 709, quoting Dixon, "The Literature of the Lower Orders. Batch the Second," Daily News, 2 Nov., p. 3. The attack was on Susannah Frances Reynolds, Gretna Green; or, All for Love (London: Dicks, 1848). Dixon retracted the charge in his "Batch the Third," Daily News, 9 Nov., 1847, p. 3. 2Examiner, 6 Nov., p. 709; Daily News, 2 Nov., p. 3.

1090

Newspaper Writings

No. 369

Martin the Foundling, our readers already know too well as the most disgusting productionof a writer who was never remarkablefor his purity.In these penny numbers, largelycirculated and almost universally devoured by eager#male readers [the italics are the writer's own] his most obscene and intoxicating details are reproduced with all the minute fidelity of which the English language is capable, and this very fidelity is flaunted forth as the chief recommendation of this edition. The translations current in the superior ranks are expurgated; but in spite of that necessarycare for the taste and better feeling of the educated English reader, the tale is utterly disgusting. 3

in

the writer of it, for having anything to do with the subject which he affects to

treat of, as is shown in these sentences. So uneducated is he, as to suppose that

So ignorant of life

and the world as not to know that the demand for M. Sue's and all other French

novels among the "superior ranks," the "eager female readers" of the English nobility and higher classes, is so great and incessant that the libraries in Bond street cannot supply them fast enough or in quantity enough. 4 And, to crown all, he has never read the book he condemns. I, having read it, doubt whether he has even looked at it. He has charged it with being what it is not, and entirely missed what it is. It does not contain "obscene and intoxicating details." It does not describe scenes of sensuality, or introduce any licentious characters except those whom it intends in other respects to inspire disgust. Martin l'Enfant trouvd is a book which no one can read without seeing that it is written with a serious moral and even political purpose. It is a manifesto against the relation between rich and

Ix)or, such as the present institutions of society have made it. The author aims at exhibiting the moral perversion which the existing state of society engenders in a part of the rich and in a part of the poor; and this is done with something of the melodramatic exaggeration of the Mysteries of Paris, 5 though in a far less degree. But he also presents, from both classes, characters of the noblest and highest principle, and the most conscientious self-control, and I do not fear to add that there are diffused through the book, and illustrated by the conduct and maxims of those characters, many principles of conduct and ideas of moral and

social improvement,

no ordinary

It is not often that a single paragraph displays

"educated English readers"

such complicated

unfitness

read French books in a translation.

decidedly of the desire

in advance of the age, and showing in the writer

and the capacity

both to improve

the outward

degree

3Forster, "The Moral Epidemic," Examiner, 30 Oct., p. 690, quoting Dixon, "The Literature of the Lower Orders. Batch the First," Daily News, 26 Oct., p. 3. Eugene Marie Joseph Sue (1804-57) was a popular French novelist, whose Martin, l'enfant trouv_, ou Les nu_moiresd'un valet de chambre, 12 vols. (Paris: P6tion, 1846-47), had appeared in English as Martin the Foundling in 1847, issued by three different publishers. 'tLibraries,normallyas part of a bookseller's or publisher's shop, were clustered in the area of Bond St.: for example, E.S. Ebers and Co., 27 Old Bond St.; John Mitchell, 33 Old Bond St.; Eliza Andrews, 167 New Bond St.; Saunders and Otley, 50 Conduit St.; Edward Bull, 19 Holies St.; and Edward Churton, 26 Holies St. 5Sue, Les myst_res de Paris, 10 vols. (Paris: Gosselin, 1842-43). The first London edition, published in 1844 by Dugdale, was followed by many republications and imitations.

Mar. 1848

French Provisional

Government

1091

condition of mankind, and to raise the tone of their minds; notwithstanding some errors, and among the rest a very decided tendency towards Communism, which in this most improving writer further reflection will probably reduce within just bounds.

I confess I feel indignant at seeing one of the very few popular imaginative writers of our time, who aim at any noble objects or inculcate any lessons but the most beaten and trivial moralities, made a byeword by people who have never read him for the extreme contrary of all that he is and desires to be. I know nothing of M. Sue except his works, but the more recent of them, and especially Martin, have given me the highest esteem for his intentions and for many of his principles, 6 and I protest, with all the force I am capable of, against the calumnious representation of them which the Daily News has sent forth, and

which you have, I am sure unwittingly,

assisted in diffusing.

A remonstrance,

addressed to the Daily

News,

not having been inserted, I

address this protest to you.

J.S. 7

370. THE PROVISIONAL

GOVERNMENT

IN FRANCE

SPECTATOR,18 MAR., 1848, P. 273

The imnning of the culminating banquet (planned for22 Feb., 1848), in a seriesdesigned to promote parliamentary reform, led to demonstrations, and Louis Philippe dismissed Guizot. Troops fired on demonstratorson the 23rd, and armedinsurrectionresulted. On the 24th Louis Philippe (aged seventy-four) abdicated in favour of his ten-year-old grandson,the comte de Paris, and went into exile in Britain (where he died three years later); revolutionary leaders set up a provisional republican governmentat the H6tel de Ville. Mill is here responding to "News of the Week," Spectator, 11 Mar., 1848, p. 237, fromwhich the quotations are taken. The letter, headed"To the Editorof the Spectator," is described in Mill's bibliography as "A letter signed J.S.M. in the Spectator of 18th March1848, on some proceedingsof the ProvisionalGovernmentof France" ( MacMinn, p. 69).

sm,--The opening remarks of the commentary on French affairs in your last paper recommend, in the best possible spirit, forbearance in judging and liberality in interpreting the conduct of the Provisional Government of France. I

6 vols.

