THEORY
.
1 ,
OF
ELASTICITY
By S. TIMOSHENKO
And J. N. GOODIER
Professors of Engineering M echanics
Stanford University
BIBLIOTECA CENTRAL
ONIVERSITATEA "POLITEHNICA
llllillH
A. S. C. E.
00128156
Howard T. Critchlow
H. Alden Foster
A. I. M. E.
Nathaniel Arbiter
John F. Elliott
A.S. M.E.
Calvin S. Cronan
Raymond D. Mindlin
A. I. E. E.
F. Malcolm Farmer
Royal W. Sorensen
A. I. Ch. E.
Joseph F. Skelly
Charles E. Reed
NEW YORK
To RNTOL'nN'
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
Copyright, 1934, by the United Engineering
Trustees, Inc. Copyright, 1951, by the McGrawHill Book Company, Inc. Printed in the United
States of America. All rights reserved. This book,
or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any
form without permission of the publishers.
XIII
64719
S. TIMOSHENKO
J. N. GoonIER
PALO ALTO, CALIF.
February, 1951
viii
1X
S.
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
December, 1933
TIMOSHENKO
CONTENTS
V
vii
. xvii
NoTATION . .
CHAPTER 1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
INTRODUCTION
1
Elasticity . . . . . . .
Stress. . . . . . . . .
Notation for Forces and Stresses . .
Components of Stress.
Components of Strain.
Hooke's Law.
Problems . . . . . .
CHAPTER 2.
2
3
4
5
6
10
7. Plane Stress . . .
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Plane Strain . . .
Stress at a Point .
Strain at a Point .
Measurement of Surface Strains
Construction of Mohr Strain Circle for Strain Rosette.
Differential Equations of Equilibrium.
Boundary Conditions . . . .
Compatibility Equations . . .
Stress Function. .
Problems . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 3. TWODIMENSIONAL
COORDINATES
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
PROBLEMS
IN
11
11
13
17
19
21
21
22
23
26
27
RECTANGULAR
Solution by Polynomials. . .
SaintVenant's Principle. . .
Determination of Displacements .
Bending of a Cantilever Loaded at the End
Bending of a Beam by Uniform Load . . .
Other Cases of Continuously Loaded Beams .
Solution of the Twodimensional Problem in the Form of a Fourier
Series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Applications of Fourier Series. Gravity Loading . .
Problems . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
xi
29
33
34
35
39
44
46
53
53
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 4.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
CONTENTS
55
58
61
65
66
69
73
78
85
91
96
99
107
112
116
121
123
125
131
135
138
142
143
Strain Energy . . . . . .
Principle of Virtual Work .
Castigliano's Theorem. . .
Principle of Least Work. .
Applications of the Principle of Least WorkRectangular Plates.
Effective Width of Wide Beam Flanges .
Shear Lag . . .
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
146
151
162
166
167
171
177
177
179
181
182
183
186
187
190
192
CHAPTER 8.
SIONS
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
195
197
197
201
204
206
208
212
CHAPTER 9.
xiii
213
214
215
217
218
219
221
224
225
227
GENERAL THEOREMS
228
229
232
233
235
235
236
239
241
244
245
246
249
250
255
258
263
265
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
268
272
CONTENTS
CONTENTB
xiv
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
275
278
280
287
289
292
294
298
302
304
313
Bending of a Cantilever.
Stress Function. . . .
Circular Cross Section. .
Elliptic Cross Section . .
Rectangular Cross Section . .
Additional Results . . . . . . .
Nonsymmetrical Cross Sections. .
Shear Center. . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Solution of Bending Problems by the
Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further Investigations of Bending . . .
316
318
319
. . . . . . . . .
Soapfilm Method.
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
321
323
329
331
333
336
340
341
General Equations . . . .
Solution by Polynomials. .
Bending of a Circular Plate . . . . . . .
The Rotating Disk as a Threedimensional Problem.
Force at a Point of an Indefinitely Extended Solid . . . . . .
Spherical Container under Internai or Externai Uniform Pressure.
Local Stresses around a Spherical Cavity. . . . . . . . . . .
Force on Boundary of a Semiinfinite Body . . . . . . . . . .
Load Distributed over a Part of the Boundary of a Semiinfinite Solid
Pressure between Two Spherical Bodies in Contact . . . . .
Pressure between Two Bodies in Contact. More General Case
lmpact of Spheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symmetrical Deformation of a Circular Cylinder . . .
The Circular Cylinder with a Band of Pressure.
Twist of a Circular Ring Sector. . . . .
Pure Bending of a Circular Ring Sector
343
347
349
352
354
356
359
362
366
372
377
383
384
388
391
395
898
404
406
135.
136.
137.
138.
139.
140.
CHAPTER 15.
XV
408
416
421
425
427
433
141. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
142. Longitudinal Waves in Prismatical Bars.
143. Longitudinal lmpact of Bars. . . . . .
144. Waves of Dilatation and Waves of Distortion in Isotropic Elastic
Media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
145. Plane Waves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
146. Propagation of Waves over the Surface of an Elastic Solid Body.
438
438
444
452
454
456
APPENDIX.
NOTATION
x, y, z Rectangular coordinates.
r, O Polar coordinates.
~' '1
NOTATJON
xviii
= G,
(1
+ 11)(1
 2>)
"'
Y,(z), x(z)
z
C
ti
F = 2G8
V
V0
t
T
a
Lam's constants.
Stress function.
Complex potentials; functions of the complex
variable z = x + iy.
The conjugate complex variable x  iy.
Torsional rigidity.
Angle of twist per unit length.
Used in torsional problems.
Strain energy.
Strain energy per unit volume.
Time.
Certain interval of time. Temperature.
Coefficient of thermal expansion.
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1. Elasticity. AH structural materials possess to a certain extent
the property of elasticity, i.e., if external forces, producing dejormation
of a structure, do not exceed a certain limit, the deformation disappears
with the removal of the forces. Throughout this book it will be
assumed that the bodies undergoing the action of external forces are
perjectly elastic, i.e., that they resume their initial form completely after
removal of forces.
The molecular structure of elastic bodies will not be considered here.
It will be assumed that the matter of an elastic body is homogeneous and
continuously distributed over its volume so that the smallest element
cut from the body possesses the sarne specific physical properties as the
body. To simplify the discussion it will also be assumed that the body
is isotropic, i.e., that the elastic properties are the sarne in all directions.
Structural materials usually do not satisfy the above assumptions.
Such an important material as steel, for instance, when studied with a
microscope, is seen to consist of crystals of various kinds and various
orientations. The material is very far from being homogeneous; but
experience shows that solutions of the theory of elasticity based on the
assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy can be applied to steel structures with very great accuracy. The explanation of this is that the
crystals are very small; usually there are millions of them in one cubic
inch of steel. While the elastic properties of a single crystal may be
very different in different directions, the crystals are ordinarily distributed at random and the elastic properties of larger pieces of metal
represent averages of properties of the crystals. So long as the geometrical dimensions defining the form of a body are large in comparison
with the dimensions of a single crystal the assumption of homogeneity
can be used with great accuracy, and if the crystals are orientated at
random .the material can be treated as isotropic.
When, due to certain technological processes such as rolling, a certain orientation of the crystals in a metal prevails, the elastic properties
of the metal become different in different directions and the condition
?f anistropy must be considered. We have such a condi~n, for
tnstance, in the case of coldrolled copper,
1
INTRODUCTION
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
~t~ess
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
INTRODUCTION
tensile stress has a direction opposite to the positive axis, the positive
direction of the shearingstress components should be reversed. Following this rule the positive directions of all th.e comp~ne~ts o~ stress
acting on the right side of the cubic element (Fig. 3~ ~omc~de ':ith the
positive directions of the coordinate axes. The positive direct10ns are
all reversed if we are considering the left side of this element.
4. Components of Stress. From the discussion of the previous
article we see that, for each pair of parallel sides of a cubic element,
such as in Fig. 3, one symbol is needed to denote the normal component
of stress and two more symbols to denote the two components of shearing stress. To describe the stresses acting on the six sides of a cubic
element three symbols, u,,, u11 , u., are necessary for normal stresses; ~nd
six symbols, T,;y, T 11,,, T,,., T..,, T 11., T. 11 , for shearmg
z
stresses. By a simple consideration of the equilibrium of the element the number of symbols
f~r shearing stresses can be reduced to three.
If we take the moments of the forces acting on
E"yz
the element about the xaxis, for instance, only
dy
the surface stresses shown in Fig. 4 need be conO "':~===~y sidered. Body forces, such as the weight of the
'zy4
element, can be neglected in this instance, which
Fm.
follows from the fact that in reducing the
dimensions of the element the body forces acting on it diminish as
the cube of the linear dimensions while the surface forces diminish as
the square of the linear dimensions. Hence, for a very small element,
body forces are small quantities of higher order than surface forces and
can be neglected in calculating the surface forces. Similarly, mo~ents
due to nonuniformity of distribution of normal forces are of higher
order than those due to the shearing forces and vanish in the limit.
Also the forces on each side can be considered to be the area of the side
times the stress at the middle. Then denoting the dimensions of the
small element in Fig. 4 by dx, dy, dz, the equation of equilibrium of this
element, taking moments of forces about the xaxis, is
Tzy
dx dy dz =
T 11
dx dy dz
Tyo
From
(1)
''
,,,,
r~'
...ir
Let us consider now the distortion of the angle between the elements
OA and OB, Fig. 6. If u and vare the displacements of the point O in
the x and ydirections, the displacement of the point A in the ydirec
,li'
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
INTRODUCTION
Ez
= x'
"fzy =
u
v
y + x'
Ey
'Yxz
E,= Tz
1
y
u
Z
w
+ x'
"fyz
av aw
az + ay
(2)
It will be shown later that, having the three unit elongations in three
perpendicular directions and three unit shear strains related to the
sarne directions, the elongation in any direction and the distortion of
the angle between any two directions can be calculated (see Art. 73).
The six quantities E.,, , "fyz are called the components of strain.
6. Hooke's Law. The relations between the components of stress
and the components of strain have been established experimentally and
are known as Hooke's law. Imagine an elemental rectangular parallelopiped with the sides parallel to the coordinate axes and submitted
to the action of normal stress G'., uniformly distributed over two opposite sides. Experiments show that in the case of an isotropic material
these normal stresses do not produce any distortion of angles of the element. The magnitude of the unit elongation of the element is given
by the equation
E.,=
G'.,
(a)
G'x
11
Jjj'
E,=
G'.,
11
(b)
+ u,)]
+ u,)]
Ex
= E [u.,  11(u11
Ey
= E [u11  11(ux
Ez
E [G'z
11(u.,
(3)
+ u11 )]
. ln_ our furth~r discussion we shall often use this method of superposition m calculatmg total deformations and stresses produced by severa!
forces. This method is legitimate as longas the deformations are small
and the corresponding small displacements do not affect substantially
the action of the externa! forces. ln such cases we neglect small
changes in dimensions of deformed bodies and also small displacements
of the points of application of externa! forces and base our calculations
on initial dimensions and initial shape of the body. The resultant displacements will then be obtained by superposition in the form of linear
functions of externa! forces, as in deriving Eqs. (3).
There are, however, exceptional cases in which small deformations
cannot be neglected but must be taken into consideration. As an
example of this kind the case of the simultaneous action on a thin bar
of axi~l and late~al forces may be mentioned. Axial forces alone produce s1mple tens10n or compression, but they may have a substantial
effect on the bending of the bar if they are acting simultaneously with
lateral forces. ln calculating the deformation of bars under such con
===JNTRODUCTION
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
8
ditions the effect of the deflection on the moment of the externa!
forces
1
must b~ considered, even though the deflections are very small. Then
the total deflection is no longer a linear function of the forces and cannot be obtained by simple superposition.
Equations (3) show that the relations between elongations and
stresses are completely defined by two physical constants E and v.
The sarne constants can also be used to define the relation between
shearing strain and shearing stress.
Let us consider the particular case of deformation of the rectangular
parallelopiped in which u11 = u.
z
andu., = O. Cutting out an element
b
abcd by planes parallel to the xaxis
O"y~
and at 45 deg. to the y and zaxes
(Fig. 7), it may be seen from Fig. 7b,
~~...,.~:r
by summing up the forces along and
perpendicular to bc, that the normal
fh)
stress on the sides of this element is
zero and the shearing stress on the
(a)
sides is
Fm. 7.
Olc
(e)
Oc
Ob
=tan(~:r)
4
= l+E11
1
+ Ez
E (u,  vu'll)
(1
E11 =
(1
+ v)11.
E
+ v)u,
E
we find
'Y = 2(1
v)u.
= 2(1 + v}r
(4)
Thus the relation between shearing strain and shearing stress is defined
by the constants E and v. Often the notation
E
G = 2(1
is used.
(5)
+ v)
a"111
'Yzz
= GT.,,
The elongations (3) and the distortions (6) are independent of each
other. Hence the general case of strain, produced by three normal and
three shearing components of stress, can be obtained by superposition:
on the three elongations given by Eqs. (3) are superposed three shearing strains given by Eqs. (6).
Equations (3) and (6) give the components of strain as functions of
the components of stress. Sometimes the components of stress
expressed as functions of the components of strain are needed. These
can be obtained as follows. Adding equations (3) together and using
the notations
e=E,.+E11+E,
e~~+~+~
e=
1  2v
Ee
(8)
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
10
<l:i;
<ly
<lz
p
CHAPTER 2
3(1  2v)p
E
e=
vE
+ v)(l
(1
e+___ e.,
 2v)
<Ty(l+v)(l2v)
<lz
= (1
vE
+ v)(l
=
1+
(10)
(1 + v)(l  2v)
<T.,
= }.e+
<Tu
= }.e
<lz
(9)
e+~e.
vE
Ey
l+v
 2v)
1+
+ __!!__
V
vE
2Ge.,
+ 2Gev
= }.e + 2Ge,
(11)
Problems
f F' 4 motion and
h w that Eqs. (1) continue to hold if the element o ig. is m
1 S o
.
.
. 'd b 0 d
has an angular accelerat1on hke ngi . Y
umber of evenly distributed
1
2. Suppose an elast_ic material contams : ~e~~ :xerts on any element d:c dy dz
small magnetized part1cles, so th~t a mal~~et1c th xaxis. What modification will
a moment d:c dy dz about an ax1s para e o e
be needed in Eqs. (1}?
las (2 ) will be valid for snutll strains on~y..
3. Give some reaso~1.s why t~e formu ween two erfectly rigid plates, to wh1ch it
4. An elastic layer is sandw1ched betb
thp lates the compressive stress
compressed etween e P
18
is bonded. The 1~yer
hment to the plates prevents lateral stram
being <1'z. Supposmg that t:~e:~t~~ung's modulus (i.e., <1',/E,) in terms of E.and "
~.. Eu completely' find t~e app . h . t . 1 f the layer is nearly incompress1ble by
Show that it is many trmes E if t e ma ena o
hydrostatic pressure.
)
d (5)
6. Prove that Eq. (S) follows from Eqs. (11), (10 'an .
y
FIG. 8.
 ..
INSTITUTUL POUTEHfi:~
TIHl~.OAR"
81BLIOTEC1' CENTl!ALA
13
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
By Eqs. (a) and (6), the stress components r,., and Tyz are zero, and,
by Eq. (b), " can be found from ""' and "u Thus the plane strain problem, like the plane stress problem, reduces to the determination of
u,,, uy, and Tzu as functions of x and y only.
9. Stress at a Point. Knowing the stress components ""'' u 71, Tzu at
any point of a plate in a condition of plane stress or plane strain, the
stress acting on any plane through this point perpendicular to theplate
and inclined to the x and yaxes can be calculated from the equations
of statics. Let O be a point of the stressed plate and suppose the stress
components ""'' u 71 , Tzu are known
(Fig. 12). To find the stress for any
plane through the zaxis and inclined
to the x and yaxes, we take a plane
BC parallel to it, ata small distance
"X
from O, so that this latter plane
together with the coordinate planes
cuts out from the plate a very small
(<T)
y
triangular prism OBC. Since the
stresses vary continuously over the
Fm. 12.
volume of the body the stress acting
on the plane BC will approach the stress on the parallel plane through
O as the element is made smaller.
ln discussing the conditions of equilibrium of the small triangular
prism, the body force can be neglected as a small quantity of a higher
order (page 4). Likewise, if the element is very small, we can neglect
the variation of the stresses over the sides and assume that the stresses
are uniformly distributed. The forces acting on the triangular prism
can therefore be determined by multiplying the stress components by
the areas of the sides. Let N be the direction of the normal to the
plane BC, and denote the cosines of the angles between the normal N
and the axes x and y by
12
71f\WMVn<<V>>t<YJA\VJJ\\9PVVJ21V1J\i#JW>>\W
Fm. 10.
Fm. 9.
Fm. 11.
longitudinal coordinate z.
zero, Eqs. (2) give
"luz
V
Z
U
'Y
'""
+ y
= Q
=+=O
Z
X
(a)
E== Q
cos Ny = m
cos Nx = l,
The longitudinal normal stress" can be found in terms of u,. and ""
by means of Hooke's law, Eqs. (3). Since e, = O we find
or
(b)
These normal stresses act over the cross sections, including the ends,
where they represent forces required to maintain the plane strain, and
provided by the fixed smooth rigid planes.
Then, if A denotes the area of the side BC of the element, the areas of
the other two sides are Al and Am.
If we denote by X and Y the components of stress acting on the side
BC, the equations of equilibrium of. the prismatical element give
+ mTzy
X=
lu,,
y =
m<171
+ lrzy
(12)
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
14
cosines l and m can easily be calculated from Eqs. (12), provided the
three components of stress u.,, uy, rxu at the point O are known.
Letting a be the angle between the normal N and the xaxis, so that
l = cos a and m = sin a, the normal and shearing components of stress
on the plane BC are (from Eqs. 12)
u =
X cos a
= Y cos
+ Y sin a
a 
X sin
= rxu(cos 2
= u,, cos a
3
(l )
1:s
I t may be seen that the angle a can be chosen in such a manner that the
shearing stress r becomes equal to zero. For this case we have
rxu(cos 2
sin 2
a 
or
+ (u
11 
u,,) sin
sina cosa
cos 2 a  sin a
cos
<ly
1
2
(14)
.OF
= OC
+ CF =
+
~ + ~ cos 2a =
<l
<l
<l
<ly
ax.~
(a}
u,,
cos
a+ u
11
sm
O'
a  l>
JO!
(}
FIG. 13.
~for normal stresses, we see from the figure that OF1 + OF = 20C,
i:e., the sum of the normal stresses over two perpendicular cross sections remains constant when the angle a changes.
t .The ~aximum ~hearing stress is given in the diagram (Fig. 13) by
?e max1mum ordmate of the circle, i.e., is equal to the radius of the
circle. Hence
'Tmax.
DF
'l:
=O
    2 =  tan 2a
'Txy
"" 
a)
15
<lx 
<ly
{15)
It acts on the plane for which a = 7r/4, i.e., on the plane bisecting the
angle between the two principal stresses.
~ ~ rule is used only in the construction of Mohr's circle.
e gi.ven on p. 3 holds.
Otherwise the
17
16
xz and yz (Fig. 15a) and the other on the planes inclined to xz and yz by the angle fJ
The diagram can be used also in the case when one or both principal
stresses are negative (compression). It is only nece.ssary to cha~ge the
sign of the abscissa for compressive stress. ln th1s manner ~1g. 14a
represents the case when both principal stresses are negative and
Fi~. 14b the case of pure shear.
r
T
<T
<T
O".x
O";y
(b)
raJ
FIG.
14.
nd 14 it is seen that the stress ata point can be resolved into two
Froro Figs. 13 a
h" h. .
b th
.
parts: One, uniform tension or compression, the magmtude of w ic is g1vei_i Y e
abscissa of the center of the circle; and the other, pure shear, the m~gn~tud? of
which is given by the radius of the circle. When sev~ral plane stress d1stnbutions
are superposed, the uniform tensions or compress1ons can be added together
z:t
Tt
(Fig. 15b). ln Fig. 15a.the coordinates of point D represent the shear and normal
stress on plane CB produced by the first system, while the coordinate of D1 (Fig.
15b) gives the stresses on this plane for the second system. Adding OD and OD 1
geometrically we obtain 00, the resultant stress on the plane dueto both systems,
the coordinates of G giving us the shear and normal stress. Note that the magnitude of 00 does not depend upon a. Hence, as the result of the superposition of
two shears, we obtain a Mohr circle for pure shear, the magnitude of which is
given by 00, the planes of maximum shear being inclined to the xz and yz planes by
an angle equal to half the angle GOD.
A diagram, such as shown in Fig. 13, can be used also for determining
r
principal stresses if the stress components <Ix, <Iy, Txy for any two perpendicular
planes (Fig. 12) are known. W e begin
in such a case with the plotting of the two
points D and D 1, representing stress con O ~+>F+O"
ditions on the two coordinate planes
(Fig. 16). ln this manner the diameter
DD 1 of the circle is obtained. Constructing the circle, the principal stresses u 1 and
Frn. 16.
u 2 are obtained from the intersection of
the circle with the abscissa axis. From the figure we find
u1 =
OC +CD= <Ix
~ <Iy + ~(y)2 +
+
7:1
(16)
~(<Ix
 <Iy) +
2
Txy
The maximum shearing stress is given by the radius of the circle, i.e.,
(a}
r2j
Tmax.
(6)
FIG.
rxy
15.
algebraically. The pure shears must be added ~ogether by taking into acc~unt
the directions of the planes on which they are actmg. It cai_i be shown that,k we
superpose two systems of pure shear whose pla:es of maximum shear ma e an
angle of fJ with each other, the resulting system _will be another case of pure shear.
For example, Fig. 15 represents the deterininat10n of stress ?n any plane defined
by a, produced by two pure shears of magnitude n and r2 actmg one on the planes
~ (u1 
<I2) =
(17)
1r=~'"
i
+ ~~dX + :dy,
v
V+
iJXdX
+ ydy
+ uU
d
y y,
!>
RQ"
19
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
18
placement components of p are u, v, and those of Q are
ax
8
+ (ir/2)]
=  sin
(V
. 8 cos 8  dU cos2 8
  dU)
sm
ay
ax
ay
8,
(e)
The shear strain 'Yo for the directions PQ, PT is if;o  i/lo+!,
so
2
(a)
= x dx + dy y
dV sm.
tfio+! = 
Since cos [8
79 = (:;
or
+ ~~) (cos2 8 
sin 2 8)
(f)
Comparing (e) and (f) with (13), we observe that they may be obtained
from (13) by replacing <F by Ee, 7 by 'Yo/2, <Fx by Ex, <F11 by E11, 'Tey by 'YZ11/2,
anda by 8. Consequently for each deduction made from (13) as to
a and r, there is a corresponding deduction from (e) and (f) as to Eo and
'Yo/2. Thus there are two values of 8, differing by 90 deg., for which
'Yo is zero. They are given by
ignoring the small angle QPS in comparison with 8. Since the shor,~
line QS may be identified with an are of a circle with center P, SQ
~ = tan 28
Ex  Ey
(b}
FIG. 17.
gives the stretch of PQ. The unit elongation of P'Q', denoted by Ee, is
SQ" /PQ. Using (b) and (a) we have
u dy\
.
(iJV dx + dV dy\
+ ay ds J + sm 8 ax ds ay ds)
a cos2 (J + (u
av) sin 8 cos 8 + av
. 8
~
ay + ax
ay sm
ax
u dx
Ee = cos 8 ( ax ds
=
or
(e)
fo:
or
= 
au dx
sin 8 ( ax ds
au dy)
ay ds
+ cos (J
.1.
'YO
Ee = Ex cos 2 8
(v dx
x ds
COS
8
av dy
y ds
~Uy sin2 8
(d)
max.
El 
E2
11. Measurement of Surface Strains. The strains, or unit elongations, on a surface are usually most conveniently measured by means of
electricresistance strain gauges. 1 The simplest forro of such a gauge
is a short length of wire insulated from and glued to the surface. When
stretching occurs the resistance of the wire is increased, and the strain
can thus be measured electrically. The effect is usually magnified by
looping the wires backward and forward severa! times, to forro severa!
gauge lengths connected in series. The wire is glued between two tabs
of paper, and the assembly glued to the surface.
The use of these gauges is simple when the principal directions are
1
lpF
1
'
he
e
O'L~1~::...i.....~~'~
t:..p
EtJt.+/l+tP 5a+tj
(e}
()
(a,)
FIG. 18.
+ E2 sin2 8,
ho =  (E1 
E2)
sin 8 cos
+ Ez) + t(E1
ho =
(J
These may be
and these values are represented by the point P on the circle _in Fi_g. l~c.
If li takes the value e/>, p corresponds to the point A on the mrcle m Fig.
i
.21
18b, the angular displacement from the Eeaxis being 2cJ>. The abscissa.
of this point is E~, which is known. If li takes the value cJ> + a, P moves
to B, through a further angle AFB = 2a, and the abscissa is the known
value EaH If li takes the value e/> + a + {3, p IDOVeS On to C, through
a further angle BFC = 2{3, and the abscissa is Ea+llH
The problem is to draw the circle when these three abscissas and the
two angles a, {3 are known.
12. Construction of Mohr Strain Circle for Strain Rosette. A temporary horizontal Eaxis is drawn horizontally from any origin O', Fig.
18b, and the three measured strains E~, EaH, Ea+llH laid off along it.
Verticais are drawn through these points. Selecting any point D on
the vertical through EaH, lines DA, DC are drawn at angles a and f3 to
the vertical at D as shown, to meet the other two verticais at A and C.
The circle drawn through D, A, and C is the required circle. Its center
F is determined by the intersection of the perpendicular bisectors of
CD, DA. The points representing the three gauge directions are A,
B, and C. The angle AFB, being twice the angle ADB at the circumference, is 2a, and BFC is 2{3. Thus A, B, C are at the required angular
intervals round the circle, and have the required abscissas. The Ee
axis can now be drawn as OF,
and the distances from O to the
(O"y}4
intersections with the circle give
E1, E2. The angle 2cJ> is the angle
(r.,.,.,l,
of F A below this axis.
4h
13. Differential Equations of
rxy)3
Equilibrium. W e now consider
1
3
(:;c,y)
the equilibrium of a small rectan(<T..:x;Ja
(O".x
.k
gular block of edges h, k, and
(Z"xy).z
2
unity (Fig. 19). The stresses
rr.,.,y)z
acting on the faces 1, 2, 3, 4, and
their positive directions are in(o,.Jz
dicated in the figure. On acFm. 19.
count of the variation of stress
throughout the material, the value of, for instance, u., is not quite
the sarne for face 1 as for face 3. The symbols u.,, uu, Tzu refer to the
point x, y, the midpoint of the rectangle in Fig. 19. The values at the
midpoints of the faces are denoted by (u.,)i, (u.,) 3, etc. Since the faces
are very small, the corresponding forces are obtained by multiplying
these values by the areas of the faces on which they act. i
~ore precise considerations would introduce terms of higher order which
vamsh in the final limiting process.
1
'
il1
22
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
The body force on the block, which was neglected as a small quantity
of higher order in considering the equilibrium of the triangular prism
of Fig. 12, must be taken into consideration, because it is of the sarne
order of magnitude as the terms due to the variations of the stress
components which are now under consideration. If X, Y denote the
components of body force per unit volume, the equation of equilibrium
for forces in the xdirection is
(u,,)1k  (u,.)ak
+ (rey)2h
 (rey)Ji,
+ Xhk
= O
+ (rey)2 ~
(rey)4
+X
If now the block is taken smaller and smaller, i.e., h+ O, k+ O, the
limit of [(u,,)r  (u,.)a]/h is au,,/ax by the definition of such a derivative.
Similarly [(rey}2  (rey)4l/k becomes orey/oy. The equation of equilibrium for forces in the ydirection is obtained in the sarne manner.
Thus
O<Tx + OTey +X= O
ax
ay
(18)
O<Ty + OTey + y = o
ay
ax
ln practical applications the weight of the body is usually the only
body force. Then, taking the yaxis downward and denoting by p the
mass per unit volume of the body, Eqs. (18) become
O<Tx
ax
O<Ty
iJy
+ OTey
=O
ay
+ Tey
+ pg =o
ax
{19)
23
and denoting by X and Y the components of the surface forces per unit
area at this point of the boundary, we have
X= Urx + mrey
Y = muy + lrX'/I
(20)
Y=
uy
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
24
tion between the strain components which can easily be obtained from
(a). Differentiating the first of the Eqs. (a) twice with respect to y,
the second twice with respect to x, and the third once with respect to x
and once with respect to y, we find
J2Ez
ay 2
+ J2Ey = J2yZI/
ax 2
1 (uz
=E
11u11 ),
'YZll =
GTzy
E11
1 (u11  llU:r')
=E
{22)
2(1 + 11)
E
Tzy
(23)
a2
+ ") dX
a2r""'
Jy
= 2(1
(b)
ax ay
ay 2
+ ::
2)
(uz
+ Uy)
=O
(24)
a2 )
( <Jx2 + <Jy2
(u,, + Uy)
(1+11)
(X + aY)
11(u,.
+ Uy)
Ez
dX
iJy
1
E
[(1
2(1
(26)
+ 11) Tzy
(27)
Substituting in Eq. (21), and using, as before, the equations of equilibrium (19), we find that the compatibility equation (24) holds also for
plane strain. For the general case of body forces we obtain from Eqs.
(21) and (18) the compatibility equation in the following form:
a2
( <Jx2
a2)
+ <Jy2
(uz + u11)
= 
1 (X + TyaY)
1  "
ax
(28)
(25)
E11 =
'YZll
(21)
ax ay
25
ln plane stress there are compatibility conditions other than (21) which are in
fact violated by our assumptions. It is shown in Art. 84 that in spite of this the
method of the present chapter gives good approximations for thin plates.
2
This statement may require modification when the plate or cylinder has holes,
for then the problem can be correctly solved only by considering the displacements as well as the stresses. See Art. 39.
26
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
16. Stress Function. I t has been shown that a solution of twodimensional problems reduces to the integration of the differential
equations of equilibrium together with the compatibility equation and
the boundary conditions. If we begin with the case when the weight
of the body is the only body force, the equations to be satisfied are (see
Eqs. 19 and 24)
aV
X=
az
~ {u,  V)
a:i;
.!._ {u11  V)
(a)
(e)
aV
ay
Y=
in which V is the potential function.
21
ay
+ h,u
ay
+ aTy
az
These equations are of the sarne form as Eqs. (a) and can be satisfied by taking
(b)
a2q,
iJy2 pgy,
7"
Z'//
iJ2q,
ax ay
=
(29)
<J4q,
J4q,
(30)
" 11 
a'cf>
(31)
az'
in which e/> is the stress function. Substituting expressions (31) in the compatibility equation (25) for plane stress distribution, we find
(32)
An analogous equation can be obtained for the case of plane strain.
When the body force is simply the weight, the potential V is pgy. ln this
case the righthand side of Eq. (32) reduces to zero. By taking the solution e/> = O
of (32), or of (30), we find the stress distribution from (31), or (29),
" = pgy,
"" =
pgy,
T,y
(d)
1. Show that Eqs. (12) remain valid when the element of Fig. 12 has acceleration.
2. Find graphically the principal strains and their directions from rosetti>
measurements
q, = 2 X 10a,
where a
1
a+<i> = 1.35 X
103,
= f3 = 45.
This problem, and the general case of a potential V such that the righthand
side of Eq. (32) vanishes, have been discussed by M. Biot, J. Applied Mechanics
(Trans. A.S.M.E.), 1935, p. A41.
r
i
28
THEORY OF ELASTICJTY
3. Show that the line elements at the point x, y which have the maximum and
minimum rotation are those in the two perpendicular directions 8 determined by
tan 28 =
(v
ay _ au)
ax / (ov
ax + au)
ay
4. The stresses in a rotating disk (of unit thickness) can be regarded as due to
centrifugai force as body force in a stationary disk. Show that this body force is
derivable from the potential V = !pw 2 (x 2
y 2), where p is the density, and w the
angular velocity of rotation (about the origin).
5. A disk with its axis horizontal has the gravity stress represented by Eqs.
(d) of Art. 16. Make a sketch showing the boundary forces which support its
weight. Show by another sketch the auxiliary problem of boundary forces which
must be solved when the weight is entirely supported by the reaction of a horizontal
surface on which the disk stands.
6. A cylinder with its axis horizontal has the gravity stress represented by Eqs.
(d) of Art. 16. Its ends are confined between smooth fixed rigid planes which
maintain the condition of plane strain. Sketch the forces acting on its surface,
including the ends.
7. Using the stressstrain relations, and Eqs. (a) of Art. 15 in the equations of
equilibrium (18), show that in the absence of body forces the displacements in
problems of plane stress must satisfy
CHAPTER 3
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
IN RECTANGULAR COORDINATES
a4cJ>
a4ct>
a4cJ>
ax 4 + 2 ax 2 ay 2 + ay 4 = 0
(a)
which evidently satisfies Eq. (a), we find from Eqs. (29), putting
P(J = 0,
a2ct>2
cr., = ay 2 =
C2,
All three stress components are constant throughout the body, i.e., the
stress function (b) represents a combination of uniform tensions or
compressions 2 in two perpendicular directions and a uniform shear.
The forces on the boundaries must equal the stresses at these points as
discussed on page 23; in the case of a rectangular plate with sides
parallel to the coordinate axes these forces are shown in Fig. 21.
1 A. Mesnager, Compt. rend., vol. 132, p. 1475, 1901.
See also A. Timpe, Z.
Math. Physik, vol. 52, p. 348, 1905.
2 This depends on the sign of coefficients a2 and b,.
The directions of stresses
indicated in Fig. 21 are those corresponding to positive values of a2, b,, c2
29
30
a2 <1>a
+ day
aax + bay
U,, =  = CaX
iJy2
ax<1>a
2
uu =
T"'11
= 
2 =
iJ2cp3
x y
31
TWODIMENSJONAL PROBLEMS
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
and substituting it into Eq. (a), we find that the equation is satisfied
only if
The stress components in this case are
a2q,4
= baX  CaY
0'11
a2 q,4
T"'11
+ a4)y 2
+ C4y 2
b4
d4
= x y =  2 x2  2C4Xy  2 y2
0'11
=o,
(e)
o
X
e
l
y
J'
FIG. 22.
FIG. 23.
different from zero, we obtain not only normal but also shearing
stresses acting on the sides of the plate. Figure 23 represents, for
instance, the case in which ali coefficients, except b3 in function (e), are
equal to zero. The directions of stresses indicated are for b3 positive.
Along the sides y = e we have uniformly distributed tensile and
compressive stresses, respectively, and shearing stresses proportional
to x. On the side x = l we have only the constant shearing stress b 3l,
and there are no stresses acting on the side x = O. An analogous stress
distribution is obtained if coefficient c3 is taken different from zero.
ln taking the stress function in the forro of polynomials of the second
and third degrees we are completely free in choosing the magnitudes of
the coefficients, since Eq. (a) is satisfied whatever values they may
have. ln the case of polynomials of higher degrees Eq. (a) is satisfied
only if certain relations between the coefficients are satisfied. Taking,
~~~="'==~~==~~=f''This couple balances the couple produced by the normal forces along the Y
side x = l of the plate.
FIG. 24.
Let us consider a stress function in the forro of a polynomial of the
fifth degree.
_____
,,.. ....
~
...
INSTITUTUL POLHfoJ.:,
li.!
Ili
'
'1
tlMl~Or\R
~
...&li.
'!'
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
32
TWODIMENSION AL PROBLEMS
o2cf>s
uy =
T
zy
C5
= ay2 = 3
a2cf>5
x3
x 2 = asx 3
= 
cf>
ax y
+ d5x 2y
 (2cs
+ b&X y + CsXY
2
=  _!. b5x 3
3
1
3
+ 3as)Y
 'i
"ds(l 2c.l..c 3 )
"
t~~ 3'dsc3
~\
y
()
(a)
Frn. 25.
(g)
33
This principie was stated in the famous memoir on torsion in Mm. savants
trangers, vol. 14, 1855. Its relation to the principie of conservation of energy is
di:icussed later (see p. 150).
34
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
20. Bending of a Cantilever Loaded at the End. Consider a cantilever having a narrow rectangular cross section of unit width bent by a
force P applied at the end (Fig. 26). The upper and lower edges are
free from load, and shearing forces, having a resultant P, are distributed along the end x = O. These conditions can be satisfied by a
proper combination of pure shear,
with the stresses (e) of Art. 17 reprel
sented in Fig. 24. Superposing the
;,
pure shear r zv =  b2 on the stresses
X
(e), we find
p
u
X
av
=E,,,
fJy
oy
Ey,
+ X
(a)
= 'YX11
=a+ by,
v1
= e  bx
= E (u,,  vuy),
Ey
E1 (uy
Ex
= E [u,,
Ey
E [o11
'YX11 =
GTX'll
 v(uy
+ u,)]
v(u.,
+ u.)]
b2  2d4
E [(1 
v2 )u11
v(l
;e
~~
y
FIG. 26.
= b2 
from which
d c2
=o
To satisfy the condition on the loaded end the sum of the shearing
forces distributed over this end must be equal to P. Hencei
f
from which
e Tzv
e
dy =
e
(b2  ~e y
2)
dy = P
~ !:.
4 e
+ v)o+
:e
(a)
y2
b2 =
=O
u11
 vu,,),
: 1
1
= d4xy,
TzY = 
(b)
O"z
35
3P
u,,=2caxy,
11]
Txy
3P (1 
4c
v)u,,]
It is easily verified that these equations can be obtained from the preceding set for plane stress by replacing E in the latter by E/(1  11 2),
and 11 by 11/(l  11). These substitutions leaveG, which is E/2(1 + 11),
unchanged. The integration of Eqs. (a) will be shown later in discussing particular problems.
O"y=
y2)
c
2
,
_ !:_ ! (c2 _
12
O"y
=o
y2)
(b)
The minus sign before the integral follows from the rule for the sign of shearing
stresses. Stress Tz~ on the end x = O is positive if it is upward (see p. 3).
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
36
TW<J..DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
'YX11
u,,
Pxy
El'
= ax = E = U
ay
Tey
+ ax = G
av
Ey
= ay
=  2IG (c
(e)
2
Y)
2

2El
+ f(y),
+ fi(x)
in which f(y) and f 1(x) are as yet unknown functions of y only and x
only. Substituting these values of u and v in Eq. (d) we find
_ Px 2
2El
2El
= _ _!!___ ( 2 _
2IG e
dx
2)
y
ln this equation some terms are functions of x only, some are functions
of y only, and one is independent of both x and' y. Denoting these
groups by F(x), G(y), K, we have
F(x)
2
Px
 2El
+ rJX'
dfi(x)
G( )
df(y)
dy
+ vPy2 2El
Py2
2IG
Pc 2
K =  2IG
+ G(y)
(e)
and
2
df1(x) = Px
dx
2EI
+d
'
vPy 3
=K
Such an equation means that F(x) must be some constant d and G(y)
some constante. Otherwise F(x) and G(y) would vary with x and y,
respectively, and by varying x alone, or y alone, the equality would be
Py 3
+ 6IG + ey + g
Px
= 6 EI + dx + h
=  6EI
3
f1(x)
u = 
2El
V =
Thus
(d)
The procedure for obtaining the components u and v of the displacement consists in integratmg Eqs. (e) and (d). By integration of Eqs.
(e) we find
vPxy 2
Px 2 y
u = 
violated.
37
v=
+ ey + g
(g)
The constants d, e, g, h may now be determined from Eq. (e) and from
the three conditions of constraint which are necessary to prevent the
beam from moving as a rigid body in the xyplane. Assume that the
point A, the centroid of the end cross section, is fixed. Then u and v
are zero for x = l, y = O, and we find from Eqs. (g),
g
=o,
Pl3
h=dl
6EI
Px 3
Pl
6El  6EI  d(l  x)
O into the
(h)
For determining the constant d in this equation we must use the third
condition of constraint, eliminating the possibility of rotation of the
heam in the xyplane about the fixed point A. This constraint can be
realized in various ways. Let us consider two cases: (1) When anelement of the axis of the beam is fixed at the end A. Then the condition
of constraint is
(::)~~~ = o
(k)
(2) When a vertical element of the cross section at the point A is fixed,
'
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
39
Px 3
Pl 2x
(v)y=o = 6El  2EI
Pl 2
Pc 2
e= 2EI  2IG
Px 2 y
vPy 3
Py
( Pl 2
Pc 2 )
u =  2EI  6EI
6IG
2EI  2IG y
vPxy 2
Px 3
Pl 2x
Pl 3
V = 2EI
6EI  2EI
3EI
Pl 3
+ 3EI +
Pc 2
2IG (l  x)
(r)
Comparing this with Eq. (n) it can be concluded that, dueto rotation
pz2
e= 2EI
(l)
=O
( i)u)x=l
y y=O
(m)
Pl 3
+ 3EI
which gives for the defiection at the loaded end (x = O) the value
Pl 3 /3EI. This coincides with the value usually derived in elementary
books on the strength of materials.
To illustrate the distortion of cross sections produced by shearing
stresses let us consider the displacement u at the fixed end (x = l).
For this end we have from Eqs. (m),
vPy 3
(u)x=z =  6EI
vPy
 2EI
Py 3
Pc 2y
6IG  2IG
Py 2
Pc 2
2IG  2IG
1
1
(n)

1
_J
l3PJ
(a)
(b)
4cG
FIG. 27.
of the end of the axis at A (Fig. 27b), the defiections of the axis of the
cantilever are increased by the quantity
Pc 2
2IG (l  x)
(o)
3P
4cG
The shape of the cross section after distortion is as shown in Fig. 27 a.
Due to the shearing stress ,,. xY = 3P / 4c at the point A, an element of
the cross section at A rotates in the xyplane about the point A through
an angle 3P / 4cG in the clockwise direction.
If a vertical element of the cross section is fixed at A (Fig. 27b).
3P
4cG (l  x)
This is the socalled effect of shearing force on the defiection of the beam.
ln practice, at the builtin end we have conditions different from those
shown in Fig. 27. The fixed section is usually not free to distort
and the distribution of forces at this end is different from that given
by Eqs. (b). Solution (b) is, however, satisfactory for comparatively long cantilevers at considerable distances from the terminals.
21. Bending of a Beam by Uniform Load. Let a beam of narrow
rectangular cross section of unit width, supported at the ends, be bent
40
THEORY OF ELASTJCITY
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
 3q
4 C3 ( x2y
(a)
f.
= +ql,
<x
dy
!~. <TxY dy = O
=o,
(b)
 e2+2)
Y
3 e
(d)
It can easily be checked that these stress components satisfy not only
conditions (a) on the longitudinal sides but also the first two conditions
(b) at the ends. To make the couples at the ends of the beam vanish
we superpose on solution (d) a pure bending, <Tx = day, <Ty = Txy = O,
shown in Fig. 22, and determine the constant da from the condition at
X=
+ 2)
e =  q(l
3 y
3
21
The last two of Eqs. (b) state that there is no longitudinal force and no
bending couple applied at the ends of the beam. All the conditions
(a) and (b) can be satisfied by combining certain solutions in the form
2 y)   21
q ( x2y  3
2 y)
 3
3q(l y  c2y
=  4c
3
l are
f Teydy
<111
41
l
from which
y
d3 =
fcJ
(6)
(a)
<Ty
Tzy
= dr,(x 2y  jy)
= td5y 3 + bay + a2
= dr,Xy 2
(e)
bsX
from which
a2 = 
2"'
ba
3q
4c,
 ~)5
Hence, finally,
FIG. 28.
<Tx
~lj_(~
4e c
d5 = 
3 q
4 C3
Substituting in Eqs. (e) and noting that 2c/3 is equal to the moment of
inertia l of the rectangular crosssectional area of unit width, we find
u., = =
+ .!L
(~ y  ~5 c2y)
21 3
(33)
The first term in this expression represents the stresses given by the
usual elementary theory of bending, and the second term gives the
necessary correction. This correction does not depend on x and is
small in comparison with the maximum bending stress, provided ths
span of the beam is large in comparison with its depth. For such
beams the elementary theory of bending gives a sufficiently accurate
value for the stresses <Tz. It should be noted that expression (33) is an
exact solution only if at the ends x = l the normal forces are distributed according to the law
X
= 3q(2
3  y8
4c
2 c 2y)
l from
Eq. (33). These forces have a resultant force anda resultant couple
equal to zero. Hence, from SaintVenant's principle we can conclude
i.e., if the normal forces at the ends are the sarne as ux for x =
,!
.:
=o,
Uy
(e)
= pg(C  y),
For the stress distribution (e) can be obtained from Eqs. (29) by taking
t/>
= !pg(cx
+y
43
TWODIMENSION AL PROBLEMS
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
42
/3)
(uy)y=O
=  ~
From the expression for v we find the equation of the deflection curve,
x4
1
12  5 c2x2
q [z2x2
(v)v~o =  2EI
2 
+ ( 1 + 21 v)
= !_ ql
24 EI
c2x2
(f)
= l) of the center
(34)
The factor before the brackets is the deflection which is derived by the
elementary analysis, assuming that cross sections of the beam remain
plane during bending. The second term in the brackets repreilents the
correction usually called the effect of shearing force.
By differentiating Eq. (f) for the deflection curve twice with respect
to x, we find the following expression for the curvature:
and therefore represents a possible state of stress due to weight and boundary
forces. On the upper edge y = e we have ay = 2pgc, and on the lower edge
y = e, au = O. Thus when the stresses (e) are added to the previous solution,
with q = 2pgc, the stress on both horizontal edges is zero, and the load on the beam
consists only of its own weight.
The displacements u and v can be calculated by the method indicated in the previous article. Assuming that at the centroid of the
middle cross section (x = O, y = O) the horizontal displacement is zero
and the vertical displacement is equal to the deflection , we find, using
solutions (d) and (33),
u =
2~1 [ (z
x 
q { y4
~) y + x (~ y
c2y2
=  2EI 12  2
~ c y) + vx
2
+ 32 cy + v [ (l2 
q [z2x2
 2EI 2
x2)
x4
1
12  5 c2x2
y2
cy
+~c
3
)]
+ 6y4  51 c2y2 ] }
+ ( 1 + 21 v)
c2x2
It ca.n be seen from the expression for u that the neutral surface of the
(35)
45
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
axis of a rectangular beam of unit width as !(Q/2cG), where Q is the shearing force,
the corresponding increase in curvature is given by the derivative of the above
shearing strain with respect to x, whiah gives f(q/2cG). The corrected expression
for tbe curvature by elementary analysis then becomes
evident that the first terms in the expressions for u,, and r Z1/ are the
values of the stresses calculated by the usual elementary formulas.
On the top end of the beam (x = O) the normal stress is zero. The
shearing stress is
'14
z2 
q
x2
EI.  2 
q
+ 32 2cG
=
[z2 
q
z2
EI  2 
+ c (l + v) ]
Comparing this with expression (35), it is seen that the elementary solution gives
an exaggerated value 1 for the correction.
The correction term in expression (35) for the curvature cannot be attributed
to the shearing force alone. It is produced partially by the compressive stresses u,.
These stresses are not uniformly distributed over the depth of the beam. The
lateral expansion in the xdirection produced by these stresses diminishes from the
top to the bottom of the beam, and in this way a reversed curvature (convex
upwards) is produced. This curvature together with the effect of shearing force
accounts for the correction term in Eq. (35).
 qxy
 4c
+ 4c
q (

u11 =  qx
2
TZll
3qx
2 s
xy
+ 56 e xy
2
+ qx (:t...
 3y)
4c
4c
(a)
q 3
+ 4c
5 c2(c2 
_ y2)
Although these stresses are different from zero, they are very small all
over the cross section and their resultant is zero, so that the condition
approaches that of an end free from externai forces.
By adding to u,, in Eqs. (a) the term q1x, in which q1 is the weight
of unit volume of the material of the cantilever, the effect of the weight
of the beam on the stress distribution is taken into account. It has
been proposed 1 to use the solution obtained in this way for calculating
the stresses in masonry dams of rectangular cross section. It should
be noted that this solution does not satisfy the conditions at the bottom
of the dam. Solution (a) is exact if, at the bottom, forces are acting
which are distributed in the sarne manner as u,, and rZll in solution (a).
ln an actual case the bottom of the dam is connected with the foundation, and the conditions are different from those represented by this
solution. From SaintVenant's principie it can be stated that the
effect of the constraint at the bottom is negligible at large distances
from the bottom, but in the case of a masonry dam the crosssectional
dimension 2c is usually not small in comparison with the height l and
this effect cannot be neglected. 2
By taking for the stress function a polynomial of the seventh degree
the stresses in a beam loaded by a parabolically distributed load may
be obtained.
ln the general case of a continuous distribution of load q, Fig. 30, the stresses
at any cross section at a considerable distance from the ends, say at a distance
larger than the depth of the beam, can be approximately calculated from the
following equations: 3
1
y2)
Here q is the weight of unit volume of the fluid, so that the intensity of
the load at a depth x is qx. The shearing force and the bending
moment at the sarne depth are qx 2 /2 and qx 3/6, respectively. It is
A better approximation is given by elementary strainenergy considerations.
See S. Timoshenko, "Strength of Materiais,'' 2d ed., vol. 1, p. 299.
1 See papers by Timpe, Zoe. cit.; W. R. Osgood, J. Researeh N atl. Bur. Standards,
vol. 28, p. 159, 1942.
1
+ 4c
.!L ~ c2(c2
5
46
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
O":i;
11
Tz11
+ q (E_
.!1!:)
2c
10 e
= My
I
The general integral of this linear difl'erential equation with constant coefficients is
'1
= 
+ q (3y
 E)
4c
4c
~ (c2
(36)
 y2)
+ q (y
2c 
My
<T
11
'1
Tz11
+ q (3y
4c
j(y) = C1 cosh ay
47
TWODIMENSION AL PROBLEMS
(d)
:~~
= !'</>
!x' =
<Ty
Tzy
+ C2a
sinh ay
+ C a(2 sinh ay
3
!'<J>
=  iJxiJy
(e)
3 y)
10
 E)
4c
</> =
(36')
(c2  y2)
</>
in the forro
sin ~f(y)
l
(b)
Frn. 31.
d~stributed vertical forces of the intensity A sin ax and B sin ax, respectively.
Figure 31 shows the case when a = 47/l and indicates also the positive values of
A and B. The stress distribution for this case can be obtained froro solution (e).
The constants of integration C1, . . . , C4 roay be deterroined froro the conditions
on the upper and lower edges of the beam, y = e. These conditions are:
For y
=+e,
in which m is an integer andf(y) a function of y only. Substituting (b) into Eq. (a)
and using the notation m1/l =a, we find the following equation for deterroining
f(y):
a4f(y)  2a2j(y)
+ JIY(y)
= O
(e)
Tz11
Fory""
0,
<Tu=
B sin ax
(f)
e,
T~ 11
== 0,
... O
+ ac cosh ac)
=O
 C,(sinh ac
48
TWODIMENSJONAL PROBLEMS
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
For long beams ac, equal to m7rc/l, is small, provided the number or waves m is not
large. Then, substituting in (l),
from which
e
e
a cosh ac
a=  2 coshac+acsinhac
e
e1
asinhac
4
= 
(g)
sinhac +accoshac
Ci = A + B . sin~ ac + ac cosh ac
a2
smh 2ac + 2ac
c2 = _ A  B . cosh ac + ac sinh ac
a2
sinh 2ac  2ac
Ca = A  B a cosh ac
a2
sinh 2ac  2ac
= _ A + B. . a sinh ac
a2
smh 2ac + 2ac
(h)
e,
Substituting in Eqs. (e), we find the following expressions for the stress components:
A + B) (ac cosh ac  sinh ac) cosh ay  ay sinh ay sinh ac . .
sinh 2ac + 2ac
sm ax
B) (ac sinh ac  cosh ac) sinh ay  ay cosh ay cosh ac .
A
 ( sinh 2ac  2ac
. sm ax
= (
u,, =  (
,,1:
A
+(
1.1
I'
'i
1.,:
'1
(k)
+
These stresses satisfy the conditions shown in Fig. 31 along the sides y = e.
At the ends of the beam x =O and x = l, the stresses u., are zero and only shearing
stress Tu is present. This stress is represented by two terms [see Eqs. (k)]. The
first term, proportional to A + B, represents stresses which, for the upper and
lower halves of the end crosfliect1on, are of the sarne magnitude but of opposite
sign. The resultant of these stresses over the end is zero. The second term,
proportional to A  B, has resultants at the ends of the beam whichJ]!ainfain
equilibrium with the loads JH>l".Ked_to the_ l9ngitudinaLsides (y = e).
H these loads are the sarne for both s1des, coeffic!ent A is equal to B, and the
reactive forces at the ends vanish'. Lt us consider this particular case more :fu
detail, assuming that the length of the beam is large in comparison with its depth.
From the second of Eqs. (k) the normal stresses u 11 over the middle plane y =O
()f the beam are
_ 2A ac cosh ac + sinh ac sin oa:
(l)
=
sinh 2ac + 2ac
uv
. ax ( 1  "24
(ac)4)
, u, =  A s1n
= B
= A
By adding and subtracting these equations and using Eqs. (g), wefin
u"'
(ac)5
(ac) 3
sinhac = ac +   +   +
6
120
'
(e), we find
+ C c sinh ac)
+ C c sinh ac)
4
49
Hence for small values of ac :the distribution of stresses over the middle plane is
practically the sarne as on both horizontal edges (y = e) ofthe beam. It
can be concluded that pressures are
transmitted through a beam or plate
without any substantial change, provided the variation of these pressures
along the sides is not rapid.
The shearing stresses 'Tu for this case
are very cmall. On the upper and
lower halves of the end cross sections
y
they add up to the small resultants
FIG. 32.
necessary to balance the small difference
between the pressures on the horizontal edges (y = e) and the middle plane
(y =O).
ln the most genera~ case the distribution of vertical loading along the upper
and lower edges of a beam (Fig. 32) can be represented by the following series:i
For the upper edge,
q.. = Ao +
l"'
Am sin mrx +
m=l
l"'
m=l
(m)
\'"'
+ 1...
m=1
. ffl7rX
m E''ll  1
"'
\'
+ 1...
m=l
Bm'
ffl1X
COS 
1:he const~nt terms Ao and Bo representa uniform loading of the beam, which was
d1sc~ssed m Art. 21. Stresses produced by terms containing sin (m7rx/l) are
obta1ned by summing up solutions (k). The stresses produced by terms containing
cos (m7rx/l) are easily obtained from (k) by exchanging sin ax for cos ax and vice
versa, and by changing the sign of 'Txy.
To illustrate the application of this general method of stress calculation in
rectangular plates, let us consider the case shown in Fig. 33. For this case of
symmetrical loading the terms with sin (m1x/l) vanish from expressions (m) and
the coefficients Ao and Am' are obtained in the usual manner
'
1
For Fourier series see Osgood, "Advanced Calculus" 1928 or Byerly "Fourier
series
. and Spherical Harmonics," 1902; or Churchill "Fourier
'
' Series and
' Boundary Value Problemil," 1941.
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
50
Ao= Bo
qa
T'
Am'
= Bm' = l
mr:i:
a q cos  1 dx
2 sin~
q
l
mr
(n)
Lz
I \
il.O
1.5
'1:5 0.5
la
l_J
.a o
~ 3 z
:y
Fm. 33.
'
'
1
1
Voilues ofx/c
Fm. 34.
also the case shown in Fig. 35 when the forces P are displaced one with respect to
the other. The distribution of shearing stresses over the cross section nn in this
case is of practical interest and is shown in Fig. 36. It may be seen that for small
values of the ratio b/c this distribution does not resemble the parabolic distribution
given by the elementary theory, and that there are very large stresses at the top
and bottom of the beam while the middle
X
portion of the beam is practically free
e
from shearing stresses.
ln the problem of Fig. 34 there will by
1.0 ~~:t==t==i==i=:::::i::. symmetry be no shear stress and no
0.81~~:14:=""~===+:I vertical displacement at the middle line
y = O. The upper half therefore corre0.6 1f,A,~"'tsponds to an elastic layer resting on a
rigid smooth base. 1
Let us consider now another extreme
case when the depth. of the plate 2c is
0.2 t++fHH+
OtHtlf++"'~~++1
 0.2 itt+ttil+t+1+I
O~iv~tYl'++1+1
0.6 tt""'dh""lilt+1+I
(T'll
0.8 t:~7ffTi;:;J;;::=I
0.5
This stress was evaluated by Filon 1 for an infinitely long strip when the dimension
a is very small (i.e., concentrated force P = 2qa). The results of this calculation
1.0
jhl
1:i
~lJ.
!,
1;
~b
~+
:n
.11~
2l
are shown in Fig. 34. It will be seen that 11y diminishes very rapidly with x. Ata
value x/c = 1.35, it becomes zero anJ is then replaced by tension. Filon discusses
1 L. N. G. Filon, Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 201, p. 67, 1903.
The
sarne problem was discussed also by A. Timpe, Z. Math. Physik, vol. 55, p. 149,
1907; G. Mesmer, Vergleichende spannungsoptische Untersuchungen . . . ,
Dissertation, Gttingen, 1929; F. Seewald, Abhandl. aerodynam. Inst., Tech.
