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Datasheetupdated2012121110:41:14(supersedesallpreviouseditions)

Sandvik SAF 2304


(Plate and sheet)
SandvikSAF2304isaduplex(austeniticferritic)stainlesssteelwithalowcarbon
content.Thematerialischaracterizedbythefollowingproperties:

Very good resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC)


Good resistance to general corrosion an pitting
High strength - approximately twice as high proof strength as austenitic stainless steels
Physical properties that offer design advantages
Ease of fabrication and good toughness
Good weldability

STANDARDS

UNS S32304
EN number 1.4362*
W.Nr. 1.4362
DIN X 2 CrNiN 23 4
SS 2327
AFNOR Z 2 CN 23.04AZ

Products standards

Plate,sheetandcoil:ASTMA240;A480
Approvals

ApprovedbytheAmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers(ASME)Boilerand
PressureVesselCode,SectionVIII,div.1construction.
ASMEB31.3ChemicalandRefineryPipingCode
VdTVWerkstoffblatt496
NGS1607(Nordicrulesforapplications)validforSAF2304madebySandvik.
ApprovedbyDNVforgeneraluseonships
ApprovedbyRINA,registrationNoMAC/112/90
*Validforsheet/plate,strip,semifinishedproducts,bars,rodsandsectionsforgeneral
purposes(notforpressurepurposes).
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (NOMINAL) %
C

Si

Mn

Cr

Ni

Mo

Cu

0.030

1.0

2.5

0.04

0.03

21.524.5

3.05.50

0.050.60

0.050.20

0.050.60

FORMS OF SUPPLY FINISHES AND DIMENSIONS

Plateandsheetaredeliveredinthesolutionannealedandpickledcondition.
Thesizerangesavailablearegivenbelow
Platesheetandcoil
SandvikSAF2304Plate,sheetarestockedinawiderangeofsizesaccordingtoASTM.
Detailsofourstockprogrammearegivenbelow:
SandvikAustralia'sStockProgramPlate(HRNo1Finish)
ThicknessRange5mm40mm
Widths2000mm
Sheet(CR2BFinish)
ThicknessRange2mm
Widths1500mm,
Lengths3000mm
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Thefollowingfiguresapplytothematerialinthesolutionannealedcondition.Tubeand

pipewithwallthicknessabove20mm(0.787in.)mayhaveslightlylowervalues.For
seamlesstubeswithawallthicknessbelow4mmweguaranteeproofstrength(Rp0.2)
valuesthatare50MPahigherthanthoselistedbelowat20C(68F)aswellasthose
listedathighertemperatures.Moredetailedinformationcanbesuppliedonrequest.
AT 20C (68F)
Proofstrength
a)

R p 0 . 2

Rp 1 . 0

MPa

ksi

MPa

min

min

min

58

450

c)

400

ksi

65

Tensilestrength

Elong.

Rm

A2"

b)

Brinell

MPa

ksi

min

min

min

min

max

600

87

25

25

290

1MPa=1N/mm2
a)Rp0.2andRp1.0correspondto0.2%offsetand1.0%offsetyieldstrength,respectively.
b)BasedonL0 =5.65S 0 whereL0 istheoriginalgaugelengthandS0 theoriginalcross
sectionarea.
Impact strength

SAF2304hasgoodimpactstrengthbothatroomtemperatureandatlow
temperatures,asshownbyfigure2.

Figure2.ImpactstrengthofSAF2304compaedwithcarbonsteel.
LowestvalueforaTIGjointisalsorepotedforSAF2304.Charpytest
specimens(10x10mm,0.394x0.0394in.)takenfromtube260x20
mm(10.2x0.29in.)insize.
At high temperatures

Hardness

IfSAF2304isexposedforprolongedperiodstotemperaturesexceeding280 C
o
(540 F),themicrostructurechangeswhichresultsinareductioninimpactstrength.
Thiseffectdoesnotnecessarilyaffectthebehaviourofthematerialattheoperating
temperature.Forexample,heatexchangertubesmaybeusedathighertemperatures
withoutanyproblems.ContactSandvikforadvice.
Forpressurevesselapplications,280C(540F)isrequiredasmaximumaccordingto
VdTVWb496.

