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Legumes and oilseeds Prepared by Sofia for Pengetahuan Bahan class 2015 meeting#4-5  Oilseeds are
Legumes and oilseeds Prepared by Sofia for Pengetahuan Bahan class 2015 meeting#4-5  Oilseeds are
Legumes and oilseeds Prepared by Sofia for Pengetahuan Bahan class 2015 meeting#4-5  Oilseeds are

Legumes and oilseeds

Prepared by Sofia for Pengetahuan Bahan class 2015 meeting#4-5

 Oilseeds are seeds or crops grown mainly for oil
 Oilseeds are seeds or crops grown mainly for oil

Legumes are all members of the Fabaceae or Leguminosae, a large family with more than 18,000 species

for oil  Legumes are all members of the Fabaceae or Leguminosae , a large family

Chick pea, black gram, mung bean, pigeon pea, peanuts, jack bean, soybean, hyacinth bean, lentil, lupin, african locust bean, lima bean, common bean, faba bean, bambara groundnut, rice bean, cow pea etc

bean, faba bean, bambara groundnut, rice bean, cow pea etc Safflower, sun flower Melon, flutted pumpkin,
bean, faba bean, bambara groundnut, rice bean, cow pea etc Safflower, sun flower Melon, flutted pumpkin,

Safflower, sun flower

groundnut, rice bean, cow pea etc Safflower, sun flower Melon, flutted pumpkin, bottle gourd, buffalo gourd
groundnut, rice bean, cow pea etc Safflower, sun flower Melon, flutted pumpkin, bottle gourd, buffalo gourd

Melon, flutted pumpkin, bottle gourd, buffalo gourd

flower Melon, flutted pumpkin, bottle gourd, buffalo gourd Coconut, palm oil, babassu Legumes Compositae Cucurbitae
flower Melon, flutted pumpkin, bottle gourd, buffalo gourd Coconut, palm oil, babassu Legumes Compositae Cucurbitae

Coconut, palm oil, babassu

bottle gourd, buffalo gourd Coconut, palm oil, babassu Legumes Compositae Cucurbitae Palmae Legumes and
bottle gourd, buffalo gourd Coconut, palm oil, babassu Legumes Compositae Cucurbitae Palmae Legumes and
bottle gourd, buffalo gourd Coconut, palm oil, babassu Legumes Compositae Cucurbitae Palmae Legumes and
bottle gourd, buffalo gourd Coconut, palm oil, babassu Legumes Compositae Cucurbitae Palmae Legumes and
Legumes Compositae
Legumes
Compositae
buffalo gourd Coconut, palm oil, babassu Legumes Compositae Cucurbitae Palmae Legumes and oilseeds Miscellaneo us
buffalo gourd Coconut, palm oil, babassu Legumes Compositae Cucurbitae Palmae Legumes and oilseeds Miscellaneo us
Cucurbitae Palmae
Cucurbitae
Palmae
Legumes and oilseeds
Legumes
and
oilseeds
Compositae Cucurbitae Palmae Legumes and oilseeds Miscellaneo us oilseeds Rubber, castor, sal seed
Miscellaneo us oilseeds Rubber, castor, sal seed Tree-nuts
Miscellaneo
us oilseeds
Rubber, castor, sal seed
Tree-nuts

Brazilian nut, walnut, macadamia, almond, cashew, etc

Varies of legumes

Chick pea

black gram peanuts
black gram
peanuts
Varies of legumes Chick pea black gram peanuts lentil • lupin, • african locust bean, •

lentil

lupin,

african locust bean,

lima bean,

common bean,

faba bean,

etc

• lima bean, • common bean, • faba bean, • etc bambara groundnut jack bean cow

bambara groundnut

• common bean, • faba bean, • etc bambara groundnut jack bean cow pea soybean rice

jack bean

bean, • faba bean, • etc bambara groundnut jack bean cow pea soybean rice bean pigeon
cow pea soybean rice bean
cow pea
soybean
rice bean

pigeon pea

hyacinth bean
hyacinth bean

mung bean

Introduction

Good sources of protein, dietary fiber, starch, minerals and

vitamins Contains considerable amount of phenolic compounds

Daily consumption of legumes has benefits: controlling (body

weight) and preventing various metabolic diseases; diabetes

mellitus (because legumes elicit the lowest blood glucose

response), CHD (because legumes cause hypocholesteremic response and colon cancer(legumes are source of dietary

fibers)