Hochschule, Aachen, vol. 7, p. 11, 1927; and H. Bay, lngenieurArchiv, vol. 3,
p. 435, 1932. An approximate solution of the sarne problem was given by M.
Pigeaud, Compt. rend., vol. 161, p. 673, 1915. The investigation of the problem in
the case of a rectangular plate of finite length was made by J. N. Goodier, J.
Applied Mechawics (Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 54, no. 18, p. 173, 1932.
1
f:
lil
.:
1
3.0 35
p
Fm. 37.
targe in comparison with the length 2l (Fig. 37). We shall use this case to show
that the distribution of stresses over cross sections rapidly approaches uniformity
as the distance from the point of application of the forces P increases. By using
the second of Eqs. (k) with cos a:i; instead of sin aX and expressions (n) for coefficients Am', equal to Bm', we find
..
Fm. 35.
2.5
Fm. 36.
nP
,.1
1.5 2.0
2crx;y
qa
l
<Ty    
m=l
= cosh ac = ie
For cross sections at a large distance from the middle of the plate we can write
1
sinh ay
= cosh aY = }eu.
.,
_ qa _ 4q "\' sin aa [(ac
u,, =
l
.,..
2m
i./
+ l)e"<uc) 
aye<rl] cos ax
m=l
00
_ qa _ 4q.
l
.,..
2:
z[
ffl7ra
s1n
___
~ (e  y)
2m
l
53
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
.52
m.,..:i;
m=l
H e  y is not very small, say e  y > l/2, this series converges very rapidly and
it is only necessary to take a few terms in calculating u 11 Then we can take
u 11 = 
:Z  ~
l [t
.,
11
(e  y)
+1
~"'(yc)
m.,..:i;
cos z
m= 1
,.
J1~q,~
q.I
JIL
~,y
21>
2h
Jll
2b
FIG. 39.
= 
p (..
2l  7
e2..
The first three terms of the series are sufficient to give good accuracy ~nd .the
stress distribution is as shown in Fig. 38b. ln the sarne figure the stress distributions for e  y = l/2 and e  y = 2l are
~
~
also given.1 It is evident that ata distance
~I
from the end equal to the width of th~ strip
1~
(a)
L  _J
the stress distribution is practically uniform,
which confirms the conclusion usually made
~
on the basis of SaintVenant's principle.
For a long strip such as in Fig. 37 the u,.
stresses will be transmitted through the
' l : > I T T p width 2l of the plate with little change, pro(6)
~f]JllllllllllllllllJllll_i_tzt vided the rate of variation along the edge is
'~~
not too rapid. The stresses of the present
cy=l solution will, however, require some correcITr
tion on this account, especially near the ends,
1f;
crJ
!;;
Ll
11
1
!'
1'
1
<cJ
li!
i:i
''.:;
theory is not adequate. A uniformly distributed load q1 on the lower edge, supported by upward reactions uniformly distributed in widths 2b at intervala l,
presents a special case covered by Eqs. (m) of Art. 23. If the load q1 is applied
on the upper edge it is merely necessary to add the stress distribution due to equal
and opposite uniformly distributed pressures q1 on both upper and lower edges.
If the load is the weight of the beam itself the resulting bodyforce problem may
at once be reduced to an edgeload problem. The simple stress distribution
u,.
= O,
u 11
pg(y +e),
r, 11 = O
satisfies the e(!uations of equilibrium and compatibility (19) and (24). It clearly
represents support by uniformly distributed pressure 2pgc on the lower edge in
Fig. 39. The condition that u11 is zero at the lower edge, except at the supports
(of width 2b), is satisfied by adding this stress distribution to that represented by
Fig. 39 when q1 is replaced by 2pgc, and the stress is due to q and q1 without body
force.
Problems
= 3F
4c
(xy _3cxy) + ~2 y
2
xy2(3d  2y)
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
3. Show that
q,
8~3
[ x2
is a stress function, and find what problem it solves when applied to the region
included in y = e, x =O, on the side x positive.
CHAPTER 4
av
2
az2
av
+ ay2
2
=O
then the functions xV, yV, (x 2 + y2 )V will each satisfy Eq. (a) of Art. 17, and
so can be used as stress functions.
8. Show that
is a stress function.
Derive series expressions for the stresses in a semiinfinite plate, y
normal pressure on the straight edge (y = O) having the distribution
> O, due to
"'
\'b.
L, ,,. Slll m'lrX
 1
m=l
Show that the stress ux ata point on the edge is a compression equal to the applied
pressure at that point. Assume that the stress tends to disappear as y becomes
large.
9. Show that (a) the stresses given by Eqs. (e) of Art. 23 anel (b) the stresses in
Prob. 8 satisfy Eq. (b) of Art. 16.
dr~  (u 9) 4 dr~
+ [(r,9)2 55
:li
'l
1 .
(r,9)4] dr
+ Rr d8 dr = O
56
d", (11,r)a 
~ [(119)2
aq, = aq, ar
ax
r ax
If the dimensiona of the element are now taken smaller and smaller, to
the limit zero, the first term of this equation is in the limit a(11,r)/ar.
The second becomes 11 8, and the third ar.e/ ao. The equation of equilibrium in the tangential direction may be derived in the sarne manner.
The two equations take the final forro
a11,
ar
ar
11e
!r
"'
a2q, cos2 0
r 2
2
2
coso
2 iJ <P sin Ocos O + aq, sin o + 2 aq, sino 2
(J iJr
iJr
ao
a q, sin o
2
(37)
+ ao
(b)
"'r + .lr2a2q,
a8 2
a2q,
r 2
(38)
a2q,
ax 2
(1 "')
a r ao.
ar
iJ4q,
ax4
These equations take the place of Eqs. (18) when we solve twodimensional problema by means of polar coordinates. When the body
force Ris zero they are satisfied by putting
11
57
J4q,
+ 2 ax2 y2
4"'
+ ay4 =O
a2 q,
a2 q,
ay 2 = r 2
1 aq,
1 a2 q,
+ r r + Ti 80
(d)
a4q,
x'
a4q,
aq,
+ 2 ax2 ay2 + y4 =
( 82
axz
a2 )
+ ayz
(2"'
2"')
ax2 + ay2
0
(a)
"'
(39)
frniwhich
The first. and second of the expressions (38) follow from Eqs. (b) and (e). If
we choose any point in the plate, and let the xaxis pass through it, we have O = O,
and <rz, <rv are the sarne, for this particular point, as u,, u 8 Thus from (e), putting
ar X
=  =coso
x r
'
sin
ao
_ JL =
iJx =
r2
r

___
(J
=o,
59
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
This expression continues to represent <Tr whatever the orientation of the xaxis.
We find similarly from (b), putting O = O,
58
and the third expression of (38) can be obtained likewise by finding the expressiori
for aq,/Jx Jy analogous to (b) and (e).
au.+~+R =0
ar
(40)
If the body force R is zero, we may use the stress function cf>.
When this function depends only on r, the equation of compatibility
(39) becomes
2 1 dq,)
d2
1 d) (d q,
(dr 2 + rdr dr 2 + r dr
d4q,
2 d 3 q,
+ r dr
3 
2<J> + 1 dcf> dr 2
dr 
1d
T2
ra
(41)
= 1acf>
 = A
+ B(l
r ar
r2
a2q,
u8 =  2
iJr
Tr8
= 
+ 20
(44)
+
2C
r2
(a)
=  2A
r
b2
+ B(3 + 2 log r) + 2C
p
Substituting these in Eqs. (44) the following expressions for the stress
components are obtained:,
(43)
= 0
+ 2C =
from which
+ 2 log r) + 2e
If there is no hole at the origin of coordinates, constants A and B vanish since otherwise the stress components (43) become infinite when:
'
U9
A
r
= 2
(ur)r=a = p;,
= dr4
Ur
a 2b2 (Po 
Ur
uo
= 
b2  a2
Pi)
a 2b2 (Po 
b2  a2
1
r2
Pi)
Pob 2
b2  a2
p;a 2
Pob
. 1 + p;a
.,____  _;__
r2
(45)
b2  a2
, It is interesting to note that the sum <Tr + <Ts is constant through the
thickness of the wall of the cylinder. Hence the stresses <Tr and <Te produce a uniform extension or contraction in the
direction of the axis of the cylinder, and cross
sections perpendicular to this axis remain plane.
Hence the deformation produced by the stresses
(45) in an element of the cylinder cut out by
two adjacent cross sections does not interfere
with the deformation of the neighboring elements, and it is justifiable to consider the element in the condition of plane stress as we did
Fm. 41.
in the above discussion.
ln the particular case when Po = O and the cylinder is submitted to
internal pressure only, Eqs. 45 give
a2p;
b2)
1  r2
<Tr
= b2  a2
<TB
= b2a?;a2 ( l
+ ~9
<T
ll
(46)
These equations show that <Tr is always a compressive stress and <Te a
tensile stress. The latter is greatest at the inner surface of the cylinder, where
p;(a2 + b2)
(47)
(us)mu:. =
b2  a2
!'
61
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
60
Fm. 42.
(2)
(3)
ue dr = O,
Tr8
Lb u9r dr =
M
(a)
O at the boundary
Condition (1) means that the convex and concave boundaries of the
bar are free from normal forces; condition (2) indicates that the normal
stresses at the ends give rise to the couple M only, and condition (3)
indicates that there are no tangential forces applied at the boundary.
Using the first of Eqs. (43) with (1) of the boundary conditions (a) we
obtain
A
2 + B(l + 2 log a) + 2C = O
a
A
b2
+ B(l + 2 log b) + 2C =O
(b)
From the general discussion of the twodimensional problem, Art. 15, it follows
that the solution obtained below holds also for another extreme case when the
dimens~on of the cross section perpendicular to the plane of curvature is very large,
as, for mstance, in the case of a tunnel vault (see Fig. 10), if the load is the sarne
along the length of the tunnel.
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
62
Substituting the values (f) of the constants into the expressions (43)
for the stress components, we find
fb
a
u8 dr =
Jb
a
a2q,
 2 dr = \ct>\b
= O
ar
ar a
ur
<18
Tr8
(e)
Comparing this with (b), it is easy to see that (e) is satisfied, and the
forces at the ends are reducible to a couple, provided conditions (b) are
satisfied. To have the bending couple equal to M, the condition
[b uer dr = [b c/>2 r dr =
},
}a ar
must be fulfilled.
a
(d)
M
W e have
fb
fb
a2q,
rdr
= \ct>
 r\b ar 2
ar a
aq,
\ct>
dr=
 r1b  \e/> lb
ar
ar a
a
aq, r\b =O
\ ar a
we find from (d),
or substituting expression (42) for e/>,
A log~
!:
i i~
+ B(b 2 log b 
a 2) = M
(e)
This equation, together with the two Eqs. (b), completely determines
the constants A, B, C, and we find
2M 2
4M
b
B =  (b  a2 )
A =  N a 2b2 log a'
N
(f)
M 2
2
2
2
C = N [b  a + 2(b log b  a log a)]
where for simplicity we have put
N
I'
= (b 2 
63
2 2
)

4a 2b2
(1og ~)
(g)
(a
2 2
b + b2 log b + a 2 log r
=  4M
N 7 b log a
2 2
4M (
a b
b
r
a
=  N
 T2
log + b2 log b + a 2 log
r + b2 
)
a2
(48)
This gives the stress distribution satisfying all the boundary conditions1
(a) for pure bending and represents the exact solution of the problem,
provided the distribution of the normal forces at the ends is that given
by the second of Eqs. (48). If the forces giving the bending couple M
are distributed over the ends of the bar in some other manner the stress
'
distribution at the ends will be different from that of the solution
(48).
But on the basis of SaintVenant's principle it can be concluded that
the deviations from solution (48) are very small and may be neglected
at large distances from the ends, say at distances greater than the
depth of the bar.
It is of practical interest to compare solution (48) with the elementary solutions usually given in books on the strength of materials. If
the depth of the bar, b  a, is small in comparison with the radius of
the central axis, (b + a)/2, the sarne stress distribution as for straight
bars is usually assumed. If this depth is not small it is usual in practice to assume that cross sections of the bar remain plane during the
bending, from which it can be shown that the distribution of the normal stresses <18 over any cross sections follows a hyperbolic law. 2 ln
all cases the maximum and minimum values of the stress u 8 can be presented in the forro
M
u9 = m(h)
a2
1
This solution is due to H. Golovin, Trans. Inst. Tech., St. Petersburg, 1881.
The paper, published in Russian, remained unknown in other countries, and the
sarne problem was solved later by M. C. Ribiere (Compt. rend., vol. 108, 1889,
and vol. 132, 1901) and by L. Prandtl. See A. Fppl, "Vorlesungen ber technishe Mechanik," vol. 5, p. 72, 1907; also A. Timpe, Z. Math. Physik, vol. 52,
p. 348, 1905.
2
This approximate theory was developed by H. Rsal, Ann. mines, p. 617, 1862,
and by E. Winkler, Zivilingenieur, vol. 4, p. 232, 1858; see also his book "Die
Lehre von der Elastizitt und Festigkeit,'' Chap. 15, Prag, 1867. Further development of the theory was made by F. Grashof, "Elastizitt und Festigkeit," p. 251,
1878, and by K. Pearson, "History of the Theory of Elasticity " vol. 2 pt. 1 p. 422
1893.
'
'
'
'
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
64
The following table gives the values of the numerical factor m calcu~
lated by the two elementary methods, referred to above, and by the
m
CoEFFICIENT
OF
EQ. (h)
b
a
Linear stress
distribution
Hyperbolic stress
distribution
Exact solution
1.3
2
3
66.67
6.000
1.500
+72.98, 61.27
+ 7.725,  4.863
+ 2.285,  1.095
61.35
+73.05,
+ 7.755,  4.917
+ 2.292,  1.130
exact formula (48). 1 It can be seen from this table that the elementary
solution based on the hypothesis of plane cross sections gives very
accurate results.
.m
10
8
~\~ 6
l:ili
ba2a
i\.
tl
i'...
r...,._
IJ
iJr
.......
61.0 1.1 t.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 . 1.6 1.1' 1.8 1.9 2.0
Valuesof ~
/J
t.S
_.,,,
0.9
tl 0.6
C):'j
0.3
~
.......
......
Frn. 43.
It will be shown later that, in the case of pure bending, the cross
V. Billevicz.
:.
'
au
'
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0
Values offr
nents of the displacement in the radial and tangential directions, respec:tively. If u is the radiaf displacemnt of the si de ad of the element
abcd (Fig. 44), the radial displacement of the side bc is u + (au/ar) dr .
Then the unit elongation of the element abcd in the radial direction is
gax.(/.070)
~ ...
b=Za'=>"
f
r... ,Neutralaxis(I=l44J)
assumed that longitudinal fibers of the bent bar are in simple tension
or compression.
From the first of Eqs. (48) it can be shown that the stress ur is always
positive for the direction of bending shown in Fig. 42. The same can
be concluded at once from the direction of stresses ue acting on the elements n  n in Fig. 42. The corresponding tangential forces give
resultants in the radial direction tending to separate longitudinal fibers
and producing tensile stress in the radial direction. This stress
increases toward the neutral surface and becomes a maximum near this
surface. This maximum is always much smaller than (ue)max. For
instance, for b/a = 1.3, (ur)max. = 0.060(ue)ma:.:.; for b/a = 2, (ur)max. =
0.138(ue)max.; for b/a = 3, (ur)max. = 0.193(ue)max.. ln Fig. 43 the distribution of ue andurfor b/a = 2 is given. From this figure we see that
the point of maximum stress ur is somewhat displaced from the neutral
axis in the direction of the center of curvature.
28. Strain Components in Polar Coordinates. ln considering the
displacement in polar coordinates let us denote by u and v the compo
..............
~1~1.2
65
Er
(49)
= ar
+ u) d O r dO
r dO
= 
66
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
the element abcd is (av/ao) do, and the tangential strain dueto the displacement V is accordingly av/r ao. The total tangential strain is thus 1
EB
av
au
av
ar
= E (u, 
Eg
'Yr9 =
E (<18
V<TB)
(52)
V<Tr)
+ 2(1
::i::;
1[
E

(1
+r v)A + 2(1
 v)B log r
+ (1
3v) B
+ 2(1 
v)C
+ v)r
= Fr,
f1(r)
f(o) do
+ f i(r)
(b)
f(O) dO 
!r f1(r)
(e)
(d)
where F, H, and K are constants to be determined from the conditions of constraint of the curved bar or ring. Substituting expressions (d) into Eqs. (a) and (b), we find the following expressions for the
displacements. 1
=E1 [ 
v)r]
4B~
v = ']JJ
(1
+r v)A + 2(1 
+ v)r
+ f(O)
(a)
+ Fr + H cos O 
 v)r]
+ H sin O+ K cos O
(53)
.
K sm O
!r af(O)
+ afi(r)
+ !r
ao
Jr
+ 2C(l
+ 2C(l 1
GTr(J
By integration we obtain
u
au
l[(l+v)A
ar = E
r2
4Bro
v= 1
r
(51)
Substituting now the expressions for the strain components (49), (50),
(51) into the equations of Hooke's law, 2
Er
from which
'YB=+
r ao
av = 4Br _ f(O)
ao
E
(50)
T + r ao
Considering now the shearing strain, let a'b' e'd' be the position of the
element abcd after deformation (Fig. 44). The angle between the
direction ad and a' d' is due to the radial displacement u and is equal to
au/r ao. ln the sarne manner the angle between a'b' and ab is equal
to av/iJr. It should be noted that only part of this angle (shaded in
the figure) contributes to the shearing strain and the other part, equal
to v/r, represents the angular displacement dueto rotation of the element abcd as a rigid body about the axis through O. Hence the total
change in the angle dab, representing the shearing strain, is
r
67
=o,
V=
0,
~
a+b
ar= O for O =O and r = ro =  2
68
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
+ v)ro
+ 2C(l 
v)ro] + K
Fro
= O
=O
F =O
means, a ring with initial stresses is obtained, i.e., there are stresses in
the ring when externai forces are absent. If a is the small angle measuring the portion of the ring which was cut out, the tangential displacement necessary to bring the ends of the ring together is
+H
(54)
v="EKsm8
69
(e)
v =ar
4Br
211"E
(f)
The constant B, entering into the manyvalued term for the displacement (54) has now a definite value depending on the way in which the
initial stresses were produced in the ring. Substituting (g) into Eqs.
(f) of Art. 27 (see page 62), we find that the bending moment necessary
to bring the ends of the ring together (Fig. 45) is
(b 2
M=E
811"
a 2) 2
2(b 2
4a 2b2 (1og

a 2)
~)
a
(h)
From this the initial stresses in the ring can easily be calculated by
using the solution (48) for pure bending.
30. Rotating Disks. The stress distribution in rotating circular
disks is of great practical importance. 1 If the thickness of the disk is
small in comparison with its radius, the variation of radial and tangential stresses over the thickness can be neglected 2 and the problem
can be easily solved. 3 If the thickness of the disk is constant Eq. (40)
can be applied, and it is only necessary to put the body force equal to
the inertia force. 4 Then
(a)
1 A complete discussion of this problem and the bibliography of the subject can
be found in the wellknown book by A. Stodola, "Dampf und GasTurbinen,"
6th ed., pp. 312 and 889, 1924.
2
An exact solution of the problem for a disk having the shape of a flat ellipsoid
of revolution was obtained by C. Chree, see Proc. Roy. Soe. (London), vol. 58, p. 39,
1895. It shows that the difference between the maximum and the minimum stress
at the axis of revolution is only 5 per cent of the maximum stress in a uniform disk
with thickness oneeighth of its diameter.
8 A more detailed discussion of the problem will be given !ater (see Art. 119).
' The weight of the disk is neglected.
70
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
where p is the mass per unit volume of the material of the disk and
the angular velocity of the disk.
Equation (40) can then be written in the forro
=C
 3
pw2b2
71
=Q
from which
e= 3 +V pw2b2
(b)
= F,
dF
dr
= 
<TB
+ pw2r
(e)
The strain components in the case of symmetry are, from Eqs. (49)
and (50),
u
du
E9 = T
E, =dr'
Eliminating u between these equations, we find
E9 
Er
+ r de9
dr
(d)
d 2F
r 2 dr 2
+ r dF
dr  F
+ (3 + v)pw r
2 3
= O
(e)
(f9
3+v
=8  pw2(b2  r2)
<T9
38
+V pw2b2  1+
3v
=8  pw2r2
(55)
<T9
3+v
8
=   pw 2b2
(56)
ln the case of a disk with a circular hole of radius a at the center the
constants of integration in Eqs. (g) are obtained from the condi;ions
at the inner and outer boundaries. If there are no forces acting on
these boundaries, we have
(u,),._ = O,
=O
(u,).....
(h)
<T,
<fr
3 +V
   pw 2r2
8
1
1 + 3v 2 2
= C  C12     pw r
r
8
+ C1 r1
= 3
v pw2
(O"r) max.
Vab,
(57)
where
3 +V
 8  . pw 2 (b  a) 2
(58)
1v)
+
a2
(59)
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
When the radius a of the hole approaches zero, the maximum tan.,.
gential stress approaches a value twice as great as that for a solid di~k
(56); i.e., by making a small circular hole at the center of a sohd
rotating disk we double the maximum stress. This phenomenon of
stress concentration ata hole will be discussed later (see page 78).
Assuming that the stresses do not vary over the thickness of the disk,
the method of analysis developed above for disks of constant thickness
can be extended also to disks of variable thickness. lf h is the thickness
of the disk, varying with radius r, the equation of equilibrium of such
an element as shown in Fig. 40 is
72
:r (hru,)  hus
+ hpw 2r2 = O
(k)
dF
2 2
hus = dr+ hpw r
hrur = F,
+ r dF
d~
~
r2 d2F
a2 1 a 1 a2 )
( ar2+ r ar+ T2 ao 2
+ (3 + v)pw2hr 
x2
nx
vn  1 = O
and A and B are integration constants which are determined from the
boundary conditions.
i This case was investigated by Stodola, Zoe. cit.
Turbinenwesen, 1915.
q,
(Pc/>
ar 2
aq,
<J2q,)
+ r ar+ T2 ao2
73
(a)
Taking
=J(r) sin O
(b)
and substituting in Eq. (a), we find thatf(r) must satisfy the following
ordinary di:fferential equation:
See M. Grbler, V.D.!., vol. 50, p. 535, 1906.
See A. Fischer, Z. oesterr. lng. Arch. Vereins, vol. 74, p. 46, 1922; H. M. Martin,
Engineering, vol. 115, p. 1, 1923; B. Hodkinson, Engineering, vol. 116, p. 274,
1923; K. E. Bisshopp, J. Applied Mechanics (Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 11, p. A1,
1944.
3 This method WJl.S developed.hy M.. Donath; seecJ:lls book, "Die Berechnung
rotierender Scheiben und R.ige," ~Berlin, 1912. It is described in English by
H. Hearle in Engineering, vol. 1061 p. 131,_ 1918. A further development of the
method was given by R. Grammel 1' Dinglers. Polytech,. J., _v01. 338, p. 217, 1923.
The case when materiar does not follw Hooke's lw was investigated by M.
Grbler, V.D.!., vol. 41, p. 860, 1897, and vol. 44, p. 1157, 1900. See also H.
Schlechtweg, Z. angew. Math. Mech., vol. 11, p. 17, 1931, and lngenieurArchio,
vol. 2, p. 212, 1931.
' H. Golovin, Zoe. cit.
1
1'1
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
74
2
d
( dr 2
in which
1 d _
+ r dr
Cc)
r2
N = a2
+ B ~ + Cr + Dr log r
f(r) = Ar 3
(d)
<TO=
 !.r acJ>
+ _! a2cJ>
ar r2 ao2
(2Ar  2Br + D)
sin
r
<ro
TO= _
r
= Tro = O for r
B
2
2Aa  
{60)
2Ab 
The last condition is that the sum of the shearing forces distributed
over the upper end of the bar should equal the force P. !k~ng the
width of the cross section as unityor P as the load per umt thicknes&
of the platewe obtain for O = O,
ib
Tro
dr =
ib :r (~::)dr l~ ::\:
=
= \Ar2
or
A(b2  a2)
From Eqs. (e) and
p
A= 2N'
+ ~ + C + D log
 a2)
+ B (b2 a2b?
b
 D log
Cn we find
Pa 2b2
B=1
2N
ri:
D= 
=
(a2
b
log a
(J
<n
+ b2)
(g)
(h)
+b
2) ]
= 7r /2,
p [ 3r
= N
1]
(k)
a2b2
  r 3  (a 2 + b2) r
= a and r = b
+ a =
~
2B + !!. =
b
b
ue
From the conditions that the outer and inner boundaries of the curved
bar (Fig. 46) are free from external forces, we require that
<rr
[r + a2b2
 !. (a
r
r
Tr8
=  P
Tre
(J
~ + !!.)
sin 9
r
2
~
(!.
acJ>\ =  (2Ar  ~ +Dr) cos 9
ar r ao)
r
= ar2<f> = (6Ar +
+ (a + b
(d)
mined from the boundary conditions. Substituting solut10n
m
expression (b) for the stress function, and using the general formulas
(38), we find the following expressions for the stress components:
<lr 
b2
l.S
~1t~'
1~"
~
~
s
...._
 ~ ~b~
v :J..
//~~ V
11 / / [
i/ .,,ef.244(6'a;J.
0.5
o ,.
""
::JJ/(6a)
~ ,(}.4JS(ba}
,:.soo(haJ
1
1
1
().
1

~ ,__~
.....,
~
~~
.......
'
'~ ~
.......... ~
~~
.......... ~
~
"'11
....
fh'a,
FIG. 47.
manner given by Eqs. (h) and (k). For any other distribution of
forces the stress distribution near the ends will be different from that
given by solution (60), but at larger distances this solution will be
valid by SaintVenant's principie. Calculations show that the simple
theory, based on the assumption that cross sections.remain plane during bending, again gives very satisfactory results.
ln Fig. 47 the distribution of the shearing stress Tre over the cross
section 9 = O (for the cases b = 3a, 2a, and l.3a) is shown. The
abscissas are the radial distances from the inner boundary (r = a).
The ordinates represent numerical factors with which we multiply the
average shearing stress P/(b  a) to get the shearing stress at the
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
76
point in question. A value 1.5 for this factor gives the maximum
shearing stress as calculated from the parabolic distribution for
rectangular straight beams. From the figures it may be seen that the
distribution of shearing stresses approaches the parabolic distribution
when the depth of the cross section is small. For such proportions as
are usual in arches and vaults the parabolic distribution of shearing
stress, as in straight rectangular bars, can be assumed with sufficient
accuracy.
Let us consider now the displacements produced by the force P
(Fig. 46). By using Eqs. (49) to (52), and substituting for the stress
components the expressions (60), we find
au
sin () [
2B
 = E 2Ar(l  3v)   3 (1
ar
r
av
a() = res 
'YrB
au
= r ao
v)
av
ar 
2D
=  E()
cos
v =
8+
D 8 sin 8 
sin () [
JT D(l  v) log r
D(l  v) log r ]
= 
cos () [Ar2(5
v)
r
+ ~ (1 +
v)
+ D(l
 v) log r]
+ f(O)
H = O,
(m)
(u)s=o
+ r~ (1 +
v)  D log r(l  v)
f(O) d()
+ F(r)
(n)
+ f'(O) + rF'(r)
 F(r)
(r)
L =
1;
(s)
1; =
+ b2)
+ (a + b
P7r(a2

b2)
log
~]
(61)
~a
= log
(1 + ~)a = ~a  ! ah
2
+!
h
3
3 a3
4D cos O
E
f (O) =  2
E [ (a 2
(u)s=o = 
+ Hr
cos ()  L sin 8
(q)
+ D(l  v)] 
+ D(l E+ v) cos 8 + K
(u)o=o = L
(l)
 3v)r2
. 8 + L cos 8
+ B(l r2+ v)] + K sm
cos () [A(5 + v)r2 + B(l + v)
E
r2
+ A(l
The radial deflection of the upper end of the bar is obtained by putting
() = O in the expression for u, which gives
Dr (1  v) ]
17
(p)
~~ ;
3
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
and proceeding as above, we get a solution for the case when a :'ertical
force and a couple are applied to the upper end of the bar (Fig. 46).
Subtracting from this solution the stresses produced by the couple (see
Art. 27), the stresses dueto a vertical force applied at the upper end of
the bar remain. Having the solutions for a horizontal and for a
vertical load, the solution for any inclined force can be obtained by
superposition.
In the above discussion it was always assumed that Eqs. (e) are
satisfied and that the circular boundaries of the bar are free fro~
forces. By taking the expressions in (e) different fro~ zero, w~ obtam
the case when normal and tangential forces proport10nal to sm ~ ~nd
cos oare distributed over circular boundaries of the bar. Combmmg
such solutions with the solutions previously obtained for pure bending
and for bending by a force applied at the end we can approach the
1
condition of loading of a vault covered with sand or soil.
32. The Effect of Circular Holes on Stress Distributions in Plate~.
Figure 48 represents a plate submitted to a uniform tension of magm
These forces, acting around the outside of the ring having the inner
and outer radii r = a and r = b, give a stress distribution within the
ring which we may regard as consisting of two parts. The first is due
to the constant component jS of the normal forces. The stresses it
produces can be calculated by means of Eqs. (45) (page 59). The
remaining part, consisting of the normal forces jS cos 20, together
with the shearing forces jS sin 20, produces stresses which may be
derived from a stress function of the form
78
cf>
= f(r) cos 20
79
(b)
m1
+ Br + C r21 + D
4
Fm. 48.
.il
cf> = ( Ar
+ Br + C~ + D) cos 20
4
(e)
1 acp
=  ~
(1
Tre =  a  act>) =
ar r ao
( 2A + 6Br 2 
2D)
.
r
6C4  r
(d)
sm 28
'
?
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
80
6C 4D
1
++b4
b2 = S
2
6
2A + C + 4D =O
a4
a2
6C
2D
2A + 6Bb
b4
b2 =
2A
2A
+ 6Ba
a4
1
 2 S
2D
a2 = O
a4
C =  S,
B =O,
A=,
4
Substituting these values of constants into Eqs. (d) and adding the
stresses produced by the uniform tension ~S on the outer boundary
calculated from Eqs. (45) we find 1
(i  2) + _ (i + r4
= . (i +
_ (i + r~ )
r
3
=  ~ (i  ~ + ~ )
<T
r2
<18
)
2
T,9
4~2)
cos 28
r
3a4 
cos 28
(62)
sin 28
If ris very large, <Tr and Tre approach the values given in Eqs. (a). At
the edge of the hole, r = a and we find
<lr
Tr8
= O,
<To
= 8  28 cos 20
<18
= 
81
For the cross section of the plate through the center of the hole.and
perpendicular to the xaxis, 8 = 7/2, and, from Eqs. (62),
Tr8
6C

<19
= 8
(2
+ a2r + 3 4)
r
2
For 8 = 7/2 or 8 = 37/2, i.e., at the points n and m, we find <Te = 48.
For 8 = O or 8 = 7, i.e., at ni and m 1, <To = 48. Hence, for a large
plate under pure shear, the maximum tangential stress atthe boundary
of the hole is four times larger than the applied pure shear.
The high stress concentration found at the edge of a hole is of great
practical importance. As an example, holes in ships' decks may be
mentioned. When the hull of a ship is bent, tension or compression is
produced in the decks and there is a high stress concentration at the
holes. Under the cycles of stress produced by waves, fatigue of the
metal at the overstressed portions may result finally in fatigue cracks. 2
1
See S. Timoshenko, Bull. Polytech. Inst., Kiew, 1907. We must take S equal
to the load divided by the gross area of the plate.
~ See. paper by T. L. Wilson, The S.S. Leviathan, Damage, Repairs and Strength
al_Ys1s, presented ata meeting of the American Society of Naval Architects and
Manne Engineers, November, 1930.
83
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
This stress should be compared with the tensile stress at the point m
on the straight edge of the plate, given by the formula
82
<18
The stress at the hole, at the point n nearest the edge, becomes a very
large multiple of the undisturbed tensile stress when mn is small compared with np.
G. B. Jeffery also investigated the case of a uniform normal pressure
Pi acting on the boundary of the hole. This is a pr?blem of practic~l
interest. It gives the stresses near a rivet hole while the hot plast1c
rivet is being forced home under pressure. If the hole is very far from
the straight edge the stresses at the boundary of the hole, from Eqs.
(46) (page 60), are
<fr = p;
<18 = p;,
If the hole is near the straight edge, the tangential stresses are no
longer constant along the boundary of the hole. The maximum tangential stress is at the points k and l and is given by the formula
(u8)max.
= p;
+ r2
d2
d2 
r2
1 See S. Timoshenko, J. Franklin I nst., vol. 197, p. 505, 1924; also S. Timoshenko,
"Strength of Materials,'' 2d ed., vol. 2, p. 317.
2 S. Levy, A. E. McPherson, and F. C. Smith, J. Applied Meehanics <!ran~.
A.S.M.E.), vol. 15, p. 160, 1948. References to prior work may be found m thii;o.
paper.
3 Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 221, p. 265, 1921.
Proc. Soe. Expl. Stress Analysis, vol. 5, p. 56, 1948.
r2
(64)
= 0.758
at the point m.
The method used in this article for
FIG. 51.
analyzing stresses round a small circular hole can be applied when the plate is subjected to pure bending.2
The cases of a row of circular holes in an infinite plate, 3,4,5 a row of
holes in a strip, 56 and in a semiinfinite plate, 6 and a ring of holes in
a plate 7 (under allround tension) have also been investigated. A
method devised by Hengst has been applied to the case of a hole in a
square plate 8 under equal tension in both directions, and under shear 9
when the hole is plain or reinforced.
Solutions have been obtained for the infinite plate with a circular
hole when forces are applied to the boundary of the hole, 1 for the corre1
R. C. J. Howland, Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), Series A, vol. 229, p. 49, 1930.
Z. Tuzi, Phil. Mag., February, 1930, p. 210; also Sei. Papers Inst. Phys. Chem.
Researeh (Tokyo), vol. 9, p. 65, 1928. The corresponding problem for an elliptieal
hole was solved earlier by K. Wolf, Z. teeh. Physik, 1922; p. 160. The circular
hole in a strip is discussed by R. C. J. Howland and A. C. Stevenson, Trans. Roy.
Soe. (London), series A, vol. 232, p. 155, 1933. A proof of convergence of the series
solutions is given by R. C. Knight, Quart. J. Math., o~ord series vol 5 .P 255
1934.
"'J'
'
'
'
2
(63)
4p;r 2
d2 
FIG. 50.
84
sponding problem of the strip, 1 and for a row of holes parallel and near
to the straight edge of a semiinfinite plate 2 (row of rivet holes).
li an elliptical hole is made in an infinite plate under tension S, with
one of the principal axes parallel to the tension, the stresses at the ends
of the axis of the hole perpendicular to the direction of the tension are
the hole is small in diameter compared with the thickness between the
ends, the disturbance will be confined to the neighborhood of the ends.
But if the diameter and the thickness are of the sarne order of magnitude, the problem must be treated as essentially threedimensional
throughout. Investigations of this kind 1 have shown that tre remains
the largest stress component and its value is very close to that given
by the twodimensional theory.
33. Concentrated Force ata Point of a Straight Boundary. Let us
consider now a concentrated vertical force P acting on a horizontal
p
(65)
L11
85
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
.X
fa)
(6)
FIG. 52.
st~aig~t boundary AB of an infinitely large plate (Fig. 52a). The distnbut10n of the load along the thickness of the plate is uniform as indica~ed in Fig. 52b. The thickness of the plate is taken as unit; so that
P is the load per unit thickness.
The distribution of stress in this case is a very simple one2 and is
called a simple ra<lial distribution. Any element C at a distance r froro
~he point of application of the load is subjected to a simple compression
m the radial direction, the radial stress being
tTr
1
2P cos 6
r
(66)
S A. E. Green, Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 193, p. 229, 1948; E.
tern berg and M. Sadowsky, J. Applied Mechanics (Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 16,
P. 27'1949.
2
1:he solution of this problem was obtained by way of the threedimensional
~~~~ion ~f J. Boussines<_l (p. 362) by Flamant, Compt. rend., vol. 114, p. 1465,
Bo '!'ar1s. The extens1on of the solution to the case of an inclined force is dueto
M'ussmesq, Compt. rend., vol. 114, p. 1510, 1892. See also the paper by J. H.
a~?hell, Proc. L~n ~ath. Soe., vol. 32, p. 35, 1900. The experimental investi~ ion of stre$s d1str1bution, which suggested the above theoretical work was done
Y Carus Wilson, Phil. Mag., vol. 32, p. 481, 1891.
'
THEORY OF ELASTICI_TY
The tii.ngential stress u 8 and the shearing stress T,e are zero. It is easy
to see that these values of the stress components satisfy the equations
of equilibrium (37) (page 56).
The boundary conditions are also satisfi.ed because ue and 'Tro are zero
along the straight edge of the plate, which is free from externai forces
except at the point of application of the load (r = O). Here ur becomes
infinite. The resultant of the forces acting on a cylindrical surface of
radius r (Fig. 52b) must balance P. It is obtained by summing the
vertical components urr d8 cos (} acting on each element r d(} of the surface. ln this manner we fi.nd
plane at any point M (Fig. 52a) are calculated from the simple compression in the radial direction,
.2
4:o
ur cos (} r d8 = 
...
cos 2
(}
d8 = P
u,, = u, cos 2 8
u 11
u, sin 2 8
rZ'll
Ur
q, =  7r r8 sm (}
(66')
7rd
i,
(67)
(}
2P .
sm (} cos 3 (}
 
7r
 7
/
o
; r
cos 4 8
.
2P sin 8 cos 2 8
s1n 8 cos 8 =  
2P cos
i.e., the stress is the sarne at all points on the circle, except the point O,
it
'Ira
which coincides with solution (66). Substituting the function (a) into
Eq. (39), we can easily show that this equation is satisfied. Hence, (a)
represents the true stress function and Eqs. (66') give the true stress
distribution.
' Taking a circle of any diameter d with cnter on the xaxis and tangent to the yaxis at O (]'ig. 52a), we have, for any point C of the circle,
d cos 9 = r. Hence, from Eq. (66),
2P
= 
=  2p sin 2 (} cos 2
(a)
(!
Ur
'Ira
'Ira
ln Fig. 53 the distribution of stresses u,, and 'Tzv along the horizontal
plane mn is represented graphically.
At the point of application of the load the stress is theoretically
infinitely large because a finite force is acting on an infinitely small
aq, 1 a2q,
'1r = r ar + T2 ao2 = a2q,
uo = ar2 =o
'Tr8 =  ~
ar r aq,)
ao = . o
2P
7r
IP
Pz .1111
01
02
2P cos 3 8
=    =  
87
~ f8, 13'
'7
"
l"I
lP
1fa
""
n
ss
JqB
~X
' ~ R'
u.,
.......... h&

l,L1'.,,
""
,_
,.,
i..
X
FIG. 53.
88
lin~,
'
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
we find
we find
.._
 2Plc" cos 2 8 d8 = P
7r
o
.,,1
.
= Pa (8 + sm
Fm. 54.
Fm. 55.
a horizontally (Fig. 55), the radial stress at any point C is, from Eqs.
(66'),
! [p
cos a cos 8
+ .P sin a cos (~ + o) J
2P
=  
?rr
cos (a
+ 8)
(68)
Hence Eqs. (66') can be used for any direction of the force, provided in
each case we measure the angle 8 from the direction of the force.
The stress function (a) may be used also in the case when a couple is acting on
the straight boundary of an mfinite plate (Fig. 56a). It is easy to see that the
stress functi.on for the case when the tensile force P is at the point 01, at a distance a
from the origin, is obtained from e/>, Eq. (a), regarded for the nioment as a function
of x and y instead of r and 8, by writing y + a instead of y and also  P instead of P.
This and the original stress function cf> can be combined, and ~e then obtain the
stress function for the two equal and opposite forces applied at O nd Oi, in te forro
cf>(x,y +a)
1 a)
+ c/>
y
2Ma
1rT
l'ubstituting (a) in ~q. (b), and noting (see page 57) thaij
+ <lc/>
ao oosr 8
(69)
cos 3 8
(70)
fa)
Fm. 56.
au
Er
'YrO
2P cos 8
=ar =  ?rE_r_
r
+ ain 8 coa 8)
a3 4>1
Eo = '.!
(b)
(8
+ cf>(x,y)
= M11'.
= 
ur = ...,...
8 coa 8)
1("
This resultant balances the externai force P, and, as the stress components Tro and u 9 at the straight edge are zero, solution (66') satisfies the
boundary conditions.
Having the solutions for vertical 11nd horizontal concentrated forces,
solutions for inclined forces are obtained by superposition. Resolving
the inclined force P into two components, P cos a .;ertically and P sin
$9
u
r ii{J
v =
r ao
+ r 
2P cos 8
?rE
(e)
rv = 0
. ' .
'
.
H p . Ling, J. Ap?lied Mechanics (Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 14, p. A275 1947;
oritsky, H. D. Smvely, and C. R. Wylie, ibid., vol. 6, p. A63, 1939.
'
v=
=  (l ~;)P 8 sin
+A
(d)
(u)
+ f(fJ)
sin 8
f(fJ) d8
+ F(r)
(e)
+B
cos O,
F(r) = Cr
(f)
where A, B, and C are constants of integration which are to be determined from the conditions of constraint. The expressions for the displacements, from Eqs. (d) and (e), are
u =  2p cos
v=
rE
2vP
 sin 8
rE
olog r
(l Ev)P fJ sin 8
r
2P
+ rE log r sm 8 + (l
+A
(1  v)P
r
~Ev)P sin
+A
sin 8
+B
cos 8
O cos 8
= 
2P
rE log r
(g)
cos O  B sin 8 + Cr
+B
(h)
To find the constant B let us assume that a point of the xaxis ata distance d from the origin does not move vertically. Then from Eq. (h)
we find
,.. = _ (1  v)P,
2E
2P
= rE log d
(u)
9 =2
,, = _ (1  v)P
2E
9 = 2
(7 l)
The straight boundary on each side of the origin thus has a constant
displacement (71), at all points, directed toward the origin. We may
regard such a displacement as a physical possibility, if we rmember
that around the point of application of the load P we removed the portion of material bounded by a cylindrical surface of a small radius (Fig.
52b) within which portion the equations of elasticity do not hold.
Actually of course this material is plastically deformed and permits
di8placement (71) along the straight boundary. The vertical displacements on the straight boundary are obtained from the second of
Eqs. (g). Remembering that vis positive if the displacement is in the
direction of increasing 8, and that the deformation is symmetrical with
respect to the xaxis, we find for the vertical displacements in the downward direction ata distance r from the origin
(v)
Assume that the constraint of the semiinfinite plate (Fig. 52) is such
that the points on the xaxis have no lateral displacement. Then
v = O, for 8 = O, and we find from the second of Eqs. (g) that A = O,
C = O. With these values of the constants of integration the vertical
displacements of points on the xaxis are
(u)e=o
91
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
90
9=
,.. =  (v)
2
.. = 2p log ~  (l
9 =2
rE
v)P
rE
~72)
"
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
92
+ H1K1
P1
+ H2K2
is
P2

Hence the <T., curve shown in Fig. 53 is the infiuence line for the normal
stress""' at the point D. ln the sarne manner we conclude that the rZll
curve is the influence line for the shearing stress on the plane mn at the
point D.
in which A is a constant.
a2q,
"' = r ar + T2 ao2 = 2A8
a2q,
<Te=  2 = 2A8
ar
r,e =  .!!.._
ar r aq,)
ao = A
1 aq,
}Atr
93
(b)
(!
Applying this to the semiinfinite plate we arrive at the load distribution shown in Fig. 57a. On the straight edge of the plate there acts a
uniformly distributed shearing force of intensity A and a uniformly
distributed normal load of the intensity A7r, abruptly changing sign at
the origin O. The directions of the forces follow from the positive
directions of the stress components acting on an elemente.
By shifting the origin to 01 and changing the sign of stress function
cp, we arrive at the load distribution shown in Fig. 57b. Superposing
the two cases of load distribution (Figs. 57 a and 57b), we obtain the
case of uniform loading of a portion of the straight boundary of the
semiinfinite plate shown in Fig. 57 e. To obtain the given intensity q
of uniform load, we take
2A1r
= q,
1
A=  q
211"
The stress at any point of the plate is then given by the stress function 1
q, =
FIG. 57.
Jl !ii11
A(r 28  r 12 8 1) = ~ (r 28  r 1 2 81)
(e)
From Eqs. (b) we see that the first term of the stress function (e) gives, at any
point M of the plate (Fig. 58a), a uniform tension in all directions in the plane of
the plate equal to 2A8 anda pure shear A. ln the sarne manner the second
term of the stress function gives a uniform compression 2A8 1 anda pure shear A.
The uniform tension and compression can be simply added together and we find a
uniform compressive stress
p = 2A8  2A8 1 = 2A(8  81) = 2Aa
(d)
94
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
the two diameters, DD1 parallel to r andFF1 perpendicular to r, as the rand <raxes,
we have a representation of the pure shear corresponding to the rdirect1on. The
radii CF and CF1 represent the principal stresses A and A making angles .,,./4
with r at the point M, corresponding to this pure shear, and the radius CD representa the shearing stress A on the plane mn perpendicular to r. For any plane
m1n 1 inclined at an angle f3 to mn (Fig. 58a), the stress components are given by the
<10ordinates" and r of the point G of the circle, with the angle GCD equal to 2{3.
2<T
95
(e)
Combining this with the uniform compression {d) we find for the total values of
the principal stresses at any point M,
'
2A(a +sina),
2A(a  sina)
(j)
Along any circle through O and 01 the angle a remains constant, and so the pri:i:icipal stresses (f) are also constant. At the boundary, between the points O and Oi;
x~l...i
(a)
Frn. 59.
(Fig. 58a), the angle a is equal to .,,., and we find, from (f), that both principal
stresses are equal t? :2'll"A = q. For the remaining portions of the boundary
a = O, and both pnnc1pal stresses are zero.
Hence if an arbitrary load distribution (Fig. 59) is regarded as composed of a
large n~mber of loads of varying intensities on short elements of the boundary,
the. horizontal stress <Tz under one such load element (as indicated in Fig. 59) is
ent1rely due to that element, and
(g)
H
(b)
FIG. 58.
The sarne circle can be used also to get the stress components due to pure shear
Considering again the plane mini, and noting
that the normal to this plane makes an angle a  f3 with the direction r1 (Fig. 58a),
it appears that the stress components are given by the coordinates of the point H
of the circle. To take care of the sign of the pure shear corresponding to the
r 1direction, we must change the signs of the stress components, and we obtain in
this manner the point H 1 on the circle. The total stress acting on the plane mini
is given by the vector CK, the components of which give the normal stress
 (<r
1) and the shearing stress ri  r. The vector CK has the sarne magnitude
for ali values of f3 since the lengths of its components CH1 and CG, and the angle
between them, .,,.  2a, are independent of fJ. Hence, by combining two pure
shears we obtain again a pure shear (see page 17).
+ .,.
ll,11111
(l
+ v)q d
~E
;~;,;~1~ ;~~~E;M\t .
ti
t\
\'.)OARA
8\BUOTEC~ CENTIULl
. ...
96
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
Vo = 
1l+x q log d
"'
dr   
7rE
1l+x q
"'
dr
(h)
= 2q [ (l
7rE
d + x) logl +X
d] +1 q
V
xlogl
X
7rE
kP c;s
k
(i)
a+ i sin 2a
ln the sarne manner, for a point under the load (Fig. 00), we find
2
vo = q [<l  x) logd7rE
l  X
97
+ xlog~]
+
X
"' =  r(a
1
 v ql
7rE
(j)
P cose
sin 2a)
+t
(73)
Equation (h) can be used also for finding the intensity q of load distribution, which produces a given deflection at the straight boundary,
1
.___,t'I
X
y
Fm. 60.
Fm. 61.
FIG. 62.
Assuming, for instance, that the deflection is constant along the loaded
portion of the straight boundary (Fig. 61), it can be shown that the distribution of pressure along this portion is given by the equation 1
p
q = ;:===
7rVa2  x2
35. Force Acting on the End of a W edge. The simple radial stress
distribution discussed in Art. 33 can be used also in investigating the
stresses in a wedge due to a concentrated force at its apex. Let us consider a symmetrical case, as shown in Fig. 62. The thickness of the
wedge in the direction perpendicular to the xyplane is taken as unity.
The conditions along the faces, 8 = a, of the wedge are satisfied by
taking for the stress components the values
"' =
1
kP cose
r
Fm. 63.
tion of normal stresses over any cross section mn is not uniform and
the ratio of the normal stress at the points m or n to the maxi~um
stress at the center of the cross section is found to be equal to cos4 a.
If the force is perpendicular to the axis of the wedge (Fig. 63), the
sarne solution (a) can be used if 8 is measured from the direction of the
force. The constant factor k is found from the equation of equilibrium
~+a
2
[
from which
k
and the radial stress is
<1r
" = o,
T,9 =
(a)
= P
u, cos 8 rd8
a
1
1
a 
2 Slll
2a
P cose
t sin 2a)
r(a 1
This solution is di.ie to Michell, loc. cit.
chausses, 1901,
.
..
'
~:.'
.,. '
...
(74)
98
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
clockwise.
The normal and shearing stresses over any cross section mn are
q
!/ 
:ti/ 
Pyx sin 4 O
y 3 (a  t sin 2a)
Px 2 sin 4 O
y 3 (a  t sin 2a)
Ur
,~~.,.
Tre
).
tan ) .
(

Sin
=
(b)
,~=,
(e)
For small values of a, the factor (tan a/a) 3 sin 4 Ocan be taken as nearly
unity. Then the expression for u11 coincides with that given by the
elementary beam formula. The maximum shearing stress occurs at
the points m and n and is twice as great as that given by the elementary
theory for the centroid of a rectangular cross section of a beam.
Since we have solutions for the two cases represented in Figs. 62 and
63, we can deal with any direction of the force P in the xyplane by
resolving the force into two components and using the method of superposition.1 It should be noted that solutions (73) and (74) represent
an exact solution only in the case when, at the supported end, the
wedge is held by radially directed forces distributed in the manner
given by the solutions. Otherwise the solutions are accurate only at
points at large distances from the supported end.
The problem of the wedge loaded by a bending couple M, in the
plane of the wedge, and concentrated at the tip, is solved by the stress
function. 2
_ M sin 20  20 cos 2a
(d)
<P 2(sin 2a  2a cos 2a)
where ()is as indicated in Fig. 62 and the applied couple M is counter1 Severa! examples of stress distribution in wedges are discussed by Akira Miura,
"Spannungskruven in rechteckigen und keilfrmigen Trgern," Berlin, 1928.
Forces not at the vertex, on a wedge, or a plate from which a wedge has been cut,
are considered by J. H. A. Brahtz, Physics, vol. 4, p. 56, 1933, and by W. M.
Shepherd, Proc. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 148, p. 284, 1935.
t C. E. lnglis, Trans. Inst. Nav. Arch. (l.nndon), 1922, vol. 64.
99
M
4.sm 20'
2(sin 2a  2a cos 2a) r 2
uo
=O
(e)
Loc. cit.
Wilson, loc. cit.; also G. G. Stokes, "Mathematical and Physical Papers," vol. 5,
p. 238.
2
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
100
tion p /2 and subtracting the moment of all the radially directe~ tens~le
forces applied to onehalf of the beam. This .latter mo~ent IS eas1ly
calculated if we observe that the radially distr1buted tensile forces are
statically equivalent to the pressure distribution over the .quadrant ab
of the cylindrical surface abc at the point A (Fig. 65c) or,.usmg Eq. (66),
are equivalent to a horizontal force P /7r and a vertical force P /2,
p
2c
z;
mrt
Uy
~
~~~~::,.,~~iqr
= 27rC
(.!:.2 _ ~) y + 27rC
_f_ + P
'Ir
1rC
Uz;
~l
2
~e
'Ir
u,.' =
j (~  ;) y = ;~ (~ 
;) y
3P
= 2c3
(a)
4c  4c 3
Uy
2P
(c_+_y_)
(b)
'Ir
21rC
lP
+ 27rC + 51rC
=  0 254 C
y)
3
10 C
Frn. 65.
(3y y)
'lrC
( y
2c 3
101
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
102
Further progress in the solution of the problem was made by H.
Lamb.1 Considering an infinite beam loaded at equal intervals by
equal concentrated forces acting in the upward and downward directions alternately, he simplified the solution of the twodimensional
problem and obtained for several cases expressions for the deflection
curves. It was shown in this manner that the elementary BernoulliEuler theory of bending is very accurate if the depth of the beam is
small in comparison with its length. It was shown also that the correction for shearing force as given by Rankine's and Grashof's elementary theory (see page 43) is somewhat exaggerated and should be
diminished to about 0.75 of its value. 2
A more detailed study of the stress distribution and of the curvature near the
3
point of application of a concentrated load was made by T. v. Krmn and F.
Seewald. a Krmn considers an infinitely long beam and makes use of the solution
for a semiinfinite plate with two equal and opposite couples acting on two neighboring points of its straight boundary (Fig. 56b). The stresses along the bottom
of the beam which are introduced by this procedure can be removed by using a
solution in the forro of a trigonometric series (Art. 23) which, for an infinitely long
beam, will be represented by a Fourier integral. In this manner Krmn arrives
at the stress function
Ma
(ac cosh ac + sinh ac) cosh ay  sinh aC sinh ay. ay
da
</> = 7
}o
sinh 2ac + 2ac
cos ax
Ma f 00 (ac sinh ac + cosh ac) sinh ay  cosh ac cosh ay ay
da (e)
 7 }o
sinh 2ac  2ac
cos ax
a
This function gives the stress distribution in
the beam when the bending moment diagram
.
consists of a very narrow rectangle, as shown
in
Fig. 66. For the most general loading of
M
the beam by vertical forces applied at the top
;:._ _ _ _ _J1c .
of the beam 4 the corresponding bendingmoL+=;...'~c X
ment diagram can be divided into elementary
rectangles such as the one shown in Fig. 66,
Y
and the corresponding stress function will be
FIG. 66.
obtained by integrating expression (e) along the
length of the beam.
This method of solution was applied by Seewald to the case of a beam loaded by a
concentrated force P (Fig. 64). He shows that the stress O',, can be split into two
y=C
3.0
LO
0.5
0.5
y=f
~
<:
e::::;
e::::;
\(>
<::>
, I
1.5
y=O
~~~~~
i'~c::::;~~
;2;
e::::;
e::::;
g;
<::)
1
!
3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5
1.0 0.5
0.5 1.0
.o
.X
,~,.,'1::>
.....
')>'ji<:jl~~
<::)
~. ~~~
0.5
1.0
'1
~
;.
.....
c::::;
;.
~
<::)
;.
(d}
y=+C
1946.
.2;
r"'
o:.,
=,8 C
1!.
X
~
~
1'
;.
c::::;
1.5
1.0 0.5
c::::;
67.
c::::;
;.
3.0
103
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
104
parts: one, which can be calculated by the usual elementary beam formula; and
another, which represents the local effect near the point of application of the load.
This latter part, called <r/, can be represented in the form {J(P /e), in which J3 is a
numerical factor depending on the position of the point for which the local stresses
are calculated. The values of this factor are given in Fig. 67. The two other
stress components " and " can also be represented in the form {J(P /e). The
corresponding values of J3 are given in Figs. 68 and 69. It can be seen from the
figures that the local stresses decrease very rapidly with increase of distance from
1.5
2.0
1.0
0.5
1.0
0.5
1.5
2.0 2.5
....
ycf
3.0
p
3.0 2.5
p .......
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
~
~~
~
~ <:><:> ...
~ 1/ ~
<:)
f.,,
1.0
1.0 0.5
l.S
<:)
...
~l/
ll:g~
'r'i'~'r~
~
;;:::
<::!
;.
<:)
<::i
;.
<:)
...
3.0
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
(e)
1 That is, stresses which must be superposed on those obtained from the ordinary
beam formula.
1"
1 \.
3.0
~
i::;
<::!
<::i
<::i <::!<::!
0.5
(}
l..I
. 3.0
'
the point of application of the load and at a distance equal to the depth of the
beam are usually negligible. Using the values of the factor J3 for x = O, the local
stresses at five points of the cross section AD under the load (Fig. 64) are tabulated
below. For comparison the local stresses,1 as obtained from Eqs. (a) and (b}
(page 101), are also given. It is seen that these equations give the local stresses
with sufficient accuracy.
Knowing the stresses, the curvature and the defiection of the beam can be
calculated without any difficulty. These calculations show that the curvature
of the defiection curve can also be split into two partsone as given by the
2.0
fl~~
FIG. 68.
:i .~\
l.O l.S
I
1.0
~~~~~
;.
o;::>
y=O
22
fJ
o.s o o.s
.....
0.5
<:$
<:)
~U
(b)
1.0
.. ..