Temperature

Proofstrength
Rp 0 . 2

a)

Tensilestrength
Rp 1 . 0

a)

Rm

MPa

MPa

MPa

min

min

min

100

330

380

570

150

310

350

540

200

290

320

520

250

280

310

510

300

270

300

500

ForconstructionsaccordingtoRN78(NGS1607)515%lowerdesignvaluesare
approved.
Temperature

Proofstrength
Rp 0 . 2

a)

Tensilestrength
Rp 1 . 0

a)

Rm

ksi

ksi

ksi

min

min

min

200

48.5

56.0

84.5

300

44.5

50.0

77.5

400

42.0

46.5

75.5

500

40.0

44.5

73.5

600

39.0

43.0

72.0

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
3

Density:7.8g/cm ,0.28lb/in

SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY


TemperatureC

J/(kgC)

TemperatureF

Btu/(lbF)

20

490

68

0.12

100

505

200

0.12

200

530

400

0.13

300

550

600

0.13

400

590

800

0.14

Thermal conductivity
METRIC UNITS
TemperatureC

20

100

200

300

400

W/(mC)
SAF2304

16

17

18

19

21

AISI316L

14

15

17

18

20

200

400

600

800

IMPERIAL UNITS
TemperatureF

68
Btu/(fthF)

SAF2304

9.5

10.5

11.5

12.5

AISI316L

8.5

9.5

10.5

11.5

Thermal expansion

Meanvaluesintemperatureranges(x10 )SAF2304hasafarlowercoefficientof
thermalexpansionthanausteniticstainlesssteelsandthereforepossessescertaindesign
advantages.
METRIC UNITS
TemperatureC

30100

30200

30300

30400

PerC
SAF2304

13.5

14.0

14.5

14.5

Carbonsteel

12.5

13.0

13.5

14.0

AISI304L/316L

16.5

17.0

17.5

18.0

86200

86400

86600

86800

IMPERIAL UNITS
TemperatureF

PerF
SAF2304

7.5

8.0

8.0

8.0

Carbonsteel

7.0

7.0

7.5

8.0

AISI304L/316L

9.5

9.5

10

10

Figure3.Thermalexpansion,perC(30100C,86210F).
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
TemperatureC

MPa

TemperatureF

ksi

20

200

68

29.0

100

194

200

28.2

200

186

400

27.0

300

180

600

26.2

CORROSION RESISTANCE
General corrosion

DuetothehighchromiumcontentanditswellbalancedcompositionSAF2304
possessesexcellentcorrosionresistanceinacidicenvironments.Thetablebelowshows
thecorrosionrateindifferentacidsandfigures46showisocorrosiondiagrams.
Corrosionratesinacidwatermixtures,mm/year(mpy).Activatedspecimens,1+3+ 3
days,averageofthelasttwoperiodsfortwospecimens.

Conc.Weight%

TempC(F)

SAF2304

AISI304L

AISI316L

20

0.01(0.4)

0.01(0.4)

50

0.04(1.6)

70

90

0.01(0.4)

60(140)

10

0.04(1.6)

0.80(32)

0.19(7.6)

30

60(140)

30

90(194)

80

90(194)

0.50(20)

90

60(140)

0.5

40(104)

40(104)

0.30(12)

0.70(28)

0.16(6.4)

0.16(6.4)

0.30(12)

30

0.10(4)

0.20(8)

0.07(2.8)

50

100(212)

0.04(1.6)

0.09(3.6)

0.21(8.4)

60

90(194)

0.01(0.4)

0.2(0.8)

0.02(0.8)

80

80(176)

0.01(0.4)

0.01(0.4)

0.06(2.4)

60(140)

90(194)

0.06(2.4)

3.6(144)

10

60(140)

0.10(4)

0.66(26.4)

10

70(158)

0.14(5.6)

1.7(68)

10

80(176)

0.20(8)

7.9(316)

15

50(122)

0.17(6.8)

0.47(18.8)

20

30(86)

0.20(8)

0.02(0.8)

AcetidacidCH3 COOH

Formicacid,HCOOH

Hydrochloricacid,HCI

Nitricacid,HNO3 ( 5 x 2 d a y s )
65
Phosphoricacid,H3 PO4

Sulphuricacid,H2 S O4

B=Boiling

Figure4.IsocorrosiondiagramforSAF2304,AISI403LandAISI316L
instagnantsulphuricacid.Thecurvesrepresentacorrosionrateof0.1
mm/year(4mpy).

