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Information and Communication Technology

~Aastha Jain
Basics:
Q1. Ways in which personal data could be misused with prevention:
Ans. Ways in which it could be misused:

Hackers may read the data and pass it on


Hackers may delete the data
Hackers may amend the dataWays in which it can be prevented:

Username/ Passwords
Do not connect to network
If connected to network use dedicated lines
Physical security: use locks on computer room doors
Firewall

Q2. Advantages and disadvantages of using standalone laptop computers compared to using networked desktop computers.
Ans. Advantages:

Laptops can be transported from room to room


Can use the laptops at home
Have smaller footprint
Less susceptible to hacking
Less susceptible to virus
When network is down cannot use network computers/can still use laptops

Disadvantages

Cannot share resources


Cannot use the Internet/email together
More fragile
Desktops have more memory/bigger hard disc
Laptops may be more expensive to repair/buy than network stations
Difficult to use keyboard/mouse on laptop
Laptops need recharging from time to time

Q3. Advantages and disadvantages of using CD ROM over book:


And. Advantages:

Quicker to search information


Can have sound
Can have video/animation
Easier to download information
Less waste of paper

Disadvantages:

Difficult to skim read


More difficult to see one whole page at a time
Need of optical drive and screen/cant read anywhere
More difficult to highlight passages/annotate data

Q4. Advantages and disadvantages of video conferencing:


Ans. Advantages:

Workers can use own office so documents do not get lost in transit/bulky documents/equipment do not have to be
carried around
Company can call meeting at short notice
Employees can work from home
Company does not have to pay travelling expenses
Company does not have to pay hotel expenses
Company does not have to pay for conference room facilities
Travelling time is saved
Might be dangerous to fly/travel
Disabled people may find it difficult to travel

Disadvantages:

Takes time to train employees


Difficult to call international meetings because of time differences
Initial cost of hardware
Equipment can break down
Strength of signal/bandwidth/lip-sync can be a problem/connection can be lost/power cuts
Loss of personal/social contact
Takes time for workers to learn new technology
Cant sign documents

Q5. Advantages of using chip and pin systems over a magnetic stripe system.

Data more difficult to copy


Extra layer of security with pin number
Even if stolen card cannot be used unless thief knows PIN number
Larger amount of information can be stored
Disabled people may find it easier than signing
Reduces disputes at checkouts over validity of signature/saves time at checkouts
Not affected by magnetic fields

Q6. Why pen drives are preferred over CDs:

Pen drives have greater storage capacity


Pen drives are more portable
Not all machines have CD drives
Faster access to data
More robust
More secure are biometric data can be incorporated
Dont need specialist hardware/software for pen drives

Q7. Advantages of graph plotter:

Printouts are continuous


There may be need of different colours for different variables
High quality
Huge

Q8. Advantages of light pen:

Space may be limited


Easier to keep clean than other devices
Surgeons-gloves would make it difficult to control other devices

Q9. Use of the following:


1. RAM: So that users are able to make changes to the data they are working on/to store the program or data they are
currently using
2. ROM: So that programs/coding/software can be stored permanently/cannot be changed
3. Backing storage: So that users can have a permanent copy of the work they are doing/can have a copy of their work
when the computer is switched off
Q10. Advantages of using mobile phones to speak with other people rather than sending emails using a laptop:

You can get immediate feedback/interaction/you can ask questions immediately based on feedback
You know you have the right address/number
Laptop is not as portable as phone
Laptop is difficult to use on the move
Less impersonal/less risk of upsetting recipient/can detect emotions
Can make yourself understood more easily
Can be easier to get a connection

Q11. PCs come with a hard disc drive. Why are each of the following also used with PCs:
1. Magnetic tape: To make backups
2. CD R: To transfer data/programs from computer to computer/to save user data
3. DVD ROM: For companies to distribute software/movies/For users to install software/view multimedia
Q12. Why are the following used with PCs:
1. Pen drives: So that users can transfer data from one computer to another/back up files/security dongle
2. Blu-ray: To enable large high definition/quality video files to be recorded
3. Fixed hard disc drives: So that users can have quick access to their data/software/so that software can be stored
Q13. Advantages of email over fax:

Less likely to go to the wrong address


Personal data unlikely to be intercepted by another office worker
Quicker/easier to transmit message/received quicker by person addressed to
Attached documents are better quality
Multimedia attachments can be sent
You can send from anywhere there is an internet connection
Easier to send several recipients at the same time
Email has lower running costs
Email more environmentally friendly
Email attachments can be edited by recipient easier than fax
More people have access to email than fax machines

Q14. The main memory in computers is becoming very large. Why is backing storage still need?