::;:;
/J ._..._
1.5
<::!
;.
y=O
= z
 '
(a}
2.5 2.0
(a)
<::!
3.0
~~
1.5
\~ ~1
2.0
!'
~~
~ 'I:. ~~
3.0
li
r\
3.0 2.5
y=+f
~J
<::i
2,0
1.5

L0 . 0.5

 

JI
IJ 
li
'
::s
a~
.,..<Si
""'<:'>! e::>~
I/~
<:::s <::! <::!
<::i
!:<>
l/v

(C)
&1
<::i
3.0

105
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
106
e
y=
2
Uu
0.121
0.456
0.428
1.23
00
0.136
0.145
0.133
Cfy
0.426
1.22
00
0.159
0.477
o .108
0.254
1
= o
elementary beam theory and the other representing the lo~al effect of the concm.1.trated load P. This additional curvature of the center line can be represented
by the formula
1
p
 ==a(d)
Ecz
Taking
'
L...
~
3.0
2.5 2.0
l.S
1.0
,/
f:=a~z
~
....
""" ~ !'.
~~
~ ~ ~i::)
V~~ """f\
~ <::i<::j~i'.:)
o.s
....,
"<
i ~
~C::S<::i<::S
..............
o.s
1.0
~
e::;
1
~~
1
Pl
2 = 48EI
( 3
+ Pl
4c 4G
3
311)
P
 lOE  4E  021 E
(75)
+ 2.85 (2c)
T 
0.84 (2c)
T
(75')
The elementary RankineGrashof theory (see page 43) gives for this case
3
PlEJ
= 48
+ 3.90 (2c)2]
T
(g)
It appears that Eq. (g) gives an exaggerated value for the correction dueto shear.
ln these formulas the defiection due to
p
local deformation at the supports is not
taken into account.
e::;
1
11
+ i
Pl
= 48EI
(f)
0.155
1
(2  2_
 ")
lOE
4E
4c 4G
2 = 0.21
Approximate solution
0.573
qz' =
= !! = Pl
From this defl.ection a small further correction 2, removing the sharp che.nge of
slope at A, should be subtracted. This quantity was also calculated by Seewald
and is equal to
Exact solution
tl:c'
107
+:&.
FIG. 70.
distance greater than half of the depth of the beam the additional curvature is
negligible.
On account of this localized effect on the curvature, the two branches of the
deflection curve AB and AC (Fig. 71) may be considered to meet at an angle
eque.I to
(e)
cos 8
 r
cos 81
= ;:; = d
(a)
109
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
where d is the diameter of the disk, we conclude that the two principal
stresses at M are two equal compressive stresses of magnitude 2P /7d.
Hence the sarne compressive stress is acting on any plane through M
perpendicular to the plane of the disk, and normal compressive forces
of the constant intensity 2P /7d should be applied to the circumference
of the disk in order to maintain the assumed pair of simple radial stress
distributions.
If the boundary of the disk is free from externai forces, the stress at
any point is therefore obtained by superposing a unif orm tension in the
plane of the disk of the magnitude 2P /7d on the above two simple
radial stress distributions. Let us consider the stress on the horizontal
diametral section of the disk at N. From symmetry it can be concluded that there will be no shearing stress on this plane. The normal
stress produced by the two equal radial compressions is
108
 2 . 2P cos 8 . cos2 8
7 r
= _ 4P cos 8
11
+ 2P
?rd
=====
2
2
yd + 4x
we find
2P [
4d4
FIG. 73.
(b)
The maximum compressive stress along the diameter CD is at the center of the disk, where
6P
<I11 =  1d
At the ends of the diameter the compressive stress u11 vanishes.
Consider now the case of two equal and opposite forces acting along
a chord AB (Fig. 73). Assuming again two simple radial distributions
ra?iating from A and B, the stress on a plane tangential to the circumference at M is obtained by superposing the two radial compressions
2P cos8 and 2P
cos81 actmg
.
t h e d'1rect10ns
 m
r and r1, respect'1vely.
.,,.
r1
.,,.
_ 2P (cos 8 sin Ih
.,,.
+ cos 81 sin
r1
81 cos 8
=  2P
.,,. (cos
r8 sm
1
cos
01
~
8)
(e)
sm
8 cos 8)
in which r is the distance AN, and 8 the angle between AN and the
.
vertical diameter. Superposing on this the
uniform tension 2P /7d, the total normal
stress on the horizontal plane at N is
<r
<r
2P
=  ?rd sin (8
+ 81),
r = O
(d)
From Fig. 73 it may be seen that sin (O + 81) remains constant around
the boundary. Hence uniformly distributed compressive forces of the
intensity 2P j.,,.d sin (O + 01) should be applied to the boundary in order
to maintain the assumed radial stress distributions. To obtain the
solution for a disk with its boundary
free from uniform compression it is
only necessary to superpose on the
above two simple radial distributions
a uniform tension of the intensity
2P /.,,.d sin (O + 01).
The problem of the stress distribution in
a disk can be solved for the more general
case when any system of forces in equilibrium
is acting on the boundary of the disk. 1 Let
us take one of these forces, acting at A in the
FIG. 74.
?irection of the chord AB (Fig. 74). Assummg again a simple radial stress distribution we have at point M a simple radial
compression of the magnitude (2P /7) cos fh/r 1 acting in the direction of AM.
1
The problems discussed in this article were solved by H. Hertz, Z. Math. Physik,
Vol. 28, 1883, or "Gesammelte Werke," voI. 1, p. 283; and J. H. Michell, Proc.
London Math. Soe., vol. 32, p. 44, 1900, and vol. 34, p. 134, 1901. The problem
corresponding to Fig. 72 when the disk is replaced by a rectangle is considered by
J: N_. Goodier, Trans. A.S.M.E., vol. 54, p. 173, 1932, including the effects of
distnbution of the load over small segments of the boundary .
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
110
'I'he moment of all the externa! forces with respect to O, from Fig. 74, is
Let us take as origin of polar coordinates the center O of the disk, and measure 9
as shown in the figure. Then the normal and the shearing components of the
stress acting on an element tangential to the boundary at M can easily be calculated if we observe that the angle between the normal MO to the element and the
direction ri of the compression is equal to 7r/2  92. Then
<Tr
2P cos 9i .
=     s1n 2 92
7r ri
2P cos 9i
Tr8 =
7r
(e)
  Slil 92 COS 92
Ti
p sin (Ili
=  1rd
+ 92)
cos (9i
+ 92)
'TrfJ
=  1rd
pd sin
1r
(92 
9i)
9i)
sin (9i
+ 92)
(g)
+ 92)
(h)
and
Observing that the angle between the force P and the tangent at M is Oi  92, it
can be concluded that the stress (k) is of magnitude P /7rd and acts in the direction
opposite to the direction of the force P.
Assume now that there are several forces acting on the disk and each of them
produces a simple radial stress distribution. Then the forces to be applied at the
boundary in order to maintain such a stress distribution are:
(1) A normal force uniformly distributed along the boundary, of intensity
I:i~~+~
ro
is the moment of the couple. To free the boundary of the disk from
forces and transfer the couple balancing the pair of forces p from the
crrc_umfe~en?e o~ the disk to its center, it is necessary to superpose on the simple
radial distnbut1ons the stresses of the case shown in Fig. 75b. These latter
stresses, produced by pure circumferential shear, can easily be calculated if we
observe that for each concentric circle of radius r the shearing stresses must give a
couple Me. Hence,
Mt
Tr921rT 2 = M1,
Tr9 = (p)
27rr 2
s~earmg
These stresses may aleo be derived from the general equations (38) by taking as
the stress function
"'= ~;9
I:i
"
1
i
cos (9i
+ 92)
(m)
(3) A force, the intensity and direction of which are obtained by vectoria~ summation of expressions (k). The summation must extend over all forces acting on
:'
~,.1
ft> boundary .
+ 92)d
(f)
This stress acting on the element tangential to the boundary at point M can be
:i
p cos (9~
and, as this moment must be zero for a system in equilibrium we conclude that
the shearing forces (m) are zero. The force obtained by summ~tion of the stresses
(k), proportional to the vectorial sum of the externa! forces, is also zero for a system
in equilibrium. Hence i~ is onl:y necessary to apply
p
at the boundary of the disk a uniform compression (Z)
in order to maintain the simple radial distributions.
If the boundary is free from uniform compression, the
stress at any point of the disk is obtained by superposing a uniform tension of magnitude
Since, from the triangle AMN, ri = d sin 92, Eqs. (e) can be written in the forro
q,
111
from which
Ur
1
== 0'9 = O,
M1
Tr9 = 27rT2
(q)
::
"
~i1
112
1'HEORY OF ELAS1'ICI1'Y
113
With
the result of superposing cases 76b , 76e, 76d , an d
this adjustment
fi
e
IS
an
m
mte
p
1
ate
loaded at a point, Fig. 7Ga.
76
The
stress
distribution
in the plate is now easily obtaI'ned b y super
h
.
posmg t e stresses m a semiinfinite plate produced by a normal load
P /2
at theh boundary (see Art. 33) on the stresses in the curved b ar conammg
(a)
.X
D cos fJ
ur=
uo
= D cos
r
fJ
 D sin 6
Tro 

1  v P cos fJ
~r
1  v p cos fJ
=~r
1  v P sin ()
= 471'
Combining this with stresses (66) calculated for the load P/2
bt
the f n
t
d' .
, we o ain
o owmg s ress Istnbution in the infinite plate:
O'r
(C)
471'
r
1  vP cos fJ
FIG. 76.
oo=~
the point O, in the case 76c it is toward the point O. The magnitudes
of these displacements in both cases, from Eq. (71), is
Tro
1 
)1
4E
P
= 1  PP COS () _ P COS (}
(a)
(3
v) P COS ()
471'
(76)
1  vP sin (}
471'
r
= 
~:u:~:~n~ out fr~m t~e plate at the point O (Fig. 76a) a small element
ct
yh a cy~md~Ical surface of radius r, and projecting the forces
g
on
t
e cylmdncal boundary of the element on the x  and yaxes,
we find
actin
This difference in the horizontaldisplacements may be eliminated by
combining the cases 76b and 76c'with the cases 76d and 76e in which
shearing forces act along the straight boundaries. The displacements
for these latter cases can be obtained from the problem of bending of a
curved bar, shown in Fig. 46. Making the inner radius of this bar
ap\)roach zero and the outer radius increase indefinitely, we arrive at
X = 2
Tro
Tro
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
114
i.e., the forces acting on the boundary of the cylindrical element represent the load P applied at the point O. By using Eqs. (13) the stress
components, in Cartesian coordinates, are found from Eqs. (76):
p cos 8
'TzY
+ v) + 2(1 + v) sm
.
v  2(1 + v) sm
8]
47r
81
+ 2(1 + v) cos
(77)
TzY
81
,=
O"z 
o,,= dP [(3
41T 2
11
TzY
+ v) cos 8 + (1
2
= dP [(1  v) cos 2 8 + (1
41T 2
dP [ (6
41T 2
 v) sin 2
8 + 8(1 + v)
sin
8 cos
+ 3v) sin2 8
 8(1
O"r
dP
= 2(1  v)1
47rr 2
8]
v) sin 2 8 cos 2 81
8] sin 8 cos 8
It can beseen that the stress components decrease rapidly, asr increases,
and are negligible when r is large in comparison with d. Such a result
is to be expected in accordance with SaintVenant's principle if we have
two forces in equilibrium applied very near to each other.
By superposing two stress distributions such as given by Eqs. (78) 1
0"9
FIG. 78.
= 2(1  v) 4irr2'
~
d
Tro
= O
(79)
This solution can be made to agre_e with solution (46) for a thick cylin~er subm1tted to the action of internai pressure
if t_he o_uter diameter of _the cylinder is taken
as mfimtely great.
Y
ln the sarne manner we can get a solution
for the case shown in Fig. 79a. The stress
components are 1
O"r
0"9
=O,
(80)
FIG. 79.
(78)
Yt~!
( O"x +ao,,
d) =  d ao,, =  d (ao,,
sin 8)
ar COS 8  ao,,
ax
ax
a8 r
Thus the stress components for the case of Fig. 77 are obtained from
Eqs. (77) by differentiation. ln this manner we find
The
From solution (77), for one concentrated force, solutions for other
kinds of loading can be obtained by superposition. Take, for instance, the case shown
in Fig. 77, in which two equal and opposite
forces acting on an infinite plate are applied at
two points O and 0 1 a very small distance d
apart. The stress at any point M is obtained
by superposing on the stress produced by the
force at O the stress produced by the other
force at 0 1 . Considering, for instance, an
element at M perpendicular to the xaxis and
FIG. 77.
denoting by o x the normal stress produced on the element by the force at
O, the normal stress o,/ produced by the two forces shown in the figure is
O"z
P sin
 8 [1  v
=  
O"z
115
FIG. 80.
If instead
an infinite p1~t e ~e h ave to d eal with
an infmitely long strip subjected
to the of
action
(77) as if the la of a l~ng1t~d1~al for~e p ~Fig. 80), we may begin with solution
the strip resulEngt~ wer:~nfimte m all direct1ons. The stresses along the edges of
t lS procedu~e can be annulled by superposing an equal and
opposite system
mined by using ~h
s r~sses pro uced by this corrective system can be deterR. C. J. Howland :;oenera method described in Art. 23. Calculations made by
p diminish rapidly aswt~ha~~~e loca~ stresses produced by the concentrated force
increases and at d"
e lS ance rom the point of application of the load
stresses ~ver the c:;tance~.gre~ter tha_n the wi~th of the strip the distribution of
i A
ss sec lOil lS pract1cally umform. ln the table below several
;i:
117
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
.
t d on the assumption that the
values of the stresses u. and u are g1v~n, c~1cu1~ e. 1
. . fixed at the end x = + oo and P01sson s rat10 is
s t np1s
The first three terms in the first line of this expression represent the solution for
the stress distribution symmetrical with respect to the origin of coordinates (see
Art. 26). The fourth term gives the stress distribution for the case shown in
Fig. 57. The fifth term gives the solution for pure shear (Fig. 75b). The first
term in the second line is the simple radial distribution for a load in the direction
8 = o. The remaining terms of the second line represent the solution for a
portion of a circular ring bent by a radial force (Fig. 46). By a combination of
ali the terms of the second line the solution for a force acting on an infinite plate
was obtained (Art. 38). Analogous solutions are obtained also from the third line
of expression (81), the only difference being that the direction of the force is changed
by .,,./2. The further terms of (81) represent solutions for shearing and normal
forces, proportional to sin n8 and cos n8, acting on the inner and outer boundaries
of a circular ring. We had an example of this kind in discussing the stress distribution around a small circular hole (Art. 32).
In the case of a portion of a circular ring the constants of integration in expression (81) can be calculated without any difficulty from the boundary conditions.
If we have a complete ring, certain additional investigations of thc displacements
are sometimes necessary in determining these constants. We shall consider the
general case of a complete ring and assume that the intensities of the normal and
shearing forces at the boundaries r = a and r = b are given by the following
trigonometrical series:
116
u,2c
y=O
.. . . .
.....
+0.159
+0.511
0.532
0.521
0.500
0.110
0.364
.....
.....
.....
7r
30
18
.....
=
=
y=O
u,2c
u,2c
<Ty2C
7r
7r
~=
y=c
0.992
u,2c
y=O
 30
0.118
y=O
7r
 18
u,2c
y=c
9
3
7r
7r
7r
 =
7r
00
7r
.....
1.992
1.118
1.002
0.479
0.468
0.489
0.841
0.973
.....
.....
0.364
0.110
0.049
l.,
(anr"
n=2
l.,
(c,.r"
(81)
n=2
34~, 1!~2Proc.
Hi ~c~h
(ur)r..a = Ao
l
+l
.,
+ l
+ l
.,
n=l
e distance
Stresses produced in a semiinfimte plate by a force apphed at som
d'
d b E Melan 1
from the edge have been iscuss~
~ . nsionitl Problem in Polar Coordinates.
39. General Solution of th~ lwo me f the two dimensional problem in polar
. d'
d various part1cu ar cases o
.
f th
Havmg iscusse
.
.t.
t write down the general solut1on o
e
. t
re now in a pos1 ion o
. .
h
d
coor ma es we a
.
f the stress function </>, sat1sfymg t e comproblem. The general express1on or
2
patibility equation (39) is
</> =
.,
(ur)r1> = Ao'
(rre)rb = Co'
B,.' sin n6
n=l
C,. cos n8
n=l
'
l
.,
+ l
+ l
n=l
helra = Co
n=l
(a)
D,. sin n6
n=l
n=l
D,.' sin n8
n=l
in which the constants Ao, A,., B,., . . . , are to be calculated in the usual manner
from the given distribution of forces at the boundaries (see page 49). Calculating
the stress components from expression (81) by using Eqs. (38), and comparing
the values of these :.iomponents for r = a and r = b with those given by Eqs. (a),
we obtain a sufficieL:t number of equations to determine the constants of integration in all cases with n ;:;: 2. For n = O, i.e., for the terms in the first line of
expression (81), and for n = 1, i.e., for the terms in the second and third lines,
further investigatiom are necessary .
Taking the first line of expression (81) as a stress function, the constant ao' is
determined by the magnitude of the shearing forces uniformly distributed along
the boundaries (see page 111). The stress distribution given by the term with the
factor do is many valued (see page 93) and, in a complete ring, we must assume
do = O. For the determination of the remaining three constants ao, b0 , and cr
we have only two equations,
and
(ur)rb
= Ao'
119
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
The additional equation for determining these constants is obtained from the
consideration of displacements. The displacements in a complete ring should be
singlevalued functions of 8. Our previous investigation shows (see Art. 26) that
this condition is fulfilled if we put co = O. Then the remaining two constants
ao and bo are determined from the two boundary conditions stated above.
Let us consider now, in more detail, the terms for which n = 1. For determining the eight constants a1, b1, . . . , dl' entering into the second and the third
tines of expression (81), we calculate the stress components u, and Tr9 using this
portion of <f>. Then using conditions (a) and equating corresponding coefficients
of sin n8 and cos n8 at the inner and outer boundaries, we obtain the following
118
eight equations:
8sin 9
2  r (J cos (J + i
(J
a1 l 
11
a1 l 
2b'
2b'
11
cos
(J
h ence
a1 l 
2b'
2  r +i =o
11
or
(b)
2  r 8sm 8 +i
b'
1
_a1(l11)
(j)
Comparing Eqs. (b) with (e) it can be seen that they are compatible only if
a1a 1 = Al  Dl
aib 1 = Ai'  D,'
c1a 1 = B1 + C1
c1b1 = Bi' + C1'
(d)
(g)
Jistr~bu~~o:
Co
It can be shown that Eqs. (e) are always fulfilled if the forces acting on the ring
are in equilibrium. Taking, for instance, the sum of the components of all the
forces in the direction of the xaxis as zero, we find
fo
1!
i
" { [b(ur)rb
 a(ur)ral
COS
8 
Substituting for ur and r,8 from (a), we arrive at the first of Eqs. (e). ln the sarne
manner, by resolvingall the forces along the yaxis, we obtain the second of Eqs. (e).
When a1 and c1 are determined from Eqs. (d) the two systems of Eqs. (b) and
(e) become identical, and we have only four equations for determining the remaining six constants. The necessary two additional equations are obtained by considering the displacements. The terms in the second line in expression (81) represent the stress function for a combination of a simple radial distribution and the
1
bending stresses in a curved bar (Fig. 46). By superposing the general expressions for the displacements in these two cases, namely Eqs. (g) (page 90) and
Eqs. (q) (page 77), and, substituting ai/2 for P /'Ir ..'n Eqs. (g) and bl' for D in
1 It should be noted that 8 + (7r/2) must be substituted for 8 if the angle is
measured from the vertical axis, as in Fig. 52; instead of from the horizontal axis,
as in Fig. 46.
bl' = 
= 0,
' (1 4
li)
'
'
= _ c1(l  11)
4
(82)
'
Al = Dl
B 1 = C 1
et
Wethe
have
such
ring
va:i~~:sdit"i~;h t~e r:sultant of the forces applied to each boundary
of
tion of forces applied to th eh or ~ns ance, the res~ltant component in the xdirece oun ary r =a. Th1s component, from (a), is
o2r
(ur
cos
(J 
Tr9
If it vanishes we find A  D
I
the ydirection we obta; B :_ ~ the sarne manner, by resolving the forces in
we may concl~de h
m 1   1 when the ycomponent is zero. From this
of the elastic const!n~: the stress d~st~ibution in a complete ring is independent
boundary is zero Th of the material if the resultant of the forces applied to each
'
e moment of these forces need not be zero,
I'
o;==~
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
120
These conclusions for the case of a circular ring hold also in the most general
case of the twodimensional problem for a multiplyconneeted body. From general
investigations made by J. H. Michell, 1 it follows that, for multiplyconnected
bodies (Fig. 81), equations analogous to Eqs. (82) and expressing the condition
that the displacements are single valued should be derived for each independent
eircuit such as the circuits A and B in the figure.
The stress distributions in such bodies generally
depend on the elastic constants of the material.
They are independent of these constants only if the
resultant force on each boundary vanishes. 2 Quantitatively the effect of the moduli on the maximum
stress is usually very small, and in practice it can be
neglected. 3 This conclusion is of practical importance. W e shall see later that in the case of trans:FIG. 81.
parent materials, such as glass or bakelite, it is possible to determine the stresses by an optical method, using polarized light (see
page 131) and this conclusion means that the experimental results obtained with
a transparent material can be applied immediately to any other material such as
121
effect
an mit1al
.
t . by making a cut along a vertma1 radms and imposmg
. is obtained
isplacemen
ot
one
end
of
the
ring
with
respect
to
th
th
0
d
(Fi 82b)
Th
e
er m the vertical direct
10n
g.
. .Figs. 82 a and
82b
d .to th e m1tial stresses produced in the cases shown m
correspon .
e manyvalued terms of the general solution when Eqs (j) d
(g) are not sat1sfied.
an
Thet complete
of these problems can be obt ame
. d b Y app1ymg
. the results
31 Th solution
d
of Ar . . d t e fisplacements
d
given by Eqs. (q) of Art 31 will b e foun d to have
(see p rob. 4, page 126).
th e reqmre ype o IBcontmmty when applied to a rmg
r.
,,
'~
1\,
~,
!'),,
10~
~'
f/'.:~
V,+>'. t? !lo.
~~ ~ ~
b 0.9b
~o.
~
lrO.lb/ ~6~
'/ b
N~ ~~ f0
~ ~ !/.%
,,~
,,
'
1~'
i;'l, f0 0, ~ \
0.9b
o.
I(}
l(Gl ]b
''.:~ ~ ~
~ r~ 0,
(a)
~
I~
o. b
I\' ~F/,:
l'S 10
8=90
:/,tl.6b
~ 10 V',,; ~
'~ ~1% ~
(\~ 1/,1.~
8=0
'~
~. ~
'~
~
1\
\
(h}
(a)
FIG. 82.
It was mentioned before (see page 68) that the physical meaning of manyvalued solutions can be demonstrated by considering initial stresses in a multiplyconnected body. Suppose, for instance, that Eq. (f) above is not satisfied. The
corresponding displacement is shown in Fig. 82a. Such a displacement can be
produced by cutting the ring and applying forces P. If now the ends of the ring
are joined again by welding or other means, a ring with initial stresses is obtained.
4
The magnitudes of these stresses depend on the initial displacement d. A similar
Loc. cit.
It must be remembered that the body forces were taken as zero.
a An investigation of this subject is given by L. N. G. Filon, Brit. Assoe. Advancement Sei. Rept., 1921. See E. G. Coker and L. N. G. Filon, "Photoelasticity,"
1
(cJ
()
FIG. 83.
122
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
in the ring. The ratios a 8 : 2P /irb, calculated in this man~er f?r various points o~
the cross sections mn and m1n1 for the case b = 2a, are g1ven m the table below.
r =
0.9b
O.Sb
0.7b
0.6b
tion that there are only normal pressures acting on the inner and outer boundaries
having the magnitudes: 1
0.5b
Exact theory
mn
m,n,
1.477
2.185
2.610
3.788
0.1131
0.594
2.012
1.240
4.610
4.002
8.942
10 .147
4.806
5.108
8.653
11.18
4.86
5.20
7.04
8.67
i.e., the pressures are distributed along the lower half of the inner edge an:l the
upper half of the outer edge of the eyeshaped end of the bar. After expanding
mn
m1n1
2.885
7.036
1.6021
5.010
0.001 1 2.060
2.482
0.772
mn
m1n1
1.71
5.20
3.90
8.67
1
0.48
1.73
2.67
1.73
For comparison we give the values of t~e sarne stre~ses calculated from the .two
elementary theories based on the followmg assumpt1ons: (1) that c~oss sections
remain plane; in which case the normal stresses over the cross sect10~ fo!low a
hyperbolic law; (2) that the stresses are d1stnbuted
according to a linear law. The table shows that for
the cross section mn, which is at a comparatively large
distance from the points of application of the loads P,
the hyperbolic stress distribution gives results which
are very nearly exact. The error in the maxim~m
stress is only about 3 per cent. For the cross section
m 1n 1 the errors of the approximate solution are much
larger. It is interesting to note that the resultant of
the normal stresses over the cross section m1n1 is P /..
This is to be expected if we remember the wedge action
of the concentrated force illustrated by Fig. 65d. The
distribution of normal stresses over the cross section
mn and m 1n 1 calculated by the three above methods is
Frn. 84.
Th
h d
li d
shown in Figs. 83b and 83c.
e met o app e
above to the case of two equal and opposite forces can be used for the general case
of loading of a circular ring by concentrated forces. 2
As a second example we consider the end of an eyebar 3 (Fig. 84). The distribution of pressures along the edge of the hole depends on the ~mount of clearancf,
between the bolt and the hole. The following results are _obtamed on the assumpThe thickness of the plate is taken as unity.
.
.
L. N. G. Filon, The Stresses in a Circular Ring, Se~e~ted E"!gineering Papers,
No. 12, London, 1924, published by the Institution of Civil Engmeers..
a H. Reissner, Jahrb. wiss. Gesellsch. Luftfahrt, p. 126, 1928; H. Reissner, and
F. Strauch, lngenieurArchiv, vol. 4, p. 481, 1933.
i
+0.068
+J.85
+0.169
Frn. 85.
these distributions into trigonometric series, the stresses can be calculated by using
the general solution (81) of the previous article. Figure 85 shows the values of the
ratio ae :P /2a, calculated for the cross sections mn and m1n 1 for b/a = 4 and
2
b/a = 2. It should be noted that in this case the resultant of the forces acting on
each boundary does not vanish, hence the stress distribution depends on elastic
constants of the material. The above calculations are for Poisson's ratio 11 = 0.3.
41. A Wedge Loaded along the Faces. The general solution (81) can be used
also for polynomial distributions of load on the faces of a wedge. a By calculating
1
124
'J'HEORY OF ELAS'l'ICI'l'Y
the stress components from Eq. (81) in the usual way, and taking only the terms
containing rn with n :;:: O, we find the following expressions for the stress components in ascending powers of r:
ue = 2b 0 + 2do0 + 2a2 cos 20 + 2c2 sin 20
+6r(b 1 cos O + d 1 sin O + aa cos 30 + ca sin 30)
+ 12r2(b 2 cos 20 + d, sin 20
(n
+ r(2b
(n
+ 2)0
+ e"+' sin (n + 2)01
+ rn[n(n
+ l)bn sin nO
+ 2)0]
Thus each power of r is associated with four arbitrary parameters so that, if the
applied stresses on the boundaries, O == a and O = {3, are given as polynomials in r,
the stresses in the wedge included between these boundaries are determined.
If, for instance, the boundary conditions are 1
(ue)ea
(ue)efJ
he)ea
(rro)eiS
ue = 'l_ (  k
k
q (1
Tr9 = k 2 
+ 21 tan f3
q( k
u, = k
+ 21 tan {3
(a)
(b)
(n
+ 2)a1
N,.
+ 2as
= q
2dof3
2a2 cos 2{l
2c2 sin 2{l = O
do  2c2 =O
d 0 + 2a 2 sin 2{3  2c2 cos 2{J = O
2bo
1.
O
1
)
2 cos 20
1.
2 sm 20 + 21 tan {3
(e)
cos 20 )
( 7 
O+
Fm. 87.
~ sin 20)
TrO
O'r
 ; ('l 
21
O
(d)
~ sin 20)
+ 2)a
+ Cn+ sin
+ 21 sm 20)
Problems
= No
Cs sin 3a) = N,
(n
. 20
21 tan {3 sm
ue =
+ C2 sin 2a)
2k
'l
and generally
(n
q+qtantl
2bo
!1,
2k
(83)
Tr9 =
125
x  y = (x 2
+ y 2)(x'
 y 2 ) = r 4 cos 20
aE (1  2 log ~)
47r
a
and sois large, and negative when a is positive (the gap is being closed).
1
This solution was obtained by another method by M. Levy, Compt. rend., vol
126, p. 1235, 1898. See also P. Fillunger; Z. Math. Physik, vol. 60, 1912. An
~pplic~tion of stress functior_is of this type to tapered box beams is given by
~eIBsner, J. Aeronaut. Sei., vol. 7, P 353, 1940. Other loads on wedges are
cons1dered by C. J. Tranter, Quart. J. Mechs. and Appl. Math., voL 1, p. 125, 1948.
126
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
What is the largest gap (value of a) which can be closed without exceeding the
elastic limit, if b/a = 10, E = 3 X 10 7 p.s.i., elas ti e limit = 4 X 10 4 p.s.i.?
4. Use the results of Art. 31 to obtain formulas for the stresses due to closing
the parallel gap a in Fig. 88a, and due to the
sliding of amount a in Fig. 88b, in terms of a.
5. Find by superposition from Eqs. (62)
the stresses in the infinite plate with a hole
when the undisturbed stress at infinity is uniform tension S in both the x and ydirections.
The results should correspond with Eqs.
(45) for the special case b/a+ oo, P =O,
(a)
(hJ
Po = S. Use this as a check.
FIG. 88.
6. Find expressions for the displacements
..iorresponding to the stresses (62), and verify that they are singlevalued.
7. Convert the stress function (a) of Art. 33 to Cartesian coordinates and hence
derive the values of ""'' " 'Tzu which are equivalent to the stress distribution of Eqs.
(66'). Show that these values approach zero as the distance from the force
increases in any direction.
8. Verify that in the special case of a = "Ir /2 the stress function (d), page 98,
agrees with Eq. (69), and investigate whether the stress distribution (e), page 99,
tends to agree with elementary bending theory for small a.
9. Show by evaluating the force resultants that the stress distribution (e),
page 99, does in fact correspond to loading by a pure couple M at the tip of the
wedge.
10. A force P per unit thickness is applied by a knifeedge to the bottom of a
90deg. notch in a large plate as indicated in Fig. 89. Evaluate the stresses,
and the horizontal force transmitted across an are AB.
y
FIG. 91.
</>
o,
"8 =
= s on 8 =a
= s on 8 =
Tr8
o,
"8 =
Tr8
a
+ brr
cos 8
o,
"8 =
"8
sr on 8 =
sr on 8
Tr8 =
=o,
r,8
a
o,
r,8 =
=O,
Tr8 =
"8 =
"8
11. Find an expression for the stress ""' on the section mn indicated in Fig. 90.
The wedge theory of the present chapter and the cantilever theory of Chap. 3
give different stress distributions for the junction rs. Comment on this.
12. Determine the value of the constant C in the stress function
<f>
= C[r2(a  8)
sr 2 on 8 = a
sr 2 on 8 =
a
FIG. 89.
+ r2 sin 8 cos 8 
r2
cos 2
8 tan a]
required to satisfy the conditions on the upper and lower edges of the triangular
plate shown in Fig. 91. Evaluate the stress components <Ts, Tzv for a vertical
127
"= 
J!.
X
+ x2___!?Jf__)
+ y '
'!!_ (arctan
1r
J!. X
Tzy
 '!!_
~)
+ y2
2
)
7r
y2
+ yt
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
128
and show that it solves the problem of the semiinfinite plate indicated in Fig. 92,
with axes as shown. The load extends indefinitely to the left.
Pl 111 ! 11 ~ _,,
()=ore ftm~
2:a [ xy log (x
+ y) + (x2y
;y
~ [!2 y2 log
(x 2
p {
arctan '!!.
X
+ !3 y
log (x 2
+y
! xy]
3
solves the problem of the semiinfinite plate indicated in Fig. 94, the linearly
increasing pressure load extending indefinitely to the left.
 ;
xy
r2
 3a 1g r1 2 
[a4 + 21 (x + y) ( 1 
x
6a
+ 2ay )]
+ 23 ax{J + 21 ay ( 1
2
Fm. 96.
 3y  3a)a
4::'}
"' =
r1 2 = (x  a)
y,
2ay
01  O, = arctan
x
y  a'
r2 2
+ a) + y
+ 02 = arctan
= (x
fJ = 01
x2
Zxy
y  a
"' == 
FIG. 94.
given Y e stress
s..;=c:=P===J=:"'l=x=
(!3 x' + xy 2)
 3xy
FIG. 95.
 y]
solves the problem of the semiinfinite plate indicated in Fig. 93, the uniform shear
loading s extending from O indefinitely to the
q, =  J!_ [
Examine the value of ., ., (a) approaching O along the boundary Ox, (b) approaching O along the yaxis (the discrepancy is dueto the discontinuity of loading at 0).
17. Show that the stress function
=
 y 3) arctan
:JC
Fra. 92.
q,
129
E{,,,,. cos _i c1 
!2 rO sin o
+ 4a log r
a
32
(3  11)
r1 coso }
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
130
tisfies the boundary conditions for a force p acting in a hole in an infinite plate
.
finity , and that the circumferential stress round the bole 18
with zero st ress a t ll1
p [2 + (3  v) cos B}
'll"d
CHAPTER 5
Fm. 97.
(4~7
F" d the general form of f(r) in the stress function Bf(r), and ~d the expresll1
Co ld uch a stress funct10n apply to a
u s
sions for the stress components .,.,, "' "O
closed ring?
132
f th ray By reflection
ali directions transv.erse to the d irect10n o
e
.
. t
b
from a iece of plate glass covered on one si~e with black ~am ' or y
?.
h a olarizera Nicol prism, or Polaroid platewe
transIDiss10n throug
p .
f 1 ht . which transverse vibra
bt
ore or less polarized beam o lg m
. .
r~~~;~s:~:yfi~!~~;~~::~:r
~:~:~~~tio~e
~~:~sc~::~l~l::~ft~d;:::elcdy.
. .
f t
We sha cons1 er on
in the photoelastic mvest1gat1on o s ress.
monochromatic light.
t: ~ : ~ :
<a>
PQp
.4A
(b)
t1 = ,
(e)
V,,
(b)
Frn. 98.
i.
Since the light waves are transmitted without change of forro, the
xdisplacement, x1, of the light leaving the plate at time t corresponds
to the xdisplacement of the light entering the plate at a time t 1 earlier.
Thus
(d)
x 1 = a cosa cos p(t  t1),
Y1 = a sin a cos p(t  t 2)
On leaving the plate, therefore, these components have a phase dijference .1 = p(t 2  t 1). It was established experimentally that for a
given material ata given temperature, and for light of a given wave
length, this phase difference is proportional to the difference in the
principal stresses. It is also proportional to the thickness of the plate.
The relationship is usually expressed in the forro
.i
(C)
Frn. 99.
f r ht 1 nzed m the
vertical and horizontal for convenience. !1 ra! o lg p~a in Fi 99
1 ne OA (Fi . 99) arrives from P, the d1~ec~1on of the Y_
g.
pb ~ throug: the paper. The vibration lS s1mple harmoruc and may
eing
" d' 1
t"
be represented by the transverse
lSp acemen
(a)
s = a cos pt
h d' t'
OA where p is 211' times the frequency, depending on
,
.
.
. .
1n t e irec 10n
the color of the light, and t is the time.
.
y = a sin a cos pt
The effect of the principal stresses 11,, and 11u, acting at the point O of
the plate, is to change the velocities with which these components are
propagated through the plate. Let v,, and Vy denote the velocities in
the planes Ox and Oy. If h is the thickness of the plate, the times
required for the two components to traverse the thickness are
.
t 11 a plane polariscope. A
F'gure 98a represents d iagramma lCa y
.
h
1
. . ..
L
th ugh a polanzer p t en
beam of light ongmat~tng adt 1 .J~~:h ~~difies the light acc~rding
through the transparen mo. e .
.
.
A t a
to the stress, then. through an analyzera11;other P?lanzer  o .
..
S n which a pattern of i11terference frmges (F1gs. 100 to 104) lS
screen , o
 ..
formed.
(aJ
133
27h
= T C(11,,  11y)
(e)
where is the wave length (in vacuo), and C the experimentally determined stressoptical coefficient. C depends on the wave length and
temperature as well as the material.
The analyzer A transmits on}y vibrations or components in its own
plane of polarization. If this is at right angles to the plane of polarization of the polarizer,1 and if the model is removed, no light is transmitted by A and the screen is dark. W e now consider what occurs
when the model is present. The components (d) on arrival at the
analyzer may be represented as
X2
= a cos
a cos if;,
(j)
~~~ ::~~~
'
134
.
t d by mn in Fig. 99a, for
The plane of polarization ofd4 isl reptre~e; e The components of the
.
It is set perpen icu ar o
convemence.
"tt d b A are the components a1ong
vibrations (f) which are transm1 e y
Om which are, using Eqs. (f)'
'
_
cosa = !a sin 2a cos (lf;  )
1
x 2 sin a = "2"a
sm 2a cos 1/1,
Y2
The resultant vibration along mn is therefore
1
.
.,
_ a sm 2a [cos .,,1
(' _
cos .,,
)] = a sin 2a sin
~2 sin (lf;  ~
. ( )
2
h
t the simple harmonic variation w1t
The factor sm 1/1  2 represen s
time.
The amplitude is
a sin 2a sm
135
(g)
d"
ted by a dark
gu
11 r n one or more curves, m ica
These points usua y ie o .
l d
" . cl1"nic " Very short lines
S h
rve is cal e an iso
.
.
band on S.
uc a cu d A
be drawn at numerous points on it
parallel to the axes of p and.
~ay f the principal stresses at these
th (parallel) irect1ons o
.
t"
to recor d e
A . dff
t (perpendicular) orienta 10ns,
.
B
tt" p and m i eren
d
pomts.
y se mg
.
Th hort lines then cover the fiel
different isoclinics are o~tamed.
e s t and it is possible to draw
f
fihngs over a magne ,
.
h . t t the principal axes of stress.
like a pattern o iron
curves which are tangential at eac pom . o . l stresses
The latter lines are trajectories of the prmc1paO 1 2 .
When
.
/
th
= 2n?r where n = , '
0
If sm 2 = '
en
Points where this occurs are
= O, the principal stresses a_re efqual.
b dark Points at which
.
.
.
.
. t and w1ll o course e
called isotrop1c pom s,
. e of the first order, points for wh1ch
n = 1 forro a dark band, or frmg ' d
These fringes are called
n = 2 a fringe of the second ordehr.'tanl. shot 1.ns. used they correspond to
(b
e when w I e ig
'
I
isochromatics ecau.s '
1 gth d therefore to a color band). t
anf .
 2 has twice the value
extinction of acertam wave en
th t
_ u on a rmge n . .
Y d
To evaluate the prmc1pal
follows from E q. (e) a u,,
n
1
an
so
on.
of u,,  <Yy on a fnnge  '
t know the order of the
.
t therefore necessary o
stress d1fferences I is .
t d by the fringe of the first
fringes, and the stress d1fference represen e
order, or fringe value.
'li
FIG. 100.
fringes, as the load is increased. The orders of the fringes may therefore be determined by observing this movement and counting the
fringes.
For instance a strip in pure bending gives a fringe pattern as shown
in Fig. 100. The parallel fringes accord with the fact that in the portion of the strip away from the points of application of the loads, the
stress distribution is the sarne in all vertical cross sections. By watching the screen as the load is gradually increased we should observe that
new fringes appear at the top and bottom of the strip and move
toward the middle, the fringes as a whole becoming more and more
closely packed. There will be one fringe at the neutral axis which
remains dark throughout. This will clearly be the fringe of zero order
(n =O).
. 43. Circular Polariscope. W e have seen that the plane polariscope
~ust discussed provides, for a chosen value of a, the corresponding
isoclinic as well as the isochromatics or fringes. Figure 100 should
136
THEORY OF ELAST!CITY
137
Before examining the effects of QA and A u on th .
. .
p . . e hght it Is convenient to represent the motion (k)
.
Th. .
b
as a superposit10n of two circular
is
may
e
do
f
ll
. t/t' _ (/ ) b . ,11
mo t 10ns.
 ;o
ne as o ows. Denotmg
2 y 'f'1 '
an d a / v 2 by b, Eqs. (k) give
a:2
a
./,
= y'2
cos '1'1
y 2,
Va 2 cos (''f'
z7r')
. '
Va 2 sm
't'
COS
{3
COS
1/1,
Ya
= _;
will merely result in a cha~ge ocf tahnge ho axes flor a circular motion
t
e p ase ang e ift" b
Thus the clockwise circular motion can be represented b y a cons ant.
of the forro
Y components
= 
=::: Sln
y2
.
{3 Sln
i/t
+ {3.
Va 2 COS .1,1
't',
X5
if;,
= c cos t/t,
Ys = c sin
(t/t 
~)
= c cos 1"
(o)
'
(j)
Ya = _; sin (1/1'  )
(k)
lf the polarizer and analyzer rotate, their axes remaining perpendicular, the
fringes remain stationary and the isoclinics move. If the rotation is rapid the
isoclinics are no longer visible. The circular polariscope achieves the sarne effect
by purely optical means.
1
C COS
(i)
Adding the components in Eqs. (i) and (j) we find for the light leaving
the model
Xa
Y4 = c sin i/t
(n)
aiong the axes of QA, where i/t is again of the f r
Identifying X4 with the fast axis of Q we h II oh m pt + constant.
A,
s a
ave on emergence
from QA
X4
(m)
Xa
(!)
(h)
XI
4
/.
= c sm 't',
yi = c cos 1"
(n')
 .. ,... .
f lt~STITUTUL
,.~
. ,._.
POUTEHNIC .
llMl':OARA
~ENTRALl
amuoTECf..
138
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
139
ln such cases the maximum stress is at the b
.
obtained directly by the optical method beca~undary, and It ~a~ be
stresses
vanishes at the free boundary.
e one of the prmc1pal
.
Figure 101 shows the fringe pattern of a curved b i
M. The outer radius is three times th .
ar bent by couples
the fringes marked on the rightha d edmhner. The. order numbers of
n en s ow a max1mum of 9 at both
v2c
or
V2 b sin ~
or
. t;.
asm
(p)
Fm. 101.
If t;. is zero, the amplitude (p) is also zero. Thus if there is no model,
or if the model is unloaded, the screen is dark. W e have a dark field
setting. If the analyzer axis is turned through 90 deg. with respect to
QA we should have a light field and light fringes taking the place of the
former dark fringes. The sarne effect is brought about in the plane
polariscope by baving the polarizer and analyzer axes parallel instead
of at right angles.
44. Examples of Photoelastic Stress Determination. The photoelastic method has yielded especially important results in the study of
stress concentration at the boundaries of holes and reentrant corners.
E. E Weibel T
'
rans.
637, 1934.
140
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
part (the complete model continues above this top edge, which is its
axis of symmetry), indicating a compressive stress at the inside represented by 13.5, anda tensile stress at the outside represented by 6.7.
These values are in very close agreement, proportionally, with the
theoretical "exactsolution" values in the last line of the table on
page 64.
Figures 102, 103 represent 1 the case of bending of a beam by a force
applied at the middle. The density of distribution of dark fringes
indicates high stresses near the point of application of the load. The
number of fringes crossing a cross section diminishes as the distance of
.J
oD/d=J
oD/d=l.S
d\
~
0.1
"'...
0.2
... ~
1
2
0.3
R~tioR/d
lcrn. 105.
Frn. 106.
D
1
Frn. 104.
the cross section from the middle of the beam increases. This is due
to decrease in bending moment.
Figure 104 represents the stress distribution in a plate of two different widths submitted to centrally applied tension. It is seen that the
maximum stress occurs at the ends of the fillets. The ratio of this
maximum stress to the average stress in the narrower portion of the
plate is called the stressconcentration factor. It depends on the ratio
of the radius R of the fillet to the width d of the plate. Severa! values
of the stressconcentration factor obtained experimentally 2 are given
in Fig. 105. It is seen that the maximum stress is rapidly increasing
as the ratio R/d is decreasing, and when R/d = 0.1 the maximum
stress is more than twice the average tensile stress. Figure 106 repre
141
d
.
0.4
1
,.,
0.5
0.6
143
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
142
2.6
1
u
~
'
e
o
+: 2
IS
....
1:Q)
1..)
c[[):::D
"~
..........
1..)
"'
V)
......... .a.
Q)
L.
j)
oD/d=J
DD/d=lS
\_
1...
O.J
0.2
0.3
0.4
Ratio R/d
o.s
0.6
FIG. 107.
t.h = hv
E (<T,,
<Ty
(a)
whence O",,
O"y may be calculated if t.h is measured at each point where
the stresses are to be evaluated. Several special forros of extensometer
have been designed for this purpose. 3 The pattern of interference
fringes forrned when a model is placed against an optical fl.at, so as to
For further information see the references cited in footnote 7 on p. J31.
This method was suggested by Mesnager, Zoe. cit.
a See M. M. Frocht, "Photoelasticity," vol. 2.
1
1
144
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
145
NUT WITH
TAPERED LIP
FIG. 108.
sarne deformation even when the load is removed. The optical effect
is likewise substantially retained, and is not disturbed by cutting the
specimen into pieces. A threedimensional specimen may therefore
be cut into thin slices, and each slice examined in the polariscope. The
state of stress which produced the optical effect in the slice is not plane
stress, but the other components Txz, Tyz, <lz are known to have no effect
on a ray along the zdirection, i.e., normal to the slice. The fringe
pattern shown in Fig; 108 was obtained from such a slice cut centrally
fr6m a ,round shaft (of fosterite) with a hyperbolic groove. 2 The
maximum stress obtained from this pattern is within two or three per
cent of the theoretical value. Figure 109 shows another fringe pattern
'M. Hetnyi, J. AppliedPhys., vol. 10, p. 295, 1939.
2 Leven, loc. cit.
CONVCNTIONAL NUT
FIG. 109.
of the sarne type, obtained from a (bakelite) model of a bolt and nut
fastening. 1 The lower nut was a conventional type. The upper one
has a tapered lip and shows a lower stress concentration than the conventional nut.
1
STRAINENERGY METHODS
CHAPTER 6
STRAINENERGY METHODS
47. Strain Energy. When a uniform bar is loaded in simple tension
the forces on the ends do a certain amount of work as the bar stretches.
Thus if the element shown in Fig.
...
....
110 IS
1
dA
. sub"Jec t t o norma1 st resses
~
u., only, we have a force u., dy dz
~x
dx which does work on an extension
o
B .x
E., dx.
The relation between these
(aJ
(b)
two quantities during loading is
Fm. 110.
represented by a straight line such
as OA in Fig. llOb, and the work done during deformation is given
by the area i(u., dy dz) (E., dx) of the triangle OAB. Writing dV for this
work we have
dV = iu.,E., dx dy dz
(a)
dV = Vodxdydz
~i
l11
'
'
'
1,'
1il1:1
146
(b)
where
rd.
It is evident that the sarne amount of work is done on all such elements,
if their volumes are the sarne. We now inquire what becomes of this
workwhat kind or kinds of energy is it converted into?
In the case of a gas, adiabatic compression causes a rise of temperature. When an ordinary steel bar is adiabatically compressed there is
an analogous, but quite small, rise of temperature. The corresponding
amount of heat is, however, only a very small fraction of the work done
by the compressive forces. 1 For our purposes it is sufficiently accura~e
to disregard this small fraction. Then none of the work done IS
accounted for by heat, and we may say that it is all stored within the
element as strain energy. It is assumed that the element remains
elastic and that no kinetic energy is developed.
The sarne considerations apply when the element has all six components of stress u.,, <ry u., rzy, Tyz, Txz acting on it (Fig. 3). Conservation
of energy req~ires that the work done do not depend on the order in
which the forces are applied, but only on the final magnitudes. Otherwise we could load in one order, and unload in another order corre
147
Vo = i(u.,E.,
(e)
Thus Vo is the amount of work per unit volume, or strain energy per
unit volume.
ln the preceding discussion the stresses were regarded as the sarne on opposite
faces of the element, and there was no body force. Let us now reconsider the
work done on the element when the stress varies through the body and body force
is included. Considering first the force u, dy dz on the face 1 of the element in
Fig. IlOa, it does work on the displacement u of this face, of amount i(u,u)i dy dz,
where the subscript 1 indicates that the functions u,, u must be evaluated at the
point 1. The force u, dy dz on the face 2 does work i(u,u)2 dy dz. The total
for the two faces
is the sarne, in the limit, as
1
2 ox (u,u)
dx dy dz
(d)
Computing the work done by the shear stresses Txy, r., on the faces 1 and 2, and
adding to (d), we have the work done on the two faces by all three components
of stress as
1 a
2 oX (u,U + TxyV + TxzW) dx dy dz
[a
OX (uxU
(e)
iCXu
+ Yv + Zw) dx dy dz
'J'.he total work done on the element is the sum of (e) and (!).
differentiations in (e) we find that the total work becomes
(f)
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
148
au
l [
2 tTx )z
av
(v
au)
(w
av)
+ tTy Jy
+ tTz aw
)z + Txy
X + Jy + Tyz )y + az
+ Txz (U
+ W)
+ U (iJtTx
+ Txy
+ iJTxz
+ x)
()z
iJX
iJX
iJy
(}z
+ v (tTy
+ iJTy
+ iJTxy
+ y) + W (iJtTz
+ iJTxz
+ Ty
+ z)] dz dy dz
ay
az
ax
az
ax
ay
But on account of the equations of equilibrium (127) derived in Art. 76 the brackets
multiplying u, v, w are zero. The quantities multiplying the stress components
are, from Eqs. 2, Ex, , 'Yxy, . . Thus the total work done on the element
reduces to the value given by (b) and (e). These formulas therefore continue to
give the work done on the element, or strain energy stored in it, when the stress is
not uniform and body forces are included.
By means of Hooke's law, Eqs. (3) and (6), we can express Vo, given
by Eq. (e), as a function of the stress components only. Then
V
= ~
(<F:r: 2
+ q,y2 + <F, 2)
(<F:r:<J'y
+ <ly<lz + <lz<F:r:)
(84)
Alternatively we may use Eqs. (11) and express Voas a function of the
strain components only. Then
V 0 = .p,e2 + G(e:r: 2 + Ey 2 + Ez 2)
jG("'(:r:y
in which
e = E:r:
+ Ey + e.,
}..
 (1
"'(yz
'Y:r:z )
,,
Vo = Xe
OE:r;
+ 2Ge:r: = u
!i'
1
(g)
:r:
= O,
we have
(86)
'l
V=
~
'1
'
'
'
ill:1
Jf fVo dx dy dz
<Tx = u.'
+ p,
<Ty = u.'
+ p,
u,
u.'
+p
where
(h)
u.'
+ u.' + u.'
= O
the stress condition u.', u.', u.' produces only distortion, and the change in volume
depends entirely 3 on the magnitude of the uniform tension p. The part of the
total energy dueto this change in volume is, from Eq. (8),
 2v)
The quantity of strain energy stored per unit volume of the material is sometimes used as a basis for determining the limiting stress at which failure occurs. 1
ln order to bring this theory into agreement with the fact that isotropic materials
can sustain very large hydrostatic pressures without yielding, it has been proposed
to split the strain energy into two parts, one due to the change in volume and the
other due to the distortion, and consider only the second part in determining the
strength.2
We know that the volume change is proportional to the sum of the three normal
stress components [Eq. (8)], so if this sumis zero the deformation consists of distortion only. We may resolve each stress component into two parts,
(85)
Ev
+ v) (1
It represents the total work done against interna! forces during loading. If we think of the body as consisting of a very large number of
particles interconnected by springs, it would represent the work done
in stretching or contracting the springs.
By using Eq. (84) or (85) it can be represented either as a function
of stress components or as a function of strain components. The
application of both these forros will be illustrated in the following
discussion.
149
STRAINENERGY METHODS
(87)
ep = 3(1  2v) 2 = 1  2v (
2
2E
p
6E
trx
+ trv + u,)
(i)
+ tTytTz + tTz<Tx
= j[(trx  u.)2
+ (try
 u.) 2
+ (u,
 <rx) 2]
we can present the part of the total energy due to distortion in the forro
o
1  2v
(ux
+ tTy + u,)
+v
= ~ [(trx  try) 2
+ (trz
 tTx) 2 ]
+ (try
 u,) 2
(88)
1
The various strength theories are discussed in S. Timoshenko, "Strength of
Materials," vol. 2.
2
M. T. Huber, Czasopismo technizne, Lw6v, 1904. See also R. v. Mises, Gttingen Nachrichten, Math.phys. Klasse, 1913, p. 582, and F. Schleicher, Z. angew.
Math. Mech., vol. 5, p. 199, 1925.
3
The shearing components Txy, r , Txz produce shearing strains which do not
nvolve any change of volume.
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
STRAINENERGY METHODS
ln the case of simple tension in the xdirection, <r., alone is different from zero, and
the strain energy of distortion (88) is (1+11)/3Etr., 2. ln the case ofpureshear,
say between the xz, and yzplanes, T.,v alone is different from zero and the energy of
distortion is (l/2G)Txy2. If it is true that, whatever the stress system, failure occurs
when the strain energy of distortion reaches a certain limit (characteristic of the
material), the ratio between the critical value for tensile stress alone and for
shearing stress alone is found from the equation
The above argument can be repeated without change for a load with nonzero
resultant, so long as there is a fixed surface element within or near to the loaded
part. Thus if a deformable material is bonded to a rigid one, pressure applied to a
small part of the former near to the attachment will produce only local stress.t
150
from which
(j)
Experiments with steel show 1 that the ratio between the yield point in tension
and the yield point in shear is in very good agreement with that given by (j).
SaintVenant's principle (see p. 33) can be shown by consideration of strain
energy to be a consequence of the conservation of energy. 2 According to the
principle, two different distributions of force having the sarne resultant, acting on
a small part of an elastic body, will produce the sarne stress except in the immediate
neighborhood of the loaded part. If one of these distributions is reversed, and
combined with the other, there will be zero stress except in this neighborhood.
The combined load::s are selfequilibrating, and the principle is in fact equivalent
to the statement that a selfequilibrating distribution of force on a small part of an
elastic solid produces only local stress.
Such a distribution of force does work during its application only because there
is deformation of the loaded region. Let one surface element of this region be
fixed in position and orientation. If p denotes the order of magnitude (e.g.,
average) of the force per unit area, anda a representative linear dimension (e.g.,
diameter) of the loaded part, the strain components are of order (p/E) and the
displacements within the loaded part are of order pa/E. The work done is of
order pa 2 pa/E or p 2a 3 /E.
On the other hand, stress components of order p imply strain energy of order
p2/E per unit volume. The work done is therefore sufficient only for a volume of
)rder a 3, in accordance with the statement of the principle.
It has been supposed here that the body obeys Hooke's law and is of solid form.
'l"he former restriction may be dispensed with, E in the above argument then
denoting merely the order of magnitude of the slopes of the stressstrain curves
of the material. lf the body is nota solid form, as for instance a beam with a very
thin web, or a thin cylindrical shell, a selfequilibrating distribution of force on
one end may make itself felt at distances many times the depth or diameter. 3
i'
1 See the papers by W. Lode, Z. Physik, vol. 36, p. 913, 1926, and Forschungsarbeiten, No. 303, Berlin, 1928.
2
J. N. Goodier, Phil. Mag., series 7, vol. 24, p. 325, 1937; J. Applied Phys., vol.
13, p. 167, 1942.
V. Z. Vlasov, "Thin Walled Elastic Bars," Moscow, 1940; J. N. Goodier and
M. V. Barton, J. Applied Mechanics (Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 11, p. A35, 1944;
N. J. Hoff, J. Aeronaut. Sei., vol. 12, p. 455, 1945.
!I
tilLi
151
O,
~y
=O,
~z
=O
152
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
STRA/JoENERGY METHODS
plate. The condition that the total work done during the virtual displacement vanishes, no\v takes the form, from (b), (e), and (d),
f(X !u
&UfVo dx dy  ff(Xu
iJx
avo
avo l!Ey + ~
avo <l'Y.<11 =
+ ,,.VI\v')'.<11
u,,, <lE,,,
(a)
The change of the total strain energy of the body is then f f (J Vo dx dy,
in ,vhich the integration is taken over the whole area of the plate of unit
thickness.
As already stated, this change in strain encrgy measures thc work
clone against the mutual actions between the particles. ln order to get
the work clone by the mutual actions the sign must be reversed.