Figure5.IsocorrosiondiagramforSAF2304.AISI304LandAISI316Lin
formicacid.Thecurvesrepresentacorrosionrateof0.1mm/year(4mpy).

Figure6.IsocorrosiondiagramforSAF2304andAISI304Linnitric
acid.Thecurvesrepresentacorrosionrateof0.1mm/year(4mpy)
Pitting

Thepittingresistanceofasteelisdeterminedprimarilybyitschromiumand
molybdenumcontents,butthenitrogencontentalsohasaneffect.Aparameterfor
comparingthepittingresistanceofdifferentsteelsisthePREnumber(PittingResistance
Equivalent).
ThePREisdefinedas,inweight%
PRE=%Cr+3.3%Mo+16x%N
TheminimumPREnumberforSAF2304andtheausteniticstandardstainlesssteels
AISI316LandAISI304Laregiveninthefollowingtable.
Alloy

%Cr3

%Mo

%N

PRE

SAF2304

23

2.2

0.1

24

AISI316L

17

24

AISI304L

18.4

18

Asthetableshows,thePREnumberforSAF2304isconsiderablyhigherthanthe
numberforAISI304LandcomparabletotheInumberforAISI316L.Potentiostatic
testsinsolutionswithdifferentchloridecontents(pH=6)arereportedinfigure7.Each
curveisbasedonatleast4measuringpoints,eachofwhichisderivedfromaminimum
ofthreeseparatemeasurements,andthevariationinthemeasurementresultslieswithin
therange+/5C(+/9F).ThetestresultsforAISI316Lhavebeencomparedwith
resultsobtainedunderpracticalconditionsofservice,andthecorrelationisgood.Asis
evidentfromfigure7,thecriticaltemperatureforpittingforSAF2304ishigherthan
thatforAISI304LandcomparabletothatforAISI316L.Theexperimentalresults
therebyagreewiththePREranking.

Figure7.Criticalpittingtemperature(CPT)forSAF2304,AISI304Land
AISI316Linneutralchloridesolutions(potentiostaticdeterminationat
+300mV/SCE).
Stress corrosion and cracking

Becauseofitstwophasestructureanditswellbalancedcomposition,SAF2304
possessesverygoodresistancetostresscorrosioncracking(SCC).
Thisisevidentfromtheresultsoftestsinbothconcentratedchloridesolutionsand
oxygencontainingdilutechlorideenvironments.
Figure8showstheresultsoftestscarriedoutin40%CaCl2solutionat100C(210F).
Inthisenvironment,thestressthatisrequiredtocausefractureduetoSCC(knownas
thethresholdstress)ismuchhigherforSAF2304thanforAISI304/304LandAISI
316/316L.ThisindicatesthesuperiorresistanceofSAF2304.
WeldingofSAF2304doesnotappreciablyreducetheresistancetoSCC,providedthat
theweldingrecommendationsarefollowed(seeWelding).
ThethresholdstressofmaterialthathasbeenTIGweldedwithSandvik22.8.3.Lor
MMAweldedwithSandvik22.9.3.LRisonalevelwiththatoftheparentmetal.
TheresultsofSCCtestingofSAF2304inchloridesolutionsathightemperaturesand
pressuresarepresentedinfigure9.ThecurveforSAF2304isbasedontestsperformed
atvariouschloridecontentsanddifferenttemperatures.Usuallysixseparate
measurementswereperformedateachmeasuringpoint.Thetestingmethodinvolved
springloadedspecimensstressedtotheproofstrength(Rp0.2)atthetesting
temperature,orUbendsinwhichthestressattheapexisatleastequaltotheproof
strengthofthesolutionannealedmaterial.Theoxygencontentoftheinletwater
(refreshedautoclaveswereused)was4.6to10ppmandthepH4.5to7.I.Thecurve
forAISI304/304LandAISI316/316Lisbasedonpublishedtestresultsandonpractical
experience.

Figure8.ResultsofSCCtestswithconstantloadonSAF2304,AISI304L
andAISI316Lin40%CaCl<sub>2</sub>,pH=6.5,at100C(210F)with
aeratedtestsolution.