Data in the main memory can be lost if computer shuts down


Data in the main memory can be corrupted
Data in the main memory can be accidently deleted
Data/software may need to be switched from machine to machine

Q15. Describe the role of a proxy server when a LAN is connected to the internet:

Can act as web server


Can act as buffer(b/w internet and LAN)
Server passes on requests to the internet
Passes the requested pages to individual computers
Can cache/store the webpages
Subsequent requests for that/those web page(s) are responded more quickly

Can be used to monitor internet usage


Can block certain sites

Q16. Describe each input method and give examples:


1. OMR: Optical mark recognition/pen or pencil marks are read by scanner or reader/position of marks are identifiedExam papers/school registers/lottery/MCQs
2. OCR: Optical character recognition/text is read by scanner/image compared with characters stored in
computer/converted to text for use with other software-Utility bill/turnaround documents/word
processors/mail/passports/id cards/car number plates
3. MICR: Magnetic ink character recognition/characters read by magnetic reader/characters compared with characters
stored in computer/converted to text for entry into system-Bank cheques
Q17. Difference between CLI and GUI:

GUI has icon to help user identify applications/folders


GUI has a system of menus to choose options
GUI has windows to enable user to multitask
GUI has pointer/pointing device to help navigate around the screen/to click to open files/software
CLI only allows you to type in commands
With CLI syntax needs to be precise
Commands difficult to edit once entered
Have to learn commands exactly/have to be familiar with commands

Q18. What do the following terms mean?


1. Spyware: Software that gathers data from computers without the user realizing/it monitors and records all key
presses/it sends this information back to the hacker who sent it out
2. Spam: Electronic junk mail/sending of unsolicited emails/sent to everybody on a mailing list/many emails sent at
once/can slow down networks/can fill up the receivers mail box and therefore hard disc
3. Social networking site: Online communities of like-minded users/enables users to share photos /enables users to
communicate with each other/enables users to organize meeting

Networks:
Q1. Advantages and disadvantages of having computers networked:
Ans. Advantages:

Share hardware/software
Share data/information
Electronic communication
Users can be more effectively controlled/monitored

Disadvantages:

Work can be misused more easily


Viruses more easily spread
Printer queues
Slower access to the internet
If server crashes all computers are affected
Increased security risk

Q2. Describe the advantages and disadvantages to the shops from shopping from home using the internet.
Ans. Advantages:

Fewer staff needed/less spent on wages


Fewer shops needed/less spent on rates/rent
Less actual cash handled/fewer robberies

Less money spent on security staff


Potentially larger customer base

Disadvantages:

Initial outlay on computers is expensive


Need to retrain staff
Less customer loyalty/loss of customers due to lack of personal touch
Costs of system maintenance
Greater costs due to more delivery staff

Q3. Describe the advantages and disadvantages to the customers from shopping from home using the internet.
Ans. Advantages:

Less danger of mugging


Dont have to waste time travelling (long distances to shops)
Elderly/Disabled people dont have to travel/leave home to shop
Dont have to spend money on travelling expenses
Greater choice of goods
Can shop when shops are closed
Easier to search what you are looking for

Disadvantages:

Lack of socialising/social contacts


Customers must have a computer/internet access/(basic) computer skills
Hackers may intercept data and defraud customer
Deprived of personal touch
Phone bills can increase
Without broadband other household members cannot use phone
Cannot see/feel goods in reality
More vulnerable to phishing
Goods sometimes dont arrive/substitute goods may be sent/take longer to arrive
Must have credit/debit card if COD not available
Shipping charges may be added

Q4. Differences between internet and intranet:

Internet is INTERnational NETwork


Its WAN
Can access from anywhere
Greater amount of information available
Unlimited access
Intranet is INTernal Restricted Access NETwork
Usually LAN
Password controlled pages
Behind a firewall
Restricted access