Hence the 'vork clone by thesc forces during the virtual displacement is
ff !Vodxdy
(e)
+Y
!v) dx dy
(d)
in which X and Y are the components of the body force per unit volume
Qf the plate, a.nd the integration is taken over the whole area of the
+ Y~) dx dy
 f(Xu
+ Yv) ds]
(89')
An equation analogous to (89) can easily be written down for a threedimensional stress distribution.
The principle of virtual \Vork is especially useful for finding the
deformation of an elastic body
produced by given forces. To
~
t
illustrate the application of the s A = 4 :  d x
ln S
method let us consider here a
"fl:::l=t+:ltJIJl[[!jt:LJi:::J:~lf"'!..
fe\y simple examples, the solui 1.~s
tions of which are already well
Fra. 111.
kno\vn.
The first is the deflection curve of a pcrfectly flexible clastic string
AB stretched by forces S bctween fixed points A and B (Fig. 111) and
loaded by a distributed vertical load of intensity q. We assume that
(b)
ln calculating the v.rork clone by externa! forces during a virtual displacement, consideration must be given the forces applied at the
boundary of the plate and the body forces. Denoting by X and Y the
components of the boundary forces per unit area, the work clone by
thcsc forces on the virtual displacements having components l!u and liv
may be \Vritten do\vn at once as
ff(X !u
(89)
'rhe first 1:erm in the hracket is the potential energy of deformation. The se<iond
and the third terms together represr.nt the potential energy of forces acting on the
hody if the potential energy of these forces for the unstressed condition (u = t' = O)
is taken a.s zero. The complete expression in brackets represcnts the tot.al potential
energy of the 8y8tem.
llence in comparing various values of the displaccments u and v it can be stated
that the displacement.<i which actually occur in an elastic system ~nder the action
of given externai forces are those which lead to zero variation of thc total potcntial
encrgy of the system ~or any virtual displacemcnt from the position of equilibrium,
1.e., the total potenhal energy of the system at the position of equilibrium is a
maximum or a minimum. To decide whether the energy is a maximum or a
111ini~1un, t_he small quantities of higher order, which were neglected' in our previow; discuss1on, shou!d be con.sidered. If in this way it can be sho\Vn that for
any virtual displacement the change in the total potential energy of the system is
positive we have the case of a minimum. If this change is always negative we
have the case of a maximum. For stable equilibrium it is aiv<ays ncces.sary to
demaad a positive work for any virtual displacement of the system from thi.s
position, henee in thi.s case the total potcntial energy of the systcm at thi.s position
is a minimum.
=v+llu
'Y"'11
ff 8V0 dxdy ~O
Since, in applying the principie oi virtual work, the given forces and the actual
stress components corresponding to the position of equilibrium are considered as
constar.t during a virtual displat'ement, the variation sign & can be put before the
integral signs in Eq. (89), and, changing signs throughout, we have
a !u
e~=ax'
153
We neglected them when we a.ssumed that stress components and forces reu1ain
con.stant during any virtual displaccment.
STRAINENERGY METHODS
the initial tension of the string is so la.rge that the increase in tensile
force due toadditional stretchingduring the deflection can be neglected.
Then the increase in strain energy due to the deflection is obtained by
multiplying the initial tensilc forces S by the stretch of the string due
to the deflection. Taking coordinatcs as sho,vn in Fig. 111 1 we find
1'his equation will be satisfied for any virtual displacement Qy, only if
154
dsdx=dx
dx
f' (d~)'
sd'v+qo
(g)
dx'
F__
dx
155
c_=L''
dx
('(")'
dx
dx
!'2 } 0
(<)
To get the total strain energy of the string the constant strain energy
dueto initial stretching would have to be added to expression (e). The
principle of virtual work in this case gives the following equation,
analogous to Eq. (89):
(fJ
V=
2E! lo('
('y)'
dx2
dx
~
413 4
Efr'
n4a,.2
(k)
n~l
('
lo
(dy)2
dx
dx
2 (ldy ady dx
dx dx
lo
2 [ldyd l'iy dx
dx dx
lo
Integrating by parts and taking into account that at the ends of thP
string f'iy = , "\Ve find
2
f' (dy) dy dx
lo
dx
dx
or
111:1
y = a,. SIIl
nrx

V
Efr4
a,. ila,. = 2l3 n 4a,. an
P ua,.
1
"
d'
)' l'iydx =0
sdx;+q
(m)
and the work dane by the externai force P during the virtual displacemcnt (l) is
(l)
. nrc
Sln 
(n)
See S. Timoshenko, Bull. Polytech. lmt., Kiew, 1909. Sec also S. Timoshenko
'
Strength of Materiais," vol. 2, p. 44, 1941.
See S. Timoahenko, "Strength of Materiais," vol. 1, p. 297, 1941.
THEORY OF ELASTJCITY
156
STRAINE.llfERGY METHODS
. n11"c
lia,. s1n 
1
ceed as in the case of the beam and take virtual di.spla.cements in the
form
~o
from '\rhich
2Pl .
a,.
nrc
"" l
~~~~~
El14n 4
_ 2Pl 3
y  Ef11'4
"
f..t
nTC
n1'X
Am,.
(o}
B.,,"
(y)
~ 2PI'
,,_21 Ef1r4
157
!!
ff
n~ dx dy =
Y sin m;x sin ni;; dx dy =
a:m,. ! ! V
Bmn
~mn
ff
dx dy
(q)
y dx dy
0
For the calculation of strain energy in the case of plane stress we use
the formula
v~Jjv.axay~JJ[ 2(1 E
Amn
(Ez '+
v2)
E11
'+ 2 l'E~~ )
+ 4(1 ~
v) 'Y""2 dx dy
(r)
Substituting in itl
We have a factor 48.7 while the exact value is 48, so that the error made
in using only the first term of thc series is about 1! per cent.
x
In the preceding discussion we had to consder
0
displaccment in only one direction and ,,,.e
represented it by a sine series (h). A similar
method can be applied in more complicated cases.
Let us consider a rectangular plate with fixed
Y
edges, Fig. 113, and acted upon by body forces
Fio. 113
parallel to its plane. General expressions for the
displacements u and v can be taken in the forra of series,
V=
\.' \.'
. m.x . n.y
\.' \.' B
. m.x . n.y
LtLt.4 mns1nas1nb
LtLt
1111.
nr
. mrx
nry
Lt "f..t TB,,.,.
sina cos b
_ r'Jv _ "
ay 
tu 
 r'Ju
1'>;11 
(p)
mnBlllSlilT
+ x
r'Jv
" " n1r
m"lrX
n1ry
= Lt Lt T mn Slll a cos b+
ll:
m'B
~
mn
a
COS
m1fx. n1fy
 ""  a
b
V_ 'Eab
4
1.
mr A,,.,. cosmrx
n1fy
Lt "f..t a
sinb
0
r'Ju = "
~~ = ax
[''\.'A
, (. 1
Lt Lt ''"' 2(1 
m'
v2) a 2
1 n')
+ 4(1 + v) b2
+ Lt
'.' Lt
'.' B mn , ( 2(1
1
n'
 v2) b2
+ 4(1 1+ v) m')]
a2
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
STRAJNENERGY METHODS
Substituting this expression for the strain energy into Eqs. (q) we
sions (s). The calculation of the variation of the strain energy ca.n b
simplified if '"e observe that
e
158
obtain
Eabr' (
A  4
m'
a 2 (l
112 )
Eafrir2 (
m2
B  4  2a2(1+11)
+ 2 b (ln'+;)")
n2
+ b2(1 
v2)
ff' m.x Y
ff as1nb
0
Xs1nas1nbdxdy
1>
Ys1n
m1t'X .
n'lry
" ~ .;.(x,y)
+l
am l/>m(x,y),
b .p.(x,y)
b"'
11
Ey
+ r"ll y"ll) dx dy
f f [crx:x u + Uu a~ v +rzv(:y u +
0~v)]dxdy
f[(~:;+;;)ou+(~~+;;)v]dxdy
'faking for the virtual displacements expressions (t) vle then obtain the
necessary equations for ealculating the coefficients a 1, ' a''"
bi, . . . , bm in thf' following form:
u,,.
~r + u
V= 
am
(t)
(ur
(')
ff
+ l am.P... (x,y)
m
dxdy
W e see that for any kind of volume forces the coefficients in exprcssions
(p) can be readily calculated and the complete solution of the problem
can be obtaincd.
The method of virtual displacements can be used for finding approximate solutions of tv;odimensional problems 1,..hen displaccments at the
boundary are given. Assume that the displacements u and v can be
represented with sufficient accuracy by series
u = ef>.(x,y)
159
'
a,,.
bm
=O
(90)'
Y).;.(x,y) dxdy
~s an example of the application of these equations let us again con~1der a rectangular platc (Fig. 113) and assume that three sides of it. are
fixed and along the fourth side (y = b) the displacements are given bv
t.he equations
u=O,
v=Cbsin11"X
a
v =
. m.x . n"11
4\ ' \ ' A mnSin7s1nb
4
Cy sin 11"X + \' \' B
ffl"lrX . n7r'!J
a
44 ,,.,, s1nas1nT
(u)
'" "
1
STRAINENERGY .METHODS
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
160
rr,.
~ (u
1_
"2
+ " ay
av)
ax
~ (\' \'
l 
11 2
L:L
~ "2(:~ + v!:) ~ "2(2:2:
+"
"
TX
'T%11 
2(1
Bmn
\' \'
ffl11"X
av) ~
E
( \ ' \ ' A,,.,. nr sin m1fx cos nny
+ v) (u
ay + ax
2(1 + v) LtLt
b
a
b
"\'
m
mrX . n"1J + e '
")
+ "\'
LtLtB,,.,.acosas1nb
Ya;cosa
ffl?l"X
Slll
n7r11
Bill
T'
&;
= B,,.
ffl'l<X
Bill  .  SIIl
n1'U
b
ET
ab (
m'
a 2 (l
J12)
+ 2b2(1n'+ v) )
A .....
. ffl1fX s1nb""
. n'lry dxdy
+ of.b X s1nJ.
E1t ab (
4
b2 (1
n'
v 2)
+ 2a (1m'+ v) )
2
~o
B,,.,.
.
JJ
mrx . n7rJJdxd
Ys1nasmb
Y ~
If the body forces vanish we find that all coefficients A,,.,, vanish also.
The coefficients B,,.,. are different from zero only when m = 1. Thcn
E'b(
n'
 4  b2(1
111 )
+ 2a 2(1 1+ v) )s
~
1
"
 2a
av dl = ;.ts.; ai ~ ~dl r
2
C?rb 2cos nr
2{1n
161
dl
2E
A. A. Griflith, Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 221, p. 163, 1921.
See also his paper in Proc. Inlern. Congr. A.ppl. ~fech., Delft, 1924. A bibliography
of the subject can 1>e found in "Handbuch der physikalischen und technischcn
Mechanik," vol. 4, part 2, 1931, 11.rticle by Adolf SmekaJ.
1
See p. 201.
162
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
STRAINENERGY METHODS
from which
163
(w)
Experiments in which cracks of kno,vn length were formed with a glasscutter's diamond sho?rcd a ve:ry satisfactory agreement '\Vith Eq. (w).
It '\'as also shown experimentally that, precautions are taken to
eliminate microscopic cracks, a much higher strength than usual can be
obtained. Some glass rods tested by Griffith shovred an ultimate
strength of the order of 900,000 p.s.i., which is more than half of the
theoretical strcngth mentioned above.
49. Castigliano's Theorem. In the previous article the equilibriu1n
configuration of an elastic body submitted to given bo<ly forces and
j!;iven boundary conditions V.'as compared \Vith neighboring configura
tions arrived at by virtual displacements au, liv from thc position of
equilibrium. It was established that the true displacements corresponding to the position of stable equilibrium are those which make the
total potential energy of the system a minimum.
J_,ct us consider now, instead of displaccmcnts, thc stresses corresponding to the position of equilibrium We take again, as an example,
the case of a plane stress distribution. We kno"' that the differcntial equations of equilibrium (18), togcther with the boundary conditions (20), are not suffi.cient for determining the stress components u",
uu, Tey. By taking various expressions for the stress function </> in Eqs.
(29) vre may find many diffcrent stress dist.ributions satisfying the
equations of equilibrium and the boundary conditions, and the question
arises: What distinguishes the true stress distribution from all the other
statically possible stress distributions?
Let u,,, uu, T%'11 he the true stress components corresponding to the position of equilibrium and liu,., liuu, lirey small variations of these components such that the new stress components u,,
liu%, Uu
liuy, Tey
lir"ll
satisfy the sarne equations of equilibrium (18). Then, by subtracting
the equations for one set from those of the other, we find that the
changes in the stress components satisfy the following equations of
equilibrium:
()
Corresponding to this variation of stress components there will be some
variation in the surface forces, Let !iX and Y be these small changes
+ lirey m =
+ liT,,u l =
liu,, l
liuu m
liX
liY
(b)
Consider no": thc change in strain encrgy of thc body due to the
above changcs 1n stress components. Taking the strain energy per
u~t volume. as a function of thc stress components (86), the change of
th1s energy 1s
(')
1
!Vo
FJ
iJu,, =
(u,, 
lltru) = Ez
uu =
FJ (uu 
Ptr,,) = Eu
av
1
();Tey =
!Vo
giving us
liVo =
t,.
liu,,
')'ry
,~~~~~~~x
(d)
A ds
ff~*fJ~~*f~~

ff
a;;
'"d
dy
(e)
 dy(u liu,Js
(f)
165
THEORY_ OF ELASTICITY
STRAINENERGY METHODS
\ovhere cos Nx = lis the_cosine of the angle between the extemal normal
N and the xaxis, and ds is an element of the boundary. Summing up
such expressions as given in (f} we find
The right side of this equation represents the '\Vork produced by the
ehanges of externa! forces on the actual displacements.
The true stresses are those ""'hich satisfy this equation. An analogous equation can be obtaincd for the threedimensional case, '"ith a
third term W Z added in the bracket in Eq. (91), and the integral
extending over the boundary surface instead of the boundary curve.
If ""'"e have concentrated loads instead of a continuous distribution of
surface forces, the integration in Eq. (91) should be replaced by a summation. Letting P1, P2, . . . , be indcpendent concentrated loads
and d1, d2, . . . , the actual displacements of the points of applications
of the loads in the directions of these loads, Eq. (91) becomes
164
JJ Brr~dxdy J
=
e:
u Bu:lds 
Jf
5
u a ::dxdy
(g)
in which the first integral is extended along the boundary and the second over the area of the plate.
In the sarne manner the second and the third terms on the right side
of Eq. (d) may be transfonned and we find
JJ'
J J:: ~ J !u,I
 JJ
J
JJva~ dxdy
JJ
J J:~ + J J:;
~ J ''~1 JJ ::~dxdy + J "'~I
Jf :;rir f
+f
JJ "'~
JJ ....
~ dx
va~"dxdy =
!u,dxdy
i'ru lhZll dx dy =
dy
dyl"
!u,dy
ua
dx dy

dxl"
11
v&r11 mds 
lrrru dx
,a
dx
llr"!I dy
(h)
dxlu
v 8rZll l ds
lircy
v iJx"'lldxdy
m ds
ua:ydxdy
[u(OO: l
(92)
av
llV = llP1
aP1
av lJP2 +
+ aP2
1
We exclude for instance such C!IBCS as the bcnding of thin hars by lateral forces
with simultaneous axial tension or comprel:lllion. In these cases the stresses
produced by the axial force dcpend on thc def\ections due to the lateral forccl;'I
aud are I!Ot linear functions of the externai loads.
166
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
STRAINENERGY METHODS
iJP2
l!P2
167
forces or couples acting in redundant elements or at redundant constraints of an elastic system, the magnitudcs of thcse statically indeterminate quantities can be calculated from the condition that the
strain energy of the system, represented as a function of X, Y, z,
must be a minimum, i.e., we have the equations
=o
av
av
ax =o,
av
az =o,
aY =O,
(95)
(93)
This means that if we have a body with given forces acting on the
houndary, and if wc consider such changes of stress components as do
not affect the equations of equilibrium and the boundary conditions,
the true stress components are those making the variation of strain
energy vanish. It can be sho,vn that these correct values of the stress
components make the strain energy a minimum. Then Eq. (94)
expresses tl1e socalled principle of least work.
This equation holds also if a portion of the boundary is held rigidly
fixed by the constraints and the changes of stress components are such
that there are variations of surfacc forces along this constrained portion
of the boundary. Since the displacement along the constrained
boundary is zero, the right sidc of Eq. (91) vanishes, and we arrive
again at Eq. (94).
The principle of least \Vork is used very oftcn in elementary treatments of statically indeterminate systems. 1 If X, Y, Z, ... are
'See, for instance, S. Timoshenko, "Strength of Materials," vol. 1, 1940, or
Timoshenko and Young, "Theory of Structures."
I:
For y
1'"'11
=o,
Tzt1
= ,
b,
rly
(a)
The strain energy for a plate of unit thickness is, rom Eq. (86),
1~8
THEORY OF ELAS7'ICITY
STRAINENERGl" Jf1'.'1'HOD,<;
elastic constants of the material (sce page 25) and further calculations
can thcrefore be simplificd hy taking Poisson's ratio v as zero. Then,
introducing the stress function q:,, and substituting in (b)
..ve find
1
V = 2E
iJx2
axay
=o
rp
dx dy
Sy 2 ( 1 
~ ~:) + (x2 
a2)2(y2 _ b2)2(a 1
(')
169
+ 0:2X2
+ asy2 + .. )
Only evcn po,vers of x and y are taken in the series because thc stress
distribution is symmetrical "'rith respect to the x and yaxes. Limiting
uurselves to the first term a 1 in
02 04 06 08
series (f), we have
d xs
/.
1'he correct expre8sion for the stress function is that satisfying conditions (a) and making the strain energy (e) a minimum.
If \VC apply variational calculus to determine the minimum of (e), we
shall arrivc at Eq. (30) for the stress function cfi. Instead of this wc
shall use the follo\~ing procedure for an approximate solution of the
problem. Vire take the stress function in the form of a series,
'
1
1
(d)
av
as
'
"
1
Illll
y
=
b) we find
0:1
Fio. 117.
r1z
(f~ =
6b
0.04253 ;
a
1 2 ( 1:iL
1 2')
Sy
2
""
(e)
t/>o
(f)
7zir
S (1 
~:)
 0.1702,q (1 
?;
0.17028 (1 
(1 
~ ) (1  a'x')'
2
~)
xy ( x') (1  y')
a2
0.680581  a2
a2
Curve I representa the paraholic stress distribution at the ends of the plate.
64
( 7
+ 256
b' + 647 b')
+ a,a ' (64
+ 64
b')
49 a
a
77
49 a
2
64
( 11
64 b4\
7 a~}
(192
a:ia 143
2
alf(l
64
(7
64 b 4)
+ TI a4 +
2
(64
77
64 b5)
77 a 6 = a4iJ!
4
)
77 a
7 a4
64
( 77
a2
a4b2
(g)
64 b )
77 a 4
2
64 b2
( 49 a2
+ 256 b + !92 b
+ uaa
41
'(192 b
7 a2
256 b
77 4
+ 192 b
143 a6
'
'fhe distribution of
{u,,)....,0 = S
s
0.04040 6'
( ay')
1 
a2
U"x
= aa =
0.16168
Fia. 118.
xaxis and even vrith respect to the yaxis. These conditions are satis
fied by taking a stress function in the form
y')
y' + y')
 12 a2
15 a"
a 1 = 0.07983 a 4 b2 '
0.12.50 a 6b2'
a2 =
11,,
4> =
1  3 a2
+ 0.0235 (1
a3
fb)
(a)
s
0.01174 8
171
STRAINENERGY METHODS
1'HA'ORY OF ELASTICITY
170
0.01826 a 6b2
0,4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.6698
0.6538
0.6498
0.6758
_ a2)2(y2 _ b2)2
(a1y
a2yx 2
+ a3y3 + a(X2y 3 + )
(h)
The first term, as before, satisfies the Loundary conditions for ip.
lJsing F:q. (h) '\\o"ith four coefficients 0:1,
, a4 in Eqs. (e), '"e find
for a square plate (a = b)
u,.
ay
'
= 2Aa 3
l'
T/ 3
(1  t 2) 2[0.08392(5T/ 3
'
311)
~ 2 (1
2011 3
+ 311)]}
(k)
where t = x/a and 71 = y/b. The distribution at the middle cross "lec
tion x =O is not far from being linear. It is shown in Fig. 118b by
curve a.
62. Effective Width of Wide Beam Flanges. As 11.nothcr ex11.mple of thc application of the minimumcnergy principle to two<limensional problems of rcctan!!,les,
let 1IB consider 11. be11.m \\o"ith very wide fl11.nges (Fig. 110). Such he!l.Illlj are enr,ountered very often in reinforced concrete structures and in the structures of hulls of
shlps. The elementary theory of bcnding assumes that the bending stresses are
1
These e11.lculations 11.re taken from J. N. Goodier's doctor's thesis Michigan
Univ., 1931. See alao Trans. A.S.M.E., vol. 54, p. 173, 1932.
'
172
STRAIN~ENERGY
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
proportional to the distance fron1 the neutral axis, i.e., that the stresses do not
change along the width of thc flange. Bnt if this 'vidth is vcry large it is known
that parts of the :lianges at a distance from the web do not take thei:r full sharc in
resisting bending mon1ent, and the beam is weaker than the elementary theory of
hending indicatcs. It is thc usual practice in cal!'ulating stresses in such beams to
replace the actual l\ridth of the flanges by a ccrtain reduccd width, such that the
elementary theory of bending applied to such a transformed beam cross section
gives the correct value of maximum bending stress. This reduced width of flange
is called the ejfecte widlh. ln the following discussion a theoretical basis for
dctermining the effcctivc width is given.t
173
METHODS
can be taken for our symmetrical case in the form of the series
11~.,
</>
(b)
'
in whiehf,.(y) ar11 unetions of y only.
ing expression for fn(y):
(o)
'l'o satisfy the eondition that stresses must VH11ish for an infinite value of y, \Ye
take C,. = D,. = O. The expression for the stress function is then
(d)
h
The coefficients A,. and B,. will now he detennined from the eondition that the
true stress distribution is that making the strain energy of the :flange together
,,,ith that of the '\\'eh a miuin1um. Substituting
y~,~.,,,~~~~~
1
2l
<T~
J2<ji
x iJy
fb)
..
= Oy''
~
X
and using Eq. (d) for the stress function, the strain encrgy of the flange isl
Fui. 119.
J44'
O'<i>
ax+ 2 axay+ay
=O
(o)
V1
. (B . +
f...i1
2h \'
n3.,.3
2
A .. R ..
2G
+ A ..")
2G
()
n~l
ln considering the strain energy of the web atone, let A be its crosssectional area,
l its moment of inertia about the horiionta.J axis through the centroid C, ande the
distance from the centroid of the web to the middle plane of the flangc (Fig. 119).
The total bending n1oment transmitted at any eross section by the web together
with the flangc ean be represented for our symmetrical case by the series
M = llfo
+ J.!
cos
lfl
174
175
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
STRAINENERGY METHODS
two parts: a part M' taken by the web and a part J.f", equa.l to Ne, dueto the
longitudinal forces N in the web and fln.nge. From staties the normal stresses
Adding this to the strain energy (e) of the fiange, and introducing in this la.tt.er the
notations
n.
X n
2hyA,.=
over any cross section of the complete bcam give a couple M, hence
fo a~dy =0
2he lo . a~ dy
M
00
N +2h
li!' where 2he
(g)
,~e find
V=
hE
n[Y,.
+ (1
1E f X,.
+ v)X,.Y .. + (1+v)Xn'l+ 2
n~l
nl
...
+ 11.fo'l
+'\'
EI
2El L
(h)
r ,,.~ dy
l"I'
.. + eX..)!
(l)
Thc quantities Mo, X,., Y .. are to be determined from the minimum condition
of the ~train energy (1). It can be seen that Mo appears only in the term M o'I/ b'l,
and from the minimum requirement for (1) it follows that Mo = O.
From the condition
N = 2h )o
(M
2h }o .,..
ay dy = 2h ay ..
From expression (d) for the strosa function it may be seen that
(~~)~~
=o,
Hl!noo
\ ' nr
Jf' = M
2Y,.
zA,.cos1
+ 2he }o
{
00
"~ dy ~ J.f
+ Ne
=O
+V
x ..
2
Substituting this and M 0 = O in Eq. (l) we get the following expression for tbe
atrain energy:
+ (1 + v)X,.
Y ..   1
n:irx
..f..i,
N = 2h
it follows that
\' n,..nrx
L
yA~cos1
.. ,
... x
+ 2he \'n,..
Li TA~ cos n,
,,. 3+2vv 1
V = 2hE.
4
11=1
n=l
n~l
\'
+ 211
l.. ,
(M,.
+ eX,.)
(m)
From the oondition that X,. should make Va minimum it follows that
M' = M
...,lx.
+e
oos
n;x
ax = o
.!f_
(k)
x.
f 21 eos 1 ~ dx
}o
(2!
n,..x
mor:e
Jo cos , <M   d:e = O (when m ro!'. n}
1
= l,
we obtain
\'x+Mo'l+'"<M +X)'
L "
E/
2El f..
" e "
' '  2AE '11
n1
, _
"
(n)
~oaine
x,
176
THB'ORY OF ELASTICITY
STRAINENERGY METHODS
and, from Eq. (k), the rnoment dueto the force N of the flauge iK
"
(p)
177
for the a:ssumed bendingmomcnt diagram the effective vdth of the fiange is
i.e.,
The distribution of the stress <T, along the \vidth of the flange can now be caleulated from (d) by taking all coeffiri('nts A,. and B., except A, and B., equal to zero,
and by putting (fol\owing our notations)
A, =_IX,,
2,h
This distribution of <T~ is shown by the curves in Fig. 119a. The stress <T, diminishes as the distanee from the wllh incrcaBeS.
Let us IlO\V determine a vdth 2X of the flange (Fig. 119a), of a Tbean1, such
that a uniform stress <liistribution over the cross section of t.he flange, sho\vn by the
sha<le<l area, gives the moincnt ~1 11 calculatcd above, Eq. (p). This viill then be
the effeetive width of thi: flange.
Dcnoting, as beforc, hy ,11 1 an<l llf" the portions of thc bcn<ling moment taken
by thc web and by the flange, by u, thc stress at the ccntroid C of the web, and by
" the stress at the middle plane of the flange, we find, from the elementary theory
of bending,
},f'e
u,=Tc+y
(q)
2Ah<r,
+ u,A
= O
2/Jin,t, = 11,f"
The expressions for the t\vO portions of the bending moment, from Eqs. (q) and
(r), are
llf'
(u,  u,) =
~ ( 1 + 2~h) u,
Jl,[ 11 = 2Xheu,
2Xheu,
()
To makc this ratio E!q~~J.to th~ratio M'';Aj Obtained from th exact solution (:o),
we must take
1
1rl3+2vv
2Xhe = lie 2i
4.
From this we obtll.in the following exprcssion for the effcclfre width 2X:
4l
2X = 0.85 . ;r(3
+ 2v
 v')
1'1c. 120.
case of a moment diagram in the form
of a eosine line.
63. Shear Lag. A problem of the sarne general nature ~s that discussed in
Art. 52 occurs in aircraft structurcs. Considera box be,am, ~g.121, fornu;d from
. eJi~nnels ABJt'E and DCGII to "rhich are attachcd tbm sheets ABCD a:nd
t ~Ou
D
"bili"
EFGH, by riveting or welding along the edges. If the whole heam :3 u
1n
at the lefthand end, and loaded as a cantilcver by two forces P applied to t~e
channels at the other end, the elementary bending theory v1:ill give a tens1le
hendiug stress in thc sheet ABCD uniform across any section parallel t.o R_C.
Actually, hovocver, the shcct acqurres 1ts
tcnsile stress from shear streSBCs on its
edges communicated to it bythe cha:nnels,
~~;iJ~Z::;?.:::::.,Jc as indicated in Fig. 121, and the distribu:_
tion of tensile stress across the width will
p not be uniform, but, asin Fig. 121, higher
a:t the edges than at the middle. This
departure from the uniformity assumed
by the ele1ni:ntary theory is known as
Fia. 121.
"shear lag,'' since it involves a sbcar
deformation in the sheets. Thc problem has been a:nalyzed by strainenergy
and other methods, voith the l1l'lp of simplifying assumptions.'
Problema
1. Find an exprcssion in terrns of u,, ""' T,~ for the strain energy V per 11nit
thiekncss of a cylinder or pri5111 in plane strain (, = O).
2. \Vrite dov.'11 the integral for thc strain energy V in tertns of polar coordinates
and polar stress components for the case of plane stre>;S [ef. Eq. (11), Art. 51].
The stress <listribution given by Eqs. (80) solves the prohlem indicated in Fig.
122, a couple ,l[ being applied by uniform shear to the inside of a ring, and a
1 E. Reissner, Quart. Applied llfalh., vol. 4, p. 268, 1946; J. HadjiArgyris, (Brit.)
Aeranaut. Research Council, Reporls and Merrwranda, No. 2038, 1944; J. lladjikgyris and H. L. Cox, ibid., No. l\J61J, 1944. References to earlier investigations
are given in these papers.
178
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
balancing couple to the outside. Evaluate the strain ene:rgy in the ring, and by
equating this to the work done during loading deduce the rotation of the outside
circlc when the ring is fu:ed 11.t the inside (cf. Prob. 2,
page 125).
M
3. Evaluate the strain energy per unit length of a
cylinder a < r < b subjected to internai pressure p;
[scc Eqs. (46)]. Deduce the radial displaccmcnt of
the inner surface.
Obtain the same result by use of Eq. (50) (taking
v = O) and the stressstrain relations of plane stress.
b
4. Intcrpret thc cquation
CHAPTER 7
ffVo dx dy
FIG. 122.
ff(Xu
j on the right.
li. Sho\V from Eq. (84) that if \;e have a case of plane stress anda corres}Xlnding
case of plane strain (. =O) in which the stresses ux, ou, Txu are the sa.me, thc
strain encrgy is greater (per unit thickness) for the plane stress.
6. In Fig. 123, (a) represents a strip under compression, in which thc stress
thercfore extends throughout. ln (b) the deformable strip is bonded to rigid plates
(a)
f6)
fc)
FIG. 123.
on its top and bottom edgcs. 1Vill there be stress throughout the strip or only
locally at thc cnds? In (e) the upper edge is free, as in (a), hut the lower edge ili
fixed, as in (b). \\'ili thc stress be local or not?
'l. From the principie that a system in stable equilibrium has less pot.entia.l
energy than that corresponding to any neighboring confi.guration, show without
calculation that thc strain energy of the plate in Fig. 114 must either deereBBe or
remain the sarne whcn a fine cut AB is made.
8. Sta.te the Castigliano theorem expressed by Eq. (91) in a form suitable for
use in polar coordinatcs, thc boundary forces 2 and Y being repla.ced by radial
and tangcntial components R and T, and the diaplacement C(lmponents by the
polar componcnts u and i; of Chap. 4.
9. "Equation (91) is vatid whcn av, a:X, aYresult from any small changes in the
stress components which satisfy thc conditions of cquilibrium (a) Art. 49, v.'hether
these changes violate the conditions of compatibility (Art. 15) or not. ln the
latter case the changes in the stress are those which actually occur when the
boillldary forces are changed by 62, i'lP"." Is tbis statement correct?
Assuming that it is, show that thc radial displaccmcnt of Prob. 3 can be calculated from the formula
av
1
(u)ra =  2,..a Op;
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES
64. Functions of a Complex Variable. For the problems solved
so far, rectangular and polar coordinates have prove<l adequate. For
other boundariesellipses, hyperbolas, nonconcentric circles, and lesa
simple curvesit is usually preferable to employ different coordinates.
ln the consideration of these, and also in
t.he construction of suitable stress functions, it is advantageous to use complex
variables.
Two ~ai numbers x, y form thc complex
numher x + iy, with irepresenting vf=T. Since
i does not belong to thc realnumber systcm,
the meaning of equality, addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division must be defincd.'
Thus, by definition, :r + iy = :r! + iy' mcans
x = x', y = y', and i 1 mcans 1. Otherwise
the operations are defined just as for real
numbers. For iMtance
(x + iy)' = x 1 + 2xiy + (iy)' = x'  y'
Fio. 124.
+ i2xy
sincc i
1
(a)
Since
e'8 = 1
1, i3
We have
1
1
21
+41
+ i(fJ
~ (JI
=cosfJ+iBinfJ
(b)
The definitions repreaent operations on pairs of real numbers the use ol i being
'
179
180
derivatives which depend on z only, being the sarne for ali directions (of dz) at the
point z. Such functions are eallcd analytic.
The quantity x  iy may be regarded as a function of z, in the scnse that if z is
given, x and y are given, and so x  iy is determined. However, x  iy cannot be
formed from z as for instance Z", e are formed. Its derivative with respect to z
is the limit of (Ax  i Ay)/(fJ.:I; + i D.y) as D.x, D.y> O. This is not indcpcndcnt
of the direction of the shift 8:1:, D.yi li we take this shift in thc xdirection, so
that Ay = O, we obtain 1 as the va\ue of the limit. li we take the shift in the
ydircction, fJ.:I; = O and the limit is 1. Thus x  iy is not an analytic function of
x + iy. Analytic functions togethcr with x  iy will be used !ater in the construction of stress functions. Any function involving i will bc rcferrcd to as a
"complex function."
An annlytic function f(z) will have an indefinite integral, dcfincd n~ thc function
having /(z) as its derivative 'vith re~pect to z, an<l \vritten ff(z) dz. For inst.ance
if f(z) = 1/z we l1ave
f(z) = x
X 
+ iy
iy
+ y' + i
x'
y)
+ yt
~(
 e), and
=
=
J~dz=logz+C
the additive const.ant C being now a complex number A + iB, containing t~'
real arbitrary coristants A and B.
55. Analytic Functions and Laplace's Equation. An analytic function /(z)
can be regarded as a function of x and y, having partia! derivatives. Thus
..i_ f(z)
The denominator is the snmc as the real quantity (sinh x cos y)' + (cosh x ain y)I.
Vl'hen the numcrator is multiplied out, and i' replaced by 1, the separation into
real and imngiuary parts is completed. The result can be simplified t0
iJx
since i!z/&x = 1.
sinh 2x  i sin 2y
cosh 2x  cos 2y
(o)
+ D.z)
 /(z)
D.z
whcrc 8:11 = .X + i D.y and fu"l> O means, of course, both /J.x> O and D.y> O.
We ean always think of x, y aa thc Cartesian coordinaWs of a point in a. plane.
Then D.x, D.y represent a shift to a neighboriug point. It rnight be expected at
first that (d) could bc dilerent for different directions of the shift. Nevertheless,
the liinit in () is calculable directly in terms of z and 8z justas if these were real
numbcrs, and the corresponding resulta, such ru:;
dz
(z')
2z,
dz Slll Z
ilx
ily
sincc az/ay = i.
But if /(z) is put in the forrn a(x,y)
=
"'
<lx
(o)
(b)
+ iiJfJ
iJx
(e)
Comparing Eqs. (e) v.ith :Eq. (a) and Eq. (b) yields
i (~~
+ i x
iJfJ)
iJ"'
iJy
+ i y
a{3
(d)
Rcmembering that "'' fJ are real, i = 1, and that the equality irnplies that real
and imaginary parts are separately equal, \Ve find
a
!_/(z)
iJx
(d)
Similarly
f)y
coth z
iJx
iJfJ
=,
y
= COS Z
must appear, ind('pendent of the choice of 8.z, and of Ax and y. We may say,
therefore, that all the functions we 1nay form from z in the usual way will he.ve
1 It ahould be observe<l that this is real in apite of its name.
l,i
181
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
182
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
An equation o this form is called Laplace's equation and any aolution ia called a
h.ar7Wmic function. ln the same way elimination of a from Eqs. (e) yields
d Slll
. h
dz
(g)
Thus if two functions a and {3 of x and y are derived as the real and imaginary
parta of a.n analytic function f(z), ea.ch will be a solution of Laplace's equation.
Laplace's equation is encountcrcd in many physical prohlems, including those o
elasticity [see for instance Eq. (b), Art. 16].
The functions a and {3 are called conju.gale harmonic functions. It is evident
that if we are giv('n any harmonic function a, Eqs. (e) will, but for a constant,
determine another function {3, \vhich will bc the conjugate to a.
As examples of the derivation of harmonic :functions from analytic functions of z,
considerei"', zn, log z, n being a real constant. '\\'e have
showing that mi. cos nx, eno sin nx are harmonic functions. Chang:ing n to n
we find that en~ cos n:t., e"" sin nx are a\so harmonic, and it follows that
sinh ny sin nx,
cosh ny cos nx
(h)
are harmonic since they can he formed by addition and subtraction of the foregoing functions with factors j. From
+
+
r, find
nr
\Yriting r = E i11 find the real and imaginary parts of this derivative when
e and n are real.
4. If z = x iy, r = E i".,, and z = i"a coth r where a is re11.l, show that
a sin 11
x = cosh ~
cos .,,'
a sinh
y=cosh~
cos,,
r"
cos n9,
('" ')
ax ax2+ ay2
O.
(b)
rn sin n9,
cos n9,
From
log z = log rei9 = log r
r.. sin n9
()
+ ie
'
lt is eaaily verificd that the functions (i) and (j) satisfy Laplace's equation in
polar coordinatcs [see Eq. (d), page 57], i.e.,
ll,f
&r
(a)
Also ay, / ax is a
183
+ .! lif + l. {J~if
r r
r ao
(k)
Problems
1. Determine the real functions o x and y which are the real and imaginary
parts of thc complcx unctions z2, ~. tanh z.
[x  y, 2xy; x  3xy 1, 3x'y  y;
+ r9 coa 9]
=O
Cornparison with Eq. (a), page 29, sho\vs that xY, rnay be used as a
stress function, 1/; being harmonic. The sarne is true of yY,, and also,
of course, of the function Y, itself.
It can easily be shown by differentiation that (x 2
y 2)Y,, that is
r 2 Y,, also satisfies the sarne differential equation and rnay therefore be
taken as a stress function, f being harmonic.
For instance, taking the two harmonic functions
cosh ny sin nx
from the functions (h), page 182, and multiplying them by y, we arrive
by superposition at the stress function (d), page 47. Taking the
harmonic functions (i) and (J), page 182, as they stand or multiplied by
x, Y, or r 2 , we can reconstruct ali the terms of the stress function in
polar coordinates given by Eq. (81), page 116.
The question of whether any stress function at ali can be arrived at
in this fashion remains open, and will be answered irnmediately, in the
~' .
Equation (96) "\\'ili prove useful later, but it may be observed that
the use of both the functions p and q is not neccssary. Instead of Eq.
(g) "'e can write
v2 (q,  2xp) = V 2 c/i  4 ap = o
184
a2
a2
ax
 +ay2

iJx2
uy V2, Eq. (a) on page 29 can be 'vritten V2(V 2.P) = O or V4q, =O.
Writing P for v 2q,, ,vhich represents u,, + rfy, \Ve observe that P is a
harmonic function, and so \vill have a conjugate harmonic function Q.
Consequently P + iQ is an analytic function of z, and ..ve may \Vrite
(e)
Thc integral of this function \vith respect to z is another analytic function, 4 if(z) say. Then, \Yriting p and qfor thc real and imaginary parts
of if(z), \Ve have
if(z) = p
iq = tff(z) dz
(d)
We have also
ax
iJx
~ ~f(,)
~ ~(P
+ iQ)
4
4
showing that cJi  2xp is harmonic, say cqual to p2, so that any stress
function must be expressible in the form
(h)
c/i
x(z)
(x  iy)(p
(n
Recalling that P = v 2q,, Eqs. (e) and (f) enable us to show that
q,  xp  yq is a harmonic function. For
v2(q, _ xp  yq)
ap
aq
v 2q,  2 ax  2 ay =O
(g)
,p
+ iq1
+ iq) + P1 + iq,
Rc ["/(')
zz 1/l(z)
q,xpyq=p1
Consequently
(96)
c/i = xp + yq +Pi
which shows that any stress function can be formed from suitably
chosen conjugate harmonic functions p, q anda harmonic function P1
+ x(,)]
(97)
v,here Re means "real part of," Z denotes x  iy, and f(z) and x(z) are
suitably chosen analytic functions. Conversely (97) yiclds a stress
function, that is a solution of Eq. (a), p. 29, for any choice of 1/l(z) and
x(z). It is applied later to the solution of several problems of practical interest.
'\Vriting the "complex stress function" in Lrackets in (97) as
= P1
Since p and q are conjugatc functions, they satisfy Eqs. (e) of Art. 55,
and so
+ Pa
(e)
aq~!.p
2yq
ay
185
'
+ x(z)
+ Pr.
X. L ''Iuschelillvili,
~i .
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
186
au
E iJx
u,. 
'
E ay
vu 11 ,
= u11
a('
ax +u)
ay ~'
(b)
ey
Inserting thc stress function into the first, and rccalling that P
\Ve have
E
au
ay 2
ax
ax 2
(P _a2q,) _
j)
= 'V 2 .p,
(e)
and similarly
ay
(1
+ JJ) a2q, + P
(d)
ay2
But from Eqs. (f) and (g) of Art. 56, v.e can replace P in Eq. (e) above
by 4 iJp/iJx, and in Eq. (d) by 4 iJq/iJy. Then, after division by 1 + JJ,
2G au = _
iJx
2G
+ JJ iJx
av
ay
_ a2q, + _4_ aq
iJy 2
li
iJy
(')
4
 +  p
iJx
l+JJ
+ f(y) '
20,
 :: + 1
_ o'<I + 2._
iJxiJy
j)
iJx
2Gu =  iJx
2dy
!, +
q
f,(x)
(f)
2dx
,
w
(g)
But the first term on the left is equal to rw, and the parenthesis
vanishes because p and gare conjugate harmonic functions satisfying
(h)
aP
iJy =
ox
aQ
Thus if f(z)
df,
A
+ 1 + vp'
(v + aq) + !e df + !e
ay
df,
axi
+ P) '
ax2 + p
dx
dx =
aP
aQ
=,
iJx
y
 (1
E av
dy
\Vhich implies
a2q,
ax 2
Hence
df+h~o
(a)
vu,.
187
(a)
(b)
A. E. H. Love, "11athematical Thcory of Elasticity," 4th cd., Arts. 144, 146,
1926.
1
The v.ord is used here with a significance quite distinct from that in the term
"conjuga.te harmonic functioos.''
189
THPJORY OF Ef.ASTIC!TY
188
0~ :y  ~~ =
2
!() ~ ""'
1f/(z)
+ X"(Z)
(e)
(~hanging i
2<P ~ "IV)
 1/l(Z)
Simplcr forms are obtained by subtraciing and adding Eqs. (d) and (e).
Then'
(100)
11,,
11y = 21f/(z)
21//(Z) = 4 Re Y,'(z)
(101)
11y  rf,, 2irw = 2[zf"(Z) + X"(Z)]
ln the sarne ...vay if ...ve add to the function in brackets in Eq. (97) its
conjugate, the sum \\'ill be t"'icc the real part of this function. Thus
Eq. (97) may bc replaccd by
+ zl//'(z)
11,.
+ 2irw =
2[ZY,"(z)
+ x"(z)]
(102)
(98)
On separation of real and imaginary parts the right Ride of Eq. (102), or
(101), gives 11,,  11y and 2rXll. The t"' cquations (100) and (102)
determine the stress component8 in terms of the complex potentials
t/t(z) and x(z). Thus by cl1oosing dcfinite functions for Y,(z) and x(z)
we finda possible state of stress from Eqs. (100) and (102), and the
dIBplaccments corresponding to this statc of stress are casily obtained
from Eq. (99).
and by diffcrentiation
2 ::
2
~: ~
'f'(')
i["l'C<)  f(')
:: + i ~~ =
+ x'(')
Y,(z)
'f'()
+ f()
x'(ll
+ zlf;'(Z) + X'(Z)
f(z)
(d
(a,
+ ib,)z',
x(z) = (e,
2G(u
+ iv)
Rame
\\"RY
\\'C
find
f'(z) = 4(a,
ib,)z 3 ,
f"(z) = 12(ao + ib,)z 2,
u,
+ uv
= 4Re4(a,
=
+ iv)
3+
 v' if;(z)  z1f;'(Z)  X'(Z)
1
(99)
u"  u, + 2iT,"
=
=
This equation determines u and v for plane stress when the complex
potentials Y,(z), x(z) are given. For plane strain 11/(l  11) is sub1>tituted for 11 on the right of Eq. (99) in accordance with Art. 19.
The stress components 11,,, 11y, Tni can be obtained directly from the
second derivatives of Eq. (98). But, in vic\V of later application to
curvilincar coordinates, it is prcferable to proceed otherwise. Differentiating Eq. (e) with rcspect to x '''e have
::t + a: :y
2
1:
V/(z)
Then
+ i'd,)z'
+ id,)z
x'(z) = 5(c,
x"(z) = 20(c,
+ id;)z'
+
+ +
1'he exprcssions in brackcts give uv  u, and 2,.,,, rcspectively. Thc displacement oomponents corresponding to this stress distribution are easily obtained from
Eq. (99), which yields
2G(u
+ iv)
~~
: (ao
+ iD,)z
These results and Eq. (99) were obtained by G. Kolosoli in his doctoral ~rta
tlon, Thlrpat, 1909. See his paper in Z. J.fath. Physik., vol. 62, 1914.
1
(d)
ib,)z'
16 Re (a,+ ib;)[x'  3xy 1 + i(3x 2y  y')]
16a,(x'  3xy)  l6b,(3x'y  y')
2[12(as + ib,)Zz 2
20(c,; + ido)z']
24(a,
ib,)(x  iy)(x
iy) 2
20(,;, + id,)(x
iy)'
2
[24a.x(x
y')  24b,y(x2
y')
20c,(x'  3xy')
 20d,(3xy  y')] + i[24a,y(x 2
y')
241>,x(x 2 + y')
20co(3x'y  y')
20d,(x'  3xy')J
1i..
THEORY OF Ef,ASTICITY
190
191
(ai
I'ro. 125.
dx
srna=ds
dy
cosa=d 8
(b)
ax ay
in Eqs. (a), we find
2
_
a2ct> dy
J cf> dx _ _!!___
X = ay2 . ds + ax ay. ds  iJy dy
(")
a'q, dx
a'q, dy
ax 2 ds  axayds
dy
ds
('") dx
+~
ax ay ds
!!:_ ('")
ds
By
B
A
d
ds
["ay  i axA
aq,]B ~
[" + "]
+ iF, ~
F,,
(")
["]B
ay
ay
(")
[']B
d
Ads
B
y ::
 i
i iJy
J:  [X::+ J:
(e)
d ('")
ds ax
4>
ds
ds=
+ iF
11
i[ifa(z)
+ zif'(Z) + X'(Z)]~
(103)
XA
Equations (d) and (e) serve to establish an analogy betveen plane stress and
the slow motion of a viscous fluid in two dncnsious. See J. N. Gvodier, Phil.
Mag., series 7, vol. 17, pp. 554 and 800, 1934.
1
These boundary eonditions lead to an analogy with the transverse deflections
of elastic plates. An aecount o this analogy, with references, is given by R. D.
Mindlin, Quart. Applied Math., vol. 4, p. 279, 1946.
1ii.
192
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
\vhere e is a constant.
(a)
F i(x,y)
t,
F 2(x,y)
= 1J
(b)
Giving defini.te constant values to ~ and 1J, these eqiiations wHl represent t..,vo {'urves \Vhich v.ill interscct, V.'hen F1 (:.r,y), F2 (x,y) are suitable
functions. Different >'alues of t and 1J v.ill yield different curves anda
different point of intersection. Thus each point in the xyplane v.ill
be charactcrized by definite values of t and ?Jthe values '''hich make
the t\VO curves given by Eqs. (b) pass through itand t, 1J may be
regardcd a::;" coordinates" of a point. Since given values of t, 1J define
+.he point by n1eans of t""' intersecting curves, they are called curvi~
linear coordinaU:s. 1
Polar coordinates, with the associated stress cornponents, proved
vcry useful in Chap. 4 for problems of concentric circular boundaries.
'fhe stress and displacernent on such a bo11ndary become functions of O
only, sincc ris constant. lf the boundaries consist of other curves, for
instance ellipses, it is advantugeous to use curvilinear coordinates one
of \vhich is constant on each boundary cur,e.
If Eqs. (b) are solvcd for x and y, \Ve shall have t\VO equations of the
form
(')
1 The general theory of carvlincar coordinates \Vas <leveloped by Lam in the
book "Lcons sur les C<>0rtlonn{cs curviligncs," Paris, 185fl.
Consider, for
y = csinh sin 11
(d)
Elimination of 1J yields
x2
c2 cosh 2 ~
arctan '!!. = O
t cos 11,
193
+r
y2
sinh 2
= 1
x'
c2 cos 2 ~
1, \Ve have
y'
(e)
(f)
(g)
Th'is,.besr'des defining
z as a function of 1, may be i;;olved to give 1 as !l
function of z. Thcn Eand 1/ are the real and imaginary parts of a func1 lf a, IJ ar~ the polar coordinates of a point on thc cirf'le cirf'umscribing an
lliPSe of sem1axes a b th
eth
to the xaxis intersects
.
' ' e pcrpcn d"icu1ar f rorn t h"1s po1nt
111pse 11.t the nnint x = a cos e
e
e
b
,.
o
ang\e of
this .
1'~
' Y Slll ' IB cali e d t J1e eccentnc
IM>lnt on the ellipae.


194
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
tion of
Art. 55, also therefore the Laplace equations (f) and (g) of Art. 55.
The curvilinear coordinates to be used in this chapter will all be
derived from equations of the form (g), and as a consequence will
possess furthcr special propcrties. The point x, y having the curvilinear coordinates ~' 71, a neighboring point X
dx, y
dy will he.ve
curvilinear coordinates ~
d~, 11
d11, and since there will be two
equations of the type (e) Vte may \Vrite
dx
ax
= a~ d~
(h)
dx
ox
(i)
= a~ d~,
Since
(dx)'
(dy)'
ox
GiY +(:~)'](d()'
dx = d11
" '
that
ox
1/ =
where
"
? increasf'ng
Jd11, and
dy/dx
= 
Fia. 127.
cota
Comparing this last result with Eq. (n), we see that the curves
t = constant, 1J = constant, intersect at right angles, the direction
11increasing making an angle (ir /2)
a with the xaxis (Fig. 127).
Consider for instance the elliptic coordinates defined by Eq. (f).
Wc have
(j)
= f(t) we ha vc
y =Jcosa
J sin a,
'fhus
(a,,1 ~
x
011 d11,
ax
.ay
ar
195
(k)
+ ic cosh t sin 1/
= Jeia.
C:omparing the real and imaginary parts of the last equality \Ve find
Jcosa
=csinh~cos11,
Jsina
ccosh tsin11
and thcreforc
J 2 = c2 (sinh 2 t cos 2 11
+ iJ
<n
ex
=Jcosa
ai
ay
'
=
'
J sina
.
(m)
dse = J d~
dy = iJy/~ = tan a
x/~
2
~ sin 2 11) = tc 2(cosh 2t  cos 271)
tan a = coth t tan 11
(o)
(p)
dx
+ cosh
(n)
Thus a 1 given by Eq. (l), is the angle between the tangent to the curve
ri:~,
F .ig. 12 .
PROHLE,l!S JJV
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
196
rr cos 2a +
+ r:<11 cos 2a
11 )
TXJI
sin 2a
+ u~ =
+ 2irr;~ =
2G(u<  iu~) =
ur;
+ rr
11 )
u~ 
rY<
+ u, =
rr,,
u"
2ir,, = e 2i" (u11  u,,
+ 2iTXJ/)
(105)
(106)
e2ia
f'(l) = Jeia,
so that
e" ~ f'(t)
J'(i)
e2ia
(107)
Fia. 128.
sinh ;;
sinh f
(q)
u 6 u,, T<
u,
u cos a
+ v sin a,
u,
+ iu, =
 Zif;'(z)  x'(z)
(111)
Problems
+
+
+
+
+ t"v)
Equations {105), (106), and (108) wcre obto.ined by Kolosoff, loc. Lit.
e cosh .1,
e cosh
d'
(108)
\vhieh give
d\
Uo:ing Eq. (99) v.rith z = f(!;), and Eq. (107), this enabl~s us to
cxpress u, and u, in terms of t and 17 '\'hen the complcx potent1als f(z)
and x(z) havc been chosen.
j,,,.
[~ ~ : f(Z)
1. Shov; that for polar coonlinates, given by z = er, Eq. (107) becomcs
r"" = ci,, and a = '! = O.
2. Ohtain the solntions of thc follo\ving problems in polar coordinates by means
of thc complex potentials indieatcd. Evaluatc thc strrss and displo.ccnent componcnts. Capitais denote constants, not necessarily real.
(a) A ring (a < r < b) with equal and opposite couples M applicd by means of
shear stress to the tvo boundaries (.Fig. 122). f(z) = O, x(z) = A log z.
(b) The ring under internai pressure pi, externa} pressure p. (src page 59).
f(z) = Az, x(z) = B log z.
(e) The pure bending of a curved bar, and the "rotational dislocation" of the
ring, aa in ,\rts. 27 and 29. f(z) = Azlog z
Bz, x(z) = C log z.
(d) The problen1 solved in Art. 31. t(z) = Az 2
Rlog z, x(z) = Czlog z D/z.
(e) Thc plate under tension with a circular hole (Art. 32). f(z) = Az
B/z,
x(<) = Clogz +Dz 2 +F/z 2
(/) Thc radial stress distribution of Art. 33. if:(z) = A log z, x(z) = Bi log z.
(g) The force ata point of an infinittJ plate (Art. 38). x(z) = A log z,
and
u,=vcosausina
ei"(u
efr'
(109)
(110)
and thercfore
x(z) = Bz log z
2 i
u,
ur;
'l'he factor
19i
COOJf/JlfiA.Tl1'S
Combining Eqs. (99), (100), and (102) 'vith (105), (106), and (108)
vre have the follo\Ving equations for the st.ress and displaccment componcnts (wit.h i replaced by  i in the last):
Cf..!J~Vlf.fll'Ji:AR
cos 17,
. 1l
e ;;1n
'
.1
+ i11
(a)
y=csinh~sin11
"" = ;;inh
;;
e"'"
.s1nh r
(h)
198
TH/i:ORY OF ELASTICITY
family of ellipses and also the family of hyperbolas (see page 193) are
definite. If E is very small the corresponding ellipse is very slender,
and in the limit t = O it becomes a line of length 2c joining the foci.
Taking Iarger and larger positive values of t the ellipse becomes larger
and larger, approaching an infinite circle in the limit t = oo. A point
on any one ellipse goes once around the ellipse as.,, goes from zero (on
the positive xaxis, Fig. 126) to 211". In this respect .,, resembles the
angle O of polar coordinates. Continuity of displacement and stress
components requires that they be periodic in 11 with period 2ir, so that
they will have the sarne values for.,, = 271" as they have for 'l = O.
Consider now an infinite plate in a state of uniform allround tcnsion
S disturbed by an elliptical hole of semiaxes a and b, which is free from
stress. 1 These conditions mean that
(f~ =
fly
d! =Ti, =
at infinity (t  t oo)
on the elliptical boundary of the hole, where t
has the value to
(d)
2 Re iJ/(z) = S,
zy/'(z)
+ x"(z)
O at infinity
dS
i{/(z) = Ac cosh?; dz
cosh r
h
A ...nh = A cot
si
?;
(h)
~os_!i f
A
Sifih 3
S.
(<)
X '( z)
= B,
,
;;inh?;
"(z
) _  B cosh
x
 S
sinh?;
Equations (i) and (J) show that ZV,"(z) and x"(z) each vanish at infinity.
The second of conditions (f) is therefore now satisfied.
The condition (e) can be satisfied by suitable choice of the constant
B. Subtracting Eq. (110) from Eq. (109) we have
U! 
i7~~ = 'ljt'(z)
+ ~'(Z)
 e2ia [~lf"(z)
=A (c?sh?;
s1nh r
+ x"(z)J
(k)
Thus
?;l S1n
. h
Slll12
s1nh ?;
s1nh il ?;
s1nh l
+ f) + cosh f]
+ B eoah l}
t.and?; + f = 2t.,, f = 2t
\A [::i':inh?; sinh (S
+ B)
(!)

?;.
cosh?;
(g)
Solutions for the plate with an clliptical hole were :first given by Kolosoff,
loc. cil.; and C. E. lnglis, Trami. Inst. Naval Arch., London, 1913; Engineering,
vol. 95, p. 415, 1913. Sce siso T. Pschl, Math. Z., vol. 11, p. 95, 1921.. The
method employcd here is that of Kolosoff. 1.'he sarne method was applied to
eeveral twodimensional problems of elasticity by A. C. Stevenson, Proc. Ruy ..s~.