Legumes as food

Legumes as food • Harvested for their immature or mature seeds • Sig. source of dietary

Harvested for their immature or mature seeds

Sig. source of dietary carbohydrate (but less starch than cereals) and protein, (calcium, iron, thiamine and riboflavine) but not primarily oil

Usually consumed as human diet

Contain less sulphur amino acids = consider nutritionally inferior to meat and fish

Utilization of legumes as food products

Legumes are staple food and low-cost source of protein

Utilization, nutritional content and bioavailability of legumes

depends on: bean cultivars, cropping environment, storage and handling, processing, and final products preparation

Constrains:

presence of anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors,processing, and final products preparation • Constrains: lectins and phytic acid, ( tannin and phenolics compounds)

lectins and phytic acid, ( tannin and phenolics compounds)

Legumes-based products: required labor and time intensive preparation (processing)presence of anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, lectins and phytic acid, ( tannin and phenolics compounds)

Legumes proteins

A good source of proteins; 19-25% (average 22%)

Classified into:

(1) Globulins 70%

(2) albumins 10-20%

(3) glutelins 10-20%

Other proteins: enzymes, protease and carbohydrase inhibitors, and lectins (hemagglutinins)

Digestibility of raw legume seeds is very poor (low-moderate) partly due to

1.

the presence of protease inhibitor (the digestibility can be improved by heat treatments/ cooking)

2.

deficiency of sulphur amino acids thus hindering protein utilization

3.

Presence of polyphenols and other antimetabolites

4.

Tertiary structure of native protein making them refractory to enzymatic proteolysis

Most of uncooked legumes proteins are toxic

Legumes carbohydrates

• 70% of the seed by weight • Starch is primary carbohydrate • Sucrose and
• 70% of the seed by weight
• Starch is primary carbohydrate
• Sucrose and oligosaccharides (minor amounts)
• Oligosaccharides (raffinose, stachyose and verbascose) are
associated with flatulence

Raffinose (C 18 H 32 O 16 ) MW 504 g/mol Galactose-glucose-fructose

Stachyose (C 24 H 42 O 21 ) MW 667 g/mol

Gal(α1-6)Gal(α1-6)Glu(α1-2β)Fru

verbascose (C 30 H 52 O 26 ) MW 829 g/mol

legumes as source of dietary fiber
legumes as source of dietary fiber

Excellent sources of dietary fiber

6.1%
6.1%

to

fiber • Excellent sources of dietary fiber 6.1% to 25.5% • Components such as saponins, pectins,

25.5%

Components such as saponins, pectins, gums, and galactans can absorb bile salts, convey the hypocholesterolaemic effects

Soy fiber product has 66-77% dietary fiber.

To provide 10 g dietary fiber, required:

58 g of oat bran 13 g of soy fiber 735 g of lettuce 23
58 g of oat bran
13 g of soy fiber
735 g of lettuce
23 g of wheat bran
502 g of apple

Anti-nutritional factors

Chemical substances, non-toxic, but generate adverse physical responses in who consume the legume, interfere the utilization of nutrients

Soybeans: protease inhibitors, haemagglutinins (lectins), goitrogens,

antivitamins and phytates.

Also saponins, oestrogens, flatulence factors, allergens and

lysinoalanine

Other legumes have cyanogens, favism factors, lathyrism factors, amylase inhibitors, tannins, aflatoxin and pressor amines.

Most of them can be destroyed by heat treatments

Peanut allergy • 1.5 million people suffer from the allergy. • Exposure to a small

Peanut allergy

1.5 million people suffer from the allergy.