Q5. Difference b/w WAN and LAN:

WAN is wide area network


WAN covers a large geographical area/worldwide
The internet is a WAN
LAN is local area network
LAN covers a small area such as one building/a school network is a LAN
A WAN consists of connected LANs
More difficult to share peripherals using a WAN

Q6. Use of the following in a home network:

1. Router: So that data can be transferred from one network to another/stores information about which computer is
connected to which network/receives data packets from an individual computer/it passes data packet to appropriate
switch/to reduce data collisions/it can connect LANs to the internet
2. Browser: To access the world wide web/view web pages/surf the net
3. Email: So that messages can be sent to people outside the network/home
4. ISP: In order to access the internet/email/to provide internet service

Q7. Ways to evaluate the reliability of information found on a website:

Check the last part of the URL/.gov, .ac, .ed, .sch should be reliable/.org, .co, .com are less reliable
See if responsible bodies have endorsed the site e.g. NGFL
Check the date of last update
Are any advertisements present
Are there links to and from the website to and from known reliable websites?
Checking the authors credentials

Q8. Features of the following:


1. Blog: Usually a single author/readers can add comments but not edit blog/reverse chronological structure/usually
personal/external links
2. Wiki: Usually many authors/structure determined by content and users/usually objective/internal and external
links/contributors can edit entries
Q9. Disadvantages of bluetooth for creating networks:

Very slow data transfer speeds


Short distance of coverage/limited signal strength
Greater risk of interception of data/less secure
Supports limited number of devices in a network

11. Name and describe network devices:

Hub: Broadcasts data packets to computers in a LAN


Router: Connects LANs to a WAN/Internet
Switch: Directs data packets to specific computers
NIC: Enables computers to be connected to a network
Bridge: Connects networks/LANs together/Directs data packets to specific networks
Proxy server: Stores web pages for faster re-use by computers/can act as a firewall
Modem: Modulates data and demodulates phone signals

Expert systems/Computer modelling/Systems designed by programmers:


Q1. Reasons why some situations need to be modelled:
Ans. Real thing may be:

Too dangerous
Too expensive
Too large a time scale required
Wasteful of materials
Too vast a scale

Q2. Items in technical documentation:


Ans: Purpose: Help programmers/analysts make improvements to system/repair system/maintain system

Program listing
Programming language

Flowchart/algorithm
List of variables
File structure
Purpose of system/program
Input and output format
Hardware and software requirements
Sample runs
Known bugs
Validation rules

Q3. Items in user documentation:


Ans: Purpose: Help users how to use the system/overcome problems

How to load software/run software


How to save a file
How to search
How to sort
How to print
How to add records
How to delete/edit records
Error handling
Troubleshooting guide/contact details/help line/FAQs

Q4. Describe how a new system is evaluated.

Comparing the solution with original task requirements


Identifying any limitations to the system
Identifying any necessary improvements
Evaluating the users responses to using the system
Comparing test results of new system with old system results
Comparing the performance of the new system with performance of the old

Q5. Explain the verification checks:


1. Data is entered twice/By two people/Data versions are compared by computer/If versions are different, typist is
alerted
2. Data on screen or in system/is visually compared with/that data on original copy
Q6. Difference between verification and validation check:

Validation is checking data entered. It is acceptable/reasonable/within a given range


Verification is checking versions of data have been entered identically/is checking data has been copied correctly
from one medium to another

Q7. Name the different validation checks:

Range check
Check digit
Control total
Hash total
Invalid character check/type check
Picture/format check/input mask
Presence check
Existency check
Length check

Q8. Describe how an expert system for diagnosing diseases will be created andevaluated:

Doctors interviewed for requirements


Data is collected from experts
Knowledge base is designed/created
Rule base is designed/created
Interfence engine is designed/created
Output format is designed/created
Input Screen is designed/created
Ailments with known diagnosis are used to test the system and results valuated
Does new system match original system specification
Interviewing experts in that field about effectiveness of system

Q9. Where are expert systems usually used?