(London), series A, vol. 184, pp. 129 and 218, 1945. Other references are given
la.ter in the chapter.
lL
Taking x(z)
At an infinite distance from the origin Eis infinite, and coth ?; has the
1
ZV,"(z)
(f)
(e)
From Eqs. (100) and (102) we find that the condition (d) is satisfied if
199
A cosh 2t.
x(z)
(m)
(n)
All the boundary conditions have now been satisfied. But ,ve cannot be sure that the complex potentials (n) reprcsent the solution of
our problem until we know that they imply no discontinuity in the displacement. The Cartesian components of displacement can be found
from Eq. (99), '\\hich in the prcsent case gives
on(
""" U
+.)
U!
3  'A . h'
 +
C Slll ~
1
AC
COS h
?;'
Cot h
8' f  .h
&Il f
(o)
e
t
the
hole
is
zero
Inserting
the
value
of
y/(z)
from
Eq.
(g),
SlllCC<TfR
"
\'lith A
S/2 we have
,,.~
<T,
4 Re f'(z)
28 Re coth
But
(p)
28 sinh 2~
cosh 2~  cos 211
and at the boundary of the bole
28 sinh
201
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
200
2~o
The greatest value, occurrin~ .at the ends of the major axis, \vhere
11 = Oand11",andcos211 = l,1s
28 sinh 2tc
(o.),,,,... = cosh 2tc  1
When a
(o~)mt~. reduce to 28, in agreemcnt '\\ith the value for the circular hole
sinh 2to
2ab
,,
cosh 2tc
~,
a2
+ b2
= ,,
(T,,
a::; i h c
slender d
f th minor axes
The least value of ((T.)i;~& occurs at the en s o
e
where cos 211 = 1. Thus
28 sinh 2to_ = 2 3 ~
cosh 2~ + 1
a
,,
l.11,
Since at infinity
(T'll
<T:'
8,
S,
r~'y'
av =
(T'll
,,,,
O, ..ve have
+ 2ir"11
Se2i~
at infinity
+ x"(z)J
T!~
(a)
O.
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
tions toh
be satisfied by eight constantsA 'C' and B 1 B
D D E
,2,1,2,1,
E
hIC are the real and imaginary parts of B, D, E. They are con. 2, w
s1stent, and the solution is
B = B1
+ iB2,
(b)
Substitution of the above forms for !f(z), x(z) in the conditions (a)
yields
(o)
A+ B1 = S,
Subtracting Eq. (110) from Eq. (109) to obtain ue  ire~, we find
.\)
203
4lf(z)
4x(z)
=
=
e 2 f.+ 2 i~)
+ j.e f
2
sinh .\]
cosh 2(.1 
if3)1
e2 f cos 2(~  )
cos 211
(11,) ~e.
S e,,
['icosh
nh
2Ml
20 
+ r'')
cos 211
r/2),
and the greatest value, occurring at the ends of the maJor axis
(cos 211 = 1), reduces to
s(1+2~)
This increases without limitas the bole becomes more and more slender
When a = bit agrees v.'ith the value 38 found for t.he circular bole 0 ~
page 80. The least valuc of the stress round the elliptical bole is S
at the ends of th~ minor axis. This is the sarne as for the circular hote'.
When the tens1on 8 is parallel to the major axis (fJ = O) the greatest
~alue of 11~ round the bole is found at the ends of the minor roi:is and is
t~l + Zb/a). This approachcs S v.'hen the ellipse is very slend~r. At
; ends of the major roi:is tbe stress is S for any value of a/b.
th he effect of the elliptical hole on a st.ate of pure shear S parallel t.o
t e~ and Yaxes is easily found by superposition of the two cases of
ens1on S at .B = :ir/4 and 8 at .B = 311"/4. Then
_
28
thc value of 11 is 21f  1Jo Along the half ED of the other branch 71 is
11 and along E/i' it is 11"
11
Consider the plate ABCFED 'Yithin these hyperbolic boundaries, in
a state of tension in the direction Oy. 1 The tensile stress at infinity
must fall to zero to preserve a finite tensile force across the waist EOB.
Complex potentials 'vhich permit this, and satisfy thc other necessary
conditions of symmetry about Ox and Oy, and freedom of the hyperholic boundaries, are
This vanishcs at thc ends of both the major and the minor axes and has
the greatest values
ir 
+s<a+b)2

ab
at the points determined b~r tan 1J = tanh ~ = b/a. When thc ellipse
is vcry slendcr thcsc valucs are vcry large, and the points at ..vhich they
occur are close to the ends of thc major axis.
Solutions have becn found for the elliptical hole in a platc suhjcct to
pure flexure in its plane 1 2 and to a paraholic distribution of shear as in
a thin rcctangular beam,2 for an elliptical bole 'vith cqual and opposite
concentrated forces at the ends of the minor diametcr,3 and for rigid
and elastic "inclusions" filling the l1ole in a plate under tension. 4
1lorc general series forms of the real <1tress funclion <P in cllipt.ic coordinates have becn con:oidered. 5 Their equivalent complex poientials can
be constructed from thc functions
used or mentioncd herc, together
'vith the analogucs of the simple
e
.......
functions quoted in the J>roblcms
'l:2fr'lo
IJ"fr+'Jo /
on p. 197, 'vhen dislocations and
~concentrated forces and couplcs
9
E
are to be includcd.
kr"h+.x
1
9
64. Hyperbolic Boundarles.
I
Notches. It "'as sho>vn in .i\.rt. 60
'7"9o
'l:ffIJo
that the curves '11 = constant in
elliptic coordinates are hyperbolas,
and in Art. 62 that t.he range of"
may be taken as O to 211", that of ~
Fra. 130.
being O to oo.
Let 'l1o be thc constant valuc of '11 along the hypcrbolic are B.4. of Fig.
130. It ,vill be bet\vecn O and 1f /2, f'ince bolh x a.nd y are positive
along BA. Along the other hrJf of t.his branch of the hyperbola, BC,
1 1 1 1
,.,.,.
 '
,,

' ,_
20;)
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
204
0,
Y,(z) = jA.i 1,
'
x(z)
X' (z)
e cosh \.
21 Ai. 1 
(' A
2
These give
+ B ) coth 1
i
E~uation
\'<Ili
f('J +'Vi(') +
(a)
(b)
= 110
kl
x'(')
A 11zlA.coshf
isinh.7 ('24+B) icotht
()n t.hc hyperbola 7J
expression becomcs
'IJo 
= '11"
\Ye have f
1
2i11
'
(d)
Thu::1
B
A
co;; 2 'lo
(e)
'fo find thc rcsultant force t.ransmittcd 11e may apply Eq. (103) of
\rt. 59 to thn narro'v secLion EOB, Fig. 130, more prc('iscly to the
Io,ver part of t.he limiting ellipse ~ = O bet\veen thc hyperbolas =
and _
.
.
. _
7J
'17l
7J  11"  1Jo 0 n t 1us elhpse !; becomes i7J, 1 becomes i7/, and \te
have from Eq. (103), (e) and (d)
+ R) cot '17]~.:;;:~
F~  i"Fu = i"[A11  (A
= i[A(:ir  2'170
'ThIs pro bl ()til (also the case of shear loadin") \Yll.S solvcd b~c A A G 'ffitb
"J.1"11,
TechRA
ept. rronau( Research Comm. (Great Britain) 10271928 vol II
668
andH:;;bz
"h
,
,.,p.,
h  eu er, . o.ngew. 1rial . Mech., vol. 13 p. 439 1933 or "Kcrba
,e re," p. ;)5, Berlin, IV38.
'
,
'
pannungs
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
206
Since A and B were taken as real, F,. is zero and, using Eq. (e)
Fu
A(11"  211 0
+ sin 21'1o)
 e
207
It may be seen from Fig. 131 that 61  62 is the angle between the two
l~nes joinin~ the "poles" ia, ia to the typical point z, when this point
hes to the nght of the yaxis, and is m.inus this angle when the point lies
to the left. It follo\\'S that a curve 1/ = constant is an are of a circle
passing through the poles. Several such circles are drawn in Fig. 131.
From Eqs. (e) it is clear that a curve ~ = constant will be a curve for
,~hich r1/r2 = constant. Such a curve is also a circle. It surrounds
the pole ia if r1/r2 exceeds unity, t.hat is, if tis positive. It surrounds
the other pole ia if ~is negative. Several such circles are drawn in
r=
z +ia
log.
(b)
z  ia
The quantity z
ia is represented by the line joining the point ia to
the point z in the xyplane, in the sense that its projections on the axes
give the real and imaginary parts. The sarne quantity may be represented by r 1e11 ,vhere r 1 is the length of the linc, and 01 the angle it
makes ,vith the xaxis (Fig. 131). Similarly z  ia is the line joining
the point ia to the point z, and may be represented by r28' 9 (Fig. 131).
Then Eq. (b) becomes
~ + i 11
= log
(~ eiee'')
= log
~ + i(01 
r,
= log,
"
Fig. 131. They form a family of coaxal circles with the two poles as
limiting points.
The coordinate '1 changes from 1r to 'Ir on crossing the segmcnt of the
yaxis joining ~he poles, its range for the ''rhole plane being 'Ir to 'Ir.
Stresses and d1splaccments .,vill be continuous across this segment jf
they are r~presented by periodic functions of 11 \vith period 2'1r.
Separat1on of real and imaginary parts in Eq. (a) leads t 0 t
X=
92)
a sin 11
'
cosh ~
cos 1)
a sinh ~
cosh ~
C08 '1
(d)
so that
~
Fio. 131.
1 .
h 2_.\
1
iacosec
2
2
(,)
1 Loc. cit.
For a cornparison of Neubcr's rcsults v;ith photoelastic and fatigue
teats of notched platcs and grooved shafts sce R. E. Peterson and A. M. Wahl,
J. Applied Mechanics, vol. 3, p. 15, 193fi, or S. Timoahenko, "Strength of MaterialB," 2d ed., vol. 2, p. 340. Sec also M. "'.\f. }'rocht, "Photoelasticity ," voL 2.
and
2 ia
_ dz/dt
 dZ/df
'nh211
 .i cosech2  .i
2
2
s1
(<)
(!)
'l'HEORY OF ELASTICITY
208
cosh n,\,
A(x2
+ y2)
'The original soluton, in terms of the real stress function, is dueto G. B. Jeffery,
1'rans. Roy. Soe. (Lu11don), series ./\., vol. 221, p. 265, 1921.
cosh~+cos1/
cosh
(b)
cos 11
th t
serve . at
s1nrc ~ s ress 1str1but1on in thc prcscnt problem is symmetrical about
:~e yax1s, we must choose them so that the corresponding stress func..1ons have the sarne symmetry. Thus vle may take
a . .
'
.1
(e)
r.
f(z) = iC sinh
x(z) = C' cosh .1
1vith C, C' real.
'fhe real stress function corresponding to (e) is, from Eq. (97),
11inh t co;;h t cos 1/  sinh t sin2 1/
cosh t  cos 11
B' r;inh t cosh t cos
cosh ~
aH
(a)
sinh n.\
q, = Re(zAz) = Azz
''"
20!)
(d)
sinh t co;; 2
co;; 1/
1/ 
1/
~fc 1re c~oose B' = aB thc tcrms in sin2 11 , cos2 1/ in the numcrators
Co~e 1ndependent of 7/, and thc complete numerator depends on 1/
~~ly 1~ t~c term in cos 1/, just as. does the function (b). The sarne
thing IS t1~e o_f the complcx potcnt1als (d), if v.cc choosc C' = aC.
U8 obta1n s1mpler, more reRtrict.ed functions v.hich turn out to be
ad!Jquatc for the present problem.
'faking thereforc
'''e
x(z) = aB sinh .1
(e)
\\"C fi d b
co
n
Y_means of Eqs. (109), (110) and (a), (f) of Art. 65, that the
rresponding stress componenhi are given by
a(u _
~
1/ 
s1 "]
f(z)
iC sinh .\,
x(z)
aC co1:1h
.1
(fJ
(g)
(h)
THEORY OF ELASTJCITY
210
yield
and therefore
2C[ cosh 2~
2 cosh 2~ cosh ~ COSf/
 cosh 2~ cos 21}
i(2 sinh 2~ cosh !'; sin 1J
 sinh 2~ sin 271)]
The stress components arising from
(J)
are given by
ui:+u~=O
D[sinh
2~
(l)
,P(z) = Az
yields
.,., + u~ =
ui:
4A,
u~ =
(n)
2.4,
D  2R cosh
JJ  2B cosh
2~
2~1
These with Eqs. (p) complete the determination of the complex potentiali:!. When there is interna} pressurc Pt only (p0 = O) the peripheral
;;tress at the bole is found to be
((T~)<b = pi+ 2pi(sinh 2 ~1
 2C sinh
 2C sinh
2~. =
2~1 =
O
O
(a)
(p
2A
2A  D sinh 2 ti tanh
a
(~1
t.)
t.)
po
pi
(~i
 t.)
+ cos 11]
,\n expression for the maximum valuc of this has already been given
on page 60.
A general series form of stress function in bipolar coordinates \Vas
givcn by G. B. Jeffery. 2 Its equivalent complcx potentials are easily
found, and involve the functions considered here together \vith the
bipolar analogues of the simple functions quoted in the Problems on
page 197, when dislocations and concentrated forces are included. It
has been applied to the problems of a semiinfinitc plate \vith a concentrated force at any point, 3 a semiinfinite region ..vith a circular bole,
under tcnsion parallel to the straight edge or plane boundary,4 and
undcr its o'\\n "'eight, 5 and to the infinite plate with two holes,6 ora bole
formed b:r tvo intersecting circles. 7
Soiutions have been given for the circular disk subject to concentrated forces at any point, 8 to its own \veight when suspended at a
point, 9 or in rotation about an eccentric axis, 10 with and "'ithout 1 i the
use of bipolar coordinates, and for the eiTect of a circular hole in a semiinfinite plate with a concentrated force on the straight edge.12
1
loc. Cil,
Loc. cit.
'l'he normal stress 01; can be found by subtracting thc real part of Eq. (g)
from Eq. (f) and similarly for the othcr pairs. On the boundary t = t.
it is to take the valuc  p., and on the boundary t = ti the value  pi.
Using the values of B and C given by Eqs. (p) these conditions lead to
the two equations
+
+
+
1 p,, sinh 2 ti
pi sinh 2 t,,
sinh 2 ~i
sinh 2 ~.
(p.  p1) coth (~1  t.)
a sinh 2 ti
sinh 2 ~.
 2
(k)
x(z) = aDt
211
'l'HEORY OF ELAS1'ICITY
212
yielding
x
y
= (e<
= (e<
er
The cquation
+ abet + ac e i
3
 abc<) sin
71 
1945.
Proc. R01J. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 184, p. 231, 1945.
e. '\\'eber, angew. ,\.fath. i'[ech., vol. 22, p. 29, 1942.
Math. 1 1nn., vol..107, pp. 282312, 1932. Also Z. angew. ,\.falh. ~ech., vol.13,
264 1933 An account of this mPthod is given by I. S. Sokolnikofi, Lectures
~~ th~ 'fhco~y of Elasticity, Bro\Vn Univcrsity, 194~ (mimeographed notes).
~ It is used by !.Iorkovin (sec footnote 1). !\Iost of the work of ~ 1. !\Iu~che~~
iilvili and his associates is in Ilussian. His book "Singular Integra.! Equat1?~ 8
(2d ed.), whieb contains solutions of severa\ twodimensional probl1:1ns of clast1city,
in pa.rticular 1nixed boundury valne problcms, has becn translated by the Aeronautical Research Laboratories, Dept. of Supply and Dcvelopme~t, Co_mmonwealth of Australia (Translation No. 12, 1949). Another tr_anslatio~ ed1ted by
J. R. 11. Radok voas published hy P. Xoordhoff, N.V.,_ Groningen, Netherlands,
1953. :\IuscheliShvili gives his mcthods in ''Some Bas1c Problems of the :\athema.tical Theory of F.lasticity," 3d ed., :\{o~co", l\}19, translated by J. R. !\L Radok,
ublished by P. Xoordhoff, Groningt:n, :.'ctherlands, 1\)53. Results of th~ ty~
!otcd under footnotes 1 and 2 were obtained eo.rlier by Russio.n authors c1ted U1
z.
CHAPTER 8
,,
0
cos (Ny) = m,
213
cos (Nz) = n
(a)
i:
THEORY
214
()F
ELASTIC/TY
Am,
Al,
Substituting
An
.r,. =
= ,,,.,,[
u,,l
+ rcym + r.,,n
+ .r11m + ,,,,11n
T,,.l
1' 11
,m
(112)
+ u.n
u,. = Xl
+ Ym + Zn
'
.r,. = .r,]i
mr,
nr
. (<)
(d)
(114)
As the plane BCD rotates about the point O, the end of the vcctor r
always lics on the surlace of the second degree given by Eq. (114).
This surlace is complctely defined by the stress condition at thc point
O, and, if the directions of the eoordinate axes x, y, z are changed, the
::;urlace ..vil\ remain entirely unchanged and only the components of
::;tress u,,, u,,, u,, ru,, r,,,, r.,,, and hcnce the coefficients in Eq. (114), will
alter.
It is '\\"ell knovrn that in the case of a surlace of the second dcgree,
snch as given by Eq. (114), it is al\vays possible to find for the axes x, y,
z 1>uch directions that the terms in this cquation containing the products
of coordinatcs vanish. This means that \Ve can always find thrce perpendicular planes for \\"hich r11,, r,~, r.,, vanish, i.e., the resultant ::;tresses
are perpendicular to the planes on '\\'hich they act. We call these
stresses the principal stresses at the point, their directions the principal
axes, and thc planes on 'vhich they act principal planes. It can be
i:ieen that the stress at a point is completely defined if the directions of
the principal axes and the magnitudes of the three principal stresses are
given.
69. Stress Ellipsoid and Stressdirector Surface. If the coordinate
axes x, y, z are taken in the directions of the principal axes, calr:ulation
of the stress on any inclined plane becomes very sim pie. Thc shearing
stresses r 11,, 1',:c, r.,, are zero in this case, and Eqs. (112) become
..Y
.r,J,
= .r,,m,
= (1',n
(115)
x2
+ <ri/
y2 + z2 =
q~2
(1',t
(116)
The plusorminus sign in Eq. (d) applies according as"~ is terurlle or compres~
eive, and correepondingly in Eq. (114). '\\'hcn ali three principal stre8.'les have
the sarne sign, only one of the alternative signs is needed, and the ~urface is an
ellipsoid. When the principal streeses are not all of the sarne sign, both signs llJ'e
Deeded and the surface, now represented by both Eqs. (114), consists of a hyperboioid of two sheets, together with a hyperboloid of one sheet, with a <:ommon.
aaymptotic cone,
1
(b)
!k'
from (b), and the values of l, m, n from (e) in Eq. (113), we find 1
(113)
The variation of .rn v.'ith the direct.ion of the normal N can be representcd geometrically as follo\vs. Let. us put in the direction of N a
vector whose }cngth, r, is invcrsel3r proportional to the square root of
the absolute value of the stress u,,, i.e.,
215
216
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
This means that, if for each inclined plane through a point O the stress
is represcnted by a vector from O "\\'i.th the components X, Y, Z, the
ends of all such vectors lie on the surface of the ellipsoid given by Eq.
(116). Tbis ellipsoid is called the stress ellipsoid. !ts semiaxes give the
principal stresses at the point. From this it can be concluded that the
maximum stress at any point is the largest of the three principal
stresses at this point.
If t\VO of the three principal stresses are numerically equal the stress
ellipsoid becomes an ellipsoid of revolution. If these numerically
equal principal stresses are of the sarne sign the resultant stresses on
all planes through the axis of symmetry of the ellipsoid v.ill be equal
and perpendicular to the planes on which they act. ln this case the
stresses on any t\VO perpendicular planes through this axis can be considered as principal stresses. If all three principal stresses are equal
and of the sarne sign, the stress ellipsoid becomes a sphere and any
three perpendicular directions can be taken as principal axes. When
one of the principal stresses is zero, the stress ellipsoid reduces to the
area of an ellipse and the vectors representing the stresses on all the
planes through the point lie in the sarne plane. This condition of
stress is called plane stress and has already been discussed in previous
sections. "\Vhen t'vo principal stresses are zero \Ve have the cases of
sirnple tension or cornpression.
Each radius vector of the stress ellipsoid represents, to a certain scale, the stress
on one of thc planes through the center of the cllipsoid. To find this plane we use,
togethcr with the stress ellipsoid (116), the stress direcWr surface defincd by the
equation
x1
y~
it
(117)
++=1
CT~
cr,
U;
The stress represented by a radius vector of the stress ellipsoid acts on the plane
parallel to the tangent plane to the stressdirector surface at the point of its intersection with the radius vector. This can be shown as follows. The equation of
the tangent plane to the stressdirector surface (117) at any point Xo, yo, Zo is
~+YY+ZZo=l
"
u,,
u,
(a)
Denoting by h the length of the perpendicular from the origin of coordinates to the
above tangent plane, and by l, m, n the dircction cosines of this perpendicular,
the equation of this tangent plane can be ..vrittrn in the form
lx+my+nz=h
(b)
x,h
T'
217
y = yoh,
zoh
70. Determination of the Principal Stresses. If the stress comP?nen.ts for thrce coordinate planes are kno\vn, ,ve can determine the
d1rect1ons and m~gn.itudes of the principal stresses by using the propert! that the principal stresses are perpendicular to the planes on
'vh1ch thcy act. ~et l, m, n be the direction cosincs of a principal plane
and S the magnitude of the principal stress acting on this plane
Then the components of this stress are:
.
X~
Sl,
= ~'\m,
Sn
u,)l 
+ (S
r,,,l 
1'.rvm 
1',,,n =
 u 11 )m  1'11 ,n =O
r 11 ,m
+ (S 
u,)n =
(a)
1
diff
' '
eym
g1ve ~o ut~ons
erent from zero only if the determinant of these
equat1on~ is zero. Calculating this determinant and putting it equal
to zero g1ves us the follo"'ing cubic equation in S:
3

(u~
(U#:vfT,
+ 2ry,T,,1'Xll 
U,1'11 ,
T 2 Y
u,,r,,, 2 
<n
u,1'"112)
2\S
1'Xll/
=O
1'he three roots of ~his .equation give the values of the three principal
stres1>es .. By subst1tut1ng each of these stresses in Eqs. (a) and using
2
the. relat1on l + m 2
n 2 = 1, we can find thrce sets of direction
cos1nes for the three principal planes.
ln~!
may be notcd t~at ~q. {118) for determining the principal strCJ!ses must he
pendcnt oi thc d1rect1ons of the coordinates x y z h~noe the f to
thc~i
th'
' "
ac rs 1n parends. in is equation should remain constant for any change of directions of
coor inates. Hencc the coeflicienta of Eq. (118)
(a) cr, +u, +u,
..
..
+ + ""  ,.._,i
.  . '  , '
+
 u,.,.2  cr"r,.  u..,,
(b) """
u,,u,
(e) cr.cr,,u.
2.,,.~,.,,
1
Another method of r
t
h
.
developed by O M h ~f~es~n ~ng t e stress ata po1nt, by using circle~, has bccn
A. F"
.. r,
ec I11Sche JV1eschn.nik," 2d ed., p. 192, 1914. See also
opp1 and L. Foppl, "Drang und Z\';an "
l 1
d
g, vo 'p. 9, an H. r.1. Viestergaard
Z. angew M th Jl,f h
1
4
5
made i ~r : ec "". , .P 20, 1924. Applications of hohr's circles we~
n 1scusa1ng twod1mens1onal problems (scc Art. 9).
T
(,)
(118)
218
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
do not vary with changing directions of the ooordinates. This means that the
sum u~ + <r~ + "" of the three normal components of stress at a point in three
perpendicular directions remains constant and is equal to the sum of the principal
stresses at thi.s point.
'fhe square of the normal component of thc stresR on the sarne plane is,
from Eq. (113),
(a)
Then the square of the shearing stress on thc sarne plane must be
l 
m
n
o
1
o
"
219
v1
v1
v1
o
v1
VI
VI
The fi~st .t~ree columns give the directions of the planes of coordinates, co1nc1d1ng, as was assumed originally, with the principal planes
F~r.these planes the shearing stress is zero, i.e., expression (b) is~
~ 1 ~~mu~. . The three remaining columns give planes through each
. al e principal
the angles bet"een the t wo other pr1n.
S b axes
bisecting
c1p ax_es.
u st1tut1ng the direction cosines of thesc three planes into
ehxpresshion (b) we find the follo"\\ing values of the shearing stresses on
t ese t ree planes:
r
k(u11
u,),
r =+
)'
T i
q.,( q,
7 =
y'(q_,
q 11 )
(119)
!his sho"s that the maximum shearing stress acts on the plane bisectWe shall now eliminate one of the direction cosines, say n, from this
equation by using the relation
li+ mz
+ n2
and then determine l and m so :i.s to make 1" a maximum. After substituting n 2 = 1  12  m 2 in expression (b), calculating its dcrivatives
with respect to l and m, and equating these dcrivativcs to zero, \Ve
obtain the following equations for determining the direction cosines of
the planes for which ris a maximum or minimum:
l[(u,,  u,)l 2
m[(u,,  u,)l 2
+ (u
11 
+ (u
1 
q,)m 2
u,)m 2
j(ux  u,)] =O
i(u11  u,)] =O
(e)
Onesolutionoftheseequationsisobtainedbyputtingl = m =O. We
can alBo obtain solutions different from zero. Taking, for instance,
l = O, we find from the second of Eqs. (e) that m = VI; and taking
m = O, we find from the first of Eqs. (e) that l = ..y}. There are in
general no solutions of Eqs. (e) in which l and m are both different from
zero, for in this case the expressions in brackets cannot both vanish.
Repeating the above calculations by eliminating from expression (b)
m and then l, \ve finally arrive at the following table of direction cosines
making 1" a maximum or minimum:
~ng the angle between the largest and the smallest principal stresses and
stress~~.
if OB = OC = OD so that th
represen
e rrect1ons of principal stress, and
direction cosines l '  m = n ~ ~ormal N to thc slant face of t~c tetrahcdron has
Eq. (a), or (113), as
/v'3, the normal stress on th1s face is given by
(d)
TI = j(,,,1 _ "'
+ .r,')
_ j(.r,
+ " + ,,,)!
+ (o,
 .r,)
+ (o,
_ ,,,)1]
+ (<ru
_ <tn)'
+ (<r,
 <ro)I)
= j[(u,, 
.r,)
<tn)J
il,,
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
simple tension.. Planes and straight lincs remain plane and straight
after deformat1on. Parallel planes and parallel straight lincs remain
parallel after deformation. A sphere becomes after deformation an
cllipsoid. Thls kind of deformation is called ~mogeneous defvrmaion.
I~ '\\il~ be.shown later that in this case the deformation in any given
d1rect1on is the sarne at ali points of the deformed body. Thus two
geometrically similar and similarly oriented elements of a body remain
gcometrically similar after distortion.
ln more general cases the deformation varies over the volume of a
deformed body. For instance, when a beam is bent, the elongations
and contractions of longitudinal fibers depend on thcir distances frorn
the neutral surface; thc shearing strain in elements of a twisted circular
shaft is proportional to their distances
z
from the axis of the shaft. ln such
cases of nonhomogeneous deformation
an analysis of the strain in the
o,
neighborhood of a point is necessary.
73. Strain at a Point. ln discllilsing strain in the neighborhood of a
point O of a deformed body (Fig. x
134), let llil consider a small linear
Fin. 134.
element 001 of length r, ""ith the direction cosines l, m, n. The small
projections of this element on the coordinate axes are
220
U =EX,
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
= VEZ
(b)
ax+by+cz+d=O
y'2
z'2
r2(1  ve) 2 + r 2 (1  ve) 2
(d)
lix = rl,
8y = rm,
liz = rn
221
(a)
vX
av
av
+ X 8x + y
av
+ Z 8z
aw
aw
aw
W + ih: 8x + 'y 8y + 7fZ 8z
Vi = V
W1 =
au
+ .au
,   8x + au
8y +  8z
y
Z
8y
(b)
!!r~ ~ed ~ere that the quantities Bx, 8y, 8z are small, and hence the
8
'\Ytt~ h1gher po'\\ers and products of these quantties can be
1
::~ ected. in (b) as small quantities of higher order. The coordinates
he po1nt 01 become, after deformation
'
222
THEORY OF ELASTTCITY
au
au
au
av
av
av
aw
aw
aw
notations
b+u,ub+MM+~+.
uw
az
+~+k+~+.
(e)
+ u)i =
(ax + :~ x + :; y + ~~ z)
+ (liy
+:
+ :; liy + :~ z)
au+&ay ax 
+ t)2
= [
l(1
1n, =
+(z~~+m~~+n(1+~~)]
= l~
(d)
2 aw
au
ao
X + m ()y + n ()z + lm
2
[n
()z
:: . . . (:;
+ :;;), ...
are
known.
y+11111
r(l
+ ) =
1 
011
l x
'")
u
++ m+ na
Z
yz
+m(1
'')
''
+ Oy
+ n ;}Z
(j)
iJw)
Taking another element r' through the sarne point with direction cosines l' m' n'
the magn1tudes
.
' ,
of thcse cosincs, after deformation, are given by equations' analogous to (J). The cosine of the angle between thc two elements after deformation is
cos (rr') = li/,'
(120)
Using. the
+ m mi' + n
1
n 1'
Considring thc t:'longations and ' in these two directions as s1nall quantitie~
and using Eqs. lj), we find
cos (rr') "" (ll'
z+w 1 w
Ow
w
(
n,= r(l+)
=lax+may+n l+az
= EJ
l  ilz+u,u
(l + )
T
(1 + !~) + n !~]
7 "'
+ ~i) + m :; + n 3;;]
+ [z :; + m
"Y"'ll,
E,
(121)
The physical meaning of such quantities as E% , 1'~
. has
already been discussed (sce Art. 5), and it '\Vas shown that E%, E,,, E, are
unit elongations in the x, y, zdirections and "Y"'ll, 'Yn, 'Y,,, the three unit
t1hcar strains related to the sarne directions. We now see that the
elongation of any linear element through a point O can be calculated
from :Eq. (121), provided '\le kno\v the six strain components.
ln the particular case of homogeneous deformation the components
u, v, w of displaccment are linear functions of the coordinates, and from
Eqs. (e) the components of strain are confltant over the volume of the
body, i.e., in this case each element of the body undergoes the sarne
strain.
E
(1
av aw
az+ay=
223
+ nnn' + nn')(l
+ "l'u(mn'
 '  ')
+ m'n)
imd Eq. (122) gives the shearing strain between these directione.
(122)
224
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
74. Principal Axes of Strain. From Eq. (121) a geometrical interpretation of the variation of strain ata point can be obtained. For this
purpose let us put in the direction of each linear element such as r
(Fig. 134) a radius vector of the length
k
(a)
vi;\
Then, proceeding as explained in Art. 68, it can be shovrn that the ends
of all these radii are on the surface given by the equation
(123)
U1 
ln this case the elongation of any linear element with the direction
eosines l, m, n becomes, from Eq. (121),
V1 
(124)
= 2(E,Jl'
+ Ei;mm' + E,nn')
W1 
U = 
v =
W
x
w
= fix
ax
y
aw
fiy
y
+
az
aw
z
az
(a)
+
Introdncing the notation (e) of Art. 73 for the strain components and
also thc notation 1
'
(125)
It can thus be seen that the strain ata point is completely determine~
if vte kno\V the directions of the principal axcs of strain and the magn1tudes of the principal cxtensions. The determination of t~e principal
axes of strain and the principal extensions can be done in the. sarne
manner as explained in Art. 70. It can also be shown that the sum
225
21
(w ") =W:.,
yaz
21
(126)
.
A glancc at Fig. 6 will show that av/ax and au/ay, occurring in the expreaaion
rotations
226
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
W1 
U = f,. X
Vi  V =
W =
hzv x
w, 8y
w., o5z
w,, 8x
+ w., z
+ w, X
+ w., liy
(b)
We can no\v show that w,,, w11 , w, are in fact the components of the
rotation 3. Consider the surface given by Eq. (123). The square of
the radius in any direction is inversely proportional to the unit elongation of a linear element in that direction. Equation (123) is of the
form
F(x,y,z) = constant
(e)
If we consider a neighboring point x
face, we bave the relation
The shit dx, dy, dz is in a direction whose direction cosines are proportional to dx, dy, dz. The three quantities iJF/ax, aF/ay, aF/az also
specify a direction, since we can take direction cosines proportional to
them. The lefthand side of Eq. (d) is then proportional to the cosine
of the angle between these t\\o dircctions. Since it vanishes, the two
directions are at right angles, and since dx, dy, dz representa direction
in the tangent plane to the surface at the point x, y, z, the direction
represented by iJF / ax, iJF / iJy, iJF / az is normal to the surface given by
Eq. (e).
Now F(x,y,z) is in our case the function on thc righthand side of Eq.
(123). Thu
aF
i)x
aF
= 2EzX
+ 'Yri1Y + 'Y.Z
+ 2~y + 'Y11.Z
aF
i)z = 'Y~ + 'Y11Y + 2E.Z
iJy = 'Y~
()
The surface given by Eq. (123) being drawn with the point O (Fig.
134) as center, we may identify llx, lly, llz in Eqs. (b) with x, y, z in Eqs,
(e).
227
. W e consi~er now the special case when "'" "'11 wz are zero. Then the
r1ght.hand s1des of Eqs. (e) are the sarne as the righthand sides of E
.
qs.
(b) but for a factor 2. Consequently th d 1
.
e isp acement g1ven by Eqs
(b) is
normal to the surface givcn by Eq ( 123) C
.d .
h
.
O (F. 13 )
.
~.
: "'
body rotat1on having components "'
b t h
C
"' Wy, W, a OU t e X y zaxes
onsequently t.hcse quantities, given by (126) exprnes th ' t' ,.
f.
step3 tht" th
'
eroa1ono
a IS, e ro~at.1on of the principal axes of strain at the point
O. They are callcd s1mply the components of rotation.
Problem
1. '\\'hat is thc equation of the type j(x y )
which hecomes 11. sphere ;,,
y'' z' _'.. ~~
of .\rt. i2? What kind of surface ifi it?
;t"0't:fet hhomogoneous
e snrfMe with centcr at O
deformation
GElo/ERAL
THEORE~fS
229
The two other equations of equilibrium are obtained in the sarne manner. After dividing by ()x y z and proceeding to the limit by shrinking the element do,,.,n to the point x, y, z, 've find
+ rn + r,,, +X
ay
az
iJU~ + iJTX11 + iJT~z + y
y
x
z
iJr;, + iJT,,~ + iJTyz + z
r;,,
ax
CHAPTER 9
GENERAL THEOREMS
76. Differential Equations of Equilibrium. ln t~e discussion of
Art. 67 ,ve considered the stress ata point of an elast1c bod?': Let us
consider now the variation of the stress as we chan~~ th_e pos1t1on of the
t
For this purpose the conditions of equ1hbr1um of a small
;;~:a~gular parallelepiped with the sides 8x, y, fiz (~ig. 135) ~ust be
studied. The componcnts of stresses acting on the s1des of this small
element and their positive directions are indicated in the figure. Here
we take into account the small
z
changcs of the components of
2!_::'.:~~~~~~~::i
'
S1!
1 r;.,.
r~Js
)'i'h
az
=O
=
(127)
+ Txym + r""n
+ +
r;,n + T,,,/, + Tu,m
X
y
u,,l
Uym
Ty,n
TX)Jl
(128)
a2"Y,,,,,
x y
l,.,
THEORY OF ELASTIGITY
230
GENERAL l'HEOREMS
from which
(a)
Two more relations of the sarne kind can be obtained by cyclical interchange of the letters x, y, z.
Calculating the derivatives
)2E~
iJ'Yu =
ay
(1
+ v) (a2:: + :2~)
 '(!2?z + a20)
Y
iJy
ax ay az'
a'lu + ~.
ih,,,
ay az
ay=
ax ay
(j2~
az2
ax 2
iJ2E,
az
iJx2
ax ay
ay2
a E, + a
2
= a2'Y:w'
=
2
E,,
z2
iJ2')'yz 1
ay az
=
+ v) y
a2r,,,
z
(d)
iJq,
r=
azaxz
a 'Y,
ax az
2
E, =
ay az
ax az
2E,
2 ax
ay
ay
ax
')'.v;
ay
+ ')'cy)
az
az ax
ay
a2E,, + a2t,
az
ay
+ v)o
"(,,.
11 
E,= p[(l
r,,,
u, _ 2u11
iJz 2
iJy az
i)
ax
iJy 2
(r,,
Tz
0 20".,
iJy i)z
ax2
iJ 2u11
y2
2u,
+ r""')
ay
iJZ
az 
Y
iJy
ax
ay 
az
Substituting this in Eq. (d) and using to simplify the writing, the
symbol
'
a2
a2
0
v2=++ax2
ay 2
az2
'\ove find
(1
+ ,) (ve  v. _iJx
x 2
(l
az) (')
+ )(X_
aY
_ az
ax
ay
;wo analogous .e~~atio!ls can be obtained fro1n thc t\VO other condi1ons ~f compat1b1hty of the type (e).
Adding together all thrce equations of the type (e) \Ve find
116]
(1 
11
1 Proofs that these six equations are sufficient to ensure the existence of a displacement corrcsponding to a given set of functions ~,, . . . , 1'~ 11 , may be
found in .~. E. H. Lovc, "Mathematical Theory of Elasticity," 4th ed., p. 49, and
1. S. Sokolnikoff, ":\lathe1nat.ical Theory of Elasticity," p. 24, 1946.
'
+ ax _ aY az
i)z2
~
ve]
ax
az
From Eqs. (3) and (4), using the notation (7), we find
~ = E[(l
ay az
2 
(129)
.!!._
ay
2
2 iJ r,,,
'Yv =
ar'"'
ih,,,
i)q!I
~
2(1
~he right si?~ o~ this equation can be transformed by using the equations of equ1hbr1um (127). From these equations we find
we find that
+ a2E"
Q3U
ay az
a2E~
231
,)v'B ~
(l
Substt
this expression for
1 uting
Vtu.,
+ ,)
v2e in
(x + aY + az)
ax
()z
Eq. (e),
(fl
1
233
GENERAL THEOREMS
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
232
Jf thcre are no body forces or if the body forces are constant, Eqs. (f)
(1
'e
+ v)V2cr~ + JX2
O,
(1
(1
0,
(1
(1
=O,
u'=a+bycz
v'=dbx+ez
w'=f+cxey
'8
+ ,)V r + ay az ~ O
2
'li
'8 = o
+ ,)v2.,.~ + __
ax az
'8
(1 + v)V zv + ax ay ~ O
(130)
2T
i.IE~
i.lx 2
i.lx'
i.!2u
i.IE,,,
i.lx i.ly
i.ly'
(b)
This means that tho displacements are not entirely determincd hy the
stresses and sLrains. On the displacements found from the diffcrcntial
Eqs. (127), (128), (130) a <lisplaccment like that of a rigid body can be
Ruperposcd. The constants a, d, f in Eqs. (b) representa translatory
1notion of the body, and the constants b, e, e are the three rotations of
t.he rigid body around the coordinate axes. \Vhcn there are sufficient
constraints to prevent motion as a rigid body, the six constants in Eqs.
(/J) can easily be calculatcd soas to satisfy the conditions of constraint.
Rcveral examples of such calculations "'ili be shown !ater.
79. Equations of Equilibrium. in Terras of Displacements. One
method of solution of the problems of elasticity is to elimina te the stress
components from Eqs. (127) and (128) by using Hooke's law, and to
express the strain components in terms of displacements by using Eqs.
(2). ln this manner
arrive at three cquations of equilibrium containing only the three unkno,vn functions u, v, w. Substituting in the
first of Eqs. (127) from (11)
'"
u,,, = }.e
+ 2G u
i.lx
(a)
We
find
(X+ G) i.le
i.lx
2
+ G (i.1ax2
u +
i.1 u
ay2
2
+ i.lz2
u) +X
=O
234
'
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
Then, using the symbol vi (see page 231), the equations of equilibrium
(127) become
(X+ G) e + GV 2 u +X= O
GENERAL THEOREMS
ox
(X+G)e+av 2v+Y=O
ay
</>1  (</>o+ + +
(131)
X</>1
a x
'
\Vhere 4a = 1/(1  v) and the four functions q, 0, c/>1, q, 2, <fia are harmonic, i.e.,
(X+G) +GV2u =0
ax
'fhe sarne conclusion holds also \vhcn body forces are constant throughout the volume of the body.
Substituting froro such equationi,; as (a) and (b) into the houndary
conditions (128) we find
+a(::l+ ::m + n)
V 2c/>o =
(132)
'
+:;m +
z<fia)
X= Ael+G(::z
!~n)
:~
.. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Y</>2
(X+G)e+GV 2w+Z=O
(>+G)' +GV'v ~o
Y
(X+G)e+GV 2w=O
235
(134)
o,
v2q,1
o,
V2<1>2 =
o,
lt can be sho,vn that this solution is general, and that any one of the
four functions may be dropped 'vithout loss of generality.
This form of solution has been adapted to curvilinear coordinates by
Neuber, and applied by him in the solution of problems of solids of
revolution 2 gencrated by hyperbolas (the hyperbolic groovc on a
cylinder) and cllipses (cavity in the form of an ellipsoid of rcvolution)
transmitting tension, bending, torsion, or shear force transverse to the
axis with accompanying bcnding.
81. The Principie of Superposition. The solution of a problem of a
given elastic solid v.ith given surface and body forces requires us to
dLtermine stress components, or displacements, \Vhich satisfy the
d1fferential equations and the boundary conditions. If we choose to
v.ork v.ith stress components 've have to satisfy: (a) the equations of
equilibrium (127); (b) the compatibility conditions (129); (e) the
boundary conditions (128). Let u,, . . . , rxv . . . , be the stress components so determined, and duc to surface forces X, Y, Z, and body
forces X, Y, Z.
Let u,/ . . . , r"'71' be thc stress components in the sarne elastic
solid dueto surfacc forces X', :f', Z' and body forces X', Y', Z'. Thcn
1
236
TIIEORl' OF ELASTICITY
GENERAL THEOREMS
ax
1
Tri1 ,
'
231
au,,
ax
ay
~o
+ iJr""' +ar=' +X
=
rr:/l
az
=O
+ r""'m + r,,,'n
"\\'8
have by
1
)
ax
+ ?~r""'
(rr,/  rrx")l
 rxv")
~o
ay
+ (rxu
Txy
11
)m
+ (r,.,'
 r,,,'')n
11
E,, ,
> '"f:o11' 
"/xy", . . . .
238
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
E/ 1 .. , 'Y:rv"
, and consequently the t\vO states oi stl'eSS
u/ . . . , r""' . . , and u:r" . . . , r:rv" . . , are thercfore identical.
'Ihat is, the equations can yicld only one solution corresponding to
given loads.1
The proof of uniqueness of solution was bascd on the assumption
that the strain energy, and hence stresses, in a body disappear when it
is freed of external forces. Howevcr there are cases \Vhen initial
stresses may exist in a body \Vhile externai forces are absent. An
example of this kind ,~as encountered in studying the circular ring (see
ltrt. 39). lf a portion of the ring between two adjacent cross sections
is cut out, and the ends of the ring are joincd again by welding or other
mcans, a ring with initial stresses is obtained. 2 Severa! examples of
this kind wcre discusscd in considering twodimensional problems.
We can also have initial stresses in a simply connectcd body dueto
some nonelastic deformations during the process of forroing the body.
\Ve may have, for instance, considerablc initial stresses in large forgings
due to nonuniform cooling and also in rolled metallic bars due to the
plastic flow produced by cold v:ork. For determining these initial
stresses the equations of elasticity are not sufficient, and additional
information regarding the process of forming thc body is necessary.
It should be notcd that in all cases in which thc principlc of superposition can be used the deformations and stresses produced by externai
forces are not affected by initial stresses and can be calculated in
exactly the sarne manner as if there wcre no initial stresses. Then the
total stresses are obtained by superposing the stresses produced by
externa} forces on the initial stresses. ln cases when the principle of
supcrposition is not applicable, the stresses produced by external loads
cannot be detcrmined ..vithout knowing the initial stresses. We cannot, for instance, calculate bending stresses produccd by lateral loads
in a thin bar, if the bar has an initial axial tension or compression,
..vithout kno"ving the magnitude of this initial stress.
1 This thcorem is dueto G. Kirchhoff.
See his Vorle:rungen ber Math. Phys.,
Mechanik.
The ring represents the simplest example of multiplyconnected bodies. ln
the case of such bodies general equations of clasticity, cxpressed in terms of stress
components, are not sufficicnt for determining stresses, and to get a complete
solution an additional invcstigation of displacementa :is necessary. The :6rst
investigations of this kind were made by J. H. Michell, Proc. London Math. Soe.,
vol. 31, p. 103, 1899. See also L. N. G. Filon, Brit. Assoe. Advancement Sei. Rept.,
1921, p. 305, and V. Volterra, Sur l'quilibre des corps lastiques multiplement
connexs, Ann. cole norm., Paris, series 3, vol. 24, pp. 401517, 1007. Furtber
references on initial stresses are given in the papcr by P. Nemnyi, Z. angfl'W. Mat/i.
Mech., vol. 11, p. 59, 1931.
GENERAL THEOREMS
239
83. The Reciproca! Theorem. Limiting ourselves to the t\.vodimensional case let us consider the plate under two different loading
conditions, and denote by X,, Y 1, X 1, and Y1 the components of the
boundary
and the volume forces in the first case' and by X 2, Y2, X 2,
and Y2 1n the second case. For the displacements, thc strain componcnts, and stress components in the two cases we use the notation
,,,,,,d,,,,,,
Ui, Vi, Ez, E~, 'Yr'll, u,,, <ry, TZ!I an U2, V2, E,,'~' 'Yr'll'' <rx', u.,/', r"JOll"
Lct us cons1der no'" the \'\rork which "'ould be produced by the forces
of the first state of stress on the corresponding displacements of the
second state. This V.'ork V.'ill be
JX1u2ds
+ JY1t2ds + JJX1u
dxdy
+ JJY 1v
dxdy
(a)
v.here the first t\\'O integrals are cxtcnded around the entire boundary
of the plate and the second t'" ovcr the entire area of the plate. Substitutingfor X1 its expression from Eqs. (20), page 23, we can represcnt the first term on the right~hand side of Eq. (a) as follows:
JX1u2ds
fl<r,/u2ds
+ Jmrr'll'u
ds
(b)
lux'u2 ds
mr"J011'u2 ds
f f ;;'
f f ;;'
U2
dx dy
U2
dx dy
Jf ~:2
+ Jf ~;2 r~'
u,/ dx dy
dx dy
s_ubstituting this in (b) V.'e find that the first and thc third t.erms of (a}
gi:ve us
JX,u,a, + JJ
X,u,Jxdy
Y1v2ds
+JJY1v2dxdy
f f (;;'+a;;'+
+ f f (:~ + ::
2
<ry
y 1)v 2 dxdy
rxu') dx dy
(d)
Observing now that the first terms on the righthand side of equations
(
e) and (d) va.nish in virtue of equilibrium equations (18), and sub
240
JJ (~,/'u,,' + ~11({1 1 +
E1
ff
241
and the elongation of the bar, produced by two forces P in Fig. 1300, is
GENERAL THEOREMS
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
= vPh
AE
'Yrr1"r,,/) dx dy

l!lly
" '
rf.,
vu,,''u,,'
Exactly the sarne result is obtained if v.'e calculate the ~vork donc by
the forces of the second statc of stress on the displacements of the first
state. Thus '\'\'e can conclude, comparing t\vo states of stress of an
elastic body, that thc \Vork done by the forces of the first state on the
corresponding displaccncnts of the second is equal to the \Vork done by
the forces of the second state on the corrcsponding displacements of
t.he first. This represcnts the reciproca! theorem. It can be easily
extendcd also to bodies in motion or in
vibration. It is only necessary to add
(ai the inertia forces to the external loads.
1'he reciprocal theorem finds an important
application in the theory of structures in
Q~!b} the construction of influence lines. It also
thas useful applications in thc theory of
Fio. 136.
elasticity.
Take as a simple example thc case of a prismatical bar compressed
by two equal and opposite forces' P, Fig. 136a. The problcm of finding the stresses produced by these forces is a complicated one; but
assume that "\Ve are interested not in the stresses but in the total
elongation of the bar. This qucstion can be answered at once by
using the theorem. For this purposc \Ve consider in addition to the
given stress condition represented in Fig. 136a the simple central
tension of thc bar shuwn in Fig. 136b. For this second case we find
p. (1 ;>)pl ~ ~p
and the reduction in the volume of the body is therefore
~ ~
Pl(l  2,)
Qh
84. ApproJCimate Character of the Plane Stress Solutions. It was pointed out
on pagc 25 that th.i set of cquations wc found sufficient for plane stress problems
undcr the assumptions madc (,,., = T,, = T"' = O,""'""'.," independent of z) did
~ot cnsure satisfaction of ali the conditions of compatibility. Thcse assumptions
lmply that '" u, , 1'~ are independent of z, and that 1 .,, '"'are zero. The :first of
the conditions of compatibility (129) '\ovas included in the plane stress theory, as
Eq. (?1). It is easily verified that the other tive are satisfied only if., is a linear
func~1on of x and y, v..J1ich is the exception ratbcr tban the rule in the plane stress
soluttons obtained in Chaps. 3 to 7. Evidently thcse solutioru; cannot be exact,
but We shall now see that tbey are closc approximations for thin plates.
Let us seek exact solutions of the thrccdin1ensional cquations for which2
We may suppose that the forces are distributed over a small area. to avoid
singularities. Idcally conccntrated forces in twodimen~ion_al problema usUtLlly
result in infinite displaeement, indieating that the actual d1splacement. dependa
on the distributio11
F?r. other applications of this kind see .\..E. H. Lovc, "l\Iathcmatical Theory of
El ast1c1ty," 4th ed., pp. 174176, 1927.
T A. Ciebsch, "Elasticitii.t," Art. 39. See also ..\..E. li. Love, "l\lathPmatical
heory of Elasticity," 4th ed., p. 145, 1927.
= v
p. "AE = Q
1
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
242
taking body force as zero. Sueh Holutions must satiRfy the equations of equilibrium
(127) a.nd thc compstibility eondit.ions (130).
Sinoe ,,,, .,.~,,'are zero, the third, fourth, :uul fifth of Eqs. (130) (reading by
columns) give
'az ()
az  o'
which rnean that
respect to z,
o
~ ('.1~)
az
iJy
oo/az is a const!i.nt.
a_ (~')  o
ax az
'
S=kz+eo
" = '
iJxs'
'
"
iJl<f>
ax iJy
' (''
ax
az +1+' .. 0 ) =O,
ve =o
()
=O
(d)
vohere
il'o;b
V1 2o;b = kz
+ 0o
(e)
+ v)v '4>
+ ae.
ay
ax
But
=
,, (
(i)
+Bx+Cy
make no difference. We may therefore set A, B, and C equal to zero, corresponding to taking a, b, e, zero in (h).
lf we rei;trict ourselve.s to problems iu which the stress distribution is symmetrical
about thc midd\e plane of tho platc, z = O, the term \{> 1z must ali:!O be zero. So
also must k in Eq. (a).
Then (i) reduces to
4> = <!>o  1 '  e,zt
2 l
~
(J)
=o
O.
(k)
(j)
') ay
' (60 + '')
az
ay "'4> + az
(h)
=a+bx+cy
where Eq. (e) has been used in the last step. .\lso, on aecount of (d), vre can replace
/iY.c' in Ul by ae0 /ay. Then Ul becomes
Q 20 0
ae,
' (e, + ')
(1 + v) ay
z' 
"
~,.1
..
+ 1 +.,0 0
Also, since u, is zero, and us and ""are given by the first t11.'o of Eqs. (b), we can
'vrite V1'4> = 0, and thercfore, using (a)
(1
ax ay az
Thesc, with (g), show that all three second derivatives with respect to :t and y of
the function (of x, y, and z) in brackets vanish. Thus this function 1nust be linear
in x and y, and V.'e can v.rite
\b =
(b)
'
(g)
z'
+ ay o ,
ax
'1s
('
' az +1+ .. 0 =O
ay
(JT,y
243
GENERAL THEOREMS
The remaining equations of (130) are satisficd on account of Eq. (a) and the
vanishin.g of "" Tn, Tv
~Ve can now obtain a stress distribution by choosing a functi.on \bo of z and y
wh1ch satisfios Eq. (!), fiuding 0 0 from Eq. (k), and \b from Eq. (j). Thc strc.'IBes
are then found bythe formulas (b). Each will consist of two parts, the first dcrived
from \bo in Eq. (j), the seeond from the term 
~ 1 ~.,
e,z.
the first part is exactly like the plane stress components detennined in Chaps. 3 to
1,I
244
'l'HEORY OF l!.'LASTICITY
'Y
k(y'
=
+ z'),
l'
'Y
k'xyz
=.=.=aT,
CHAPTER 10
ELEMENTARY PROBLEMS OF ELASTICITY
IN THREE DIMENSIONS
85. Uniform Stress. ln discussing the equations of equilibrium
(127) and thc boundary conditions (128), it \Vas stated that the true
solution of a problem must satisfy not only Eqs. (127) and (128) but
also the compatibility conditions (sec Art. 77). These latter conditions contain, if no body forces are acting, or if the hody forces are
constant, only second derivatives of the stress components. lf, therefore, Eqs. (127) and conditions (128)
can be satisfied by taking the stress
components cither as constants oras
linear functions of the coordinates,
Fru. 138.
the compatibility conditions are sat..
isfied identically and these stresses are the correct solution of the
problem.
AB a very simple example we may take tension of a prismatical bar
in the axial direetion (Fig. 138). Body forces are neglected. The
equations of equilibrium are satisfied by taking
u,, = eonstant,
(a)
=X
(b)
i.e., we have a uniform distribution of tensile stresses over cross sections of a prismatical bar if the tensile stresses are uniformly distributed
over the ends. ln this case solution (a) satisfies Eqs. (127) and (128)
and is the correct solution of the problem because the compatibility
conditions (130) are identically satisfied.
lf the tensile stresses are not uniformly distributed over the ends,
solution (a) is no longer the eorrect solution beeause it does not satisfy
the boundary conditions at the ends. Thc true solution becomes more
complicated because the stresses on a cross section are no longer uni245
246
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
fl~
Uu
= <r, =
p,
T"11
Tn
71/Z
(e)
= Q
X= Y =O,
l
_____ _,
(a)
pg
;y
(b)
}'10. 139.
(J,
pgz
(e)
f,=az=E=E
E,,
Eu
au
ax
ilv
= iJy =
pgz
v E
au
av
au
aw
av
aw
~~Tu+++o
ayaxazaxazay
(d)
(<)
w= pg''
2E+wo
(f)
ilw+u=O
ax
az
from "'hich
aw,
ax
+ iluo =
ax
Remembering that
satisfied only if
Uo
11
and
ax
and y only.
_ z il wo
ay
pgz1
ay 2
Substituting expres
+ v
ay
pgz
vE
(h)
Vo
duo = ilv 0 =
(g)
'
zil Wo
Substituting
'
u=z+u,
ax
247
(k)
'
Substituting expressions (g) for u and v into the first of Eqs. (e), we find
_ 2z d W~
ax y
2
and, since
Uo
and
Vo
+ Uo + Vo
ay
ilx
2
Wu
iJx ay
(l)
'
From Eqs. (k) and (l) general expressions can now be written for the
fu~ctions uo, vo, Wo. It is easy to sho\v that ali these equations are
sat1sfied by
Uo={)y+r,1
Vo={)x+,.. 1
'pg
Wo = 2E (x2 + y2)
+ ax + (3y + 'Y
249
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
in which a, {3, ")',, Ili, 'Y1 are arbitrary constants. Now, from Eqs. (f)
and (g), the general expressions for the displacements are
248
(m)
w = pgz2
2E
+ !:.EfJ.
(x2 + y2) + ax + /3Y + 'Y
2E
al
+ 1 =
O,
fjl
O,
a=
+ 'Yl =o,
{3
=o,
pgl2+y=0
2E
i;
=o
+w
= e
T 11 ,
= G8T ~ = Gflx
T:u
'
Hence
51
=o,
'Y1 =
O,
pgl2
 2E
p;
vpgyz
E:
U!
= pgz~
2E
2E
2E
(b)
Ger ~ = GfJy
vpgxz
VP{j
+ pgc
2E + 2E (x2 + y2)
tT11
<l,
TZJI
Trz COS
(Nx)
+T
11 , COS
(Ny)
(e)
250
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
cos (Nx)
_,
'
cos (Ny)
Dl~!E!.'SIO!S
251
cross section and the xzplane in the principal plane of bending, the
strells components given by the usual elementary theory of bending are
(d)
= '}!_
'
Ex
rr. =
Substituting these and expressions (b) for the stress componcnts into
Eq. (e) it is cvident that this cquation is satisfied. It is also evident
that for cross sections other than circular, for \Vhich Eqs. (d) do not
hold, thc stress components (b) do not satisfy the boundary condition
(e), and therefore solution (a) cannot be applied. 'l'hcse more complicated problems of t\vist ..vill be considered !ater (see Chap. 11).