6The reference may include Sne's Mathilde: M_moires d'une jeune femme,

(Paris:Gosselin, 1841), andLejuiferrant,

to the latter,as well as to Martin,

a _

'To the letter is appendedin square bracketsa note by John Forster: "We think the chargeof our contemporarymuchtoo sweeping, but we cannotadmitthat the imputation of licentiousness,in the instanceof Martin, is groundless.There arescenes in it of wanton

sensualityorgrossness;butthere aremanyotherwritingsof Eug6neSue that we have read with unmixedadmiration.--Ed. Ex."

10 vols. (Paris:Paulin, 1844-45). Mill refers

renfant trouv_, in a letterof 1848 to Sue accompanying

of his Principles (EL, CW, Vol. XIII, p. 736).

1092

Newspaper Writings

No. 370

beg you to consider whether, in the detailed criticisms which immediately follow this recommendation, you have acted up to your own very proper canon. You blame the Provisional Government for "going beyond its provisional function to undertake legislation of a permanent character." The first instance with which

you support this censure is not felicitous. You say, "It was, for example, within

its province

Peerage by abolishing titles. ''_ Surely you must be aware that the French nonhereditary Peerage had nothing to do with rifles: a vast majority of titled persons were not Peers, and a large proportion of the Chamber of Peers were not rifled. With reference to the other acts of the Government on which you comment

unfavourably, such as the reduction of the hours of labour, 2 may it not be said in your own words, that "they are acting upon views and under compulsions which

we cannot fully appreciate"?

may well be conceived amply to justify every act hitherto ascribed to them. Is it

not their grand business as a Provisional Government to keep the peace and

restore order? and was it possible to do this after such a revolution, unless on the foundation of a compromise which should afford some immediate satisfaction to

the demands

We must remember

than provisional. They very properly disclaim all right or power to make permanent laws; 3 and they have convoked an Assembly who must necessarily

reconsider all their acts, and who have power instantly to set those acts aside. 4

The general colouring tends (I am sure contrary

those who, wishing the

Republican Government to fail, look out for every pretext to prophesy its failure. Where was the necessity for citing some idle rumour of an intended resignation of Lamartine, and acounting for it by supposing that he "probably discovers too much of the rude and sordid in the work of revolutionary politics"? Where is there the slightest sign in any public manifestation of M. De Lamartine, that he thinks any part of the work he is engaged in "rude and sordid"? and how unworthy must he be of such a position if he could think so? Again, you have given an entirely mistaken account of the admirable experiment which "a leading

not to abolish the order of

to suspend

the sitting of the Peers,

but

Yet even what we can already see of their situation

and expectations

of the classes by whom the revolution

Government

was made?

that no act of the Provisional

is anything more

given by you to your description of events in France,

to your intention)

to encourage

IBy two Proclamations on 24 Feb., the Provisional Government had forbidden the Peers to meet (Moniteur, 1848, p. 499); on 29 Feb., a Decree abolished titles (ibid., p.

519).

2By a Decree on 2 Mar. (ibid., p. 529), the hours of labour were reduced by one; this decree was confLrmedfor Pads on 3 Mar., and as applying to women as well as men on the 9th (ibid., pp. 536 and 581). 3See Alphonse de Lamartine (1790-1869), writer and statesman, Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Provisional Government, "R_ponse /tune ddputation de gardes du comrncree rtclamant au sujet du ddcret qui suspend la contraintc par corps" (11 Mar.), Moniteur, 1848, p. 597. 4By a Proclamation of 5 Mar. (ibid., p. 549).

Mar.

1848

French

Provisional

Government

 

1093

journal,"

and

it may

be

added

a leading

railway

company,

have

organized

for

associating

the

labourers

employed

by

them

in the

profits

of

the

undertaking.5

You

call

it,

with

great

exaggeration,

 

a "community

of property";

and you accuse

wages,

it

of

"subjecting

the

men,

who

have

hitherto

counted

on regular

to the

vicissitudes

 

of

profit

and

loss."

If

you

had

read

with

any

care

the

particulars

 

given

in the daily

newspapers,

you

would

have

seen that the plan

does

nothing

of

the kind.

Every

member

of the establishment

continues

to receive

a fixed

salary

as

before;

but,

after

deducting

this

and

all other

expenses,

and

allowing

5

per

cent

to the proprietors,

any

surplus

profit

is to be divided

among

all concerned,

in

the

ratio

of

their

fixed

gains.

It

is exactly

the

plan

successfully

adopted

some

years

ago

by

an

individual

at Paris,

employing

some

hundreds

of

labourers,

M.