Theresultsinfigure9indicatethatSAF2304canbeusedinoxygenbearingchloride
solutionsuptoabout125C(260F)withoutanyriskofSCC.
ThisismuchhigherthanforAISI304/304LandAISI316/316L,whichshouldnotbe
usedabove60C(140F)insuchenvironments.Attemperaturesabove125C(260F),
SAF2304shouldnotbeusedinoxygenbearingsolutionsinenvironmentswithmore

thanabout10ppmCl .Forsuchconditions,werecommendSandvikSAF2205,SAF
2507orSanicro28.Atlowoxygencontents,whicharecommonintheprocessand
powerindustries,considerablyhigherchloridecontentsandtemperaturescanbe
toleratedbySAF2304withoutanyriskofSCC.

Figure9.SCCresistanceinoxygenbearing(8ppm)neutralchloride
solutions.Testingtime1000hours.Load>yieldstrengthattesting
temperature.
Intergranular corrosion

SAF2304isamemberofthefamilyofmodernduplexstainlesssteelswhosechemical
mannerthatthereformationofausteniteintheheataffectedzoneadjacenttotheweld
takesplacequickly.Thisresultsinamicrostructurethatgivescorrosionpropertiesand
toughnesssimilartothatoftheparentmetal.WeldedjointsinSAF2304easilypass
Strauss'intergranularcorrosiontestingaccordingtoDIN50914andSS117105.
Crevice corrosion

Inthesamewayastheresistancetopittingcanberelatedtothechromium,
molybdenumandnitrogencontentsofthesteelsocantheresistancetocrevice
corrosion.SAF2304hasbetterresistancetocrevicecorrosionthansteelsoftheAISI
304/304LtypeandiscomparablewithAISI316/316L.
Erosion corrosion

SteelsoftheAISI304/304LandAISI316/316Ltypecanbeattackedbyerosion
corrosionifexposedtoflowingmediacontaininghighlyabrasivesolidparticles,e.g.
sand,ormediawithveryhighflowrates.Duetoitscombinationofhighhardnessand
goodcorrosionresistance,SAF2304displaysverygoodresistanceundersuch
conditions.
Corrosion fatigue

SAF2304possesseshigherstrengthandbettercorrosionresistancethanordinary
austeniticstainlesssteels.Consequently,SAF2304hasconsiderablybetterfatigue
strengthundercorrosiveconditionsthansuchsteels.
HEAT TREATMENT

Plate,sheetandcoilarenormallydeliveredinheattreatedcondition.Ifadditionalheat
treatmentisneededafterfurtherprocessingthefollowingisrecommended.
Solutionannealing
9301050C(17101920F),rapidcoolinginairorwater.
WELDING

TheweldabilityofSAF2304isgood.Suitableweldingmethodsaremanualmetalarc
weldingwithcoveredelectrodesorgasshieldedarcwelding.
Weldingshouldbeundertakenwithintheheatinputrange0.52.5kJ/mm.Preheatingor
postweldheattreatmentisnotnormallynecessary.
Fillermetalsthatgiveanausteniticferriticweldmetalshouldbeusedinordertoobtain
aweldmetalwithcorrosionresistanceandmechanicalpropertiesclosetotheparent

metal.Forgasshieldedarcwelding,werecommendSandvik22.8.3.L,andformanual
metalarcweldingthecoveredelectrodeSandvik22.9.3.LR.Thesefillermetalscanalso
beusedforweldingSAF2304tocarbonsteels,stainlesssteelsandnickelalloys.The
coveredelectrodeSandvik23.12.2.LRandthewireelectrodeSandvik24.13.Lcanalsobe
usedforthispurpose.Whenweldingcomponentsforuseinhighconcentratednitric
acidthechoiceoffillermetalshouldbediscussedwithSandvik.
FABRICATION