Exposure to a small amount (just 2 mgor around 1% of one peanut) of

peanut protein can trigger a potentially fatal reaction.

The immune system develops antibodies as a first reaction to the peanut protein.

The next time the body comes in contact with these proteins, the antibodies attack the peanut proteins.

the allergic reaction can be caused by direct contact, cross-contact and even inhalation.

With subsequent exposure, when the IgE antibodies on the mast cells make contact with the allergens, the mast cells release chemicals such as histamine into the bloodstream.

The histamine causes such allergic reactions as a runny nose, tearing eyes,

sore throat, diarrhea, skin rashes, or difficulty breathing and swelling. A

severe reaction is termed anaphylaxis. Loss of consciousness or even death may ensue if not treated.

- Physical (seed structure)

- Chemical and bioactive compounds

Selected Legumes and their Characteristics

Soybean (Glycine max)

Origin from China

world's most valuable crop

used as feed by billions of livestock,

a source of dietary protein and oil

Raw material in the industrial manufacture of thousands of products.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3RYY8TbbkYI

World soybean producers

World soybean Exporters-Importers
World soybean Exporters-Importers

Soybean meal as livestock

World vegetable oil source
World vegetable oil source

Genotype variations

Soybeans have more than 200 varieties,

differentiated by

Performance: yield, disease and stress resistance

Chemical composition: oil and protein content,

fatty acid composition, types of storage proteins

Physical appearance: seed size and shape (spherical to long oval), seed coat and hilum color

Size variations

Range 7.6 to 30.3 g/100 seeds

Most soybeans for oil and meal production have size 15 to 23

g/100 seeds

Most wild varieties, and those grown under environmental stresses tend to have smaller seeds

15 to 23 g/100 seeds • Most wild varieties, and those grown under environmental stresses tend
under environmental stresses tend to have smaller seeds http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub811/2variety.htm

http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub811/2variety.htm

Color variations • A great variety of colors and seed patterns, mostly yellow, green, black

Color variations

A great variety of colors and

seed patterns, mostly yellow, green, black and shades of brown

Most commercial cultivars are

yellow-seeded

Food beans vs oil beans

Food beans • In the far east, soybean are made into various foods for human
Food beans
• In the far east, soybean are made into
various foods for human consumption-tofu,
tempeh, soymilk, sprouts, miso, natto etc-
• Lighter seed coat, clean hilum, higher
protein and lower oil content
• Requirement: superior seed grade
• Low beany flavor, low lipoxygenase
activities, high soluble protein fraction, high
ratio 11S/7S storage protein, low levels
oligosaccharides, white cotyledon tissues.
• For tofu and soymilk: prefer large-seeded
with high protein content
• For natto: round and small-seeded beans
with soft texture
• For immature consumption: large seed size,
high sugar and free amino acids content,
tender texture

Oil beans

In the west-most soybeans are extracted for oil

production, oil is for

human consumption, but soy meal mostly for animal feed

Oil

culti

vars

Tofu cultivars Natto cultivar
Tofu
cultivars
Natto
cultivar

Visual differences between oil (left) and food (right) soybeans cultivar

Cultivation and harvest

plant 30-70 cm in height; grow optimally in 25-32 o C, moderate rainfall 400-800 mm

Production cycle of 90-110 days (harvested when the leaves drop, the pods turn brown, and seed moisture drops below 14%) if they are harvested in too high moisture

content, it needs to dry before safely stored; too dry may cause cracked seed coats or

split seeds

http://weedsoft.unl.edu/documents/growthstagesmodule/soybean/soy.htm#
http://weedsoft.unl.edu/documents/growthstagesmodule/soybean/soy.htm#

Seed structure

Seed structure https://cropview.wordpress.com/page/4/ • 8% hull • 90% cotyledons • 2% Hypocotyl axis

https://cropview.wordpress.com/page/4/

8% hull

90% cotyledons

2% Hypocotyl axis

USDA no. 1 grade: 10% split soybeans, 2%

damaged soybeans, and 1% foreign material

split soybeans pass through a 4.0 mm x 19.0 mm slotted sieve but are held on a 3.2 mm round-hole sieve]

damaged soybeans (soybeans with cracked seed coat visible

to naked eye),

(soybeans with cracked seed coat visible to naked eye), • foreign material [smaller pieces passing through

foreign material [smaller pieces passing through a 3.2 mm round-hole sieve]

