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## Code No: 3220405 Set No. 1

II B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April/May 2009
Analog Communications
(Electronics � Communication Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

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All Questions carry equal marks
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1. (a) Explain the collector modulation method for generating AM wave with a neat
circuit diagram and waveforms.
(b) An AM ampliﬁer provides an output of 106 W at 100� modulation. The
internal loss is 20 W
i. What is un-modulated carrier power?
ii. What is the side band power? [10+6]

## 2. (a) Explain the generation of DSB-SC using Balanced Modulator.

(b) In AM-SC system, the modulating signal is a single tone sinusoid Am cos ω m t
which modulates a carrier signal Ac cos ω c t. Write the modulated wave expres-
sion and its Fourier transfom. Plot the two sided spectrum of the modulated
wave. [8+8]

## 3. A synchronous detection of SSB signal shows phase and frequency discrepancy.

ConsiderS(t) = cos [(ωc t) cos(ωi t + Φi ) � sin(ωc t) sin(ωi t + Φi )]is an SSB signal.

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i=�
The signal is multiplied by the locally generated carrier cosω c t and then passed
through a low-pass ﬁlter.

(a) Prove that the modulating signal can be completely recovered if the cut-oﬀ
frequency of the ﬁlter is f� � fo � 2fc .
(b) Determine the recovered signal when the multiplying signal is cos[ωc + Φ].
(c) Determine the recovered signal when the multiplying
� signal is cos[(ω c t+Δω)t].
Give ΔΦ �� Φi where ωc = 2Πfc , Δω = 2 Δf. 

4. (a) Prove that all the properties of PM signals can be deduced from those of FM
signals and vice-versa.
(b) i. Determine the permissible range in maximum modulation index for the
commercial FM ( frequency deviation ﬁxed at 75 KHz ) that has 30 Hz
to 15 KHz modulating frequencies
ii. Determine the permissible range in maximum modulation index for the
NBFM that allows a maximum deviation of 1 KHz and 100 Hz to 2 KHz
modulating frequencies.
iii. Determine the deviation ratio for the system in (ii). [8+8]

5. Evaluate the ﬁgure of merit of FM system for single tone modulation. 
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## Code No: 3220405 Set No. 1

6. (a) Draw the block diagram of an SSB - SC transmitter employing sideband sup-
pression ﬁlter and explain.
(b) Why are limiters and preemphasis ﬁlters used in FM radio. 

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7. (a) Draw the block diagram of FM receiver and explain each block.
(b) Will it be necessary to employ AGC in FM receivers that employ limiters. 

8. Why is cross talk present in PTM system? Explain the generation and demodula-
tion of PDM signals with suitable diagrams. 

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## Code No: 3220405 Set No. 2

II B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April/May 2009
Analog Communications
(Electronics � Communication Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

www.andhracolleges.com
All Questions carry equal marks
�����

1. (a) A sinusoidal carrier has a peak value of 100 V and a frequency of 100 KHz. A
sinusoidal modulating signal of amplitude 75 V and frequency 5 KHz ampli-
tude modulates the carrier. Determine
i. the modulation factor
ii. the amplitude and frequencies of the side bands, and
iii. the power in each spectral component if the load resistance is 300 Ω.
(b) Calculate
i. the total power and
ii. the power in each side band for an AM transmission that is sinusoidally
modulated to a depth of 80 � , if the un-modulated carrier power is 50
KW.
[10+6]

2. (a) Consider the wave obtained by adding a non coherent carrier A� cos (2 Π f� t + ϕ)
to DSB-SC wave m(t) cos (2 Π f� t ) where X (t) is the message waveform.

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This waveform is applied to an ideal envelope detector. Find the resulting
detector out put. Evaluate the output for.
i. ϕ = 0 and
ii. ϕ =
� 0 and �X (t)� �� A� /2.
(b) Explain the DSB-SC generation by balanced modulator using FET ampliﬁers.
[8+8]

3. (a) Explain VSB. What is the need for VSB transmission? What is the transmis-
sion bandwidth of VSB?
(b) A 400 W carrier is modulated on depth of 75 percent; calculate the total power
in the modulated wave in the following forms of AM:
i. A3E
ii. DSB-SC
iii. J3E. [8+8]

## 4. Explain demodulation of FM signal with the help of PLL. 

5. Explain the noise performance of AM reveivers with the help of block diagram.

6. Draw the block diagram of SSB Pilot carrier radio transmitters system and explain
its operation. 
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## Code No: 3220405 Set No. 2

7. (a) Explain the IF ampliﬁer circuit and its purpose in the receiver.
(b) Explain what do you mean by image frequencies. 