Le.claire; descriptions of which have been given Chambers' s Journal.6

in the

Edinburgh

Review

and

in

 

I am,

Sir,

your obedient

servant,

 
 

J.S.M.

7

SLa Presse and the Great Northern Railway. See "The Republic of France," Daily

News, 3 Mar., p. 2, and "Latest from Paris," ibid., 7 Mar. (2nd ed.), p. 3. Cf.

"Revolutionized

house-

Paris," Examiner,

11 Mar.,

the

pp. 170-1.

6Edme Jean Leclaire (1801-72),

"Father

of Profit-Sharing,"

a Parisian

painter and decorator, who in 1842 began admitting his workmen to share in his profits. The reference to the Edinburgh Review is to Mill's own article of April 1845, "The Claims of Labour" (CW, Vol. IV, pp. 363-89, esp. 382-3). The other account is "M. I.,_laire of Paris," Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, n.s. IV (27 Sept., 1845), 193-6, which consists of _anslations from L_laire's Des ameliorations qu'il serait possible

d"a:pporter dans le sort des ouvriers peintres

'To the letter is appended in square brackets a note by the editor, Robert Stephen Rintoul: "Our correspondent convicts us of two instances of carelessness, which we will

not attempt to palliate. Of course we knew of the distinction between the titular nobility of France and the unhereditary Peerage; but we did not sufficiently mark it in writing. With respect to the arrangement in the office of La Presse, our correspondent describes it

We still hold that Every needless

the Provisional Government

for

and could

not press so urgently as not to brook a month's delay. The attempt at swamping the National Guard is another instance. Although in the strict letter the laws relating to labour are liable to repeal, it was going beyond the province of a temporary Government to interfere in them so widely and with so manifest an animus. We wish the inevitable experiment of a Republic to have fair play, and should view its success with interest; but we do not think that its leaders evince sufficient power of control to insure

instance. The alienation

en b_timents

(see CW, Vol. Ill,

p. 1123).

correctly. In the general arguments

above we cannot so readily concur.

acts more than provisional.

has committed

tampering with permanent institutions

is of that character--the

abolition

of rifles,

of Crown lands and effects

is more than provisional,

success.--Ed."

1094

UNPUBLISHED

LETTER

Newspaper

Writings

No. 371

371. GEORGE SAND

TO THE

VOIX DES FEMMES [AFTER

9 APR., 1848]

AmandineAurorel.,ucie Dupin, baronne Dudevant(1804-76), who wroteunderthe name "George Sand," attackedestablished views of society and marriagein her novels andher life. La R_orme publishedon 9 Apr., 1848, p. 3, a letterto the editorfrom her (dated8 Apr.), in which she objected to "Candidature de George Sand," an article in the short-livedfeminist and socialist newspaper, the Voix des Femmes (6 Apr., p. 1), by the editorEug6nie Niboyet (1797-1883), suggesting that Sand would be an ideal candidate

for the National Assembly. Niboyet also read her articleat a meeting of a feminist club on the same day. In her letter Sand denied knowing the people involved in the proposal, saying she did not wish to remain silent lest the "joke" mighthe thought to entail her acceptance of their proposal and ideas. The Voix des Femmes reprinted her letter (10

Sand's candidature had formally been proposedat the

Jacobin Club on the 9th. The MS of this undated draft letter, in Mill's hand but undoubtedly a "joint production" with HarrietTaylor, is in the Mill-TaylorCollection, Vol. XLI, No. 2, ft. 10-12, on paper watermarked1846. The MS of the English draft, also in Mill's hand and undated (printed in App. D below), is ibid., ft. 18-19. As the letter was not published, it is not listed in Mill's bibliography.

Apr., pp. 1-2), and reported that

DEPUISLONGTEMPaSdmiratrice de George Sand, je fus des premiers _ lui rendre honneur et justice. Lorsqu'en Angleterre tous se ru6rent sur eUe comme sur un 6crivain immoral et ind6cent, nous ffimes, moi et un cercle d'amis non sans influence, les premiers _ nous r6crier contre les accusations qu'alors on prodiguait/t ses 6crits. A tous ceux qui les condamnaient nous invoquions contre leur jugement d'alors leur jugement d'aujourd'hui, et l'6v6nement est venu justifier notre appel. Comment doric exprimer ce que j'6prouve d'6tonnement, de

honte et de chagrin en apprenant que lors de la grande crise politique et sociale de l'humanit6, amen6e par le noble 61an de Paris, Mme George Sand, au lieu d'avancer, recule--que non seulement elle ne prend aucune initiative, n'6nonce aucuns principes, mais pareiUe /_ une /ady timide et vulgaire, elle rejette les flateries amicales qui lui ont 6t6 faites par votre journal, et tache d'6craser du haut de sa c616brit6 litt6raire celles qui ont os6 la prendre pour chef d'une

opinion I qu'elles Sa protestation

6taient bien en droit de lui attribuer,

darts la Rdforrne contre l'usage

que vous avez fait de son nom

ne peut s'expliquer que par la crainte ClUeson amour propre d'auteur pourrait _tre compromis par le soUlX2Ond'une relation quelconque entre sa r6putation fare et des r6putations encore _tfai