Check https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jBgZqvwoy_E

Soybean Stored

can be stored up to three years at 12% moisture

FFA level of the oil in stored soybeans is a commonly used quality indicator

are subject to invasion by fungi (that may produce mycotoxins) and insects

is a commonly used quality indicator • are subject to invasion by fungi (that may produce

Nutrient composition

the highest protein

content among other legumes

the 2 nd highest oil after peanuts 48% db

Other valuable

components: isoflavones,

phospholipids, vitamins, and minerals

4,40% 13% Ash water 31% 35% protein oil 17%
4,40%
13%
Ash
water
31%
35%
protein
oil
17%

carbohydrate

Lipids

stored in oil bodies

homogeneous in size, 0.2 and 0.5 μm in diameter

Fatty acids: C14:0 (0.1%), C16:0 (11%), C16:1 (0.1%), C18:0 (14%), C18:1 (23.4%), C18:2 (53.2%), C18:3 (7.8%), C20:0 (0.3%), C22:0 (0.1%)

(0.1%), C16:0 (11%), C16:1 (0.1%), C18:0 (14%), C18:1 (23.4%), C18:2 (53.2%), C18:3 (7.8%), C20:0 (0.3%), C22:0

Crude soybean oil contains 1-3% phospholipids. Among the

total phospholipids in soybeans, there are about 35% phosphatidyl choline, about 25% phosphatidyl ethanolamine, about 15% phosphatidyl inositol, 5-10% phosphatidic acid, and the minor phospholipid compounds.

proteins

Most soy protein is globulin

Major storage protein : β-Conglycinin (7S Globulin) and

Glycinin (11S Fraction-the largest single fraction of total seed protein (25-35%) and accounts over 40% of the total seed globulin )

the lIS protein has a better gel formation ability and water

holding capacity; the 7S protein has a greater emulsifying

capacity and emulsion stability

the 11 S globulin contains 3-4 times more methionine and

cysteine per unit protein than 7S protein

Genestein • Genistin Deidzein • Deidzin Are hydrolized by intestinal ß glucosidase to produce equol
Genestein • Genistin Deidzein • Deidzin Are hydrolized by intestinal ß glucosidase to produce equol
Genestein • Genistin Deidzein • Deidzin Are hydrolized by intestinal ß glucosidase to produce equol
Genestein • Genistin Deidzein • Deidzin Are hydrolized by intestinal ß glucosidase to produce equol
Genestein • Genistin Deidzein • Deidzin Are hydrolized by intestinal ß glucosidase to produce equol
Genestein • Genistin Deidzein • Deidzin Are hydrolized by intestinal ß glucosidase to produce equol

Genestein• Genistin Deidzein • Deidzin Are hydrolized by intestinal ß glucosidase to produce equol (aglycones)

Genestein • Genistin Deidzein • Deidzin Are hydrolized by intestinal ß glucosidase to produce equol (aglycones)
Genestein • Genistin Deidzein • Deidzin Are hydrolized by intestinal ß glucosidase to produce equol (aglycones)

Genistin

Genestein • Genistin Deidzein • Deidzin Are hydrolized by intestinal ß glucosidase to produce equol (aglycones)

DeidzeinGenestein • Genistin • Deidzin Are hydrolized by intestinal ß glucosidase to produce equol (aglycones)

Genestein • Genistin Deidzein • Deidzin Are hydrolized by intestinal ß glucosidase to produce equol (aglycones)

Deidzin

Genestein • Genistin Deidzein • Deidzin Are hydrolized by intestinal ß glucosidase to produce equol (aglycones)
Genestein • Genistin Deidzein • Deidzin Are hydrolized by intestinal ß glucosidase to produce equol (aglycones)
Genestein • Genistin Deidzein • Deidzin Are hydrolized by intestinal ß glucosidase to produce equol (aglycones)