Considering DO\\' thc boundary conditions for the ends of the shaft,
we see that the surface shearing forces must be distributed in exactly
the sarne manner as the stresses T,,. and 7~, over any intcrmediate cross
section of the shaft. Only for this case is the stress distribution given
(a)
R'
in which R is the radius of curvature of the bar after bending. Substituting expressions (a) for the stress components in the equations of
equilibrium (127), it is found that these equations are satisfied if there
are no body forces. The boundary conditions (128) for the lateral
sutface of the bar, which is free from externa} forces, are also satisfied.
The boundary conditions (128) at the ends require that the surface
forces must be distributed over the cnds in the sarne manner as the
stresses Only under this condition do the stresses (a) represent the
exact solution of the problem. The bending moment M is given by
the equation
j>c i.
lit.1
(a}
(61
Fio. 141.
Oyz,
v = ()xz,
aw
fz=az=R
(e)
(d)
w=O
This means that the assumption that cross sections remain plane and
radii remain straight, "'hich is usually made in the elementary derivation of the theory of t\~ist, is correct.
88. Pure Bending of Prismatical Bars. Considera prismatical bar
bent in one of its principal planes by two equal and opposite couples M
(Fig. 141). Taking the origin of the coordinates at the centroid f the
(b)
"
w=R+wo
252
PROBLE~fS
THEORY OF ELASTIC/TY
au
'
from which
z2
2R
Wo
RTx'
2
awo
7ix+uo,
z Pw 0
ax
+ auo =
vx,
ax
ilx2
J2wo =O
y'
(f)
2R [z2
z2
'x'
ZR
+ f1(y),
2z J wo _ df1(Y) _ f2(x)
axay
+ vy
ax
ax ay
z, we con
(h)
Mz2
2EI'/I
"
z=c+w=c+R
the elcmentary theory. To examine thc deformation of the cross scction in its plane, consider the sides y = b (Fig. 141b). After bcnding
we have
wo=mx+ny+p
f,(y)
;;'!; + ay + ~
f2(x) = ax
+ f3
z2
vx2
vy2
2Rmz2R+2R+a?J+Y
ny
nz  R  ax + /3
"
v=w=O
'
2R
(g)
Now substituting (e) and (g) into the first of Eqs. (d), 've find
 y2)],
U=~,
U=
+ v(x2
'fo get the deflection curve of the a.xis of the bar \Ve substitute in the
above Eqs. (h) x = y = O. Then
und by intcgration
Uo =
u_av_av_
zazax 0
u=v=w=O,
253
(')
w= R+mx+ny+p
= a+ u = a 
1
R [c2
2
+ v(a2
 y2)]
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
254
FIG. 142a.
'
This equation has been used for detcrmining Poisson's ratio 11. 1 If the
upper surfacc of the beam is polished and a glass plate put over it,
there will be, after bending, an air gap of variable thickness between
the glass plate and the curved surface of the beam. This variable
thickness can be measured optically. A beam of monochromatic
II
_\ _____ _
FIG. 142b.
light, say yello"' sodium light, perpendicular to the glass plate, will be
reflected partially by the plate and partially by the surface of the beam.
The two refleeted rays of light interfere ,vith each other at points where
the thickness of the air gap is such that the difference between the
1 A. Cornu, Compt. rend., vol. 69, p. 333, 1869.
See also R. Straubel, Wied.
Ann., vol. 68, p. 369, 1899.
Mi
Elu
I2M1
=
Eh
.Af 1
255
and R,
(a)
12
Ri= Eh (.A.12  vM 1)
1
(b)
It is assumed that dellectioirn are small in comparison with the thickness of the
plate.
257
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
The formulas (136) are used in the theory of plates when the bending
moments are not uniform, and are accompanied by shear forces and
surface pressures. For these circumstances they can be deduced from
the general equations of Chap. 9 as approximations valid when the
plate is thin. The elementary theory of bending of bars can bc related
to the general equations in a similar manner. 1
256
M,
Eh'
( 1
12(1  v 2) R1
Eh'
M 2 = 12(1 
\Ve
v 2)
1+ 1)
R2
R,
(o)
v R1
'w
 ay2
'w
1)
+ v R2
 ax 2 '
R,
'l'hen, ""'riting
(135)
v.e find
=D(::~+ v!~)
M2 = D(:~~+ v ::~)
M1
(136)
The constant D is callcd the jlexural rigidity of a plate. ln the particular case when thc plate is bent to a cylindrical surface vrith generators
parallel to the yaxis we have a2w/ay 2 =O, and, from Eqs. (136),
M,
(137)
R,
R,
'l'he plate is bent to a sphcrical surface and the relation between the
curvature and the bending moment is, from Eq. (e),
Eh'
M ~ 12(1  v)
D(l + ,)
=li
(138)
J. N. Goodicr, Tran8. Roy. Soe. Can., 3d ser., sec. III, vol. 32, p. 65, 1938.
259
TORSION
CHAPTER 11
TORSION
90. Torsion of Prismatical Bars. It has already been shown
(Art. 87) that the exact solution of the torsional problem for a circular
shaft is obtained if "'e assume that the cross sections of the bar remain
plane and rotate 'vithout any distortion during t\'.'ist. This theory,
developed by Coulomb,1 was applied latcr by Navier 2 to prismatical
bars of noncircular cross scctions. Making the above assumption he
arrived at the erroneous conclusions that, for a given torque, the angle
of tvrist of bars is inversely proportional to the centroidal polar moment
of inertia of the cross section, and that the maximum shearing stress
occurs at the points most remate from the centroid of the cross section.
It is easy to see that the above assumption is in contradiction with the boundary conditions. Take,
for instance, a bar of rectangular cross section
(Fig. 145). From Navicr's assumption it follows
that at any point A on the boundary the shearing
stress should act in the direction perpendicular to
FIG. 145.
the radius 0.4.. Resolving this stress into two components T~ and r~,, it is evident that thcrc should be a complementary
shearing stress, equal to T 11 ,, on thc clement of the lateral surface of the
bar at the point A (see page 4), \Vhich is in contradiction \Vith the
assumption that the lateral surface of the bar is free from external
forccR, the twist being produccd by couples applied at the ends. A
simple experiment >vith a rectangular bar, represented in Fig. 146,
sho>\'S that the cross sections of the bar do not remain plane during
torsion, and that the distortions of rectangular elements on the surface
of the bar are greatest at the middles of the sides, i.e., at the points
which are nearest to the axis of the bar.
,.,
8zy,
= 8z:x
(a)
e;;(x,y)
(b)
F1G. 147.
= Eu = E, = 'Yt11 =
i!w
7 _ iJ:x
iJw
'Yu=oy
Y'
("' )
+az=IJ ("'
iJy+x)
i!u
+ iJz
= 8 iJx  Y
(e)
i!c
M tm. savants trangers, vol. 14, 1855. See also SaintVenant's note to Navier's
book, loc. cil., and 1. Todhunter and K. Pearson, "History of the Theory of
Elaaticity," vol. 2.
The corresponding components of stress, from Eqs. (3) and (6), are
do;
CTu
fz
T"ll
( ay,
ax y ds
=ao(:~  y)
Tuz = G8 (~: + x)
r::
(d)
It can be seen that with the assumptions (a) and (b) regarding the
deformation, thcrc \Vill be no normal stresses acting bet\\een the
longitudinal fibcrs of the shaft or in the longitudinal direction of those
fibers. There also ,,,jll be no distortion in the planes of cross sections,
since E,,, Eu, 1'Xll vanish. V!i'c have at each point pure shear, defined by
the components Txz anel Tuz The function >Jt(x,y), defining warping of
cross section, must now be determined in such a way that equations of equilibrium (127) will be
O,__ _ _ __,__,x satisfied. Substituting
expres~iions (d)
"' + "' ~ o
ax2
iJy2
(139)
Consider nowthe boundary conditions (128). For the lateral surface of the bar, which is free from externai forces and has normais perpendicular to the zaxis, \Ve have X = Y = Z = Oand cos (N z) = n = O.
The first two of Eqs. (128) are identically satisfied and the third gives
()
d'
dx
cos (Ny) =  ds
(140)
ds
'
Ty, =
'
iJrn
ax
'
+ iJTy,
ay
=O
The first two are alrcady satisfied sincc r'"" and r 11., as given by Eqs. (d),
are independent of z. The third means that we can express r,.. and
Ty, as
T,..
"'ay
"'ax
=1
(141)
~ao("'+x)
ax
iJy
(f)
Fio. 148.
261
TORSION
THEORY OF ELASTICITF
260
o2q,
a2q,
ax2+ay2=F
(142)
/<' = 2G8
(143)
where
The boundary condition (e) becomes, introducing Eqs. (141),
aq, dy
+ aq, dx
dy ds
ax ds
dq, =
ds
(144)
This shows that the stress function <fi must be constant along the
h.oundary of the cross scction. ln the case of singly connected boundanes, e.g., for solid bars, this constant can be chosen arbitrarily, and in
the following discussion we shall take it equal to zero. Thus the determination of the stress distribution over a cross scction of a twisted bar
1
262
THEORY OF ELASTIClTY
TORSION
consists in finding the function cf> which satisfies Eq. (142) and is zero
at the boundary. Several applications of this general theory to particular shapes of cross sections will be shown later.
Let us consider now the conditions at the ends of the twisted bar.
The normals to the end cross sections are parallel to the zaxis. Hence
l = m = O, n = 1 and Eqs. (128) become
X=
(g)
Txz,
in which the + sign should be taken for the end of the bar for which
the external normal has the direction of the positive zaxis, as for the
lower end of the bar in Fig. 147. We see that over the ends the shearing forces are distributed in the sarne manner as the shearing stresses
over the cross sections of the bar. It is easy to prove that these forces
give us a torque. Substituting in Eqs. (g) from (141) and observing
that cf> at the boundary is zero, we find
263
forces, and sets up at the ends the torque given by Eq. (145). The
compatibility conditions (130) need not be considered since the stress
has been derived from the displacements (a) and (b). Thus all the
equations of elasticity are satisfied and the solution obtained in this
manner is the exact solution of the torsion problem.
It was pointed out that the solution requires that the forces at the
ends of the bar should be distributed in a definite manner. But the
practical application of the solution is not limited to such cases. From
SaintVenant's principle it follows that in a long twisted bar, ata sufficient distance from the ends, the stresses depend only on the magnitude
of the torque Mt and are practically
independent of the manner in which the
tractions are distributed over the ends.
91. Bars with Elliptical Cross Section.
Let the boundary of the cross section
(Fig. 149) be given by the equation
x2
y2
a2
b2  1 = O
(a)
FIG. 149.
Then Eq. (142) and the boundary condition (144) are satisfied by taking the stress function in the form
Thus the resultant of the forces distributed over the ends of the bar is
zero, and these forces represent a couple the magnitude of which is
M1 =
ff
f f ~:xdxdy
JJ~:
+ b2y2 
x2
e/>= m ( a2
in which m is a constant.
(b)
Hence
y dx dy
(h)
e/>  2(a2
= O at the boundary,
(145)
bF
+ b2)
(x +
2
a2
y2
(e)
b2  1
~t = a~ ! ~ 2
2 2
each of the integrals in the last member of Eqs. (h) contributing one
half of this torque. Thus we find that half the torque is due to the
stress component Txz and the other half to Tyz
We see that by assuming the displacements (a) and (b), and determining the stress components T.,., Tyz from Eqs. (141), (142), and (144),
we obtain a stress distribution which satisfies the equations of equilibrium (127), leaves the lateral surface of the bar free from externa!
2 2
Smce
!! ~2d
~
( :2
ff
x dxdy
dy = I 'V= 7rba
4'
+:
ff
y dxdy 
ff
dxdy)
(d)
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
265
TORSION
in which
A = 7rab,
from which
(e)
F=
Then, from (e),
(f)
"''
2M1Y
=  7rab 3 '
(146)
The ratio of the stress components is proportional to the ratio y/x and
hence is constant along any radius such as OA (Fig. 149). This means
that the resultant shearing stress along any radius OA has a constant
direction which evidently coincides with the direction of the tangent to
the boundary at the point A. Along the vertical axis OB the stress
component 'Tyz is zero, and the resultant stress is equal to T.,., Along
the horizontal axis OD the resultant shearing stress is equal to Tyz It
is evident that the maximum stress is at the boundary, and it can
easily be proved that this maximum occurs at the ends of the minor
axis of the ellipse. Substituting y = b in the first of Eqs. (146), we
find that the absolute value of this maximum is
are the area and centroidal moment of inertia of the cross section.
Having the stress components (146) we can easily obtain the displacements. The components u and vare given by Eqs. (a) of Art. 90.
The displacement w is found from
Eqs. (d) and (b) of Art. 90. Substituting from Eqs. (146) and
(148) and integrating, we find
x
L
+ F4 (x2 + y2)
q, = </>1
(a)
a2 <1>1
ax2
a2<1>1
+ a:J1
(b)
=O
2Mi
= 7rab2
(147)
</>1
~Ili,;
1
'
+ F4 (x + y
2
constant
(e)
Thus the torsional problem is reduced to obtaining solutions of Eq. (b) satisfying
the boundary condition (e). To get solutions in the form of polynomials we take
the function of the complex variable
(x
+ iy)n
(d)
The real and the imaginary parts of this expression are each solutions of Eq. (b)
(see page 182). Taking, for instance, n = 2 we obtain the solutions x2  y2 and
2xy. With n = 3 we obtain solutions x  3xy2 and 3x2y  y. With n = 4,
we arrive at solutions in the form of homogeneous functions of the fourth degree,
and so on. Combining such solutions we can obtain various solutions in the form
of polynomials.
Taking, for instance,
q,
= F
4 (x2
+ y2) + </>1
= F

(x 
3xy2)
+ b]
(e)
TORSION
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
266
l
with constants a and b which will be adjusted later. Th1s p_o~ynomial is~ so _ut10n
of the torsional problem if it satisfies the boundary cond1t1~n (144), i.e., if the
boundary of the cross section of the bar is given by the equation
(x2
2a
+b =
(f)
By changing the constant b in this equation, we obtain various shapes of the cross
l
section.
.
Taking b =  /1 a we arrive at the solution for the eqmlatera1tnang e.
tion (f) in this case can be presented in the forro
(x  y13 y  ja)(x
+ V3 y
qua
267
 ja)(x +ia) =O
which is the product of the three equations of the sides of the triangle shown in
Fig. 151. Observing that F = 2GIJ and substituting
q,
= GIJ
(x 2
+ y 2)
ia (x 3
3xy 2 )
2
1a ]
(g)
a
3
Frn. 151.
(b)
= 3GIJ (2ax _ x 2)
2a
yz
(h)
GIJa
(k)
=2
At the corners of the triangle the shearing stress is zero (see Fig. 151).
Substituting (g) into Eq. (145), we find
G1Ja 4
Mt =   15 v3
3
IJGlp
5
(l)
= 
Taking a solution of Eq. (142) in the form of a polynomial of th~ fourth degree
containing only even powers of x and y, we obtain the stress funct10n
</>
= GIJ
[~ (x + y)
~ (x4
_ 6zy
+ y4) + ~ (a
 1)
The boundary condition (144) is satisfied if the boundary of the cross section is
given by the equation
x'
;l
!.li.
IH.
+ y'
 a(x'  6x y
2 2
+y +a 4
1 = O
Frn. 152.
The largest stress is found at the middle of the sides of the triangle, where, from (h),
T'max.
/J \ '
sectional area the maximum stress is the smallest for the cross section
with the smallest polar moment of inertia.
Comparing various cross sections with singly connected boundaries,
SaintVenant found that the torsional rigidity can be calculated approximately by using Eq. (149), i.e., by replacing the given shaft by the
shaft of an elliptic cross section having the sarne crosssectional area
and the sarne polar moment of inertia as the given shaft has.
The maximum stress in all cases discussed by SaintVenant was
obtained at the boundary at the points which are the nearest to the
centroid of the cross section. A more detailed investigation of this
question by Filon 1 showed that there are cases where the points of
maximum stress, although always at the boundary, are not the nearest
points to the centroid of the cross section.
1
268
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORSION
Taking n = 1 and n = 1 in expression (d), and using polar coordinates r and y,,
we obtain the following solutions of Eq. (b):
q, 1 = r cos Y,,
F
4
q, =  (x 2
y 2)
Fa
r cos if;
2
+ Fb
 2 ar cos if;
(r 2
FIG. 153.
(m)
  b2
F
4
269
2a(r 2
b2 )
1 
cos"'
b2 )  r 
~os"')
=O
(n)
(o)
we obtain a circle of radius b with the center at the origin; and by taking
Frn. 154.
1 _2acosif;=O
r
The maximum
forces acting on the other two sides of the element give the resultant
S(J 2z/Jy 2 ) dx dy and the equation of equilibrium of the element is
q dx dy
Tmax.
= G0(2a  b)
(p)
a2z
a2z
+ S :>?.
dx dy + S vX
Jy
dx dy
from which
(151)
At the boundary the deflection of the membrane is zero. Comparing
Eq. (151) and the boundary condition for the deflections z of the membrane with Eq. (142) and the boundary condition (144) (see page 261)
~or the stress function </>, we conclude that these two problems are
identical. Hence from the deflections of the membrane we can obtain
values of </> by replacing the quantity (q/S) of Eq. (151) with the
quantity F = 2GO of Eq. (142).
Having the deflection surface of the membrane represented by cont~ur .line~ (~ig. 15~), several important conclusions regarding stress
distnbut10n m tors10n can be obtained. Consider any point B on the
271
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORSION
From Eq. (145) it can be concluded that double the volume bounded
by the deflected membrane and the xyplane (Fig. 155) represents the
torque, provided q/S is replaced by 2G8.
270
az = O
as
(e?
dy + ac? dx)
ay ds
iJx ds
Txz
dy ds
Tyz
e? is
dx = O
ds
s~
Tyz COS
(Nx) 
Txz COS
<P
= _,
ay
f s(r~ 2~8)ds
(Ny)
Substituting
Txz
It may be observed that the form of the rnernbrane, and therefore the stress
distribution, is the sarne no rnatter what point in the cross section is taken for
origin in the torsion problern. This point, of course, represents the axis of rotation
of the cross sections. It is at first sight surprising that the cross sections can
rotate about a different (parallel) axis when still subjected to the sarne torque.
The difference, however, is merely a matter of rigid body rotation. Consider,
for instance, a circular cylinder twisted by rotations about the central axis. A
generator on the surface becomes inclined to its original direction, but can be
brought back by a rigid body rotation of the whole cylinder about a diarneter.
The final positions of the cross sections then correspond to torsional rotations
about this generator as a fixed axis. The cross sections remain plane but become
inclined to their original planes in virtue of the rigid body rotation of the cylinder.
ln an arbitrary section there will be warping, and with a given choice of axis the
inclination of a given elernent of area in the end section is definite, aw/ax and aw/ay
being given by Eqs. (d) and (b) of Art. 90. Such an elernent can be brought back
to its original orientation by a rigid body rotation about an axis in the end section.
This rotation will change the axis of the torsional rotations to a parallel axis. Thus
a definite axis or center of torsional rotation, or center of torsion, can be identified
provided the final orientation of an elernent of area in the end section is specifiedas for instance if the elernent is completely fixed.
or
Tyz
__
<P,
ax
cos (Nx)
dx
dn
=1
cos (Ny)
= dy
dn
we obtain
r
= _
(e?
dx + ac? dy)
ax dn
ay dn
= _ ddnc/J
Thus the magnitude of the shearing stress at B is given by the :naximum slope of the membrane at this point. It is only nece~s~ry m the
expression for the slope to replace q/ S by 2G8.. From th1s it can be
concluded that the maximum shear acts at the pomts where the contour
lines are closest to each other.
= qA
frds = 2G8A
(152)
From this the average value of the shearing stress along a contour line
can be obtained.
By taking q = O, i.e., considering a membrane without lateral load.
we arrive at the equation
(153)
which coincides with Eq. (b) of the previous article for the function c/J 1
Taking the ordinates of the membrane at the boundary so that
z
+ 4F (x 2 + y 2)
= constant
(154)
272
273
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORSION
(a)
= 8S
2
3
V= cob = S
~...__~=:__..=..!. 2
(b)
FIG. 156.
maximum slope corresponding to the yield stress. Imagine such a surface constructed as a roof on the cross section of the bar and the membrane stretched and loaded as explained before. On increasing the
pressure we arrive at the condition when the membrane begins to touch
the roof. This corresponds to the beginning of plastic flow in the
twisted bar. As the pressure is increased, certain portions of the membrane come into contact with the roof. These portions of contact give
us the regions of plastic flow in the twisted bar. Interesting experiments illustrating this theory were made by A. Ndai. 2
94. Torsion of a Bar of Narrow Rectangular Cross Section. ln the
case of a narrow rectangular cross section the membrane analogy gives
a very simple solution of the torsional problem. N eglecting the effect
of the short sides of the rectangle and assuming that the surface of the
slightly deflected membrane is cylindrical (Fig. 156), we obtain the
1
This was indicated by L. Prandtl; see A. Ndai, Z. angew. Math. Mech., vol. 3,
p. 442, 1923. See also E. Trefftz, ibid., vol. 5, p. 64, 1925.
2 See Trans. A.S.M.E., Applied Mechanics Division, 1930.
See also A. Ndai,
"Theory of Flow and Fracture of Solids," 1950, Chaps. 35 and 36.
(e)
Now using the membrane analogy and substituting 2G8 for q/S in (b)
and (e), we find
'Tma.x. = cGO,
(d)
from which
Mt
8
(155)
= ibc 3G
Mt
(156)
'Tmax. = /rbc2
From the parabolic deflection curve (Fig. 156b)
z=
42 (~ c
4
x2)
dz
dx=
8ox
7= Sx
= 2G8x
274
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORSION
This is only one half of the total torque given by Eq. (156). The second half is given by the stress components Txz, which were entirely
neglected when we assumed that the surface of the defl.ected membrane
is cylindrical. Although these stresses have an appreciable magnitude
only near the short sides of the rectangle and their maximum values are
smaller than Tmax. as calculated above, they
act at a greater distance from the axis of the
bar and their moment represents the second
half of the torque Mt. 1
It is interesting to note that the Tmax. given
by the first of Eqs. (d) is twice as great as in
the case of a circular shaft with diameter equal
to e and subjected to the sarne twist 8. This
can be explained if we consider the warping of
the cross sections. The sides of cross sections
such as nn 1 (Fig. 157) remain normal to the
longitudinal fibers of the bar at the corners,
as is shown at the points n and n 1. The
{aJ
(b)
total
shear of an element such as abcd conFrG. 157.
sists of two parts: the part 'Y1 dueto rotation
of the cross section about the axis of the bar and equal to the shear in
the circular bar of diameter e; and the part 'Y 2 due to warping of the
cross section. ln the case of a narrow rectangular cross section
'Y 2 = ')' 1, and the resultant shear is twice as great as in the case of a
circular cross section of the diameter e.
Equations (155) and (156), obtained above for a narrow rectangle,
can also be used in the cases of thinwalled bars of such cross sections as
shown in Fig. 158 by setting b equal to
the developed length of the cross section.
This follows from the fact that, if the
thickness e of a slotted tube (Fig. 158a)
is small in comparison with the diam(a)
()
eter, the maximum slope of the memFIG. 158.
brane and the volume bounded by the
membrane will be nearly the sarne as for a narrow rectangular cross
section of the width e and of the sarne length as the circumference of
the middle surface of the tube. An analogous conclusion can be made
also for a channel (Fig. 158b). It should be noted that in this latter
1 This question was cleared up by Lord Kelvin; see Kelvin and Tait, "Natural
Philosophy," vol. 2, p. 267.
275
(a)
and be zero at the boundary.
The condition of symmetry with respect to the yaxis and the
boundary conditions at the sides x = a of the
a
rectangle are satisfied by taking z in the form of a
series,
Z=
~
L.
mrx y
b
n COS
2(L
(b)
_J_
n=l,3,5,...
\:"
q 4
nl
n11"X
S n11" ( 1) 2 cos 2a
f...
(e)
n=l,3,5, ...
(d)
from which
Yn =A sinh n211"Y
a
+B
cosh n211"Y
a
+ Sl6qa2
n~~n
(l)n;1
()
e
277
TORSION
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
276
very narrow rectangle, b/a becomes a large number, so that the sum of
the infinite series in (157) can be neglected, and we find
=
Tmax.
(f)
and the general expression for the defiection surface of the membrane,
from (b), becomes
.,
1
16qa2
~
_!__ (l)n; [l _ cosh (n7ry/2a)] cos n7rX
z = S7r
~
n3
cosh (n7rb/2a)
2a
2G8a
This coincides with the first of the Eqs. (d) of the previous article.
ln the case of a square cross section, a = b; and we find, from Eq.
(157),
1
2GOa { 1  : 2 [ cosh (7r/2) + 9 cosh\37r/2) + ]}
Tmax. =
=
+9
1
X 55.67
.)]
= 1.351G8a (158)
n= 1,3,5, ...
ln general we obtain
Tmax.
(g)
n=l,3, , .
yz
cp
16G8a
1r2
==
_!_(l)n;
n2
1
[
n= 1,3,5, ...
n= 1,3,5, ...
~2
(~7rb/2a)]
ba
b
a
ki
k2
1.0
1.2
1.5
2.0
2.5
0.675
0.759
0.848
0.930
0.968
0.1406
0.166
0.196
0.229
0.249
0.208
0.219
0.231
0.246
0.258
3
4
5
10
ki
0.985
0.997
0.999
1.000
1.000
00
Mi=2
f~af~b cpdxdy=64~:2f~af~b{
~3(l)n;l
n=l,3,5, ..
7r
2:
.,
n=l,3,5, ...
n 2 cosh
~n7rb/2a)
n=l,3,5, .
1
I
1
+ 3 4 + 54 + . . .
7r4
= 96
B O P errce,
n4
n=l,3,5, .
7r6
64G8(2a)4
(157)
The infinite series on the right side, for b > a, converges very rapidly
and there is no difficulty in calculating Tmax. with sufficient accuracy for
any particular value of the ratio b/a. For instance, in the case of a
.,
16G8a
= 2G8a   2 
0.267
0.282
0.291
0.312
0.333
we have
k2
0.263
. 0.281
0.291
0.312
0.333
Tmax.
Severa!
The stress components are now obtained from Eqs. (141) by differentiation. For instance,
(159)
= k2G8a
2a
we have
The ~unction. <P1 ~ust satisfy Laplace's eque.tion (see Art. 92).
of th1s equat10n m the form of the series
"'
'\"''
M1 =
3 G0(2a)
(2b)
1 
7192 ba
(160)
q,,
= GIJ
n=l,3,5, ..
[r coscos a2..Y +
2
q, =
~IJ [r (l
= 0.1406G0(2a)
</> = </>1
+4
+ y)
G1Jr 2
= <1>1 
This problem was discussed by SaintVenant, Compt. rend., vol. 87, pp. 849
e.nd 893, 1878. See also A. G. Greenhill, Messenger of Math., vol. 9, p. 35, 1879.
Another method of solution by using Bessel's function was given by A. Dinnik,
Bull. Don Polytech. Inst., Novotcherkassk, vol. 1, p. 309. See also A. Fppl and
L. Fppl, "Dre.ng und Zwang," p. 96, 1928.
1
(1.'.)~
n7r1/IJ
a
cos ~
A,. cos
n1rf
l _ cos 2..Y
cos
Ol
Ol
n = 1,3,5, ...
(163)
(x 2
~
L,.
+ az
_ cos
2..Y)
cos a
"
Mi = kiG0(2a) 3 (2b)
A,. a
n=l,3,5, ...
(162)
Taking a solution
Mt
l"
n=l,3,5, ..
The series on the right side converges very rapidly, and M 1 can easily
be evaluated for any value of the ratio a/b. ln the case of a narrow
rectangle we can take
n7rb
1
t anh 2a
Then
(161)
M = G0(2a) 3 (2b) (1  0.630
1
279
TORSION
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
278
16a
A,.=
n+l
2
(l)
1
2a) (
n n+;
2a)
n;
q,
GIJ
2
[r (l _
21/;) + 16aa
7rs
cos
cos a
"'
l:
n=l,3,5, ..
~ubstituting i~to
a~tor
a=
1r
1r
1r
27r
k=
k, =
k. =
0.0181
0.0349
0.452
0.490
0.0825
11'
37r
57r
27r
 
......
......
. .....
. .....
0.148
0.622
0.652
0.296
0.719
0.849
0.572 1 0.672 1
.....
. ....
. ....
. ....
0.878
......
. .....
280
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORSION
The maximum shearing stresses along the circular and along the radial boundaries
are given by the formulas k 1Ga8 and k.Ga8, respectively. Several values of ki
and k2 are given in the table on page 279.
The solution for a curvilinear rectangle bounded by two concentric circular ares
and two radii can be obtained in the sarne manner. 1
ln the case of an isosceles rightangled triangle 2 the angle of twist is given by the
equation
lar case to the determination of the stress function satisfying the differential equation (142) and the boundary condition (144). ln deriving
an approximate solution of the problem it is useful, instead of working
with the differential equation, to determine the stress function from the
minimum condition of a certain integral, 1 which can be obtained from
consideration of the strain energy of the twisted bar. The strain
energy of the twisted bar per unit length, from (88), is
M,
8 = 38.3'
in which a is the length of the equal sides of the triangle. The maximum shearing
stress is at the middle of the hypotenuse and is equal to
M,
Tmax.
v =
2~ JJ<rx.
+ Ty, 2) ax ay
281
2~ JJ[(::)2 + (::)2] ax ay
= 18.02 O,i
+ iy
e cosh
(~
+ iri)
2ff q, dx dy
Then by reasoning analogous to that used in developing equation (91)
on page 164, we conclude that
2~
or
ff [(::r + (::rJ
ff
f f g[(::r + (::YJ  2aoq;}
ax ay = 20
q, dx ay
dxdy =
Thus the true expression for the stress function q, is that which makes
zero the variation of the integral
ff g[(::r + (::YJ 
2aoq,} dx dy
(165)
.w~ come also to the sarne conclusion by using the membrane analogy and the
prmc1ple of virtual work (Art. 48). If S is the uniform tension in the membrane
the i_ricr~ase in strain energy of the membrane due to deflection is obtained b;
mult1plymg the tension S by the increase of the surface of the membrane. ln this
manner we obtain
This method was proposed by W. Ritz, who used it in the solution of problems
of bending and vibration of rectangular plates. See J. reine angew. Math., vol.
135, 1908, and Ann. Physik, series 4, vol. 28, p. 737, 1909.
2
If q, is taken equal to zero at the boundary, no forces on the lateral surface
of the bar will be introduced by variation of q,.
282
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORSION
~ S
JJ[(:;)' + (::rJ ax ay = JJ
.283
(e)
q z ax ay
e/>
(d)
(a)
au
=0
'
au
a2
e/>
(b)
+ a1(x2 + y2)]
(e)
5 259 GO
8 277
a2'
5 3
35
GO
8 2 277 a4
=0 . . .
'
8 a2
in which cf>o, cp 1, cp 2, . . . are functions satisfying the boundary condition, i.e., vanishing at the boundary. ln choosing these functions we
should be guided by the membrane analogy and take them in a form
suitable for representing the function cp. The quantities ao, a 1, a 2,
. . . are numerical factors to be determined from the minimum condition of the integral (165). Substituting the series (a) in this integral
we obtain, after integration, a function of the second degree in a 0, a 1,
a 2, . . . , and the minimum condition of this function is
5GO
= VCi~~
+i
! f)GOa 4 = 0.1404G0(2a)4
This value is only 0.15 per cent less than the correct value.
A much larger error is found in the magnitude of the maximum stress
Substituting (e) into expressions (141) for the stress components w~
find that the error in the maximum stress is about 4 per cent, and to get
better accuracy more terms of the series (e) must be taken.
e It ~an be seen from the membrane analogy that in proceeding as
xplamed above we generally get smaller values for the torque than the
correct value. A perfectly fiexible membrane, uniformly stretched at
a
284
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
cf>
00
00
2:
2:
m11"X
n7r'Y
amn
285
TORSION
tho boundary and uniformly loaded, is a system with an infinite number of degrees of freedom. Limiting ourselves to a few terms of the
series (e) is equivalent to introducing into the system certain constraints, which reduce it to a system with a few degrees of freedom only.
Such constraints can only reduce the flexibility of the system and
diminish the volume bounded by the deflected membrane. Hence the
torque, obtained from this volume, will generally be smaller than its
true value.
E. Trefftz suggested 1 another method of approximate determination
of the stress function cf>. With this method the approximate magnitude of the torque is larger than its true value. Hence by using the
Ritz and the Trefftz methods together the limits of error of the approximate solution can be established.
ln using Ritz's method we are not limited to polynomials (e). We
can take the functions cf>o, cf> 1, c/>2, of the series (a) in other forms
suitable for the representation of the stress function cf>. Taking, for
instance, trigonometric functions, and observing the conditions of
symmetry (Fig. 159), we obtain
(f)
00
00
128G8b 2
32ab
Lt
Lt 11'4mn(m2a2 + n2) . mn11"2
m=l,3, ... n=l,3, ...
(g)
1
m2
Lt
n=l,3,5, ..
n 2 (m 2a 2
+n
2
)
2:
00
u = 1r~b
~
Lt
a2mn
(m2
n2)
(i2 + b2
cf> = Ge(a 2
2:
m=l,3,5, ...
2:
n = 1,3,5, ...
amn
x 2)[1
fj=!
?r2ab
4
(m2a2 + n2)
 2G8. mn11'2
I6ab ( 1) mtn1 = O
b2
and we find
128G8b 2 ( 1)
11" 4mn(m 2a 2
m+n_ 1
2
+n
ell(byl]
(k)
00
2G8
which coincides with the solution discussed before (Art. 94). To get
a better approximation satisfying the boundary condition at the short
sides of the rectangle, we may take
1 E. Trefftz, Proc. Second Intern. Congr. Applied Mech., Zrich, 1926, p. 131.
See also N. M. Basu, Phil. Mag., vol. 10, p. 886, 1930.
@_
'\}2
287
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORSION
286
are the equations of the sides of the polygon, the stress function can be
taken in the forro
cp
= ( a1X
(anX
and the first few terms of the series are usually sufficient to get a satisfactory accuracy.
The energy method is also useful when the boundary of the cross
section (Fig. 161) is given by two curves 1
Y
= aif; (~)
= 
Go
11 a 2'
1 + 13 b2
where
a~
Frn. 161.
+ a1if;)
Io1 i/;
fo
Mi = A b(a
8=
1
+ a1) (1 if; dt
3
}o
(cJ
3Mt
(b1c1 3 + 2b2c2 3)G
(a)
LuftJahrtforsch., vol. 20, 1944, tranlated as N.A.C.A. Tech. Mem. 1182, 1948.
A more elaborate formula, taking account of the increased stiffness resulting
fron; the junctions of the rectangles, was developed on the basis of soap film and
tors10n tests by G. W. Trayer and H. W. March, Natl. Advisory Comm. Aeronaut.,
Rept. 334, 1930.
3
Comparison of torsional rigidities obtained in this manner with those obtained
by
t s is
g1ven
. ex?enmen
for severa! types of rolled sections and for various dimensions m the paper by A. Fppl, Sitzber. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., p. 295, Mnchen, 1921.
See also Bauingenieur, series 5, vol. 3, p. 42, 1922.
2
bL
i/; dt
G8ba 3
11 2
1 + 13 b2
Frn. 162.
(#/dt) 2 dt
1
DJ
(b)
(a)
cp = A(y  aif;)(y
= 0.0736
and
Mi
'
ll
l1u,1.
288
To calculate the stress at the boundary at points a considerable distance from the corners of the cross section we can use once more the
equation for a narrow rectangle and take
T
narrow rectangle
T1
= _
2T1
(d')
A
T1r
T=
(b)
The sarne approximate equations can be used for an Ibeam (Fig. 162c).
At reentrant corners there is a considerable stress concentration, the
magnitude of which depends on the radius of the fillets. A rough
approximation for the maximum stress at
1
these fillets can be obtained from the
1
membrane analogy. Let us consider a
1
cross
section in the forra of an angle of
1
1
constant thickness e (Fig. 163) and with
1
radius a of the fillet of the reentrant comer.
r
/
Assuming that the surface of the membrane
e _______ ....v1'at the bisecting line 00 1 of the fillet is
L
" approximately a surface of revolution, with
FIG. 163.
axis perpendicular to the plane of the figure
at O, and using polar coordinates, the Eq. (151) of the de:flection surface
of the membrane becomes (see page 57)
1
+ !T
= e(}(]
Then, from Eq. (a), we obtain for the :flanges of the channel
289
TORSION
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
(f)
A
_
a+ (c/2)
T1[a
+ (c/2)]
e
3.0 tt+++l
 0
2.5
and
tt++11
"l:mux
'1
2.0 t    \   +    1      1     1
/,(
dz
dr 2
+ ! dz
= _
r dr
!1
S
(e)
Remembering that the slope of the membrane dz/dr gives the shearing
stress T when q/S is replaced by 2G8, we find from (e) the following
equation for the shearing stress:
dT
1
dr+ ;:r = 2G8
(d)
dn
= 2G8
(e)
T1
(1
+ 4: )
(g)
1.0 ~_,__.1_l._
0.5
1.0
J.5
__J
2.0
290
THEORY OF RLASTICITY
Membranes in the form of soap films have also been used for direct
measurements of stresses. 12 The films were formed on holes cut to the
required shapes in flat plates. To make possible the direct determina
tion of stresses, it was found necessary to have in the sarne plate a circular hole to represent a circular section for comparison. Submitting
FIG. 165.
both films to the sarne pressure, we have the sarne values of q/S, 3
which correspond to the sarne values of G8 for the two bars under twist.
Hence, by measuring the slopes of the two soap films we can compare
the stresses in the bar of the given cross section with those in a circular
1 See papers by Taylor and Griffi.th, loc. cit.; also the paper by Trayer an~
March, loc. cit.
. . . .
2 A survey of this and other analogies for torsion, with references, is g1ven by
T. J. Higgins, Experimental Stress Analysis, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 17, 1945.
a It is assumed that the surface tension is the sarne in both films. This was
proved with sufficient accuracy by the tests.
'i:.
l i:'I:,
l,I
TORSION
291
shaft under the condition that they have the sarne angle of twist O per
unit length and the sarne G. The corresponding ratio of the torques is
determined by the ratio of the volumes between the soap films and the
plane of the plate.
For obtaining the contour lines of the films the apparatus shown in
Fig. 165 was used. 1 The aluminum plate with the holes is clamped
between the two halves of the castiron box A. The lower part of the
box, having the form of a shallow tray, is supported on leveling screws.
The mapping of contour lines is done by using the screw B passing
through a hole in a sheet of plate glass sufficiently large to cover the
box in any possible position. The lower end of the screw carries a hard
steel point whose distance from the
6rfllrfl
glass plate is adjustable by the
;____ _ 1,_s.s_. s ffl__lfrfl~~r11l~r11lr11_,,
screw. The point is made to
 .
. " /"
( ( ,  :. =..:r:...1j..;: "._ 1rfl /""
approach the film by moving the
', ' 1 ,. ,....;.t, ,, 't
or11 ,..
'~,', ~ I j \ l I / /
glass pia te until the distortion of
"\~\'....:,~'/"~..{.:'
the image in the film shows that
'~~~/~~/."
,,,/,{'
contact has occurred. The record is
\ 1 11
made on a sheet of paper attached to
/\/ 1
v,
the board E, which can swing about
1 1
a horizontal axis at the sarne height
: 1
1
1
as the steel recording point D. To
mark any position of the screw, it is
Fra. 166.
only necessary to prick a dot on the paper by swinging it down on the
recording point. After the point has been made to touch the film at a
number of places, the dots recorded on the paper are used for drawing a
contour line. By adjusting the screw B this can be repeated for as
many contour lines as may be required. When these lines have been
mapped, the volume and the corresponding torque can be obtained by
summation. The slopes and the corresponding stresses are obtained
by measuring the distances between neighboring contour lines. The
slope can be obtained optically with much more accuracy by projecting
a beam of light on to the surface of the film and measuring the angle of
~he_ reflected ray. The normal to the film is then half way between the
mc1dent and the reflected rays. A special instrument was constructed
for this purpose by Griffith and Taylor. Figure 166 represents an
e~ample of contour lines obtained for a portion of an 1beam (wooden
~mg spar of an airplane). From the close grouping of the contour
hnes at the fillets of the reentrant corners and at the middle of the
Upper face, it follows that the shearing stresses are high at these places.
The
projecting parts of the flange are very lightly stressed. The
1
See the paper by Taylor and Griffi.th, loc. cit.
292
TORSION
u+v =O
x
(a)
6 The analytical expression for vorticity is the sarne as for rotation "' discussed
on p. 225, provided u and v denote the components of the velocity of ~he fl~id. . .
G A. G. Greenhill, Hydromechanics, an article in the Encyclopaedia Bntanmca,
llth ed., 1910.
''l
irr
lllr!
293
x  y = constant
(b)
By taking
U
= c/>
ay'
V= 
c/>
(e)
a2c1>
a2q,
ax + oy
= constant
(d)
which coincides with Eq. (142) for the stress function in torsion.
At the boundary the velocity of the cir<ulating fluid is in the direction of the tangent to the boundary and the boundary condition for the
hyd~odynamical problern is the sarne as the condition (144) for the
tors1?nal problem.. Hence the velocity distribution in the hydrodynam1cal problern is mathematically identical with
the stress distribution in torsion, and some practically important conclusions can be drawn by using
the known solutions of hydrodynamics.
As a first example we take the case of a small
circular hole in a twisted circular shaftl (Fig. 168).
The effect of this hole on the stress distribution is
similar to that of introducing a stationary solid
Fw. 168.
cy~inder of the sarne dia~eter as the hole into the stream of circulatmg
flmd ?f the hydro~y~an.nc~l mode_I. Such a cylinder greatly changes the
veloc1ty of the flmd m its immediate neighborhood. The velocities at
th~ front and rear points are reduced to zero, while those at the side
pomt~ m and n ~re doubled. A hole of this kind therefore doubles the
shearmg stress m the portion of the shaft in which it is located A
small semicircular groove on the surface parallel to the length of the
shaft (Fig. 168) has the sarne effect. The shearing stress at the bottom
of the groove, the point m, is about twice the shearing stress at the surface of the shaft far away from the groove.
Th~ s~me hydrodynamical analogy explains the e:ffect of a small hole
of elliptic cross section or of a groove of semielliptic cross section If
~~e 0~ the principal axes a of the small elliptical hole is in the r~dial
irect10n and the other principal axis is b, the stresses at the edge of the
hole at the ends of the aaxis are increased in the proportion ( 1
1
+ ~): 1.
294
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORSION
The maximum stress produced in this case thus depends upon the
magnitude of the ratio a/b. The effect of the hole on the stress is
greater when the major axis of the ellipse is in the radial direction than
when it runs circumferentially. This explains why a radial crack has
such a weakening effect on the strength of a shaft. Similar effects on
the stress distribution are produced by a semielliptic groove on the
surface, parallel to the axis of the shaft.
From the hydrodynamical analogy it can be concluded also that at
the projecting corners of a cross section of a twisted bar the shearing
stress becomes zero, and that at reentrant corners this stress becomes
theoretically infinitely large, i.e., even the smallest torque will produce
yielding of material or a crack at such a comer. ln the case of a
rectangular keyway, therefore, a high stress concentration takes place
at the reentrant corners at the bottom of the keyway. These high
stresses can be reduced by rounding the corners. 1
101. Torsion of Hollow Shafts. So far the discussion has been
limited to shafts whose cross sections are bounded by single curves.
Let us consider now hollow shafts whose cross sections have two or
more boundaries. The simplest problem of this kind is a hollow shaft
with an inner boundary coinciding with one of the stress lines (see page
270) of the solid shaft, having the sarne boundary as the outer boundary
of the hollow shaft.
Take, for instance, an elliptic cross section (Fig. 149). The stress
function for the solid shaft is
295
the shaft. Then, from the above conclusion regarding the direction
of the sh~arin~ st~esses, it follows that there will be no stresses acting
across th1s cylmdncal surface. W e can imagine the material bounded
by this surface removed without changing the stress distribution in the
outer portion of the shaft. Hence the stress function (a) applies to the
hollow shaft also.
For a given angle 8 of twist the stresses in the hollow shaft are the
sarne as in the corresponding solid shaft. But the torque will be
smaller ~y the amount whic~ in the case of the solid shaft is carried by
the port10n of the cross sect10n corresponding to the hole. From Eq.
(148) we see that the latter portion is in the ratio k4: 1 to the total
torque. Hence, for the hollow shaft, instead of Eq. (148), we will have
Mt a 2 b2
8 =  4 3 1  k 7ra b3G
= _
</>
M1
7rab(l  k 4 )
(x2a + 1)2y2 2
T ma.x.
= 7rab2 1  k4
(a)
The curve
x2
(ak) 2
y2
+ (bk)
= 1
(b)
res~onding to the hole in the shaft (Fig. 169), must be replaced b~ the
horizontal plate CD. We note that
the uniform pressure distributed
A ra~
B x
over the portion CFD of the roem~:=t''"'.: 1 ?f1q.1~
brane is statically equivalent to the
l 1 ~ : : : :  D 11
pressure of the sarne magnitude
11
uniformly distributed over the plate
CD and the tensile forces S in the
membrane acting along the edge of
this plate are in equilibrium with the
~niform load on the plate. Hence,
m the case under consideration the
;y
same experimental soapfilm method
Frn. 169.
~~;efore can be employed because the replacement of the portion
0
fi
~ the memb~a.ne .by the plate CD causes no changes in the congurat10n and eqmhbnum conditions of the remaining portion of the
membrane.
297
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORS_:'ON
Let us consider now the more general case when the boundaries of
the holes are no longer stress lines of the solid shaft. From the general
theory of torsion we know (see Art. 90) that the stress function must be
constant along each boundary, but these constants cannot be chosen
arbitrarily. ln discussing multiplyconnected boundaries in twodimensional problems it was shown that recourse must be had to the
expressions for the displacements, and the constants of integration
should be found in such a manner as to make these expressions singlevalued. An analogous procedure is necessary in dealing with the
torsion of hollow shafts. The constant values of the stress function
along the boundaries should be determined in such a manner as to
make the displacements singlevalued. A sufficient number of equations for determining these constants will then be obtained.
From Eqs. (b) and (d) of Art. 90 we have
A physical significance for Eq. (e) was discussed before [see Eq.
(152), page 271]. It indicates that in using the membrane analogy the
level of each plate, such as the plate CD (Fig. 169), must be taken so
that the vertical load on the plate is equal and opposite to the vertical
component of the resultant of the tensile forces on the plate produced
by the membrane. If the boundaries of the holes coincide with the
stress lines of the corresponding solid shaft, the above condition is
sufficient to ensure the equilibrium of the plates. ln the general case
this condition is not sufficient, and to keep the plates in equilibrium in
a horizontal position special guiding devices become necessary. This
makes the soapfilm experiments for hollow shafts more complicated.
296
(e)
fr ds
along each boundary.
components we find
ds =
J ~: + ~;)
J(~: + :;
= G
(Txz
Tyz
dx
ds
dy)  8G
(y dx  x dy)
m.,
in which m1,
provided that
m1
+ m2 + + m;
= 1
The first integral must vanish, from the condition that the integration
is taken round a closed curve and that w is a singlevalued function.
Hence,
fr ds = 8Gf(x dy  y dx)
Observing now that the shearing stress is equal to the slope of the membrane and
substituting (f) into Eqs. (e), we obtain i equations of the forro
'
The integral on the right side is equal to double the area of the hole.
Then
(e)
fr ds = 2G8A
f ~:
ds = 2GoA;
1
A. A. Griffith, and G. I. Taylor, Tech. Rept. Natl. Advisory Comm. Aeronaut.
Vol. 3, p. 938, 19171918.
'
2
Griffith and Taylor concluded from their experiments that instead of constantpressure films it is more convenient to use zeropressure films (see p. 272) in studying
the stress distribution in hollow shafts. A detailed discussion of the calculation
of factors m1, m2, is given in their paper.
298
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORSION
keyway in it. It was shown in this manner that the maximum stress can be considerably reduced and the strength of the shaft increased by throwing the bore in
the shaft off center.
The torque in the shaft with one or more boles is obtained using
twice the volume under the membrane and the flat plates. To see
this we calculate the torque produced by the shearing stresses distributed over an elemental ring between two adjacent stress lines, as
in Fig. 169 (now taken to represent an arbitrary hollow section).
Denoting by othe variable width of the ring and considering an element
such as that shaded in the figure, the shearing force acting on this element is To ds and its moment with respect to O is rTo ds. Then the
torque on the elemental ring is
dM 1 = f TTo ds
(e)
in which the integration must be extended over the length of the ring.
Denoting by A the area bounded by the ring and observing that T is
the slope, so that To is the difference
in levei h of the two adjacent conAjoe;;:::
1
X
tour
lines, we find, from (e),
j' jC
z
dMt = 2hA
(d)
fl
Dlf
~1~~
299
ds
= 2A
(e)
from which 1
;
1
Then
(167)
_,, 
l1'=========::::::...J
i1,c..l
o .is
fa}
(168)
(h)
'
Fm. 171.
and depends on the radius a of the fillet of the reentrant comer (Fig.
l 71b). ln calculating this maximum stress we shall use the membrane
analogy as we did for the reentrant comers of rolled sections (Art 98)
of the membrane at the reentrant comer may be taken
.The equat10n
in the form
d 2z
dr 2
1
+ _! dz
_ _ q
r dr 
E
t"
V D qua ions (166) and (167) for thin tubular sections were obtained by R. Bredt
.I., vol. 40, p. 815, 1896.
'
301
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORSION
Replacing q/S by 2G8 and noting that r = dz/dr (see Fig. 170), we
find
(d)
300
Substituting in (d),
(e)
'Cmax
2.0 1~~++l
r =
Q + rosr
r
.....
(f)
2A
11
1 1
Assuming that the projecting angles of the cross section have fillets
with the radius a, as indicated in the figure, the constant of integration
e can be determined from the equation
ra+
}a
T dr
~~'li
e
C::'r'
.D
Frn. 173.
(g) . .
very small, the shearing stresses in each portion of the wall, from the
membrane analogy, are
(k)
e=
T
0
To
1  (s/4A)(2a +)
log. (1 +/a)
in which h 1 and h 2are the levels of the inner boundaries CD and EF.2
The magnitude of the torque, determined by the volume ACDEFB
.IS
= ro 1  (s/4A)(2a +) + r 0sr
r
log. (1 +/a)
(l)
(h):
2A
'
302
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
1"383
2G8A1
= 2G8A2
(m)
02s1A2)
obtained above for rectangular bars (Art. 95). ln discussing these stresses, let us
consider first the case of a very narrow rectangle 1 and assume that the dimension
a is large in comparison with b. If cross sections are free to warp, the stresses,
from Art. 94, are
(a)
Tz = 2GOy,
Ty = 0
and the corresponding displacements, from Eqs. (a), (b), and (d) of Art. !lO, are
By using the last of the Eqs. (k) and Eqs. (l) and (m), we find the
stresses T1, T2, Ta as functions of the torque:
2[1382A1 2
303
TORSION
(n)
(o)
(p)
u = (Jyz,
v = (Jxz,
w = 8xy
(b)
2P
(e)
ji I'
lllllL
" = "11 = o
r, 11 = 1;Em3 8em(a 2
x 2)(b2  y)
x 2 )y  2G8y
y 2)x
(d)
For large values of z this stress distribution approaches the stresses (a) for simple
torsion. The stress component r, 11 becomes zero at the boundary x = a and
Y = b; r,. and r 11, are zero for x = a and y = b, respectively. Hence the
boundary conditions are satisfied and the lateral surface of the bar is free from
forces.
For determining the factor m, we consider the strain energy of the bar and calculatem to make this energy a minimum. By using Eq. (84) on page 148, we fi.nd
1 1._l
V = 2G
1
f f
a
a
b [ Tzy 2
b
+ T,, 2 + r
11,
+ Z(l 1+ v)
<T,
] dx dy dz
Substituting from (d), and noting that for a long barwe can with sufficient accuracy
put
(lemzdz =
}o
1
&e S. Timoshenko, Proc. London M ath. Soe., series 2, vol. 20, p. 389, 1921
304
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORSION
12
V = 1 E0 2a 3b3 { 3m + (1 + 11) [ 2 a 2b2m5 + 1 (a2 + b2)m +
l ]} (e)
9
25
5
(1 + 11)2 a2
the zaxis and use polar coordinates r and 8 for defining the position of
an element in the plane of a cross section. The notations for stress
components in such a case are <lr, <le, <l,, r,,, Tre, Te,. The components of
displacements in the radial and tangential directions we may denote by
u and v and the component in the zdirection by w. Then, using the
we get
305
m2 =
(1
(f)
+ 11)a2
Substituting this value of m in (e) and (d), we find the stress distribution for the
case when the middle cross section of the bar remains plane.
For calculating the angle of twist f, we put the potential energy (e) equal to the
work done by the torque Mt,
Mtf =V
2
3M,
16Glab 3
[z _ v5(1 +
6
11)
(g)
Comparing this result with Eq. (155) on page 273, we conclude that by preventing
the middle cross section from warping we increase the rigidity of the bar with
respect to torsion. The effect of the local irregularity in stress distribution on the
value of f is the sarne as the influence of a diminution of the length l by
v5<1+11)
Taking 11 = 0.30, this reduction in l becomes 0.425a. We see that the effect of
the constraint of the middle cross section on the angle of twist is small if the
dimension a is small in comparison with l.
The twist of a bar of an elliptic cross section can be discussed in an analogous
manner. 1 Of greater effect is the constraint of the middle cross section in the
case of torsion of a bar of I cross section. An approximate method for calculating
the angle of twist in this case is obtained by considering bending of the flanges
during torsion. 2
,j
Fw. 175.
'Yr8
au
ar
au av V
= r ae + ar  ,r
= ,
Eq
av
+ r,
ae
au
aw
 +,
az ar
u
r
= 
'Yrz =
aw
Ez
'Yz8
= az
=
av + aw
az r ae
(169)
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORSION
and assuming that there are no body forces, we arrive at the following
differential equations of equilibrium: 1
306
aur
ar
+!
arr8 + arrz + ~ = O
r ae
az
r
arrz + ! aro. + au. + Trz = o
ar
r ae
az
r
arro + ! auo + arez + 2Tr8 = O
ar
r ae
az
r
Tr8 = G'Yr8 = G
(170)
Hence, of all the stress components, only rro and ro. are different from
zero. The first two of Eqs. (170) are identically satisfied, and the
third of these equations gives
(b)
+ aza (r ro.) = o
(e)
aq,
r 2r r o=  az,
T21 aq,
az
"'
(e)
_
 0
(f)
(1
!__ 3 aq,)
ar r ar
e{>
of r
(d)
i These equations were obtained by Lam and Clapeyron; see Crelle's J., vol. 7,
1831.
+~
(1 aq,)
az r az
3
or
(g)
Let us consider now the boundary conditions for the function e{>.
From the condition that the lateral surface of the shaft is free from
externai forces we conclude that at any point A at the boundary of an
axial section (Fig. 175) the total shearing stress must be in the direction
of the tangent to the boundary and its projection on the normal N to
the boundary must be zero. Hence
dz
dr
Tro ds  T8z ds
ar (r 2rro)
307
This general solution of the problem is dueto J. H. Michell, Proc. London M ath.
S~c., vol. 31, p. 141, 1899. See also A. Fppl, Sitzber. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., Mnc en, vol. 35, pp. 249 and 504, 1905. Also the book "Kerbspannungslehre" by
H. _Ne~ber, which gives solutions for the hyperboloid of revolution, and for a
cavity m the forro of an ellipsoid of revolution by a different method. Reviews
'
of
Mecthe iiterature on the subject have ?ee_n given
b~ T. Pschl, z. angew. Math.
h., vol. 2, p. 137, 1922, and T. J. Higgms, Experimental Stress Analysis vol. 3
no. 1, p. 94, 1945.
'
'
308
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORSION
(k)
where a is the outer radius of the cross section. The torque is thus
easily obtained we know the difference between the values of the
stress function at the outer boundary and at the center of the cross
section.
ln discussing displacements during twist of the shaft let us use the
notation i/; = v/r for the angle of rotation of an elemental ring of radius
r in a cross section of the shaft. This ring can be considered as the
cross section of one of a number of thin elemental tubes into which
the shaft is subdivided. Then i/; is the angle of twist of such a tube.
From the fact that the radii of the cross section become curved, it
follows that i/; varies with r and the angles of twist of elemental tubes
are not equal for the sarne cross section of the shaft. Equations (e)
can now be written in the form
where
dr
= rro
ds
3 ) + ~ (r 3ai/;)
~
ar (r "'
ar
)z
)z
=O
<I>
or
or 2
+ ~ oi/! + a2i/;
r ar
oz 2
+ ro.ds
/\
I 1
( 1
I li 1
z.