Bending
ThestartingforceneededforbendingisslightlyhigherforSAF2304thanforAISI
304/316.SAF2304canbecoldbentto25%deformationwithoutrequiringsubsequent
heattreatment.Underserviceconditionswheretheriskofstresscorrosioncracking
startstoincrease,forexamplewherethematerialtemperatureisnearly125C(255F)

inaneutraloxygenbearingenvironmentwitharound100ppmCl ,heattreatmentis
recommendedevenaftermoderatecoldbending.Forpressurevesselapplicationsin
GermanyandtheNordiccountriesheattreatmentmayberequiredaftercold
deformationinaccordancewithVdTVWb496andNGS1607.Heattreatmentis
carriedoutintheformofsolutionannealing(seeunderthisheading)orresistance
annealing.Hotbendingiscarriedoutat1100950C(20101740F)andshouldbe
followedbysolutionannealing.
Expanding
Incomparisonwithausteniticstainlesssteels,SAF2304hasahigherproofstrength.
Thismustbeborneinmindwhenexpandingtubesintotubesheets.Normalexpanding
methodscanbeused,buttheexpansionrequireshigherinitialforceandshouldbe
undertakeninoneoperation.Detailedrecommendationsonexpandingduplexstainless
steelswillbesuppliedonrequest.
Machining
Beingatwophasematerial(austeniticferritic)SAF2304willpresentadifferentwear
picturefromthatofsinglephasesteelsoftypeAISI304L.Thecuttingspeedmust
thereforebeslightlylowerthanthatrecommendedforAISI304L.Itisrecommended
thatatougherinsertgradeisusedthanwhenmachiningausteniticstainlesssteels,e.g.
AISI304L.
APPLICATIONS

SAF2304possessesgoodmechanicalandphysicalproperties,excellentresistanceto
stresscorrosioncrackingandotherformsofcorrosionaswellasgoodweldability.
Thesepropertiesmakeitbothatechnicallyandeconomicallysuperioralternativeto
stainlesssteelssuchastheausteniticsteelsAISI304,304L,316,316L,321and347,the
ferriticchromiumsteelsAISI430and444andthemartensiticchromiumsteelsofthe
AISI410and420type.SAF2304alsohasadvantagesinmanycasesoverlowalloy
steels.ExamplesofareaswhereSAF2304offersadvantagesoverothermaterialsare
giveninthefollowingtable.
ThegoodmechanicalandcorrosionpropertiesmakeSAF2304aneconomicalchoicein
manyapplicationsbyreducingthelifecyclecostoftheequipment.

Industry

Applications

Used
today

AdvantagesnofSAF2304

Process
Industry

Heatexchangersandpipingwherechlorides
arepresent

AISI
304/304L
AISI
316/316L

HigherresistancetoSCC

Instrumentationtubing,steamtracing

AISI
304/304L
AISI
316/316L

HigherresistancetoSCC

Petrochemical
industry

Tubularreactorsforhightemperatures
wherecarbonsteelisusedfortheshell

AISI
304/304L
AISI
316/316L

Coefficientofthermalexpansioncomparabletothat
ofcarbonsteel

Pulp&paper

Digesterpreheater
Evaporators

AISI
304/304L
AISI
316/316L

HigherresistancetoSCC
HigherresistancetoSCC

Nuclear
power

Reheaters

Csteels
AISI430
AISI
304/304L

Easeoffabrication,goodcorrosionresistance

Power

Feedwaterheaters

AISI430
AISI
304/304L

HighresistancetoSCC,highstrengthandeaseof
fabrication

Engineering

Beamsandtorquetransmittingshafts

Csteels
AISI
304/304L
AISI
316/316L

Highstrengthcombinedwithexcellentcorrosion
resistance,easeoffabricationandlowcost

Hydraulic
system

Hydraulictubing

Csteels

Excellentresistancetocorrosion
Reducedinstallationcostowingtoeasycleaning

Oilandgas

Coolersonandoffshore.Pipingsystems
andflowlinesonandoffshore

Csteels
AISI
304/304L
AISI
316/316L
AISI420

Optimalcombinationofstrengthweldability,
corrosionresistanceandcost

Tensioningsystemsonoffshorerigs.
instrumentaltubing

AISI
304/304L
AISI
316/316L
Csteels

Highstrengthcombinedwithhighcorrosion
resistance

DISCLAIMER:
Recommendationsareforguidanceonly,andthesuitabilityofamaterialforaspecificapplicationcanbeconfirmedonlywhen
weknowtheactualserviceconditions.Continuousdevelopmentmaynecessitatechangesintechnicaldatawithoutnotice.This
datasheetisonlyvalidforSandvikmaterials.

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