Are hydrolized by intestinal ß

glucosidase to produce equol (aglycones)

Facts:

Facts: Western daily intake of isoflavones is ≤ 2mg; Asian is about 15 - 50mg Predominant
Facts: Western daily intake of isoflavones is ≤ 2mg; Asian is about 15 - 50mg Predominant

Western daily intake of isoflavones is ≤ 2mg; Asian is about 15 - is ≤ 2mg; Asian is about 15-

50mg

Predominant form: glucosides (genistin, deidzin)intake of isoflavones is ≤ 2mg; Asian is about 15 - 50mg Bioavailability aglycones are higher

Bioavailability aglycones are higher than glucosides15 - 50mg Predominant form: glucosides (genistin, deidzin) Food processing, fermentation alters some glucosides to be

Food processing, fermentation alters some glucosides to be aglycones (genistein, deidzein)is about 15 - 50mg Predominant form: glucosides (genistin, deidzin) Bioavailability aglycones are higher than glucosides

Anti-nutritional factors

Heat labile (can be destroyed by application of moist/ dry

heat): protease inhibitors, haemaglutinins, goitrogens, antivitamins, phytates

The heat stable: saponins, oestrogens, flatulence factors (can be reduced by 80%-ethanol extraction and fermentation),

allergens, and lysinoalanine

References

Lawrence A. Johnson, Pamela J. White, and Richard Galloway.

2008. Soybeans Chemistry, Production, Processing, and Utilization. AOCS Press, Urbana, IL 61 802

Keshun Liu. 1997. Soybeans, chemistry, technology and utilization. Chapman & Hall. Singapore 0315

Nwokolo E and Smartt J. 1996. Food and Feed from Legumes

and Oilseeds. Chapman &. Hall. NY

Native to: South America Cultivated in: Asia, Africa and America Used for: vegetable oil production,
Native to: South America Cultivated in: Asia, Africa and America Used for: vegetable oil production,

Native to: South America Cultivated in: Asia, Africa and America Used for: vegetable oil production, natural/processed foods for human consumption

and feedstock

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ZiYR8MadeM

Prepared by Sofia for pengetahuan bahan class

Peanut types (in the USA)

Peanut types (in the USA) http://nationalpeanutboard.org/the-facts/types-of-usa-grown-peanuts-2/ • RUNNER PEANUTS

http://nationalpeanutboard.org/the-facts/types-of-usa-grown-peanuts-2/

RUNNER PEANUTS Uniform in kernel size (which allows for even roasting), used for making peanut butter.

VIRGINIA PEANUTS

The largest of all peanuts, is often used in gourmet snacks. Virginias are a popular peanut used for all-natural peanut

butter.

SPANISH PEANUTS red skins, has smaller sized kernels and is used predominantly for peanut candy, salted peanuts and peanut butter. Its reputation of having the “nuttiest” flavor when roasted is due to its higher oil content.

VALENCIA PEANUTS

Having three or more kernels per shell, has a sweet flavor and is commonly used for all-natural peanut butter. Also, they are excellent for use as boiled peanuts.

Seed structure

Seed structure
Seed structure

Proximate composition

Proximate composition • Shell =25% • Kernel = 75%  Two fleshy cotyledons = 93% 

Shell =25%

Proximate composition • Shell =25% • Kernel = 75%  Two fleshy cotyledons = 93% 

Kernel = 75%

Proximate composition • Shell =25% • Kernel = 75%  Two fleshy cotyledons = 93% 

Two fleshy cotyledons = 93%

Germ = 4%

Testa = 3%

Two fleshy cotyledons = 93%  Germ = 4%  Testa = 3% • Cotyledons are
Two fleshy cotyledons = 93%  Germ = 4%  Testa = 3% • Cotyledons are

Cotyledons are main nutrient storage tissues and source of protein, lipids and dietary energy