Medical diagnosis
Car engine fault diagnosis
Mineral/oil prospecting
Tax
Careers
Chess games
Animal/plant/rock classification/identification

Q10. Describe features that would help a user navigate between input forms.

Button to close form


Button to first record/form
Button to end file/new record
Button to previous record/form
Button to next record/form
Submit/continue button
Space to enter required record number
Search facility/engine
Button to go to sub forms

Q11. Examples of computer modelling:

Flight/pilot stimulation/training
Large scale chemical experiments
Design of fairground rides
Design of large buildings/bridges
Traffic control
Building fire stimulation
Car driving stimulations
Drug trials

Q12. Examples of microprocessor controlled labour saving devices:

Microwaves
Ovens
Washing machines
Dish washers etc.

Q13. Effects of microprocessor controlled labour saving devices on a persons lifestyle:

They do much of housework


Do not need to do many things manually
Do not need to be in house when food is cooking

Do not need to be in house when clothes are being washed


Can leave home to go shopping/work any time of the day
Greater social interaction/more family time
More time to go out/more leisure time/more time to do other things/work
Can lead to unhealthy eating due to dependency on ready meals
Can lead to laziness/lack of fitness
Can encourage a healthy lifestyle cause of smart fridges analysing food constituents
Microprocessor controlled burglar alarm provides sense of security
Do not have to leave home to get fit
Manual household skills are lost

Q14. Describe the inputs, outputs and processing involved in a house burglar alarm system.
Ans. Inputs:

Pressure pad
Light sensors
Temperature sensors
Contact switches/push switch
Input keypad
Pass number input to keypad
Zones selected
Sound sensor
Infrared sensor/proximity sensor
Motion sensor/movement sensor
Digital/video camera

Processing:

Microprocessor continually monitors sensors


If light sensor beam interrupted:
If movement sensor activated:
If contact switch activated:
If pressure sensed by processor is greater than pre-set value:
If temperature sensed by processor is greater than pre-set value:
Microprocessor sends signals to output device

Output:

Alarm light flashes/lights come on


Alarm sound
Signal automatically sent to police

Q15. Give four ways of analysing/researching current system with advantages:


1.
2.
3.
4.

Interview: Can change script to suit circumstances/more likely to get truthful responses
Observation: Can gain broader overview of processes
Examining documents: Can follow data flow more easily/informs input/output format design
Questionnaires: Better for busy people/dont have time to prearrange appointments/quicker to get every employees
response

Q16. Items which would need to be designed as part of file structure:

Field name/type/length

Key field
Validation check/rules

Q17. Evaluation strategies with purpose:

S: Compare the solution with the original task requirements/design belief


P: To ensure that requirements have been met
S: Identify any limitations/necessary improvements to the system
P: So that system works without problems
S: Collect data from the users on the new system
P: To see how well they are coping with the new system/to see how well the new system works
S: Analyse/evaluate the users responses to the results of testing/using the system
P: So that users needs re taken into account

Q18. Features of a well deigned screen input form:

Data fills screen


Clearly defined input area for each field
Tick boxes/radio buttons to enter choices
Drop down menus to select data options
Appropriate spacing for each filed
An easy to read font/font size
A sensible font colour/background colour
Easy to follow instructions for completing screen/help icon
No overlapping items

Q19. Name and describe test data:


1. Normal: Data within a given range and appropriate for that data type
2. Abnormal: Data on the outside of the range and/or of the wrong data type
3. Extreme data: Data on the boundaries of the range
Q20. Why pilots are trained using flight simulators rather than by flying real aircrafts:

If airplane crashed you wouldnt need to replace it saving money


If the airplane crashed nobody is injured
It is easy to recreate extreme weather conditions
It is easy to recreate unusual flying conditions
Can recreate mechanical/computer failure from previous real situations
Cheaper fuel costs

Q21. Describe actions which might need to be taken as a result of testing a system:

Data files may need to be amended/improved


Validation rules may need to be amended/improved
Input methods may need to be amended/improved
Output formats may need to be amended/improved
Errors in processing/calculations may need amending/correcting
Errors may mean that parts of system need amending/correcting
If system does not work at all may need to restart at the design system

Q22. What items in a system need to be tested?