+ z2)l
Frn. 176.
ar
from which
a2i/;
dz
(r2
az
Gr 3 oi/; = <P
az
(n)
Gr ai/; =  acp
ar
309
(l)
= e { (r2
where e is a constant.
(o)
1 ocp
crz
rez =   =  ~~,r2 ar
(r 2 + z2 )1
(p)
Mt
e=_
27r(i  cos a
+t
cos 3 a)
~o calculate the angle of twist we use Eqs. (e), from which the expression for i/;, satisfying Eq. (l) and the boundary condition, is
e
i/; = 3G(r 2
1
+ z )f
2
(q)
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORSION
It will be seen that the surfaces of equal angle of twist are spherical
surlaces with their center at the origin O.
The case of a shaft in the form of an ellipsoid, hyperboloid, or paraboloid of revolution can be discussed in an analogous manner. 1
The problems encountered in practice are of a more complicated
nature. The diameter of the shaft usually changes abruptly, as shown
in Fig. 177a. The first investigation of such problems was made b!
A. Fppl. C. Runge suggested a numerical method for the approx1mate solution of these problems, 2 and it was shown that considerable
stress concentration takes place at such
points as m and n, and that the magnid
tude of the maximum stress for a shaft
n a
of two different diameters d and D
(Fig. 177a) depends on the ratio of the
radius
a of the fillet to the diameter d
D
of the shaft and on the ratio d/D.
ln the case of a semicircular groove
(6)
of
very small radius a, the maximum
faJ
FIG. 177
stress at the bottom of the groove
(Fig. 177b) is twice as great as at the surface of the cylindrical shaft
without the groove.
ln discussing stress concentration at the fillets and grooves of twisted
circular shafts, an electrical analogy has proved very useful. 3 The
general equation for the flow of an electric current in a thin homogeneous plate of variable thickness is
Let us assume that the plate has the sarne boundary as the axial section of the shaft (Fig. 178), that the x and yaxes coincide with the
z and raxes, and that the thickness of the plate is proportional to the
cube of the radial distance r, so that h = ar 3 Then Eq. (r) becomes
310
i_
ax
(h
if;)
x
+ i_
(h ifi)
y
y
(r)
in which h is the variable thickness of the plate and if; the potential
function.
1 See papers by E. Melan, Tech. Bltter, Prag, 1920; A. N. Dinnik, Bull. D~
Polytech. Inst., Novotcherkask, 1912; W. Arndt, Die To~sion v_on We~e1:1 m1t
achsensymmetrischen Bohrungen und Hohlrumen, D1ssertat10n, G?ttm?en,
1916; A. Timpe, Math. Annalen, 1911, p. 480. Further references are g1ven ma
review by Higgins, loc. cit.
.
2 See F. A. Willers, Z. Math. Physik, voI. 55, p. 225, 1907.
Artother approximate
method was developed by L. Fppl, Sitzber. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., Mnchen, vol. 51,
p. 61, 1921, and by R. Sonntag, Z. angew. Math. Mech., voI. 9, p. 1, 1929.
a See paper by L. S. Jacobsen, Trans. A.S.M.E., vol. 47, p. 619, 1925, and. the
survey given by T. J. Higgins, loc. cit. Discrepancies between results obtamed
from this and other methods are discussed in the latter paper. For further comparisons and straingauge measurements extending Fig. 179 to 2a/d = 0.50 see
A. Weigand, LuftfahrtForsch., vol. 20, p. 217, 1943, translated in N.A.C.A. Tech.
Mem. 1179, September, 1947.
a2y;
az 2
+ ~ ay; + a2y;
r ar
311
=o
Jr 2
This coincides with equation (l), and we conclude that the equipotential lines of the plate are determined by the sarne equation as the lines
of equal angles of twist in the case of a shaft of variable diameter.
Assuming that the ends of the plate, corresponding to the ends of the
shaft, are maintained at a certain difference of potential so that the
current flows along the zaxis, the equipotential lines are normal to the
FIG. 178.
lateral sides of the plate, i.e., we have the sarne boundary conditions as
for lines of constant angle of twist. If the differential equations and
the boundary conditions are the sarne for these two kinds of lines, the
lines are identical. Hence, by investigating the distribution of potential in the plate, valuable information regarding the stress distribution
in the twisted shaft can be obtained.
The maximum stress is at the surface of the shaft and we obtain this
stress by using Eq. (n). From this equation, by applying the electrical
analogy, it follows that the stress is proportional to the rate of drop of
potential along the edge of the plate.
Actual measurements were made on a steel model 24 in. long by 6 in.
wide at the larger end and 1 in. maximum thickness (Fig. 178). The
drop of potential along the edge mnpq of the model was investgated by
using a sensitive galvanometer, the terminals of which were connected
to two sharp needles fastened in a block at a distance 2 mm. apart.
By touching the plate with the needles the drop in potential over the
distance between the needle points was indicated by the galvanometer.
By moving the needles along the fillet it is possible to find the place of,
and measure, the maximum voltage gradient. The ratio of this
maximum to the voltage gradient ata remote point m (Fig. 178a) gives
312
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORSION
of stress concentration for any particular case can be found with sufficient accuracy.
'l'max.
= k
l6M1
Problems
1rd3
The results of such tests in one particular case are represented in Fig.
178c, in which the potential drop measured at each point is indicated
9
3.2
2.8
2.4
2.0
1.6
,\
i\' 1{l=zoo
'\
\' ~
\,,'il
r...
!J=LSO.
/ 'f}=!.JJ
~ ~ ,q=l.20
'~
1.2
1. Show by considering the equilibrium of the whole bar that when ali stress
components vanish except T%> Tu, the loading must consist of torsional couples
only [cf. Eqs. (h), Art. 90].
2. Show that </> = A (r 2  a 2 ) solves the torsion problem for the solid or hollow
circular shaft. Determine A in terms of GO. Using Eqs. (141) and (145) evaluate
the maximum shearing stress and the torsional rigidity in terms of M, for the solid
shaft, and verify that the results are in agreement with those given in any text
on strength of materiais.
3. Show that for the sarne twist, the elliptic section has a greater shearing
stress than the inscribed circular section (radius equal to the minor axis b of the
ellipse). Which takes the greater torque for the sarne allowable stress?
4. Use Eq. (g) of Art. 92 and Eq. (145) to evaluate the torsional rigidity of
the equilateral triangle, and thus verify Eq. (l), Art. 92.
5. Using the stress function (m) of Art. 92 expressed in rectangular coordinates,
fi.nd an expression for Tu along the middle line Ax of Fig. 153, and verify that the
greatest value along this line is the value given by
Eq. (p).
6. Evaluate the torsional rigidity of the section
shown in Fig. 153. Is it appreciably different
from that of the complete circular section when the
groove is small?
y
7. Show that the expression for the stress function </> which corresponds to the parabolic membrane of Art. 94 is
r ~ ~
j~=l.09~
f'... ro..
0.8
q,
0.4
OD4
0.08
0.12
2a
0.16
313
o.zo
0.24
Go ( x2 
~)
FIG. 179.
by the length on the normal to the edge of the plate at this point.
From this figure the factor of stress concentration is found to be 1.54.
The magnitudes of this factor obtained with various proportions of
shafts are given in Fig. 179, in which the abscissas represent the ratios
2a/d of the radius of the fillet to the radius of the smaller shaft and the
ordinates the factor of stress concentration k for various values of the
ratio D/d (see Fig. 177). By interpolating from these curves the factor
M1
f#obc. 3
8. Using the method indicated in Prob. 7, find an approximate expression for the
~rs~onal rigidity of the thin symmetrical section bounded by two parabolas shown
lll
Fig. 181, for which the width e ata depth y below the center is given by
e=
Co
(1  ~)
9. Show that the method indicated in Prob. 7 gives for a slender elliptical
sect1on the approximate stress function
ti> = Gob2
e::: +
a
y2 b
1)
314
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORSION
Tmax,
18. At any point of an axial section of a shaft of variable diameter, line elements
ds and dn (at right angles) in the section are chosen arbitrarily as shown in Fig. 184.
The shear stress is expressed by components Ta, r,. along these. Show that
= 2GOb = trab 2
1 Jcp
for the slender elliptical section, and compare with the corresponding formulas
for the thin rectangular section of length 2a and thickness 2b.
10. Apply the method given at the end of Art. 97 to find an approximation to
the torsional rigidity of the section described in Prob. 8.
11. A section has a single hole, and the stress function cf> is determined so that it
vanishes on the outside boundary and has a constant value c/>H on the boundary of
the hole. By adapting the calculation indicated on page 262 for Eq. (145), prove
that the total torque is given by twice the volume under the cpsurface plus twice
the volume under a flat roof at height cf>H covering the hole (cf. page 298).
12. A closed thinwalled tube has a perimeter l and a uniform wall thickness li.
An open tube is made by making a fine longitudinal cut in it. Show that when the
maximum shear stress is the sarne in both
closed and open tubes,
Mtopen
Mtclosed
/li
Oopen
6A'
Oc!osed
2A
=
Ta
=Ti Jn'
Tn
= GrJif;
Jn
315
M
2tr(f  cos a
+!
1(1 b31)
cos 3 a) 3G ; 
If a and b are both made large, with b  a = l, and a is made small, the above
result should approach the relative rotation of the ends of a uniform shaft of
length Z, and radius aa, dueto torque M 1 Show that it does so.
Fm. 185.
Fm. 186.
22. Use the functions given by Eqs. (o) and (q) of Art. 104 to find, in terms of M,,
the relative rotation of the ends of the hollow conical shaft shown in Fig. 186. The
ends are spherical surfaces of radii a, b, center O.
.,,
1
317
CHAPTER 12
BENDING OF PRISMATICAL BARS
106. Bending of a Cantilever. ln discussing pure bending (Art. 88)
it was shown that, a prismatical bar is bent in one of its principal
planes by two equal and opposite couples applied at the ends, the
deflection occurs in the sarne plane, and of the six components of stress
only the normal stress parallel to the axis of the bar is different from
zero. This stress is proportional to the distance from the neutral axis.
Thus the exact solution coincides in this case with the elementary
theory of bending. ln discussing bending of a cantilever of narrow
rectangular cross section by a force applied at the end (Art. 20), it was
FIG. 187.
'
We assume also that there are shearing stresses, acting on the sarne
cross sections, which we resolve at each point into components r,,, and
Tyz
We assume that the remaining three stress components"z, " 111 r zy
are zero. It will now be shown that by using these assumptions we
arrive at a solution which satisfies all of the equations of the theory of
elasticity and which is hence the exact solution of the problem.
With these assumptions, neglecting body forces, the differential
equations of equilibrium (127) become
ih,,.
iJz
iJr,,,
Tx
=o
=O
dTy,
'
iJry, _
az
(b)
Px
(e)
Ty7
From (b) we conclude that shearing stresses do not depend on z and are
the sarne in all cross sections of the bar.
Considering now the boundary conditions (128) and applying them
to the lateral surface of the bar, which is free from external forces we
find that the first two of these equations are identically satisfied 'and
the third one gives
T,,.l + Tyzm = 0
From Fig. 187b we see that
l
= cos
dx
(Nx) = dy
m = cos (Ny) =  ds
ds'
dy
ds 
T 11z
dx
ds = O
(d)
V2Tyz =
o1
~
V T
""
~~
J(l
+ v)
(e)
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
318
(<P
(a 2q, a2q,\
ay ax 2 + ayi} = 1 +
a
vY
df
dy 2
ax 2
a2q,
Py
+ iiif = 1 + v I
df
(a)
 dy + e
~(~~)=~(~
~)~(~+~)=~~
az ax
ay
ax az + ay
ay az
ax
ax
ay
and, by using Hooke's law and expressions (171) for the stress components, we find
a ( )  1 (Tyz
az 2w  G ax
OTxz)
ay
= 
.!
G
1/>2
ax
+ ytf>2 + df)
dy
2 w,) = 1
G az C
Py
+ vT + e
319
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
The right side of the boundary condition (173) becomes zero if we take
P (r2 _ y2)
f (y) = 21
(3 + 2v)Pr2
(r..,.)max. = 8(1 + 11)!
320
(b)
Substituting this into Eq. (172), the stress function cjJ is then determined by the equation
a2q, a2q, 1 + 2v Py
( )
x 2 + y 2 = 1 + v T
e
and the condition that q, = O at the boundary. Thus the stress function is given by the deflections of a membrane with circular boundary
of radius r, uniformly stretched and loaded by a transverse load of
intensity proportional to
1 + 2vPy
T+vT
It is easy to see that Eq. (e) and the boundary condition are satisfied
in this case by taking
(d)
e/> = m(x2 + y2  r2)y
where m is a constant factor. This function is zero at the boundary
(a) and satisfies Eq. (e) if we take
(1
+ 2v)P
= 8(1
v)I
q,
= (1
+ 2v)P (x2 + y2 _
8(1
+ v)I
r2)y
(3 + 2v)P ( 2 _
8(1 + v)I r
(1 + 2v)Pxy
" 11 = 4(1 + v)I
'Tzz
2 _ 1  2v 2)
3 + 2v Y
(r
(1 + 2v)Pr 2
(rzz)ll=r = 4(1
v)J
= r) is
(h)
4P
Tzz
= 3A
The error of the elementary solution for the maximum stress is thus
in this case about 4 per cent.
108. Elliptic Cross Section. The method of the previous article
can also be used in the case of an elliptic cross section. Let
x2
a2 + b2y2 
f(y) = 
(174)
(a)
1 =O
(g)
(e)
321
~(~:y2  a2)
(b)
a2q,
ax2
a2q,
Py (2
b2 + 1
+ ay2 = T
" )
(e)
+v
q, = 2(1
+ v)a +
vb
2
2
2
v)(3a
P(
+ b )I
a2
+ b2 y
2)
(d)
._.....,.;...;..;_..,,
1NST1TUTUl flUTEMll'C i
11!~1~;~c~~~~R~U.
322
THEORY OF ELASTJCITY
T:u
T11
+
+
+
+
2(1
v)a 2 b2 P [ 2
= (1
v)(3a2
b2). 2I a
(1 + v)a 2 + vb 2 Pxy
=  (1 + v)(3a 2 + b2 ) l
x2 _
(1  2v)a 2 y 2]
2(1
v)a2
b2
(175)
T,,,
Tyz
b2 P [a 2 _
(1  2v)a 2 y 2]
b2) 21
2(1
v)a 2 b2
(Tzz)max. =
Pa
2J [
1 
+3a2vb +
/(1 + v)]
b2
If b is very small in comparison with a, we can neglect the terms containing b2 /a 2, in which case
{Tzz)max. =
If we substitute into Eq. (173) the consta.nt Pa2 /2J for f(y), the
expression Px 2 /21  Pa 2 /21 becomes zero along the sides x = a of
the rectangle. Along the vertical sides y = b
the derivative dy/ds is zero. Thus the right
a
side of Eq. (173) is zero along the boundary
line and we can take <P = O at the boundary. y+1i b
Differential equation (172) becomes
3J = 3 A
('Tzz)max. = 1
1
If
p
A
b) for this
4P
Pa 2
(Tzz)x=o, y==b =
0.92 A
bthe
The maximum stress is about 14 per cent larger than t h at given
Y
elementary formula,
'~:li.:!
(a)
(b)
'
For the horizontal axis of the elliptic cross section (x = O), we find
2(1 + v)a 2 +
= (1
v)(3a 2
323
Py
+ vT
The curve mnp in Fig. 188 represents the intersection of the membrane
with the yzplane.
From Eqs. (171) we see that shearing stresses can be resolved into
the two following systems:
(1)
(2)
11
'
li
=  cp
(e)
324
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
From this we find the following formulas for the center of the cross section (y = O) and for the middle of the vertical sides of the rectangle:
m=oon=oo
q,
i..{
m= ao n= oo
\'
(2m + l}irx . n1f'Y
~ A2m+l,n cos
sm b
2a
\'
(d)
m=O n=l
Substituting this into Eq. (b) and applying the usual method of calculating the coefficients of a Fourier series, we arrive at the equations
A 2m+l,nr2ab [ (
d )2 + (~)2]
P8b
+ r;a ~
"
b'
(l)m1
"
(2m
vI
A2m+l,n = 
= 
a
b
+PT r4(2m +
y cos
(2m
+ l)n sm
. n1f'Y
b dx dy
2a
8b(  l)m+n1
l)n [ (2m2d
n="'
1y + (~)2]
"(1)" =
4 n2
n1
cp
= 
2:
p 8b3
+ PI 7
m=O
n=l
m="'
l) m+n 1
(2m
COS
(2m
2a
m="' n="'
m=O
{ l)m+n1
"
cos n1f'Y
(2m
(l)m
1)[(2m
1) 2
2Pl 3
y = EJ.,.. 4
in which
2:
k2=~
EJ.,..2
ande is the distance of the load P from the left support (Fig. 112). Substituting
now e =O and Pc = M, we arrive at the following deflection curve produced by
the couple M applied at the left end
'
,
1
l:h.i
P8b
+v vT;a
f:(
"
)*
_ r 3 1  sechi
k 2)  32 . j(kr/2)2
~ This formula can be obtained in the following manner: Using the trigonometric
series (h) (p. 155) for the case of a tie rod loaded by the transverse force p and the
direct tensile force S, we find that
 1
325
2Ml2
y = Eh
nL:="' sm. z
nirz
n(n 2
n=l
+ k2)
Then
n= oo
 1
3P b2
v 2A. a2
3 + 11'2
~
f1
n2
(  l)n ]
cosh n:a
[2 41: 1 ]
n= oo
(Tzz")z=O, y=h
3P b
V 2A a2
= 1+
3
(176)
a 2 q, _
h n'll'a
n 2 cos b
11'2
Point
X=
0, y = 0
Exact
Approximate
0.983
0.981
0.940
0.936
0.856
0.856
0.805
0.826
X=
0, y = b
Exact
Approximate
1.033
1.040
1.126
1.143
1.396
1.426
1.988
1.934
(e)
+1+
_ 21
p [ a2
2
b )]
y  3
(f)
It will be seen that for a narrow rectangle the correction to the elementary formula, given by the second term in the brackets, is always
small.
If b is large in comparison with a, the deflections of the membrane
at points distant from the short sides of the rectangle can be taken as a
linear function of y, and from Eq. (b) we find
a q,
v Py
ax = 1 +V T
2
</>
= 1
Py
+ v 21 (x2
(g)
a2)
Tzz 
p ( 2
+1 V . 21
a 
2)
Tyz
=  1
+ T xy
V
(1)"'
\'
V
p
=    (y  b2y)
1+V61
1' xz 
3p /2A given by the elementary formula. In the first lines of the table
above numerical factors are given by which the approximate value of
the shearing stress 3P /2A must be multiplied in order to obtain the
exact values of the stress. 1 The Poisson's ratio vis taken equal to onefourth in this calculation. It is seen that the elementary formula gives
very accurate values for these stresses when a/b ~ 2. For a square
cross section the error in the maximum stress obtained by the elementary formula is about 10 per cent.
2Ml 2
</>
=
b
0 = Ef1r3
+V T
and we find
Py
dy 2  1
n=l
327
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
326
(2m
+ 1)[(2m + 1) + k
2
(a)
Tzz
Pa 2
= l +V 2['
Tyz
m=O
= 2EJir2k2
br)
1  sech 2
(b)
i The figures of this table are somewhat different from those g~ven by Sa~nt
Venant. Checking of SaintVenant's results showed that there is a numerical
error in his calculations.
328
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
329
given in the form (b  TJ)/2a in the last column, b  11 being the distance of the maximum point from the comer.
= 2aVW
b

With this value for m, and by using Eq. (h), we can calculate with
sufficient accuracy the maximum shearing stress which occurs at the
middle of the short sides of the rectangle.
lf both sides of the rectangle are of the sarne order of magnitude we
can obtain an approximate solution for the stress distribution in a
polynomial form by taking the stress function in the form
q,
b2) (my
+ ny)
(k)
(rz.).,_o,
3P/2A
2a
1.000
1.39(4)
1.988
2.582
3.176
3.770
5.255
6.740
8.225
15.650
0.000
0.31(6)
0.968
1.695
2.452
3.226
5.202
7.209
9.233
19 .466
0.000
0.31(4)
0.522
0.649
0.739
0.810
0.939
1.030
1.102
1.322
2
4
6
8
10
15
20
25
50
11 1>
b .,
11_0. Additional ~esul~s. Let us consider a cross section the boundary of which
cons1sts of two vertical s1des y = a (Fig. 189) and two hyperbolas1
(1
+ v)x2
 vy2 = a2
(a)
Pa2
(T zz) z=0, 11=0 = 'if
2
(Tzz)x=o,
y=b
= ~~
+ ma 2b2
 2a2b2(m
(1 ~ py2 + 1~ p)
+ nb 2)
(l)
ax2
J2<f>
+ ay2
Frn. 189.
=O
This equation and the boundary condition (173) are satisfied by taking
Then the shearingstress components, from Eq. (171), are
r.,.
= 2pl (  z2
T11
= 0
</> =
O
.
+ _v_ y2 + ~)
l+v
l+v
At each point of the cross section the shearing stress is vertical. The maximum
of this stress is at the middle of the vertical sides of the cross section and is equal to
Ttll3x.
Pa 2
2f
The problem can also be easily solved if the boundary of the cross section is given
by the equation
1
n~
~),
(
= ( 1 a >X > a
(b)
1
This problem was discussed by F. Grashof, "Elastizitt und Festigkeit "p 246
1878.
' .
,
For
li
By taking
q,
f(y) =
Pa2 [ 1
'iI  (
by);]
a2q, _ _ 11_Py + Pa
ay2  1 + 11 I  2bl 11
!1
( 1!)
b
Pa 2 11
:Z:.: _ 1
q, = 2(1
11)! [ y
(a
)
b (
11 ) +1]
v
b
(y  a)[x
FIG. 190.
Txz
= 2(1
+ 11)! (a
2 
'
Tyz
(1~11)Ixy
= 
(e)
dx = dy
FIG. 191.
+ y2
 r =O
f(y) =
{z. (r 
y2)
 (2a
+ y)
+ By + )
3
+ y) tan a]
tan 2 a
P
 (2a
I
tan 2 a
r 2 )(Ay
+ y) tan
la
X
(a)
FIG. 192.
p
(2a
21
a2q,
a2q,
ax
 2 = 1+.,,v Py
 2 + ay
I
Tyz
+ y 
.
( ) for stress components may be derived. The equafrom which the express10ns e b f
df
the condition that at the boundary
tion of the boundary can now e oun ~om
the direction of shearing stress coincides w1th the tangent
/
'
to the boundary. Hence
I
\
y = b(a 2
.
different way In discussing stresses in a
.
h
W e can arnve
a
.
which is large in comparison w1th the dept ' we
rectangular beam t_he w1dthl ot~
f r the stress function [Eq. (g), Art. 109] the
used as an approximate so u ion o
expression
  "  Py (x2  a)
</>  1 +V 2[
Txz
b2)(x2
= (y 
(173)
h s i e q, must be constant
th left side of the boundary cond1t1on
vams e ' .. ,
e
along the boundary. Equation (172) becomes
a2q,
ax2
331
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
330
'
(d) '
= 1"+V = 3~
In the
(b)
1920.
332
an exact solution of Eq. (a) is obtained by taking for the stress function the
expresision
The caf'e shown in Fig. 194 can be treated in a similar manner. Assume, for
example, that the cross section is a parabolic segment and that the equation of
the parabola is
x 2 = A(y +a)
Then we take
p
j(y) = 21 . A(y +a)
y+r1
</> =
p
61
[x
2 
(2a
+ y)
J(y 
a)
Tz
= y 
c/>
Px 2
2T
Tu =  x =
P
+ 61
(2a + y)
2 y'p
2
27 4 [x
+ a(2a + y)]
2 v3P
(e)
27a4 x(a  y)
Along the yaxis, x = O, and the resultant shearing stress is vertical and is represented by the linear function
(Tzz)zo
2v3P
27a 3 (2a
+ y)
The maximum value of this stress, at the middle of the vertical side of the cross
section, is
(d)
By calculating the moment with respect to the zaxis of the shearing forces given
by the stresses (e), it can be shown that in this case the resultant shearing force
passes through the centroid C of the cross section.
Let us consider next the more general case of a cross section with a horizontal
axis of symmetry (Fig. 193), the lower and upper portions of the boundary being
given by the equations
= ..p(y)
X = ..p(y)
X
for
for
>O
<O
[x
+ ..p(y)][x 
With this assumption the stress function has to satisfy the differential equation
and be constant at the boundary. The problem is reduced to that of finding the
deflections of a uniformly stretched membrane when the intensity of the load is
given by the righthand side of the above equation. This latter problem can
usually be solved with sufficient accuracy by using the energy method as was showa
in the case of the rectangular cross section ( page 328).
r:''
~l,
With this expression for J(y) the first factor on the righthand side of Eq. (173) vanishes along the parabolic portion of
the boundary. The factor dy/ds vanishes along the straightline
portion of the boundary. Thus we find again that the
FIG. 194.
stress function is constant along the boundary and the problem
can be treated by using the energy method.
M, =
Jf
(T:x:zY 
T11zX)
dx dy
(a)
Observing that the stresses distributed over the end cross section of the
beam are statically equivalent to the acting force P we conclude that
the distance d of the force P from the centroid of the cross section is
d=
..p(y)] = z2  [..p(y)]2
vanishes along the boundary and in our expressions for stress components (171)
we can take
p
J(y) = 21 [..p(y)] 2
':
333
THEORY OF ELASTIClTY
IM.I
p
(b)
.;.
I
334
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
cross sections of the beam. This point is called the shear ccntersometimes also the center of flexure, or flexural center.
If the cross section of the beam has two axes of symmetry we can
conclude at once that the shear center coincides with the centroid of
the cross section. When there is only one axis of symmetry we conclude, from symmetry, that the shear center will be on that axis.
Taking the symmetry axis for yaxis, we calculate the position of the
shear center from Eq. (b).
Let us consider, as an example, a semicircular cross section 1 as shown
in Fig. 195. To find the shearing stresses we can utilize the solution
developed for circular beams (see
page 319). In that case there are
no stresses acting on the vertical
diametral section xz. W e can
imagine the beam divided by the
xzplane into two halves each of
which represents a semicircular
beam bent by the force P /2. The
stresses are given by Eq. (174).
FIG. 195.
Substituting into Eq. (a), integrating, and dividing M, by P /2, we find for the distance of the bending
force from the origin O the value
2M,
8 3 + 4v
e= p
= 15ir T+v r
This defines the position of the force for which the crosssectional element at point O, the center of the circle, does not rotate. At the sarne
time an element at the centroid of the semicircular cross section will
rotate by the amount [see Eq. (b) page 318]
w
= vP(lHI z) O .424r
where 0.424r is the distance from the origin O to the centroid of the
semicircle. To eliminate this rotation a torque as shown in Fig. 195
must be applicd. The magnitude of this torque is found by using the
table on page 279, which gives for a semicircular cross section the angle
of twist per unit length
Mt
(} = 0.296Gr4
1 See S. Timoshenko, Bull. Inst. Engineers of Ways of Communications, St.
Petersburg, 1913. It seems that the displacement of the bending force from the
centroid of the cross section was investigated in this paper for the first time.
'
'
'
1
335
= Sv 0.296 0.424r
2(1
+ v)'ll"
tanc~ e to obtam t?e distance of the shear center from the center
the circle. Assummg v = 0.3, we obtain
e
= ()y 
Tu
2J [x 2
aq,
if2(y)],
Tyz
Hence
M, =
f f (~:y + ~=x)dxdy ~! f
=  
ax
[x 2 1/;2(y)]ydxdy
(e)
f f G:
ff[x 2
+ :: x) dx dy
ff
= 2
cp dx dy
= if;(y)  21/;(y) = ll/;(y)
= tf yif;(y) dy
f[x2  y;2(y)] dx
if; 2 (y)]y dx dy
I = Jfx 2 dxdy = ifif; 3 (y) dy
l~I
1 ~ f !
p
cp dx dy
+ f yif;(y) dy'
f if; 3(y) dy
. if; (y) and using the membrane analogy for finding q, we can
ai Kn owmg
wafys calculate 1 with sufficient accuracy the position of the shear cen
336
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
f(y) = 2(1
Py2
+ v) T
337
()2cf>
+ ay2
(a)
=O
as
= [Px 2 _
21
Py 2] dy
2(1
v)
ds
(b)
e/> 
x 2 dy
Py
 2  2 (1 + v) 3T
+ constant
(e)
from which the value of e/> for every point of the boundary can be calculated. f (x 2/2) dy vanishes when taken around the boundary, since it
rep.resents the moment of the cross section with respect to the yaxis,
wh1ch passes through the centroid of the cross section. Hence e/>,
calculated from (e), is represented along the boundary by a closed
curve.
Imagine now that the soap film is stretched over this curve. Then
the surface of the film satisfies Eq. (a) and boundary condition (e).
Hence the ordinates of the film represent the stress function cf> at all
points of the cross section to the scale used for representation of the
function cf> along the boundary [Eq. (e)].
The photograph 196a illustrates one of the methods used for construction of the boundary of the soap film. A hole is cut in a plate of
celluloid, of such a shape that after the plate is bent the projection of
the edge of the hole on the horizontal plane has the sarne shape as the
boundary of the cross section of the beam. The plate is fixed on
vertical studs and adjusted by means of nuts and washers until the
ordinates along the edge of the hole represent to a certain scale the
values of e/> given by expression (e). The photograph 196b illustrates
another method for construction of the boundary by using thin sheets
of annealed brass. 1 The small corrections of ordinates along the edge
of the hole can be secured by slight bending of the boundary.
. The analogy between the soapfilm and the bendingproblem equations holds rigorously only in the case of infinitely small deflections of
the memb:ane. ln experimenting it is desirable to have the total range
of the ordmates of the film not more than onetenth of the maximum
1
339
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
The reduction of the range of the function c/>1 at the boundary can
usually be effected by a proper adjustment of the constants a and b.
When the function cf> 1 is obtained from the soap film, the function cf>
is calculated from Eq. (d). Having the stress function cf>, the shearingstress components are obtained from Eqs. (171), which have now the
form
ocf>
Px 2
V
Py 2
Tzz = ay  2I + 2(1 + v) T
(e)
ocf>
338
Tyz
FIG. 196b.
where a and b are arbitrary constants. It may be seen that the function cf> 1 also satisfies the membrane equation (a). The val~es of the
function cf> 1 along the boundary, from Eqs. (e) and (d), are g1ven by
cf>
1 
f_
J
x dy _
v
Py  ax  by
2
2(1
v) 31
+ constant
OX
The stress components can now be easily calculated for every point of
the cross section provided we know the values of the derivatives
cf>/y and cf>/x at this point. These derivatives are given by the
slopes of the soap film in the y and xdirections. For determining
slopes we proceed as in the case of torsional problems and first map
contour lines of the film surface. From the contour map the slopes
may be found by drawing straight lines parallel to the coordinate axes
and constructing curves representing the corresponding sections of the
soap film. The slopes found in this way must now be inserted in
expressions (e) for shearstress components. The accuracy of this procedure can be checked by calculating the resultant of ali the shear
stresses distributed over the cross section. This resultant should be
equal to the bending force P applied at the end of the cantilever.
Experiments show that a satisfactory accuracy in determining
stresses can be attained by using the soapfilm method. The results
obtained for an Isection 1 are shown in Figs. 197. From these figures
it may be seen that the usual assumptions of the elementary theory,
that the web of an Ibeam takes most of the shearing force and that the
shearing stresses are constant across the thickness of the web, are fully
confirmed. The maximum shearing stress at the neutral plane is in
very good agreement with that calculated from the elementary theory.
The component r 11, is practically zero in the web and reaches a maximum at the reentrant corner. This maximum should depend on the
radius of the fillet rounding the reentrant corner. For the proportions
taken, it is only about onehalf of the maximum stress r,,, at the neutral
plane. The lines of equal shearingstress components, giving the ratio
of these components to the average shearing stress P /A, are shown in
the figures.
The stress concentration at the reentrant corner has been studied for
1
ln this case of symmetry only onequarter of the cross section need be investigated.
center line is built in, u and du/dz are zero when z = O and hence constants e and d in Eq. (b) are zero.
'
The cross sections of the beam do not remain plane. They become
':arped, owing to the action of shearing stresses. The angle of inclinat10n of an element of the surface of the warped cross section at the
centroid to the defl.ected center line is
:JC
:JC
341
'
l
1
Confour lines
of solilpfilm
Lines of eqw.il
:;heQr stress
.1
t:yz=nf
+
T:cz=m:.
y
i.
FIG. 197.
a2u
az2 =
a2v az2 
a'Yx
ae,
1 ar,,,
1 au.
Tz  ax = GTz  E ax =
a'Y11z
Tz 
P(l  z)
EI
(a)
ae.  o
ay 
We see that the center line of the cantilever is bent in the xzplane in
which the load is acting, and the curvature at any point is proportional
to the bending moment at this point, as is usually assumed in the elementary theory of bending. By integration of the first of Eqs. (a), we
find
(b)
and can be calculated if the shearing stresses at the centroid are known
11~. Further Investigations of Bending. ln the foregoing article~
we d1scussed the problem of bending of a cantilever fixed at one end
and loaded by a transverseforce on the other. The solutions obtained
are the exact solutions of the bending problem, provided the externa!
forces are distributed over the terminal cross sectione in the sarne manner as the stresses u., T,,., r 11, found in the solutions. If this condition is
not fulfilled there will be local irregularities in the stress distribution
near the ends of the beam, but on the basis of SaintVenant's principie
we can assume that at a sufficient distance from the ends, say at a distance larger than crosssectional dimensions of the beam our solutions
are suffic!en~ly accurate. By using the sarne principie ;e may extend
the app!1cat10n of the above solutions to other cases of loading and
supportmg of beams. We may assume with sufficient accuracy that
the stresses at any cross section of a beam, at sufficient distance from
the loads, depend only on the magnitude of the bending moment and
the .s~earing force at. this cros~ section and can be calculated by superposit10n of the solut10ns obtamed before for the cantilever.
If the bending forces are inclined to the principal axes of the cross
sec~ion. of the ~eam! they can always be resolved into two components
actmg m the d1rect10n of the principal axes and bending in each of the
two principal planes can be discussed separately. The total stresses
and disp!~cements will then be obtained by using the principie of
superposit10n.
. N ~ar the points of application of externa! forces there are irregularities m stress distribution which we discussed before for the particular
c~se of. a narrow rectangular cross section (see Art. 36). Analogous
~1scuss1on for other shapes of cross section shows that these irregularit1es are of a local character. 1
1'
~
'
'
See L. Pochhammer's, "Untersuchungen ber das Gleichgewicht des elasStabes," Kiel, 1879. See also a paper by J. Dougall, Trans. Roy. Soe.
(Edinburgh), vol. 49, p. 895, 1914.
tisc~en
342
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
r
EI
+ 12v + 4v
6(1 + v)
a 2]
l2
in which a is the radius of the cross section, and l the length of the
cantilever. The second term in the brackets represents the correction
to the curvature arising from the distribution of the load. It is small,
of the order of a 2 /l 2 This conclusion holds also for beams of other
shapes of cross section bent by their own weight. 3
1J. H. Michell, Quart. J. Math., vol. 32, 1901; also K. Pearson, ibid., vol. 24,
1889, and K. Pearson and L. N. G. Filon, ibid., vol. 31, 1900.
1 This problem is discussed by A. E. H. Love, "Mathematical Theory of Elasticity," 4th ed., p. 362, 1927.
.
.
.
a The case of a cantilever of an elliptical cross sect1on has been discussed by
J. M. Klitchieff, Bull. Polytech. Inst., St. Petersburg, p. 441, 1915.
CHAPTER 13
AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION
IN A SOLID OF REVOLUTION
(177)
au
iJr'
E9
= r'
iJw
Ea ':"'
az'
'Yrz
aw
= au
+az
iJr
(178)
= a ( V V2cp
i)z
u9 =
i.
az
(v
V 2q,
a2q,)
 ar
2
 ! <Jq,)
r iJr
]
u. = a [ (2  v) V 2 cp  <J2"'
2
az
Tn
= a [ (1
ar
az
 v)
343
i
'
,\ ...
a2q,]
V2cp  .
az2
(179)
345
344
(180)
a2 1 a
1 a2
a2
2
ar 2 + ar+ T2 ae + az 2
(a)
a2
ax2
a2
a2
+ ay2 + az2
""' =
<T11 =
<Tr cos 8
<Tr sin 2 8
"'
a 2
( ar 2
+ <19 sin
+ <19 cos
8
8
(ur cos 8
+ <19 sin
COS
28(<1r  <19)
(e)
+ar r
ar
T2 (ur
~
'
LI r:i
<19
ar2 =
1 ae
+1+ r
p
ar =
(e)
a2e
ax az = ar az cos
8)
U sing the symbol e for the sum of the three normal components of
stress and applying Eq. (b) on page 57, we obtain for a symmetrical
stress distribution
a 2e
a2e 2
ae sin2 8
(d)
= cos
8
2
a2)
r( + r ar + z2 ~r
(J

T;;)
cos 8
2
2
+ r ara + r1 aoa 2 + aza )
a2e
a2 + r1 ra + az2
a2) (
2 o+
. 2 8)
O"r cos
<19 sm
(u,  <To)
a2e
+1+
(b)
= ( ar2
a2
 ar2
(u,  <1 9)
T2
Trz.
ax2
O"r 
( r 2 + r ar + z 2 " 9 + T2
The symbol
a2 1 a a2 )
( r2 + r ar + az2
a2 1 a a
 <19)
+1+
+ r22 (<Tr 
u9)
aar22e] cos2
.
+ 1+1v 1r ]
sm
r
8= O
2
Trz 
a2e
T2 Trz + 1 + p ar az
(f)
+ v)V
1
(u,  u 9) sin 20]
2
[
+ sin2 28 (~
 ! !!.) O =
ar 2 r ar
This equation follows at once from Eqs. (e) on subtracting one from
the other. Hence the compatibility equations (130), in the case of a
deformation symmetrical with respect to an axis are in cylindrical
'
'
coord.mates,
346
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
V2u r
V 2uo
1 ae
+1 +11 or = O
2
r2 (u r
 uo)
+ r2 (ur 
O'B)
1 ll8
+ =
1+11ror
Trz 
T2 Trz +
(g)
ae
+ 1 + 11
v2u,
V
oz2 =
a2e _
11 or oz 
It can be shown that all these equations are satisfied by the expressions
for the stresses given in Eqs. (179) when the stress function satisfies
Eq. (180). We see that the discussion of problems
involving stress distributions symmetrical about
an axis reduces to finding in each particular case
the solution of Eq. (180), satisfying the boundary
conditions of the problem. 1
ln some cases it is useful to have Eq. (180) in
z
polar
coordinates R and ift (Fig. 198) instead of
Frn. 198.
cylindrical coordinates r and z. This transformation can easily be accomplished by using the formulas of Art. 25.
We find
a2
a2
02
1 a
ar 2 + az 2 = oR 2 + R oR
1 J
r or = R sin"'
a2
( J .
oR Slll ift
1
( 0R 2 + R oR + R 2 ctn ift
a q,
2
JR2
aq,
aq,
a q,
2
ay,.2 = o
(182)
(a)
in which '11n is a function of the angle Y,. only. Substituting (a) into
Eq. (182) we find for '11,. the following ordinary differential equation:
o ( sm
. Y,. 0'11
sin1 ift JY,.
oi/;")
+ n (n + 1)'11n
= O
(b)
+ R 2ay,. 2
cos Y,. o )
1 J
oift = R oR
+ n:
ctn Y,. o
+ J[2 "'
a2
347
a 1 a2 )
ay,. + R 2 ay,. 2
1
a2q,
JR 2
aq,
+ R JR
aq,
a2q,)
+ n ( n + 1)'11,. = O
(183)
'11 n = a1xm1
+ a2xm + aaxm +
(e)
) = m1(m1 + l)a1xm1
+ l)a2xm  m2(m 2  l)a 2xm,2
+ . . . (d)
ln order that this equation may be satisfied for any value of x, there
must be the following relations between the exponents m 1, m 2, m 3,
1
This is known as Legendre's equation. A complete discussion can be found in
A. R. Forsyth, "A Treatise on Ditierential Equations," p. 155, 1903.
349
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
348
+ 1)
 m 1(m 1 + 1) = (n  m1)(m1
+n+
1) =O
+ 1)
(e)
n,
a2 2 a 1
a 1 a2 )
( aR2 + R aR + R2 ctn if; ay; + R2 ay;2
= 2(2n
ma= n  4,
m 2 = n  2,
l)ar = (m 1  2r
+ 2)(m1
a, = 
 2r + 3)a,
 (m 1  2r
=
+ 4)(m1 
2r
n(n  1) n2
il',. = a1 [ x"  2(2n  1) x
l)(n  2)(n  3)
24(2n1)(2n3)
n(n 
cos if;,
+ 3)a,_1
a..i
Rx = z,
xn4 _
],
(f)
R =
vr +
2
<l'r
we find, for n equal to O, 1, 2, 3, . . . , the following particular solutions of Eq. (182) in the form of polynomials:
+
+
+
. . . . . . . . . ..........
(185)
cf>o =Ao
cf> 1 = A1z
cf> 2 = A2[z 2  i(r 2 z2)]
cf>a = A 3 [z  fz(r 2 z2)]
cp4 = A4[z4  ~z2(r2 + z2) + /r,(r2 + z2)2]
cp5 = A&[z5  1jz(r2
z2) + /rz(r2
z2)2]
(g)
n,
(n  2r + 4)(n  2r + 3)
2(r  1)(2n  2r + 3)
+ 3)R"'iJ!,.
equation
n(n
Rn+2'iJ!,.
(184)
<l'a
= 6aa
(lOv  2)ba,
<1'9 = 6aa
(lOv  2)bs
= 12aa
(14  lOv)ba,
Trz =O
(186)
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
350
(187)
l4v)r
Here q denotes the intensity of the uniform load and 2c is the thickness
of the plate. Substituting the expressions for the stress components
in these equations, we determine the four constants a 6, b6 , a 4, b. Using
these values, the expressions for the stress components satisfying conditions (d) are
u, = q
Taking
<fz
= Trz = O,
Ur
= 28(1
+ v)b4Z
= !a5(16z 6
120z 4r 2
+ 90z r
2 4
5r6 )
+ b6 (8z 6
q (
2lz 2r 4
+ 3r&)
Substituting in (179),
Trz
= Se (c 2
= aa(960rz 2
240r3)
48 22(2  v)]r2z}
(r
6[(
672
+ 48 22v)z r + (432 2
12 22v)r 8]
= a),
= 0
for
Trz
Trz
+ v~ _
8
3(3
C3
+ v) r 2z
~2
+ vz
e+
3(3
+ v) a2z]
C3
(188)
(f)
32
c3
32
= q [2
(ur)r=o = q
= 192a4Z,
"=o
q
" =
=0
=O
z2)
+b
(e)
J~. u.z dz
+ [384 
8e
It will be seen that the stresses u, and r,, are distributed in exactly the
sarne manner as in the case of a uniformly loaded beam of narrow rectangular cross section (Art. 21). The radial stresses u, are represented by
an odd function of z, and at the boundary of the plate they give bending
~oments ~niformly distributed along the boundary. To get the solut10n for a Simply supported plate (Fig. 199), we superpose apure bending stress (e) and adjust the constant b4 soas to obtain for the boundary
u,
Trz
c3
4c 3
3qr
16z4r2
u,
(e)
If z is the distance from the middle plane of the plate, the solution (e)
represents pure bending of the plate by moments uniformly distributed
along the boundary.
To get the solution for a circular plate uniformly loaded, we take the
stress function in the form of a polynomial of the sixth power. Proceeding as explained in the previous article, we find
q,
[2 +8v; _ 3(332+ v) r z _ ~ :]
~ + ~.:e  !)
e
we have
351
z =e
z= e
z =e
z = e
(d)
+ v) a z
2
32
C3 q
(g)
352
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
Comparing this with (f), we see that the additional terms of the exact
solution are small if the thickness of the plate, 2c, is small in comparison
with the radius a.
It should be noted that by superposing pure bending we eliminated
bending moments along the boundary of the plate, but the radial
stresses are not zero at the boundary but are
32+v
2+vz
(ur)r=a = q (  8  C3  S  5 3
z)
vu, 
(h)
The resultant of these stresses per unit length of the boundary line and
their moment, however, are zero. Hence, on the basis of SaintVenant's principle, we can say that the removal of these stresses does
not affect the stress distribution in the plate at some distance from the
edge.
By taking polynomials of higher order than the sixth for the stress
function, we can investigate cases of bending of a circular plate by
nonuniformly distributed loads. By taking, instead of solution (f)
on page 348, the other solution of Eq. (182), we can also obtain solutions for a circular plate with a hole at the center. 1 All these solutions
are satisfactory only if the deflection of the plate remains small in comparison with the thickness. For larger deflections the stretching of
the middle plane of the plate must be considered. 2
353
(b)
+ Dz
2,
.... =o
(e)
It can be seen that these expressions satisfy the second of the equations of equilibrium. They also satisfy the compatibility equations which contain shearingstress components [see Eqs. (f) and (g), Art. 116]. It remains to determine the
constants A, B, C, D, so as to satisfy the remaining four equations, namely the
first of Eqs. (189) and Eqs. (b). Substituting (e) in these equations, we find
A = pw 2 (1
3v)
6v
'
B=
pw
D = _ pw2 (1
e= o,
3,
2v)(l
6v(l  11)
+ v)
<Tr 
a.... + au. +
ar
az
r
7'rz
= _ pw 2 r _ pw 2 (1
u. ==
pw 2 (1
Q
7'ra
(189)
z =o
(a)
+ 3v) r
6v
pw 2 (1
_
<TO 
where p is the mass per unit volume, and w the angular velocity of the disk.
The compatibility equations also must be changed. Instead of the system
(130) we shall have three equations of the type (f) (see page 231) and three equations of the type (g). Substituting in these equations the components of body
force,
1
<Tr
6v(l  v)
2
(190)
+ 2v)(l + v)
611(1 
+ 2v)(l + v) zl
v)
=O
This solution can be used in discussing the stresses in any body rotating about an
axis of generation.
ln the case of a circular disk of constant thickness we superpose on the solution
(190) the stress distribution derived from a stress function having the forro of a
polynomial of the fifth degree [see Eqs. (184), (185)],
</> =
 rz3  3rz)
(d)
+
+
a, = as(l80r 2  240z 2)
b6 [(36  54v)r
(1
18v)6z]
u, = a.(240r 2
480z 2 )
b.[(96  108v)z2
(102
54v)r]
2
09 = a,(60r
240z 2 )
b5 [(6
108v)z
(12  54v)r]
r., = 480a5rZ  b.(96  l0811)rz
(e)
llSTtTUlllL %UTEMlth
t 1~ 1 i S O A l< A
81BllOTetA CENTRA~~ ~
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
354
pw
+
+ 3 8
+ r
+8 3v) r + 2(1
v(l + v) ]
 v) z
[v(l
v) 2
2(1  v) z
[(1
and b1 soas to
e
<n
<T,dz)
r=a
(192)
! ]
To eliminate the resultant radial compression along the boundary, i.e., to make
(!
355
=O
+ v)a + pw
2
v(l
v) ~
2(1  v) 3
<Tr  pw

[3
+
v (a
8
[3
+V
2
8 a
<T9  pw
tT,
O,
+ v6(1(1 +
v) (e 3z')]
 v)
1 + 3v 2 + v(l + v) (c2 8
r
6(1  v)
 r)

'Trz
(191)
3z')]
q, =
120. Force at a Point of an Inde:finitely Extended Solid. ln .discussing this problem we use again Eq. (182) on page 347. By taking
m 1 = (n
1) [see Eq. (e), page 348], we obtain the second integral
of Eq. (183) in the form of the following series:
n 
(n+l)
X
B(r 2
+ z )l
2
=O
Comparing this with the previous solution (55), we have here additional terms
with the factorl (e  3z'). The corresponding stresses are small in the case of a
thin disk and their resultant over the thickness of the disk is zero. If the rim of
the disk is free from external forces, solution (191) representa the state of stress
in parts of the disk some distance from the edge.
. .
The stress distribution in a rotating disk having the shape of a fiat ellipso1d of
revolution has been discussed by C. Chree. 2
'11 _
Each of the solutions (192) and (193), and any linear combination of
them, can be taken as a stress function, and, by a suitable adjustment
of the constants A1, A 2, , B 1, B 2, , solutions of various
problems may be found.
For the case of a concentrated force we take the first of the solutions
(193) and assume that the stress function is
+ (n + l)(n + 2) x<n+Sl
2(2n + 3)
(n + l)(n + 2)(n + 3)(n + 4) x<n+&> +
24(2n+3)(2n+5)
+
.. ]
Taking n equal to 1, 2, 3, . . . , we obtain from this the following particular solutions of Eq. (182):
2
1 These terms are of the sarne nature as the terms in z found in Art. 84.
Equations (191) represent a state of plane stress since <T, and rre vanish. Body force
(here centrifugal force), not included in Art. 84, does not alter the general conclusions so long as it is independent of z.
2 C. Chree, Proc. Roy. Soe. (London), vol. 58, p. 39, 1895.
(194)
+ u, cos 1/;)
duced at any point by the force P applied at the origin O are determined
by Eqs. (194) and (195) of the previous article. By using the sarne
equations, the stresses produced by the force P at 0 1 can also be
calculated. Remembering that the second force is acting in the opposite direction and considering the distance d as an infinitely small
quantity, any term f(r,z) in expressions (194) should be replaced by
[f + (f/z)d]. Superposing the stresses produced by the two forces
and using the symbol A for the product Bd, we find
z 2 )~,
+ z )i
2
+ 3z2(r + z2)2
2
]
"
= 8B11"(1 
v)
P = 8B11"(1  v)
811"(1  v)
(195)
(a)
'~4r
'1r
= A 
" =
Substituting
B =
357
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
356
" = A
Tn
+ z2)t]
(196)
z [(1  2v)z(r2
= A z [(1 
Let us consider (Fig. 201) the stress components UR and TR>/I acting ata
point M on an elemental area perpendicular to the radius OM, the
length of which is denoted by R. From the condition of equilibrium
of a small triangular element such as indicated in the figure we find 1
uR
TR>/I
u, sin 2 i/!
(a)
+ z2)!
= !...,
+ z2)!
z
= 
we obtain
+ v)A [  Slll
. 2 ,f, + 2(2  v)
2 ,f,]
1 + " cos
2(1 + v)A . .t,
.t,
R
sm cos
2(1
't'
'f'
't'
(b)
'f'
358
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
Then
(pi  Po)a 3b3
a 3  b3
D = Pob 3  pia 3
a 3  b3
Pob 3 (R 3  a 3)
<TR = R(a 3  b3)
C
(197)
<1R
(e)
Fm.
pression in all directions, we can take a
general expression for the radial normal stress in the form
<1R
e
R +D
(d)
 +D=
a
p.,
Pia (b
R 3 (a 3
3
R 3)
b3)
The pressures Po and Pi also produce in the sphere normal stresses <Tt in
a tangential direction, the magnitude of which we find from the condition of equilibrium of an element cut out from the sphere by thetwo
concentric spherical surfaces of radii R and R
dR and by a circular
cone with a small angle difl (Fig. 202). The equation of equilibrium is
4(1  2v)A
= R
359
+ <TR 1rR
dR(d1/;)
2
(e)
"t
Pob 3 (2R + a 3)
= 2R 3 (a 3  b3)
(198)
If Po = O, then
p;a 3 (2R 3
"t
= 2R 3 b3
+b
3)
a3
It will be seen that the greatest tangential tension in this case is at the inner
surface, at which
(ut)max.
p; 2a 3
+ b3
= 2 b  a
360
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
= S cos 2 if;,
<TR
TR>/I
(a)
To get the solution for the case of a small spherical cavity of radius a, we must
superpose on the simple tension a stress system which has stress components on
the spherical surface equal and opposite to those given by the Eqs. (a), and which
vanishes at infinity.
Taking from the previous article the stresses (b), dueto a double force in the
zdirection, and the stresses (e), dueto a center of compression, the corresponding
stresses acting on the spherical surface of radius a can be presented in the following
form:
2 (1 +. v)A sinif;cosif;
_ 2 ( 1 + v)A (1 + 5  "cos2
tr..jl 1 = (b)
a
1 + 11
a
11
un" = !!_,
TR>/1
=O
(e)
a
y;),
u. =
us =
T,.
~~ (1
~~
~~ (1
111
A(l  2v)
5(1  2v)S a 3
r
= 2(7  5v) Ti
From Eq. (e) of the previous article,
u. = u,
TR'
"
(l)
S(l  5v) a 3
2(7  5v) Ti
(m)
S [1
+ 2(7
4 
511 a
5v) Ti
+ 2(7 9
a
5v) Ti
(n)
At r = a, we find
27  15v
(u.)max. = 2(7  5v) S
Taking v = 0.3,
(u,)max. =
24
a
Sin
if;
COS
if;
(e)
+
11)A  2(5  11) :'!:.. cos2 if; + ~  12; + 36f cos2 if;
a
a
a
a
a
2(1 + 11)A .
24C .
Sill if; COS if; + Sill if; COS if;
(o)
i!S
The maximum stress is thus about twice as great as the unorm tension S applied
to the bar. This increase in stress is of a highly localized character. With
increase of r, the stress (n) rapidly approaches the value S. Taking, for instance,
r = 2a, v = 0.3, we find u, = 1.0548.
ln the sarne manner we find, for points in the plane z = O,
(h)
u/'
, + u,,, + u,,,, + S
if;)
J;~ (3 sin if; cos if; + 7 sin if; cos 3 if;)
TR.jl
s
= 2(7  5v)
+ 35 cos' if;)
if;),
7  511 '
 5 cos 2 if;)
f (1 + 3 cos
S(l  5v)
The complete stress at any point is now obtained by superposing on the simple
tension S the stresses given by Eqs. (d), the stresses (196) due to the double
force, and the stresses dueto the center of pressure given by Eqs. (e) and (e) o the
previous article.
Consider, for instance, the stresses acting on the plane z = O. From the condition of symmetry there are no shearing stresses on this plane. From Eqs. (d),
substituting if; = 7r/2 and R = r,
9C
9Sa 6
(k)
u,' = Ti" = 2(7  5v)r6
(d)
12
a
5S
= 2(7  511)'
tr.' 11 = (ut).o ==  2r 3
Using now Eqs. (a) o the previous article, the stress components acting on a
spherical surface of radius a are
un"' =
(3  30 cos 2 if;
rom which
+ z )i
361
= 2(1
= 
U>
a6
Superposing these stresses on the stresses (a), the spherical surface of the cavity
becomes free from forces if we satisfy the conditions
2(1
+ 11)A + !!_
a
_ 12C
a5
+ 36C
=
a
+ ~4C =
a'
Substituting from Eqs. (h) and taking r = a, we find that the tensile stress along
the equator (if; = 7r /2) of the cavity is
15v  3
(u9)D, ra = 2(7  5v) 8
u,
S
S
(g)
= u8 =
2(1  2v)A
12C
a
 7
B
_ 3
15v S
2a 3 =
2(7  5v)
362
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
'Tmax.
15(1  v) S
7  5v
(p)
The results of this article may be of some practical interest in discussing the
effect of small cavities 2 on the endurance limit of specimens submitted to the
action of cyclical stresses.
= 
B(l  2v)
r2
(a)
363
= A
J."' (r 2 
iz 2)(r 2
Trz
u9
J."' (z r
2
2
)
~ [~  ~ (r 2 + z2)l 
=
cr. = A
+ z )i! dz
(r 2
+ z)i! dz
2
("'
1 !."'
=   A
(r 2
+ z )i dz
2
~ z(r 2 + z )i!
(200)
+ z2)i!
A[lr
=  
z(r 2 + z2)i]
2 
z (r2
r2
+ z2)l J
.z
dcr11 R
CJ'R
= R3'
O't
= dR 2
1 A
CJ'R
=  2R3
cr9
B(l  2v)
1 This problem was discussed by J. Larmor, Phil. Mag., series 5, vol.33; 1892..
See also A. E. H. Love, "Mathematical Theory of Elasticity," 4th ed., p. 252, 1927.
2 Such cavities are, for instance, present in a weld, and fatigue experiments
show that cracks usually begin at these cavities.
3 The solution of this problem was given by J. Boussinesq, see "Application des
potentiels . . . ,'' Paris, 1885. The solution for a force at an interna! point of the
semiinfte body was found by R. D. Mindlin, Physics, vol. 7, p. 195, 1936.
+ A2
=O
from which
2B(l  2v)
1
z
ue = B(l  2v) [  r2 + r2 (r 2
r,.. = 3Brz 2 (r 2 + z2)t
.,
(e)
364
35
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
" =
,,.
P = 2'11"
,..