Shell is high in crude fiber

Protein peanut

low in sulphur amino acids

The most limiting factor amino acids : Lysine,

Methionin, and also threonine, isoleucine and

valine

PER of extrusion-textured peanut protein and peanut flour as 1.54 and 1.57 (compare to 2.50 of casein)

Palmitic (16:0), = 1%

Stearic

Oleic (18:1),

Linoleic (18:2), >80%

Arachidic (20:0),

eicosenoic (20:1),

behenic (22:0),

lignoceric (24:0) acids

(18:0),

Fatty acids

• Arachidic (20:0), • eicosenoic (20:1), • behenic (22:0), • lignoceric (24:0) acids (18:0), Fatty acids

Minerals and vitamins

Reasonable source of

potassium (705mg/100g),

phosphorus (376 mg/100g)(mostly as salts of

phytic acid) and

magnesium (168 mg/100g).

Very poor vitamins A, D

and K, and only a moderate

source of vitamin E.

acid) and magnesium (168 mg/100g). • Very poor vitamins A, D and K, and only a
acid) and magnesium (168 mg/100g). • Very poor vitamins A, D and K, and only a

Anti-nutrition factors

Anti-nutrition factors • Raw peanut contains trypsin inhibitor (5.8-9.4 TIU) = 20% lower than of the
Anti-nutrition factors • Raw peanut contains trypsin inhibitor (5.8-9.4 TIU) = 20% lower than of the

Raw peanut contains trypsin inhibitor (5.8-9.4

TIU) = 20% lower than of the level of raw soybean

Lectins

Goitrogenic factor (in testa)

Saponin-like compound (bitter taste, in the germ)

Skin contains trypsin inhibitors and growth- retarding principles (removing skin can reduce headache and stomach cramp risk of eating

peanuts)

Peanuts allergic • Caused by Peanut proteins , Ara h1, Ara h2, and Ara h3 •

Caused by Peanut proteins, Ara h1, Ara h2, and Ara h3

The fat does not cause

allergic reactions

immune system malfunction.

immune system identifies

peanuts as harmful triggering the production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to neutralize the

peanut protein (allergen).

IgE antibodies recognize it and signal immune system to release histamine and other chemicals

into bloodstream.

Histamine is partly responsible for most allergic reaction responses including: runny nose,

itchy eyes, dry itchy throat,

rashes and hives, tingling of lips or tongue and more severe reactions

Biological active compounds

Phenylpropanoid derivatives: flavonoids, stilbenes (like resveratrol in red

wine), phenolic acids (vanillic, protocatechuic, ferulic, p-coumaric acids, 4-hydroxy benzoicacid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid), phytosterols (β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, Rspinasterol, Δ5-avenasterol, Δ7-avenasterol, sitostanol,and campestanol), and alkaloids (arachine/choline, myosmine-alkaloid in tobacco and has low toxicity to mammal).

Role: involved in a defense mechanism against physical injuries and

microbial contamination

Therapeutic effects of peanut seed extracts: antioxidative, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities

Lopes, RM et al, 2011. Chemical composition and biological activities of arachis sp.J. Agric. Food Chem 59:4321-4330

Other compounds

The inositol D-pinitol

vitamins, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate - the most important folate

vitamin

good source of tocopherol (vitamin E)

rich source of magnesium, folate, fiber, α-tocopherol, copper, and arginine

Roasted peanut

Europe, North America

Proper roasting is critical to flavor and texture development, and

nutritional content of the final product

Roasting reduces moisture content (MC) and modifies the internal microstructure of peanuts to create the characteristic crunchy and crispy texture

final seed color is a good indicator quality

Color are resulted from Maillard and caramelization

Maillard reactions produce various volatiles contributes to roasted peanut flavor

During roasting

some antioxidants are lost due to heat instability (releases

phenolic compounds such as p-coumaric acid and

hydroxybenzoic acid from the cellular matrix)

degradation of tocopherols

Formed Maillard reaction (Maillard reaction products have high antioxidant capacities)

McDaniel KA, et al. 2012. Compositional and Mechanical Properties of Peanuts Roasted to Equivalent Colors using Different Time/Temperature Combinations. USDA Agricultural Research Service-Lincoln Nebraska

A HTST roasting process resulted in peanuts with higher

moisture, and favorable soluble protein contents.