Data/file structures
Validation routines

Input methods/data entry screens


Output formats/reports
Error messages
Processing/calculations

Q23. Items found in both technical and user documentations:

Purpose of system
Limitations of system
Hardware and software requirements
Contact details of manufacturer/support network

Q24. Describe what is meant by live data and how it is used to test a system:

Data that has already been used I the previous system


Data that has known result
A table of expected results drawn up
Live data is input to the system
Actual results are recorded
The results are compared
Any resulting differences will highlight limitations of the system

Q25. Items present in technical but not user documentation:

Program coding
Program flowcharts
System flowcharts
File structures
List of variables
Validation routines

Q26: Benefits and drawbacks of computer modelling:


Benefits:

Real thing may be too expensive to build


Real thing requires too large a time scale
Real thing would be too wasteful of materials
Real thing is too vast a scale
Easier to change data/variables
Costs less to change data/variables
The real thing may be impossible to access/create
Real thing may be too dangerous
You can test predictions more easily/model can make predictions more accurately
You can ask many whatif questions which would be impractical in real life

Drawbacks:

Can never allow for all eventualities


Difficult to exactly recreate a lifelike situation
Hardware and software may be expensive
Workers will need to be trained to use the system

Q27. Why is setting a field length such an important part of computer modelling?

If field length is too long storage space is wasted...


Greater memory requirements increases cost
Takes longer to type in data
If its too short not all data within the field will be entered

If its too short abbreviations would be needed making the field contents difficult to interpret

Steps questions:
Q1. Describe how the computer will automatically identify overdue books and send out letters to the borrowers. It is 27 th May
today.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Computer reads a record from the book file


Compares with date due back
With 27th May
If date due back is less/earlier than 27th May
Using the borrower number
Reads the corresponding record from borrowing file
Address is read from record
Mail merged letter/email is generated
Otherwise reads next record and repeats above
Until end of file

Q2. The bar code number is scanned into the computer system when the item is sold. Describe the computer processing that
would then take place in order for the number in stock to be updated.
Ans. The bar code field in the data file is read/record by record/until a match is found with the bar code entered/the
corresponding number in stock is read/one is subtracted from this number/written back to file/no. in stock checked with
reorder quantity/if <= reorder quantity/then reordered or flagged.

Q3. When a customer pays for an item, chip and pin technology may be used. Describe the steps involved in a customer
transaction.

PIN is entered
Pin read from chip
Numbers compared
If identical, transaction is authorised
If not identical, transaction is refused
Customer bank contacted by computer/automatically
Card details checked for not stolen
Account checked for sufficient funds
If card stolen or insufficient funds then transaction is rejected
If card not stolen and sufficient funds then transaction is authorised
Money deducted from customer account
Money credited to supermarket account
Items receipt printed out

Q4. POS procedure:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

The barcode on the product is read by the barcode reader


The barcode field in the data file is read record by record
Until a match I found with the entered barcode
The number in stock of the matching record is read
One is subtracted from the number is stock
The number in stock is compared with the re-order number
If equal to re-order number more goods are automatically re-ordered
The new value of number in stock is written back to file

Q5. Batch processing of bank cheques:

Cheques are collected together


During the course of the day
Cheques are then processed all at once
Cheques are processed overnight
Bank accounts updated following morning
No human intervention

Q6. Navigation buttons on screen input:

Back/previous record button/arrow/facility


Forward/net record button/arrow/facility
New record button/arrow/facility
Submit/save button/facility
Last record button/facility
Exit button/return to homepage button/facility
Move to top of page if long button
Search facility

Q7. Describe the online processing of data, using the booking of airline tickets as an example:

User/customer is in direct contact with the main computer/CPU


Appears that nobody else can access system at that point/processing is almost immediate
Computer asks customer for details of flight
Computer asks for personal details of passengers
Computer searches for matching flights
Computer may display list of seats available
Computer may ask customer to select a seat
(Customer selects seat from those available and) computer flags seat as booked
Computer asks customer to complete payment details
Computer checks details are valid by communicating with customers bank
Computer checks if sufficient funds
Airlines database is updated immediately
Number of seats available reduces by number booked
Prevents double booking
Confirmation/e-ticket may be sent to customer by email

Health and safety of self and data:


Q1. Health problems by prolonged use of computers with prevention:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Headaches: Use anti-glare screens/take regular breaks


Eyestrain: Use anti-glare screens/take regular breaks
RSI: Use ergonomic keyboard/wrist rests/take regular breaks
Backaches: Use straight backed chair/take regular breaks

Q2. Safety problems due to computers with what happens and prevention:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Electrocution: By touching loose wires/spilling liquids on electrical contacts-RCB installed/cable insulation


Trailing cables: Tripping and falling-Create ducts/cover cables with carpets
Heavy equipment falling: Physical injury to feet/legs-Sturdy/large tables
Fire: Too many plugs in multisocket and thereby overheating/overheating of equipment-appropriate type of
extinguisher/regular maintenance of equipment/ventilation

Q3. Define encryption in detail:

Causes data to be scrambled/encoded


Requires encryption key/software to encrypt
Requires decryption key/encryption software to decrypt
Results in data which is not understandable/readable
Protects sensitive data from being understood if falls into wrong hands

Q4. Actions that break the copyright law of software:

Giving software copies to others without the owners permission


Making a copy of a disk without the owners permission
Selling copies of the software without the owners permission
Using the software on a network when the licence does not allow it
Renting out the software on a network when the licence does not allow it
Renting out the software/sharing software with others without the owners permission
Using the copyright name on another software
Amending the software/using parts of code in own programs without permission
Buying pirated software

Q5. Describe some authentication techniques and give benefits and drawbacks of each:

User ID and password


Benefit each user ID could be unique/only user will know the password/data can only be accessed by person who
knows the password/Password can be changed frequently to avoid hackers guessing them/Unsuccessful logins can
throw you out of the system
Drawback user might forget password/keylogging software can be used to intercept it
Biometrics
Benefit each user has unique biometrics
Drawback equipment is expensive to buy/may be difficult or expensive to get equipment to user
Magnetic/chip card with PIN
Benefit Hacker needs to have the card and know the PIN
Drawback can lose the card/can forget PIN
TAN
Benefit Always changing so a hacker would not be able to use it even if they intercepted it when user typed it in.
Drawback need to have card and remember PIN and use it within a short period of time.

Q6. What is software copyright?


Ans. It is lawful protection given to authors and publishers which relates to the software the author/publisher
created/published. It prevents purchaser from making unlimited copies/lend it to others/change the software/sell it without the
companys permission.
Q7. How software manufacturers attempt to prevent copyright being broken:

Alteration of the code which is included to block copying


Digital signature on the CD/DVD itself which prevents writers from copying exactly
Encryption of the execution code requires a key to run
Use of a dongle
Registration system requiring the typing in of a registration code
Guards are hardware or software modules that monitor the running program and ensure that it has not been
tempered with in any way

Activation code which can be used only on a limited number of machines

Q8. Meaning of:


1. Phishing: It is using emails pretending to be the targets bank/fake email to get personal details
2. Pharming: It is installing malicious code on a PC server to redirect to fake websites/redirecting users to websites
which look authentic to get personal details
3. Spam: It is the sending/receiving of unsolicited/junk mails
Q9. Whats a computer virus?
Ans. A piece of programming software/code which replicates itself and corrupts/deletes files/data. It can corrupt or erase the
contents of the hard disc/can completely fill the hard disc/memory. It is transmitted through email attachments/portable
media.
Q10. What is meant by hacking?

Gaining unauthorised access to a computer system


May lead to illegally copying data from a system
May lead to illegally amending data in a system
May lead to illegally deleting data form a system
Gaining unauthorised access to a system but exceeding their authority

Q11. Security methods school can use so all students dont have access to everything/sites with undesirable content:

Proxy server: The proxy server can restrict the web sites students can access/can block access to sites with
objectionable material
Firewall: Limits the computers (using IP address) that can access the system/that can be accessed from within the
school
Applying parental guidance settings: Can block undesirable topics

Q12. Why are authentication techniques necessary?

Authentication techniques such as user names and passwords identify the user to the system
Without authentication anybody would be able to access data
Hackers would be able to amend/delete data without being prevented
Would have to rely on other methods such as firewalls to prevent unauthorised access.