{2 
lo Zr(r
z2)l dtf
67rB
r 2 + z2 = d 2 cos 2 t/I
{2
u = Esr =
from which
p
=;:. {
(1  2v)
3P
" =  27r
z 3 (r 2
_ /
i..:
<Tz
[ z(r
2 + z2)l  1
+ 1 1 2v r 2z(r2 + z
)t]
(203)
aw
1
az = Ez = E [u.  v(<Tr
(201)
aw
ar
= 'Yrz 
3P
z2
3P cos 2 i/;
Trz  27r (r2 + z2)2 = 2r (r2 + z2)
2 _
+ u.)]
(1  2v)(l + v)P
2'll"Er
au
az
+ <Ts)]
2(1 + vhz
au
az
Substituting for the stress components, and for the displacement u the.
values found above, we obtain
Hence the direction of the resultant stress passes through the origin O.
The magnitude of this resultant stress is
_
 v(u,
u =
+ z )i
Er [us
Substituting the values for the stress components from Eqs. (201),
B=2'11"
<Tr
(e)
(202)
aw = _!__ {3(1
az
27rE
aw = ar
(w)z=O
P(l  v2)
E
7r r
(205)
366
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
367
124. Load Distributed over a Part of the Boundary of a Semiinfinite Solid. Having the solution for a concentrated force acting on
the boundary of a semiinfinite solid we can find the displacements and
the stresses produced by a distributed load by superposition. Take, as
a simple example, the case of a uniform load distributed over the area
of a circle of radius a (Fig. 205), and consider the deflection, in the
direction of the load, of a point M
on the surface of the body ata distance r from the center of the circle.
Taking a small element of the
loaded area shown shaded in the
figure, bounded by two radii
including the angle dlf; and two
FIG. 205.
ares of circle with the radii s and
s + ds, all drawn from M, the load on this element is qs dlf; ds and the
corresponding deflection at M, from Eq. (205), is
from which
dlf; = a cos 8 d8 =
r cos 1f;
a cos 8 d8
a2
1   sin 2
r2
(}
v2)q
~E
(~
}o "
1
2
2
(~
a 2 cos 2 (} d(}
=
}o r Vl  (a2 /r 2) sin2 8
sin 2
(}d(} 
4(1 _ 11 2)qr
~E
(1  ~) ri vl r
}o
d(}
(a 2 /r 2 ) sin 2
(206)
(}
The integrais in this equation are known as elliptic integrals, and their
values for any value of a/r can be taken from tables.1
'r
~E
(aJ
~;2)q
FIG. 206.
JJ
dlf;ds
Integrating with respect tos and taking into account the fact that the
length of the chord mn is equal to 2 a 2  r 2 sin 2 "'we find
w=
4(1  v2 )q
~"''
~E
va
2,
r sin
"'"'
(a)
in which 1f;1 is the maximum value of lf;, i.e., the angle between r and
the tangent to the circle. The calculation of the integral (a) is simplified by introducing, instead of the variable lf;, the variable angle 8.
From the figure we have
asin8=rsinlf;
(w ) r=a
_ 4(1  v2 )qa

~E
(207)
. If th~ point M is within the loaded area (Fig. 206a), we again cons1der the deflection produced by a shaded element on which the load
qs ds dlf; acts. Then the total deflection is
= (1
~;2)q
ff
ds dlf;
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
368
The length of the chord mn is 2a cos 8, and i/t varies from zero to
,,,.;2, so
"
w = 4(1  v2)q c2 a cos () dift
,,,.E
"
4(1  v2)qa c2 ~1
,,,.E
o
r2 .
S
i n 2 '
'I'
a2
.
d'
'I'
(208)
 lo 3qr drz (r 2 + z
3
)t
= qz 3 [(r2 + z2
)i1:
= q
= qr dq,
,,,. dr { (1
(b)
The solution of this problem was given by Boussinesq, Zoe. eit. See also
H. Lamb, Proe. London Math. Soe., vol. 34, p. 276, 1902; K. Terazawa, J. Coll.
Sei., Univ. Tokyo, vol. 37, 1916; F. Schleicher, Bauingenieur, vol. 7, 1926, and
Bauingenieur, vol. 14, p. 242, 1933. A complete investigation of this problem, also
of the case in which the load is distributed over a rectangle, is given in the paper by
A. E. H. Love, Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 228, 1929. Special
properties of the deformation and stress in the general case are pointed out by
S. Way, J. Applied Meehanies (Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 7, p. A147, 1940.
1
 2v) [ T2
 T2z (r 2 + z 2)! ]
dr (1  2v) [  1
d<Fe' = qr dq,
,,,.
rz
+ r2z (r2
 3r 2z(r 2 + z2)t }
+ z )l + z(r
2
+ z )i! J
(e)
)t]
du/' = qr dq,
,,,. dr (1  2v) [  .!__
r2
dr { (1  2v) [ T2
1
d<Fe,, = qr dq,
,,,.
ri
(d)
By summation of (e) and (d) we find that the four elemental loads,
indicated in the figure, produce the stresses
qr dq, dr
,,,.
[2(1
(e)
"' =
area (Fig. 206b) with the loads qr dq, dr. The stresses produced by
these two elemental loads at a point on the zaxis, from the first and
third of Eqs. (201), are
d<F/
Thus the deflection can easily be calculated for any value of the ratio
r/a by using tables of elliptic integrais. The maximum deflection
occurs, of course, at the center of the circle. Substituting r = O in
Eq. (208), we find
2(1  v2 )qa
(209)
(w)max. =
E
<1z
" at the sarne point, consider the two elements 1 and 2 of the loaded
369
"
<j_
(f)
For the point O, the center of the loaded circle, we find, from Eqs. (b)
and (f),
" = q,
<1r
<18
q(l
+ 2v)
2
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
370
TABLE OF FACTORS
q [1  2v
2 (ue  CTz) = 2  2  + (1
+ v)
ya2
+ z2
3(
2 ya2
).
+ z2
3
]
+ z2
1.5
m=
from which
2(1 + v)
7  2v
(h)
l ; v +
~ (1 +
(k)
v) y2(1 + v)]
z = 0.638a,
Tmax.
= 0.33q
This shows that the maximum shearing stress for points on the zaxis
is at a certain depth, approximately equal to twothirds of the radius
of the loaded circle, and the magnitude of this maximum is about onethird of the applied uniform pressure q.
For the case of a uniform pressure distributed over the surface of a
square with sides 2a, the maximum defiection at the center is
 81
Wmax. 
;;:
ogn
( !<iz
V
..,
+ 1) qa(l E
v2)
= 2 .24 qa(l E
v2)
= 1.90
qa(l 
v2 )
!i
'
ili
10
100
0.94
(211)
0.92
0.88
0.82
0.71
0.37
Several values of the factor m are given in the table. It will be seen
that for a given load P and area A defiections increase when the ratio
of the perimeter of the loaded area to the area decreases. Equation
(212) is sometimes used in discussing defiections of foundations 1 of
engineering structures. ln order to have equal defiections of various
portions of the structure the average pressure on the foundation must
be in a certain relation to the shape and the magnitude of the loaded
area.
It was assumed in the previous discussion that the load was given,
and we found the displacements produced. Consider now the case
when the displacements are given and it is necessary to find the corresponding distribution of pressures on the boundary plane. Take, as
an example, the case of an absolutely rigid die in the forro of a circular
cylinder pressed against the plane boundary of a semiinfinite elastic
solid. ln such a case the displacement w is constant over the circular
base of the die. The distribution of pressures is not constant and its
intensity is given by the equation 2
p
21ra ya 2  r 2
(213)
in which P is the total load on the die, a the radius of the die, and r the
distance from the center of the circle on which the pressure acts. This
distribution of pressures is obviously not uniform and its smallest value
is at the center (r = O), where
p
qmin.
= 2'1T'a2
i.e., it is equal to half the average pressure on the circular area of contact. At the boundary of the sarne area (r = a) the pressure becomes
1
0.95
q =
Analogous calculations have also been made for uniform pressure distribution over rectangles with various ratios, a = a/b, of the sides.
All the results can be put in the form 1
P(l  v2)
(212)
Wave,. = m
E VA
1
0.96
(210)
The defiection at the corners of the square is only half the deflection at
the center, and the average deflection is
Wavor.
'fi
             
= .!_ v~2c~1+~v)
z =a
EQ. (212)
Square
IN
(g)
Circle
ya2
371
373
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
372
w =
P(l  v2)
(214)
2aE
We see that, for a given value of the average ~nit press~re on the
boundary plane, the deflection is not constant but rncreases rn the sarne
ratio as the radius of the die.
For comparison we give also the average deflection for the case of a
uniform distribution of pressures [Eq. (208)]:
_ Jo w27rr dr
Waver. 
11"2
aE
~, v2)
aE
/z
= 2Ri'
Z2
2R2
+ z2
1
r2 ( 2Ri
r 2 (Ri
1 )
+ 2R2
In the case of contact between a ball anda spherical seat (Fig. 208b),
Ri is negative in Eq. (b), and
r2 (R1  R2)
2 
Zi =
(e')
2R1R2
/ IZ2
~~
Y/.
(6)
faJ
ZJ Zz
Frn. 208.
(e)
(215 )
This average deflection is not very much different from the displacement (214) for an absolutely rigid die.
.
125. Pressure between Two Sphencal
Bodies in c.ontact. The r~sul~s of ~he
2
R2
previous article can be used rn d1scussrng
the pressure distribution between two
bodies in contact. i W e assume that at
Zi
the point of contact these bodies have
spherical surfaces with the radii Ri and
R 2 (Fig. 207). If there is no pressure
between the bodies we have contact at
one point O. The distances from the
plane
tangent at O of points such as M
Frn. 207.
and N, on a meridian section of the
spheres at a very small distance 2 r from the axes Zi and z2, can be
represented with sufficient accuracy by the formulas
r2
r2
(a)
Zi
R2)
2RiR2
(b)
1 This problem was solved by H. Hertz, J. Math. (Crelle's J.), vol. 92, 1881.
See also H. Hertz, "Gesammelte Werke," vol. 1, p. 155, Leipzig, 1895.
2 r is small in comparison with R1 and R2.
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION
375
+ W2
= a  {3r 2
(e)
q ds dift
+ W2
= (ki
+ k2) f q ds dift
This equation will be fulfilled for any value of r, and hence the assumed
pressure distribution is the correct one if the following relations exist
for the displacement a and the radius a of the surlace of contact:
1r2a
(f)
in which vi and Ei are the elastic constan,ts for the lower ball, and the
integration is extended over the entire area of contact. An analogous
formula is obtained also for the upper ball. Then
Wi
or
a= (ki
+ k2)qo2
a= (ki
+ k2)
(g)
qo. ~'Ira = P
a 3
(216)
from which
qo
+ k2)ff q ds d1/t
= a  {3r 2
(h)
Thus we must find an expression for q to satisfy Eq. (h). It will now
be shown that this requirement is satisfied by assuming that the distribution of pressures q over the contact surlace is represented by the
ordinates of a hemisphere of radius a constructed on the surface of contact. If q0 is the pressure at the center O of the surlace of contact, then
qo = ka
1!
fqds=~A

r 2 sin 2 ift).
3P
27ra2
(218)
i.e., the maximum pressure is li times the average pressure on the surface of contact. Substituting in Eqs. (217) and taking, from Eq. (b),
f3 =Ri+ R2
2RiR2
a=
31r P(k1
+ k2)RiR2
Ri+ R2
(219)
Assuming that both balls have the sarne elastic properties and taking
11 = 0.3, this becomes
3
P RiR2
in which
'
(217)
1r2qo
l.IOY
= 1 23
E Ri + R2
3 p2
E2
Ri
+ R2
(220)
RiR2
~ .!:.__2
2 1ra
,
1ili::
1
= 0.388 3 PE2
R1 + R2)2
Ri 2R2 2
(221)
376
377
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
ln the case of a ball pressed into a plane surface, and assuming the sarne
elastic properties of material for both bodies, we find, by substituting
R1 = oo in Eqs. (220) and (221),
3~
a= 1.109 '\}E'
[P2
{PE2
qo = 0.388 '\}R;!
(222)
(1  2v)
cr.. =
qo
3
1 Such calculations were made by A. N. Dinnik, Bull. Polyteck. Inst., . KieW,
1909. See also M. T. Huber, Ann. Physik, vol. 14, 1904, p. 153; S. Fuchs, Physik.
Z., vol. 14, p. 1282, 1913; M. C. Huber and S. Fuchs, Physik. Z., vol. 15, p. 298,
1914; W. B. Morton and L. J. Close, Phil. M ag., vol. 43, p. 320, 1922.
(b)
We can always take for x and y such directions as to make the term
containing the product xy disappear. Then
(e)
378
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
tact of one of the bodies, and R2 and R2' those of the other, i and if; the
angle between the normal planes containing the curvatures 1/R 1 and
1/R2, then the constants A and B are determined from the equations
+B
1(1
= 2 Ri
1)
+ Ri'1 + R21 + R2'
2
1 [( 1
1)
B  A = 2
Ri  Ri'
1)
R2  R2'
+ 2 (~i
(d)
_ ;i,)
(~2 _
It can be shown that A and B in Eq. (e) both have the sarne sign, and
it can therefore be concluded that all points with the sarne mutual distance Zi + Z2 lie on one ellipse. Hence, if we press the bodies together
in the direction of the normal to the tangent plane at O, the surface of
contact will have an elliptical boundary.
Let a, wi, w2 have the sarne meaning as in the previous article.
Then, for points on the surface of contact, we have
P =
from which
+ W2
a  Ax 2
fJ
'~
!!
37r P(ki
+ k2)
/37r P(ki
+ k2)
T (A+ B)
m
3
b =
n
By 2
(223)
We see that the maximum pressure is 1f times the average pressure on
the surface of contact. To calculate this pressure we must know the
magnitudes of the semiaxes a and b. From an analysis analogous to
that used for spherical bodies we find that
(e)
Wi
~7rabqo
3 p
qo =  2 7rab
=
or
ff q dA =
379
'\[4 (A+ B)
(224)
.
in which A + Bis determined from Eqs. (d) and the coefficients m and
n are numbers depending on the ratio (B  A): (A
B). Using the
notation
BA
cos8=A+B
(h)
the values of m and n for various values of () are given in the table
below.i
8 =
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
              m= 2.731 2.397 2.136 1.926 1.754 1.611 1.486 1.378 1.284 1.202 1.128 1.061 1.000
n= 0.493 0.530 0.567 0.604 0.641 0.678 0.717 0.759 0.802 0.846 0.893 0.944 1.000
+B
1
= 0.0733,
B  A
= 0.0099,
cos 8
= 0.135,
= 8215'
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
380
exists pure shear. The magnitude of this shear for the ends of the
major axis (x = a, y = O) is
= 0.918
b = 0.0792 in.,
Uz
+b b
a
2vqo  (1  2v)qo  a+ b
= qo
(k)
For the ends of the axes of the ellipse we find u,. = uy and Tzy = O.
The tensile stress in the radial direction is equal to the compressive
stress in the circumferential direction. Thus at these points there
1 H 11 is increased from 0.25 to 0.30 the semiaxes (224) decrease about 1 per cent
and the maximum pressure qo increases about 2 per cent.
s Such investigations have been made by Prof. N. M. Belajef, see Bull. Inst.
Engineers of Ways of Communication, St. Petersburg, 1917, and "Memoirs on
Theory of Structures," St. Petersburg, 1924; see also H. R. Thomas and V. A.
Hoersch, Univ. Illinois Eng. Expt. Sta., Bull. 212, 1930, and G. Lundberg and
F. K. G. Odqvist, Proc. Ingenirs Vetenskaps Akad., No. 116, Stockholm, 1932.
= (1  2v)qo (!_2
e
381
= (1  2v)qo f32
(!e arctanh e  1)
= O, y = b)
(l)
is
e)
( 1  f3 arctan e
{3
(m)
382
b = 1.52
i.osR
{P'R
P'(Ri
7 2
(ki
+ R2)
+ k2)RiR2
(a)
= P,
(228)
_pm'
m2
m1m2
(229)
qo
dv,
m,dt
127. Impact of Spheres. The results of the last two articles can be used .in
investigating impact of elastic bodies. Consider, as an example, the impact of
two spheres (Fig. 211). As soon as the spherei;, in their motion toward one
another, come in contact ata point 0, 1 the compressive forces P begin to act and to change the
velocities of the spheres. If v, and v2 are the
values of these velocities, their rates of change
during impact are given by the equations
(227)
383
Investigations show that the duration of impact, i.e., the time during which the
spheres remain in contact, is very long in comparison with the period of lowest
mode of vibration of the spheres. 2 Vibrations can therefore be neglected, and it
can be assumed that Eq. (219), which was established for statical conditions,
holds during impact. Using the notations
A
(230)
(b)
n =
we find, from (219),
/16
R1R2
(e)
(d)
If the materials of both cylinders are the sarne and v "" 0.3,
(231)
q0 = 0.418
I~
= nn 1ai da
[FE
qo = 0.418 '\)R
(232)
where v is the velocity of approach of the two spheres at the beginning of impact.
If we substitute = O in this equation, we find the value of the approach at the
instant of maximum compression, a 1, as
'
(~4nn,
~)i
(g)
With this value we can calculate, from Eqs. (219), the value of the maximum
compressive force P acting between the spheres during impact, and the corresponding radius a of the surface of contact.
1
We assume motions along the line joining the centers of the spheres.
2
Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag., series 6, vol. 11, p. 283, 1906.
384
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
385
For calculating the duration of impact we write Eq. (/) in the following forro:
()
This solution can be taken in the forro
t/> = f(r) sin kz
dt=~
V
in which f is a function of r only. Substituting (b) into Eq. (a), we arrive at the
following ordinary differential equation for determining f (r):
dz
yl 
(z)t
d2f
dr 2
t = 2a1
v }o
dz
yl 
(b)
(z)i
= 2.94 ~
v
(233)
ln the particular case of two equal spheres of the sarne material and radius R, we
have, from (g),
+ !.r ~
dr.
k'f =
(e)
Substituting this series in Eq. (e) we find the following relation between the consecutive coefficients:
(234)
from which
where p denotes the mass per unit volume of the spheres.
We see that the duration of impact is proportional to the radius of the spheres
and inversely proportional to (v)A. This result was verified by severa! experimenters.1 ln the case of long bars with spherical ends, the period of the fundamental mode of vibration may be of the sarne arder as the duration of impact, and
in investigating local compression at the point of contact these vibrations should be
considered. 2
128. Symmetrical Deformation of a Circular Cylinder. For a circular cylinder
submitted to the action of forces applied to the lateral surface and distributed
symmetrically with respect to the axis of the cylinder, we introduce a stress function q, in cylindrical coordinates and apply Eq. (180). 3 This equation is satisfied
if we take for the stress function q, a solution of the equation
1 M. Hamburger, Wied. Ann., vol. 28, p. 653, 1886; A. Dinnik, J. Russ. Phys.Chem. Soe., vol. 38, p. 24,2, 1906, and vol. 41, p. 57, 1909. Further references to
the literature of the subject are given in "Handbuch der physikalischen und
technischen Mechanik," vol. 3, p. 44~, 1927.
2 See p. 452.
Longitudinal impact of rods with spherical surfaces at the ends
has been discussed by J. E. Sears, Proe. Cambridge Phil. Soe., vol. 14, p. 257, 1908,
and Trans. Cambridge Phil. Soe., vol. 21, p. 49, 1912. Lateral impact of rods with
consideration of local compression was discussed by S. Timoshenko, Z. Math.
Physik, vol. 62, p. 198, 1914.
s The problem of the deformation of a circular cylinder under the action of forces
applied to the surface was discussed first by L. Pochhammer, Crelle's J., vol. 81,
1876. Several problems of symmetrical deformation of cylinders were discussed by
C. Chree, Trans. Cambridge Phil. Soe., vol. 14, p. 250, 1889. See also the paper
by L. N. G Filon, Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 198, 1902, which
contains solutions of several problems of practical interest relating to symmetrical
deformation in a cylinder.
f(r) = ao ( 1
k 2r 2
k'r'
k 6r 6
+ 22 + 22 . 42 + 22 . 42 . 6' +
(e)
The second integral of Eq. (e) can also be obtained in the forro of a series, and it
can be shown that this second integral becomes infinite when r = O, and hence
should not be considered when we are discussing deformation of a solid cylinder.
The series in the parentheses of Eq. (e) is the Bessel function of zero order and of
the imaginary argument ikr. 1 ln the following we shall use for this function the
notation J 0(ikr) and write the stress function (b) in the forro
(!)
Equation (180) also has solutions different from solutions ~f Eq. (a). One of
these solutions can be derived from the above function J 0 (ikr). By differentiatfon,
dJo(ikr)
ikr (
d(ikr) =  2 1
k 2r 2
k'r'
k6r6
+ 2 4 + 2 42 6 + 2 42 62. 8 +
(g)
This derivative with negative sign is called Bessel's function of the first order and is
denoted by J,(ikr). Consider now the function
f 1(r)
= r dr Jo(ikr} = ikrJ,(ikr) =
ktr
2
k2r
k'r'
+n
+ 2 .42.
6 + ..
(h)
1
Discussion o the differential equation (e) and of Bessel's functions ~an bl
f?und,,in.the following books: A. R. Forsyth, "A Treatise on Differential Equa~
tions, and A. Gray and G. B. Mathews, "A Treatise on Bessel Functions:"
~umerical tables for Bessel's functions can be found in E. Jahnke and F. Erode,
Funktionentafeln mit Formeln und Kurv~n," Berlin, 1909.
386
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
 + r1 drd 
d2
( dr 2
2,,.z B
. 31rz+
. ,,.z+B.
B tSlllT
2Slllz+
3Slllz
k 2 ) f1(r) = 2k2Jo(ikr)
Then, remembering that J 0 (ikr) is a solution of Eq. (e), it follows that f1(r) is a
solution of the equation
~2 + !.! (dr
r dr
k)
(d'f1
dr
+ !r dfi
dr
</> = f(r)
 kfi)
and proceed as before, we find, instead of expression (;j), the stress function
<f>
(i)
Combining solutions (f) ,and (i), we can take the stress function in the form
sin kz[aoJo(ikr)
+ a1(ikr)J1(ikr)J
(j)
Substituting this stress function in Eqs. (179) we find the following expressions for
the stress components:
<Tr = cos kz[aoF1(r)
a1F2(r)]
(k)
Tra = sin kz[aoFa(r)
a1Fh)J
+
+
in which F 1(r), . . , F.(r) are certain functions of r containing J o(ikr) and J 1(ikr).
By using tables of Bessel functions, the values of F1(r), . . , F,(r) can easily be
calculated for any value of r.
Denoting by a the externa! radius of the cylinder, the forces applied to the
surface of the cylinder, from Eqs. (k), are given by the following values pf the stress
components:
<Tr = cos kz[aoF1(a)
a1F2(a)J
(Z)
Tra = sin ke[aoFa(a) + a,F,(a)]
aoF1(a)
aoFa(a)
+ a1F2(a)
+ a1F.(a)
A,.
=O
,,.z
2,,.z
A 1 cos T +A, cos  1
cos kz
=o
(n)
If we take for the stress function </>, instead of expression (b), the expression
q,
387
+ Aa cos 31rz
l
(m)
= cos kz[boJo(ikr)
+ b1(ikr)J1(ikr)]
(o)
By a suitable adjustment of the constants k, bo, b1, we obtain the solution for the
case in which normal pressures on the cylinder are represented by a sine series and
the shearing forces by cosine series. Hence, by combining solutions (j) and (o), we
can get any axially symmetrical distribution of normal and shearing forces over the
surface of the cylinder. At the sarne time there will also be certain forces distributed over the ends of the cylinder. By superposing a simple tension or compression we can always arrange that the resultant of these forces is zero, and
their effect on stresses at some distance from the ends becomes negligible by virtue
of SaintVenant's principle. Several examples of
symmetrical loading of cylinders are discussed by
L. N. G. Filon in the paper already mentioned.1
We give here final results from his solution for the
case shown in Fig. 213. A cylinder, the length of
which is equal to ,,.a, is submitted to the tensile
action of shearing forces uniformly distributed over
the shaded portion of the surface of the cylinder
indicated in the figure. The distribution of the
normal stress ,,., over cross sections of the cylinder
a
is of practical interest, and the table below gives the
z
ratios of these stresses to the average tensile stress,
FIG. 213.
obtained by dividing the total tensile force by the
crosssectional area of the cylinder. It can be seen that local tensile stresses near
the loaded portions of the surface diminish rapidly with increase of distance from
these portions and approach the average value.
r =O
0.05Z
O.lOZ
0.15Z
0.20Z
0.689
0.673
0.631
0.582
0.539
1 Loc. cit.
p. 176, 1944.
0.810
0.786
0.720
0.637
0.565
0.962
0.937
0.859
0.737
0.617
r=a
1.117
1.163
1.344
2.022
1.368
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
388
389
lo
00
(e)
where primes denote differentiation with respect to kr. This must vanish at the
surface r = a. Putting r = a in the expression in square brackets, and equating
this bracket to zero, we obtain an equation for p which gives
p = 2(1  11)
+ ka Io(ka)
J,(ka)
(d)
=E
<Tr
= 
<Tr
for
r =a, z >O
for
r =a, z <O
(e)
= 
lo
00
[
(1  211  p)lo(kr)
+ (kr + fr) l
(kr)
Jk /(k) sin kz dk
3
(f)
,,.
(b}
(aJ
2 for z >O
FIG. 215.
l!.
O for z =O
the upper half, the length of the cylinder being infinite, and its solution will now be
given.
. .
We begin with the stress function given by Eq. (o) of Art. 128, wntmg I o(kr) for
J 0 (ikr) and i/1(kr) for J1(ikr). We also write bo = pbi. Then
cf> = [pl 0 (kr) 
bi = f(k) dk
Putting this in (a) and adding up all such stress functions we obtain a more general
stress function in the form
cf> =
lo
'!!.
,,. lo
00
sinkzdk=
k
(
Efor z >o
O for z =O
(h)
 '!!.for z <O
2
in which the values on the right correspond to the boundary values for rrr given by
(e). The boundary conditions (e) are therefore satisfied if we make the righthand
side of Eq. (/), with r = a, identical with the lefthand side of Eq. (h). This
requires
(b)
p/,,., we obtain
00
We shall now see how it is possible to select the function f(k) so that this stress
function will give the solution to our problem.
i
If we multiply this by
(a)
(g)
 ~for z <O
2
+ (ka +:a) l
1 (ka)
Jkj(k) =; ~
(i)
and this equation determines/(k). The stress components are then found from the
stress function (b) by means of the formulas (179), and will be integrais of the sarne
~eneral nature as that of Eq. (f), which gives rrr. Values, obtained by numerical
i~tegration, are given by Rankin in the paper cited on page 388. The curves in
Fig. 216 show the variation of the stresses in the axial direction for various radial
distances, and also the surface displacements.
1
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
390
They are reproduced from the paper of Barton (see page 388) and were obtained
by a different method using Fourier series. From these curves results can be
obtained for the problem of Fig. 215 by superposition, as explained at the beginning
of this article. Curves for the stresses and displacement for pressure bands of
several widths are given in the papers cited. When the width is equal to the radius
of the cylinder the tangentiaJ stress q9 at the surface and at the middle of the pressure band reaches a value about 10 per cent higher than the applied pressure, and
is, of course, compressive. The axial stress(/ in the surface just outside the pres1.0\ (9,,0.f,.,0.6
IT9
0.5 f1.IG~~r,
0.4
\~
0.31#1/,I'+'++<
0.2 flll.+11__,
391
r/a
0.318 0.3
=a9
=a6
0.2
1"yz
=0.4
tjz
p0.I
   =0.8
:/j.j.\!\ =0.2
a ~ 2a
~ a
O t"""'~~~'t4l>::::=;;;l;R_.l.__+z
Txy
= T9z COS 8
= Tr9(COS 2 O 
sin 2 O) =
Tr9
cos 28
2a ~
0.1
fw.!z.a/uo
u 0 =pa(Jv)/2E
,.crtf8t]J'J"'z
!f
f
Za ~ a
za J,f a
Za
FIG. 216.
sure band reaches a tensile value of about 45 per cent of the applied pressure. The
shear stress Trz attains a greatest value, equal to 31.8 per cent of the applied pressure, at the edges of the pressure band AB and CD in Fig. 215 and just below the
surface.
When the pressure is applied all over the curved surface of the cylinder, of any
length, we have simply compressive (fr and q9 equal to the applied pressure, and (/
and Trz zero.
Solutions have been obtained in a similar manner for a band of pressure in a hole
in an infinite solid, 1 and for a band of pressure near one end of a solid cylinder. 2
1 G. J. Tranter, Quart. Applied Math., vol. 4, p. 298, 1946; O. L. Bowie, ibid., vol.
5, p. 100, 1947.
2 C. J. Tranter aod J. W. Craggs, Phil. Mag., vol. 38, p. 214, 1947.
y
FIG. 218.
FIG. 219.
Substituting in the fourth and sixth of Eqs. (130) and remembering that
e=
(fr
+ + =o
(JQ
(/z
1
An elementary theory of twist of a ring sector was given by V Roever V D [
vol 57'. 1913
' "
. See also M. P1lgram,
Artill. Monatshefte, 1913. An experimental
determmat1on of maximum stress by measuring strain at the surface of the coil was
made by A. M. Wahl, Trans. A.S.M.E., 1928.
2 Th'
. d ue to O. Ghner, IngenieurArchiv, vol. 1, p. 619, 1930 vol. 2
isso1u t'10n is
PP 1 and 381, 1931; vol. 9, p. 355, 1938.
'
'
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
392
we find
(b)
The remaining four of the compatibility equations [see Eqs. (g), page 346] are
satisfied by virtue of our assumption that u, = <TB = u, =. "" =
Thus the problem reduces to the solution of Eqs. (a) and (b). For thIB solut1on we use a stress
function cJ>. We satisfy Eq. (a) by taking
GR 2acJ>
az'
'TrB =
GR 2 c/>
j:2 ar
= 
'T8z
(e)
a (2"' a2cJ> ar ar 2 + az 2
a (2"' a2cJ> z ar 2 + az 2
~ "')
r ar
~ "')
r ar
Substituting (e)
ar2 + az2
2
</>
"' 
"'
~r ar + 2c
Then, as the number of terms in the series (g) increases, the sum of Eqs. (h)
approaches more and more closely Eq. (e), and the series (g) approaches the exact
solution for the stress function cJ>. Consider now the boundary conditions. The
resultant shearing stress at the boundary (Fig. 218) must be in the direction of the
tangent to the boundary, hence
'TrB
cos (NJ;) 
"B
cos (Nr) = o
This shows that cJ> must be constant at the boundary, and we satisfy this condition
hy taking solutions of Eqs. (h) such that c/>o, c/>1, e/>., are zero at the boundary.
Having obtained c/>o, cj> 1, the successive approximations for the stress components are now obtained from Eqs. (e). Introducing the new variables J; and r,
these equations can be represented in the following form:
(i)
(d)
= O
r.
J; = R
r,
a2cJ>
a1;2
a2c/>
ar2
(Tez)o = G
r=z
i;) "' +
+ R ( 1 n,
ai;
(e)
J;
J; = 1
1R
1;2
+ R + R2
(1 + 2R1;) "'
+ "'
ar
ar
2
G [ (1 + 1;) "' + "'
R
(,,.,e)i = G [
(,,.e.)i
!:
~~o
I'
1
393
(f)
Assume
+ c/>1 + c/>2 +
(g)
(k)
ai;
ai;
(,,.e.). = G [ ( 1
(l)
We apply this general discussion to the particular case of a ring of circular cross
section of radius a. The equation of the boundary (Fig. 218) is
(h)
1; 2
+r
a=
(m)
and the solution of the first of Eqs. (h), satisfying the boundary condition, is
c/>o = 1.
''
'li
~
'
2 (!;2 +
r2  a)
l~Sil Tv
Pl\T~
f=
,.,
' T
l\JI..
'
1~11 ~O
~i
R /4..
'
~i~~\OTECI\ Cf.N'f'R~_.
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
394
The first approximation for the stress components, from Eqs. (j), is
he)o
= cGr,
(n)
(re,)o = cG~
(rezh = cG (t
The corresponding
(o)
+ ~ f. +
8R
e= 2(M,)o
G7ra 4
' re
O, and
2
+ a2)
SR
4R2
13 _E+ 3a
16 R 2
= a, and we have
(re,); = cGa (1
dha 4
(M1)0 =  ,
2
r= o
395
+ 4R
~ !: + 17 ~)
16R
2
Substi
(ro,)o = cGa (1 
~!: + 17
)
l6R2
2
4R
cG
(r +Hf)
cG
1e a 2
[ + SR  SR (r t
a2)
.
(TOz,
)
!
j:
l
a2<1>2
ar2
~ .!:__ <,2
S R2 '
+ 5r2
 15a2)(e
+ r2
17 a 2
4R + l6R2
1
3 a2
+ l6R2
= ::: (
1 
~ ~ + ~ ~:)
= _
1
1a
1 (
2PR .1  (a/R)
4 R i6
'Ira
_ ~
(a/R)2
1
16 1  (a/R)2
)2
(235)
+ ~ _i:
(p)
(re,);
ar2  a 2) =
a
'Ira
~.::~:.::...
The calculatio.n of further approximations shows that the final expression for the
greatest shearmg stress can be put in the form 1
a2<1>2
a~2
2M1

(ro,)o
 a2)
By using Eqs. (l) we find the third approximation for the stress components,
(q)
Substituting these expressions for the stress compoilents into Eq. (o) the corresponding torque is
2
cG7ra 4 (
3 a )
(r)
(M1)2 = 2 1
16 R2
(re, )
0.6PR
=  (1
a
2)
+ 1.20 Ra + O.56 .!!...
R
(236)
1
before (see p 391) gi've for (ro, ); va1ner.
. h are m
.
wh 1c
d Y so u 1ons ment10ned
.
ues
G'h
goo
.
agreement
w1th
the
results
calculated from Eq (235)
3
o ner, Zoe. cit.
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
396
bending of a sector of a circular ring. 1 If two equal and opposite couples M are
applied at the ends of a circular ring sector in the plane of the center line of the ring
(Fig. 221), they produce strain symmetrical with
respect to the zaxis, and the shearing stresses Tr8
and T8 in the meridional cross sections of the ring
are zero. The remaining four stress components
must satisfy the equations of equilibrium for the
case of symmetrical strain (see Art. 116)
z
Fm. 221.
w1:Jere
4M
e= raE
To get the second approximation we consider ~as small in comparison with R and
neglect the products of ~IR and of small corrections in the stresses as small quantiiies of higher order. Equations (d) and (e) then become
a(u~\
 (ur 
V'ue
+ T2 (ur
1 ae
+1+var
ue)
a(r~l)l
(a)
+ _1_ a(o)i
1 +
a~
+ ~ ( 1 + 1 ~ v) cE
tl(u )
V'u
ae
T2 Tra + 1 + V aTaz
= O
+ l + v af2
A(rt1)1
+v
= O
= O
(e')
a(e)i
A(u1\
(b)
ae
+ 1 + v az
V2Trz 
A(u 6\
+ 1 + V r ar = o
(d')
a(u!)I
~+ar =0
= Q
1 ae
 ue)
cE~
a(rt!)t
~+arT=O
= O
and the corresponding compatibility equations [see Eqs. (g), Art. 116]
V 2u 
397
a(o)i
a~ar
= 0
=o
= 0
(u ) = cE (~
2R
cE
aq,1
R ~
(u1)1 =
+ r _ a ) + cE
aq,1
R ar
(g)
cE aq,1
(r~1) 1 =  R a~ af
(cl)
we satisfy Eqs. (d'). Substituting (g) in Eqs. (e'), we find that the stress function
c/>1 should satisfy the equation
A Ac/>1 =  1
1
!~
(e)
+ 2v
+V
The boundary conditions for c/>1 are obtained from Eqs. (12).
the expression for (u~)i is zero at the circular boundary and
z =dr,
,,
'!
ds
(h)
As the first term in
m=
we find that
As a first approximation we take the sarne stress distribution as occurs in pure
Then
(f)
(u6) 0 = cE~
1;
j,_
ds
("'l)
ar =o'
!:_
ds
("'l) =o
a~
Thus aq,i(ar and aq,ifa~ are constant along the boundary, and we can assume that
c/>1 and dq,ifdn are zero at the boundary. Equation (h) together with these boundary conditions completely determines the stress function <f> 1 It is interesting to
note that Eq. (h) and the above boundary conditions are identical with the equa
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
398
tions for the deflection of a plate clamped at the edges and unif~rmly loa~ed.. ln
the case of a circular plate we know the deflection surface. Th1s deflect1on g1ves
us the expression for the stress function
 1 + 2v (~2 + r2  a2)2
</>l 64(1 + v)
(k)
CHAPTER 14
Substituting in Eqs. (g) we find the following expressions for the stress components:
_
cE
{(7 + 6v)(~2 _ a2) + (5 + 2v)l2}
(,,.t ) 1  16R(l + v)
__ cE(l + 2v) ( 3 ~ 2 + r2 _ a2)
(,,., ) 1 16R(l + v)
cE 1 + 2v
(r~1)1 = SR 1 + v ~t
(t)
~ = 
J 2 (u 9) 1
;)f2 =
cE(4 + 5v + 2v 2 )
2R(l + v)
cE(3v + 2v 2)
2R(l + v)
THERMAL STRESS
132. The Simplest Cases of Thermal Stress Distribution. One of
the causes of initial stresses in a body is nonuniform heating. With
rising temperature the elements of a body expand. Such an expansion
generally cannot proceed freely in a continuous body, and stresses due
to the heating are set up. ln many cases of machine design, such as
in the design of steam turbines and Diesel engines, thermal stresses are
of great practical importance and must be considered in more detail.
The simpler problems of thermal stress can easily be reduced to problems of boundary force of types already considered. A.B a first example
J2(u9)1 =O
atar
Integrating these and adjusting the consta~ts of integr~tion :ot"as l~o ma~::~:~~
tribution of normal stresses over cross sect1ons of the rmg s a ma Y eqm
the bending moment M, we find
4M [
(8 + 10v + 4v2W  (6v + 4v2)r2  (2 + v)a2]
(m)
(u 8) 1 =  'll"a t +
8(1 + v)R
Taking
(n)
(p)
The elementary theory of bending of curved bars, based ~n t~e as~umpti~n that
cross sections remain plane and neglecting the stresses ur, g1ves m th1s case
,,. =  4M [1 + 0.75 _Ra + 0.50 ;: + . . . ]
8
'll"a
letter from O. Ghner.
.
h k
This formula was communicated to S . T imos en o m
2 See S. Timoshenko, "Strength of Materials," 2d ed., vol. 2, p. 73.
r
e
_l
1t
t1
(a)
~
12
tja:E?J()
Frn. 222.
+ 0.87 R)
4M ( 1
(,,. 8) 1 =  'll"a
400
401
THERMAL STRESS
THEORY OF ELA8TICITY
from which
11" = 3 3
e
J_: aTE dy
2c
+e aETydy
e
u,." = 3y3
2e
'
+e aETydy
e
+e aTEdy
e
so that the thermal stresses in the plate with free ends at a considerable
distance from the ends will be
u,. = 1
2c
+e aTEdy  aTE
(b)
e
Assuming, for example, that the temperature is distributed parabolically and is given by the equation
T = To
(e)
This stress distribution is shown in Fig. 222b. N ear the ends the
stress distribution produced by the tensile forces is not uniform and
can be calculated by the method explained on page 167. Superposing
these stresses on the compressive stresses (a), the thermal stresses near
the end of the plate will be obtained.
If the temperature T is not symmetrical with respect to the xaxis,
we begin again with compressive stresses (a) suppressing the strain E,..
ln the nonsymmetrical cases these stresses give rise not only to a resultant force 
o
o
+e
e
aET dy
+ 233ye
+o
e
aETy dy
aET
IJ":c
+ 21e
(d)
ln this discussion it was assumed that the plate was thin in the
zdirection. Suppose now that the dimension in the zdirection is
large. We have then a plate with the xzplane as its middle plane, and
a thickness 2c. Let the temperature T be, as hefore, independent of x
and z, and soa function of y only.
The free thermal expansion of an element of the plate in the x and
zdirections will be completely suppressed by applying stresses u,., u,
obtained from Eqs. (3), page 7, by putting E,. = E, = aT, <ru = O.
These equations then give
(1  ~:)
1,
u,. = aET
= u. =  1  v
(e)
The elements can be maintained in this condition by applying the distributions of compressive force given by (e) to the edges (x = constant,
z = constant). The thermal stress in the plate free from externa!
force is obtained by superposing on the stresses (e) the stresses dueto
application of equal and opposite distributions of force on the edges.
If T is an even function of y such that the mean value over the thickness of the plate is zero, the resultant force per unit run of edge is zero,
and by SaintVenant's principle (Art. 18) it produces no stress except
near the edge.
If the mean value of Tis not zero, uniform tensions in the x and
zdirections corresponding to the resultant force on the edge must be
superposed on the compressive stresses (e). If in addition to this the
temperature is not symmetrical with respect to the xzplane we must
add the bending stresses. ln this manner we finally arri~e at the
equation
Ux
= Uz
1
=  1a TE
 v + 2c(l 
v)
+e
e aTE dy
3y
!+e
 v) e aTEy dy
+ 2c(l
(f)
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
402
which is analogous to the Eq. (d) obtained before: By 1_1si~g E~. (f)
we can easily calculate thermal stresses in a pla~e, li the d1stnbut10n of
temperature T over the thickness of the plate is known.
Consider as an example, a plate which has initially a uniform temperature To
d which being cooled down by maintaining the surfaces y = e ata constant
an
t
T i By Fourier's theory the distribution of temperature at any
t empera ure ,.
instant tis
3
T = Ti
(To  Ti) (eP1 1 cos
ePat cos ;;'
(g)
is
+~
~~
 3p
p = np 1
pi, pa i, ' "
'
ing in Eq. (f), we find
in
h" h
lC
_
_ 4aE(To  T1) [ePit
u,  u, 11"(l _ v)
e~71"
cos 71"Y)
2c
'
+ )
For y =
+ ~ ep,t (;11"
l 
5
 cos ; ; )
+ ]
(h)
cos 71"Y)
2c
1~
from which
'!
(l _71"~)
<Tr = <Tr
2c
',,1
~
1
1
'
1\
= '2 (T 1 + T 2) + 2 (T 1 + T 2) e
(i)
This problem was discussed by Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag., series 6, vol. 1,
p. 169, 1901.
li
pas
rs
<Tt
1
pa
(m)
= 2r 3
=  p,
(l)
y = 0.560c
(k)
The thickness of the plate does not enter in this formula, but in the
case of a thicker plate a greater difference of temperature between the
two surfaces usually exists. Thus a thick plate of a brittle material is
more liable to break due to thermal stresses than a thin one.
As a last example let us consider a sphere of large radius and assume
that there occurs a temperature rise T in a small spherical element of
radius a at the center of the large sphere. Since the element is not free
to expand a pressure p will be produced at the surface of the element.
The radial and the tangential stresses due to this pressure at any point
of the sphere ata radius r > a can be calculated from formulas (197)
and (198) (see page 359). Assuming the outer radius of the sphere as
very large in comparison with a we obtain from these formulas
~cos71"Y=0
71"
aETi
The points with zero stresses are obtained from the equation
1'
aT
y
 Ti
= (<rz)max. = 1p
4aE(To  Ti) p 1t ~
11"(1  v)
e
71"
_
_ _ 4aE(To  T1) ep,t
u,  u, 11"(1  v)
[,
(j)
_
_ 4aE(To  T1) 6 p 1t e~
u,  u, 11"(1  v)
71"
u,
Substitution in Eq. (f) shows that the thermal stresses are zero, 1
provided, of course, that the plate is not restrained. If the edges are
perfectly restrained against expansion and rotation, the stress induced
by the heating is given by Eqs. (e). For instance li T2 = Ti we
have from (i)
Substitut
After a moderate time the first term acquires dominant importance, and we can
assume
403
THERMAL STRESS
+ <Tt)]r=a =
~; (1
+ v)
This increase must be equal to the increase of the radius of the heated
spherical element produced by temperature rise and pressure p. Thus
1
In general, when T is a linear function of x, y, z, the strain corresponding to
free thermal expansion of each element, viz.,
satisfies the conditions of compatibility (129) and there will be no thermal stress.
1; (1 
2v)
~; (1
+ v)
2 aTE
31  JI
(n)
p=
= 
2 aTEa 3
3 (1  v)r 3'
1 aTEa 3
<Tt
405
THERMAL STRESS
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
404
= 3 (1  v)r 3
(o)
L.1
I
aET
#
~
+I
I
l_T
e 2
+/
1.=1
e
fb)
,/
Frn. 223.
Edge
+
uniform across any given cross section. If the plate is cut into strips
such as AB (Fig. 223), these strips expand vertically by different
amounts. Due to the mutual restraint there will be stresses set up
when they are in fact attached as in the plate.
Considering the unattached strips, their vertical expansion is suppressed if they are subjected to compressive stress
1~
,,'
1
'1
u11 = aET
FIG. 224.
If the
~emperature
T = To sin ax
(a)
by applying such stress at the ends A and B of each strip. The strips
fit together as in the unheated plate. To arrive at the thermal stress
we must superpose on (a) the stress due to the application of equal
and opposite forces, i.e., tension of intensity aET, along the edges
y = e of the strip.
If the heating is confined to a length of the strip short in comparison
with its width 2c, such as CDFE in Fig. 223, the effect of the tensions
aET wi1l be felt only in the neighborhood of CD on the top edge, and of
EF on the bottom edge. Each of these neighborhoods can then be
considered as presenting a problem of the type considered in Art. 34.
C.L.
(b)
we find from Eqs. (k) of Art. 23, putting A = B = aETo in accordance with Eq. (f),
rrx
sinh 2ac
rr
11
Txu
1
+ 2ac
ay sinh ay sinh ac
sin ax
406
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
Together with the compressive stress <rv = aET from Eq. (a), these
give the thermal stress in the plate. 1 ln Fig. 224 the distributions of
u,, along the lines of maximum temperature for various wave lengths
2Z = 211"/a are shown. W e see that the maximum stress increases as
the wave length diminishes and approaches the value aET 0 Having
the solution for a sinusoidal temperature distribution, other cases in
which the temperature is a periodic function of x can be treated. It
can be concluded also that the maximum stress in plates of finite length
can differ only slightly from the value aET 0 obtained for an infinite
strip.
du,
dr
+ <Tr  <T9
= O
(a)
obtained from Eq. (40), page 58, by putting R = O. The shear stress
is zero on account of the symmetry.
The ordinary stressstrain relations, Eqs. (52), page 66, for plane
stress, require modification since now the strain is partly dueto thermal
expansion, partly due to stress. If Er represents the actual radial
strain, Er  aT represents the part due to stress, and we have
T,9
Er 
aT =
E1 (ur
V<fo)
(b)
and similarly
E9  aT =
1
'
E1 (u9
V<Tr)
(e)
O'r
l _ v2 [er
VE9 
(1
.!}_
dr
u = (1
l
.
.
i
+ v)a dT
dr
(g)
11
v)a r
Tr dr
e
+ C1r + _:
r
(h)
wh~re t~e lower limita in the integral can be chosen arbitrarily. For
a disk with a hole it may be the inner radius. For a solid disk we may
take it as zero.
The stress components are now found by using the solution (h) in
Eqs. (f), and substituting the results in Eqs. (d). Then
E
1 ('
1 {'
v2
C1 (1
+ 1 _E v
+ v)
C 1 (1
 C2 (1  v)
~]
+ v) + C (1 v)~]
2
(i)
(j)
?1,
The consta?ts
C2 are determined by the boundary conditions.
For a sohd d1sk, we take a as zero, and observing that
11
r
Tr dr= O
(d)
C1 = (1  v)
(e)
~2 fb
b
}o
Tr dr
~la' Tr dr)
= aE(T + ; lab Trdr +~la' Trdr)
<Tr =
<19
d(ru)] _ ( 1
r dr

we see from Eq. (h) that C2 must vanish in order that u may be zero at
the center. At the edge r = b we must have O'r = O and therefore
from Eq. (i)
'
1 The problem wa.s discussed by J. P. Den Ha.rtog, J. Franklin Inst., vol. 222,
p. 149, 1936, in connection with the therma.1 stress produced in the process of
welding.
;I
+ v)a dr
(f)
dT
(1
[!
r+O
=r
lim
+ v)aT],
<19
E,
du
dr 1
407
THERMAL STRESS
aE (:2
lab Tr dr
2
(237)
(238)
408
11'
1 +v a u = 1 v
r
aE
<lr =  1  P
,,_.o r 2 } o
aT =
E1 [<lo
 v(<Tr
E, 
aT =
E1 [<1,
+ <1,)]
(239)
v(<Tr +<To)]
+ <To)
 aET
(a)
On substituting this into the first two of Eqs. (239), these equations
become
1  p2 (
p
)
Er (1 + v)aT = E <lr  l _ P <19
(b)
2
1 ' v (
v
)
Eo  (1 + v)aT = ~ <To  l _ P <lr
i:~
!1
!i
li
i
LJ
'"
1.
It may be seen at once that these equations can be obtained from the
corresponding equations of plane stress, Eqs. (b) and (e) of the preceding article, by putting, in the latter equations, E/(1  v2) for E,
v/(1  v) for v, and (1 + v)a for a. .
Equations (a) and (f) of the preceding article re1Il~in_ yal_i~ ...he~E;J,
The solution for u, <T,, and <To proceeds in just the same wi:ty.: W~ ruay
therefore write down the results by making thE:J above substitutions in
Eqs. (h), (i), and (f). 'Thus for the. present probfom
The first solution of this problem is that o.f J .. M. C. Du]lamel,..,Memoires . . .
pa~ divers savants, voL 5, p~ 440, Paris, 1838;
1
409
THERMAL STRESS
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
1 1r
'2
Tr dr
+ C 1r + Cr
Tr dr
E
+1+
aET
<To = aE
 11r Tr dr  1  v r2 a
1  v
(
P
(e)
C1
C2)
1  2v  T2
(d)
E ( C1 + C
+1 + v 1  2v
r
2)
(e)
+
(1
2vEC1
 2v)
+ v) (1
(f)
lb
o
Trdr
(g)
{b
__
}o <T, 21r dr 
21aE [b
1 _ v }o Trdr
(l
2vEC1
2
v)(l _ 2 v) 7rb
27aE {b
2
C 3 7b  1 _ v }o Tr dr  (l
2vEC1
2
_ 2 v) 7b
+ v)(l
(h)
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
410
<TB, <Ta
1+
u =v a [ (1  2v) r2
1 
<T,.
<TB
<Tz
ub Tr dr + r1
O
Tr dr ]
(1 (b Tr dr  f21Jr Tr dr)
aE (1
= fb Tr dr + 1Jr Tr dr  T )
r
_E v
1 
b2
! v (;:
(240)
ob
A ..Jo
(ti.
n=l
ep.t
(i)
2
A,. "" {J ..Ji (tJ,.)
fJ,.2
cP 'bi
in which k is the thermal conductivity, e the specific heat of the material, and P
the density. Substituting series (i) into Eq. (241) and taking into account the fact
that 8
we find that
1
u _ 2aETo
r 
1 
L.,
(k)
n=l
i It is assumed that the surface of the cylinder suddenly assumes the temperature zero. If the temperature of the surface is Ti instead of zero, then To  Ti
must be put instead of To in our equations.
2 See Byerly "Fourier Series and Spherical Harmonics," p. 229.
The calculation of thermal stresses for this case is given by A. Dinnik, "Applications of Bessel's
Function to Elasticity Problems," pt. 2, p. 95, Ekaterinoslav, 1915. See also
C. H. Lees, Proc. Roy. Soe. (London), vol. 101, p. 411, 1922.
a See E. Jahnke und F. Emde, "Funktionentafeln," p. 165, Berlin, 1909.
li
ll:
.
~ j
+ _!_ ~ Ji[tJ,.(r/b)]
{J,. 2 r
J i(fJ,.)
_ Jo[{J,.(r/b)]}
(l)
fJ,.J i(tJ,.)
L.,
n=l
eP.
{.!.2 _Jo[tJ,.(r/b)]}
1(fJ,.)
{J,.
{J,.J
(m)
Formulas (k), (l), and (m) represent the complete solution of the problem. Several
numerical examples can be found in the papers by A. Dinnik and C. H. Lees,
mentioned above. 1
e,..,{_!_
{J,. 2
u = 2aETo
1  "
in which J 0 (tJ,.r/b) is the Bessel function of zero order (see page 385), and the
{J's are the roots of the equation J 0 (fJ) = O. The coefficients of the series (i) are
p,.
1  " L.,
(242)
(243)
= 2aETo
Take for example a long cylinder with a constant initial temperature To. If,
beginni~g from an i~stant t = O, the lateral surface of the cyl~nder is ~a~tained
ata temperature zero,i the distribution of temperature at any mstant tis given by
the series 2
T =To
<TB
(241)
Tr dr  T)
n=l
b2
411
THERMAL STRESS
1
Temperature distribution in solids during heating and cooling was discussed
by Williamson and Adams, Phys. Rev., series 2, vol. 14, p. 99, 1919. An experimental investigation of the effects of fire and water on columns has been made by
Ingberg, Griffin, Robinson, and Wilson. See U. S. Bur. Standards, Tech. Paper
184, 1921.
2
The figure is taken from A. Stodola, "Dampf und Gasturbinen," 6th ed.,
p. 961, 1924.
413
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
THERMAL STRESS
412
O'r
=O,
ue =
O'z
= 
T =
aET1
1 
aE
1 (b
d
 1  P b2 }a Tr r
+1+P
Ur
_
Uz
(247)
aETi
[
b
2a
l b]
2(1  v) log(b/a) 1  21 og T  (b 2  a 2 ) og
C1
C2)
1  2v  b2 =O
FIG. 226.
EC2
aE
a2
(b
1 + v = 1  v b2  a2 j Tr dr
EC1
+ v) (1
 2v)
= ~ __1_
1 
b2
a2
fb Trdr
}
(ue)r=a = (uz)r=a =
Substituting these values in (d), (e), and (f), and adding to the last the
axial stress C 3 required to make the resultant axial force zero, we find
the formulas
aE 1 2  2 (b
('
)
(244)
2 j Tr dr ur = l _ v f2 b2 _
j Tr dr
aE
1  V
0"8
O"z
=1
(r a
1 (r + a {b
{'
f2 b2  a2 J Tr dr + J Tr dr 
aE (
V
b2  a2
J(ba Tr dr 
(245)
(246)
(n)
Substituting this in Eqs. (244), (245), and (246), we find the following
expressions for the thermal stresses: 1
(1
Ti
log ~
log(b/a)
r
b ( 1  b2  a2 log a
2(1  v) log
2b
b)
(248)
(l 
a 2 log ~)
(249)
aET,
For r
b we obtain
(ue).....o = (u,)r=b =
aETi b
2(1  v) log a
b2
The distribution of thermal stresses over the thickness of the wall for a
particular case a/b = 0.3 is shown in the Fig. 226. If T, is positive,
the stresses are compressive at the inner surface and tensile at the outer
surface. In the case of such materials as stone, brick or concrete
. are weak in tension, cracks are likely to start on the' outer surface'
wh1ch
of the cylinder under the above conditions.
1
Charts for the rapid calculation of stresses from Eqs. (247) are given by
L. Barker, Engineering, vol. 124, p. 443, 1927.
414
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
THERMAL STRESS
=l+m
a
'
b
log a
m2
m  2
(a,)r=a
=
(ae). = (a,),=1> =
+ m3 
Then
2 (~E!_iv) ( 1 + i)
2(~E!_iv) ( 1 
l)
(248')
(249')
415
T,y
(b  a)
and the edges are clarnped, so that bending of the plate, due to nonuniforrn heating, is prevented [see Eq. (k), Art. 132].
If a highfrequency fluctuation of ternperature is superposed on a
steady heat flow, the therrnal stresses produced by the fluctuation can
be calculated in the sarne rnanner as explained for the case of flat plates
(see Art. 132). 1
1 Thermal stresses in cylinder walls are of great practical importance in the
design of Diesel engines. A graphical solution of the problem, when the thickness
of the wall of the cylinder and the temperature vary along the length of the cylinder,
was developed by G. Eichelberg, Forschungsarbeiten, No. 263, 1923. Some
information regarding temperature distribution in Diesel engines can be found in
the following papers: H. F. G. Letson, Proc. Mech. Eng., p. 19, London, 1925;
A. Ngel, Engineering, vol. 127, pp. 59, 179, 279, 466, 626, 1929.
(aJ
()
FIG. 227.
MefJ
 sin {3z)
(p)
in which
fJ
D= ~_E_h_
12(1  v2)
(q)
.nd e is the middle radius of the cylindrical shell. Having this deflection curve, the corresponding bending stresses a, and the tangential
1
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
THERMAL STRESS
stresses uo can be calculated for any value of z. The maximum deflection of the strip is evidently at the end z = O, where
On:account of