Maillard browning products help protective against tocopherol degradation and lipid oxidation

Reference • The most material was taken from the book chapter : Nwokolo E. Peanut

Reference

The most material was taken from the book chapter : Nwokolo E. Peanut (Arachis

hypogaea L) in Food and Feed from Legumes

and Oilseeds. Ed. by Nwokolo E and Smartt J.

1996. Chapman & Hall, NY.

Legumes Technology

Raw peanut

Raw peanut Cleaned blanched Sorted only high quality peanut Roasted Milled Some of peanuts products Peanut

Cleaned

Raw peanut Cleaned blanched Sorted only high quality peanut Roasted Milled Some of peanuts products Peanut

blanched

Raw peanut Cleaned blanched Sorted only high quality peanut Roasted Milled Some of peanuts products Peanut

Sorted only high quality peanut

Raw peanut Cleaned blanched Sorted only high quality peanut Roasted Milled Some of peanuts products Peanut

Roasted

Cleaned blanched Sorted only high quality peanut Roasted Milled Some of peanuts products Peanut flour •

Milled

Some of peanuts products

Peanut flour

peanut Roasted Milled Some of peanuts products Peanut flour • used in: confectionery products, seasoning blends,

used in: confectionery products,

seasoning blends, bakery mixes, frostings, fillings, cereal bars and nutritional bars, confection centers.

seasoning blends, bakery mixes, frostings, fillings, cereal bars and nutritional bars, confection centers.
seasoning blends, bakery mixes, frostings, fillings, cereal bars and nutritional bars, confection centers.
seasoning blends, bakery mixes, frostings, fillings, cereal bars and nutritional bars, confection centers.

Using peanut flour 4-8% can extend

• Using peanut flour 4-8% can extend

the shelf life of confections and can

contribute a peanut flavor to the

product.

product.

is a good protein (45%-50%) source

the shelf life of confections and can contribute a peanut flavor to the product. • is
life of confections and can contribute a peanut flavor to the product. • is a good

Peanut paste and peanut butter

Peanut paste and peanut butter • Peanut paste: 100% ground peanuts, is used in a variety

Peanut paste: 100% ground

peanuts, is used in a variety of industrial food recipes

Peanut butter : available in varies

including the reduced fat peanut provide a fat reduction of at least

25%

Raw peanut

Dry Blanched 190oF

roasted

Sorted

Grinding

25% Raw peanut Dry Blanched 190oF roasted Sorted Grinding Peanut butter form products. It must contain

Peanut butter

form products. It must contain >90% peanuts; sweeteners and salt can be added to enhance flavor, and

small amount of stabilizer added to

prevent oil separation

Soybean products

http://www.ccur.iastate.edu/education/soyposter.pdf

Soybeans

Whole bean products Fractionated products
Whole bean products
Fractionated products

Whole Soybeans

Full fat flour

Roasted Soybeans

Hull products

Oil products

Protein products

- Food:

Food :

- Food:

-

Fiber for

- Refined oil:

-

Meal

Bean sprout

- bread,

Candy

industrial,

Food

-

Soy flour, protein

Soy milk

- Candy

Cookie mixes

food and

Industrial

concentrate and

Soy sauce

- Pancake flour

Soy coffe

feed

- Lecithin

protein isolate

Tofu

- Pie crusts

Soynut butter

- Minor co-

-

Nutraceuticals:

Tempe

- Instant milk drink

Diet food

products:

Isoflavones

Miso

- Crackers

Snack food

Glycerol

Saponins

etc

- etc

- Feed

Fatty acids

Phytic acids

- Industrial

- Feed

- Feed • Fatty acids • Phytic acids - Industrial - Feed • Sterols • tocopherol

Sterols

tocopherol

Protease inhibitors

Check these videos out

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uh752bxHEeU