Others:
Q1. Robotics are now used in the production of motor cars. Describe the effects this had on the workers who used to
manually produce cars.

Increased unemployment
Have had to retrain
Increased employment(Introduction of new jobs in the IT field)
Less noise/more pleasant environment
Safer environment
Less heavy lifting/healthier work
Workers can be deskilled

Disadvantages:

Takes time to train employees


Difficult to call international meetings because of time differences
Initial cost of hardware
Equipment can break down
Strength of signal/bandwith/lip-sync can be a problem/connection can be lost/power cuts
Loss of personal/social contact
Takes time for workers to learn new technology
Cant sign documents

Q2. Put formula in cell(s) without typing when it is already present in one cell:

Highlight the cell in which the formula is/copy/highlight range of cells in which you want the formula/paste
Highlight the cell in which the formula is/using fill handle or little black cross or cross in bottom right hand corner of
a cell/drag down till required cell
Highlight the cell in which the formula is/highlight range of cells in which you want the formula/click on fill/click on
down

Q3. Advantages of one relational database over several flat files:

Data does not have to be typed in twice/referential integrity


Quicker to enter new data
So fewer errors are likely
So less memory/storage capacity is used
So it is easier to edit data

Q4. Features of a relational database which are not found in a flat file:

More than on table/file


Tables are linked
Primary keys
Foreign keys
Less duplication of data
Data from more than one table can be used in the same report

Q5. Define the following:


1. File: It is a collection of records/all the students names, addresses, phone numbers and dates of birth
2. Field: It is one item of information/name/address/phone number/DOB
3. Record: It is all the information about one student/name, address, phone number and DOB of one student

Q6. Advantages and disadvantages of using mobile phones to access internet over a PC:
Advantages:

Usually have mobile phone in your possession


Easy to carry/are portable
Can access internet almost anywhere

Disadvantages:

Easily lost
May have poorer signal
Display is smaller/keyboard is smaller
Content is more limited
Batteries may run out
No mouse so can be more difficult to navigate

Q7. How can two flat files be combined to form a relational database?

The personal details file and test results would be saved as separate tables
Primary key/key field(s)/foreign key would be identified
The primary key would be used to link the two tables together

Q8. Features of presentation software not in printed copy with use (school presentation):
1.
2.
3.
4.

Animation: To move images or text


Video: Video of school plays/performances/sports events
Sound: Background music/school concerts/voiceovers/sound effects when changing/opening slide
Hyperlinks: To link to other slides

5. Slide transitions: To keep the viewers attention


Q9. Explain the use of the $ symbol in the spreadsheet:
Ans. Absolute cell referencing is being used. When formulae are replicated some cell references must remain unchanged.
This makes sure they will stay consistent when replicated.
Q10. Describe how use of robots on car production lines has affected the nature of employment in the car industry:

Car workers have been made unemployed


Car workers have had to be retrained
Car workers have become deskilled
More technical staff have been employed
Work areas are cleaner
There is a healthier environment
Workers have a safer environment
Fewer manual tasks

Q11. Features of a spreadsheet:

Uses text and numbers


Performs automatic recalculation
Performs whatifs
Replicates formulae
Formulae/functions
Can have absolute and relative cell references/named cells or ranges
Graphs/charts

Q12. Use of check digit:

Computer calculates check digit from numbers in bar code number


Compares calculated check digit with that recorded in bar code number
If same, proceeds with transaction, otherwise sounds warning signal/issues error message

Q13. Benefits of social networking sites:

Easy to keep in immediate contact with friends/make new friends


Easy to communicate to more than one friend/to communicate with people overseas
Can search for people who youve fallen out of touch with
Easy to arrange meetings/visits to cinemas/theatre
Can share photographs/videos/images/opinions/views

Q14. Difference between measurement and control:


Ans. Measurement is the monitoring of physical variables without the microprocessor taking action. Control is when the
microprocessor takes action depending on sensor readings.
Q15. Advantages to bank customers of using ATMs rather than going to the bank:

No embarrassment of not having sufficient funds


Less time spent queuing
Can get money any time of day or night
Own bank may be further to travel to than nearest ATM
Can use most ATMs/does not have to be own bank
Have choice of languages so is easier to understand/be understood