## 8. (a) What are the diﬀerent type of Pulse Modulations? Explain?

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(b) Explain the method of generation and detection of PAM signals with neat
schematics. 

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## Code No: 3220405 Set No. 3

II B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April/May 2009
Analog Communications
(Electronics � Communication Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

www.andhracolleges.com
All Questions carry equal marks
�����

1. (a) Explain the collector modulation method for generating AM wave with a neat
circuit diagram and waveforms.
(b) An AM ampliﬁer provides an output of 106 W at 100� modulation. The
internal loss is 20 W
i. What is un-modulated carrier power?
ii. What is the side band power? [10+6]

2. (a) Consider the wave obtained by adding a non coherent carrier Ac cos (2 Π fc t + ϕ)
to DSB-SC wave m(t) cos (2 Π fc t ) where X (t) is the message waveform.
This waveform is applied to an ideal envelope detector. Find the resulting
detector out put. Evaluate the output for.
i. ϕ = 0 and
ii. ϕ =
� 0 and �X (t)� �� Ac /2.
(b) Explain the DSB-SC generation by balanced modulator using FET ampliﬁers.
[8+8]

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3. (a) For an arbitrary signal m(t), write SSB equation. Plot the spectrums to
compare AM, DSB, USB and LSB.
(b) A received signal-tone sinusoidally modulated SSB-SC signal cos (ω � + ω m )t
has a normalized power of 0.5 volt� . The signal is to be detected by car-
rier re-insertion technique. Find the amplitude of the carrier to be rein-
serted so that the power in the recovered signal at the demodulator output
is 90� of the normalized power. The d.c. component can be neglected and
ωc = 2Πfc and ωn = 2Πfm . [8+8]

4. (a) Give the relationship between phase and frequency modulation techniques
with suitable expressions and sketch the modulated outputs of both the tech-
niques for sinusoidal modulating signal. Choose any carrier signal.
(b) An angle modulated signal with carrier frequency f� = 105 Hz is described by
the equation: G(t) = 10cos(2πf� t + 5sin3000πt + 10sin2000πt). Find
i. the power of the signal of the modulated signal
ii. the frequency deviation
iii. modulation index. [8+8]

5. Explain the noise performance of SSB - SC receiver and prove its S/N Ratio is
unity. 
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## Code No: 3220405 Set No. 3

6. Draw the black diagram of FM stereo broadcast transmitters and explain its oper-
ation. 

7. Draw the block diagram of that portion of a stereo FM multiplex receiver which lies
between the main FM demodulator and the audio ampliﬁers. Explain the operation

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of the system showing how each signal is extracted and treated. 

## 8. (a) Compare the characteristics of PWM and PPM signals.

(b) Explain how the PPM signal can be generated and reconstructed through
PWM signals. 

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## Code No: 3220405 Set No. 4

II B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April/May 2009
Analog Communications
(Electronics � Communication Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

www.andhracolleges.com
All Questions carry equal marks
�����

1. (a) Explain the collector modulation method for generating AM wave with a neat
circuit diagram and waveforms.
(b) An AM ampliﬁer provides an output of 106 W at 100� modulation. The
internal loss is 20 W
i. What is un-modulated carrier power?
ii. What is the side band power? [10+6]

2. (a) Explain the concept of frequency translation using the spectrum of DSB-SC
wave.
(b) For the balanced ring modulator circuit, the carrier input frequency f� = 500
kHz and modulating input signal frequency ranges from 0 to 5 kHz. Determine
output frequency range and output frequency for a single input frequency of
3.4 KHz. [8+8]

3. (a) Describe the phasor diagram and waveform of a single tone SSB and two tone
SSB signal.

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(b) Explain with block diagram, the phase shift method of generating SSB mod-
ulated waves. [8+8]

4. Using the circuit diagrams, show how the Foster-seeley discriminator is derived
from the balanced slope detector, and how, in turn, the ratio detector is derive
from the discriminator. In each step stress the common characteristics, and how
what it is that makes each circuit diﬀerent from the previous one. 

5. Draw DSB-SC receiver using coherent detection and evaluate its noise performance.


6. (a) Draw the block diagram of an SSB - SC transmitter employing sideband sup-
pression ﬁlter and explain.
(b) Why are limiters and preemphasis ﬁlters used in FM radio. 

7. (a) Describe the circuit of an FET amplitude limiter, and with the aid of the
transfer characteristic explain the operation of the circuit.
(b) What can be done to improve the overall limiting performance of an FM
receiver ? Explain the operation of the double limiter and also AGC in addition
to a limier. 

## 8. (a) What are the diﬀerent type of Pulse Modulations? Explain?

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## Code No: 3220405 Set No. 4

(b) Explain the method of generation and detection of PAM signals with neat
schematics. 

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