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THEORY OF ELASTICITY

ENGINEERING SOCIETIES MONOGRAPHS


Bakhmeteff: H ydraulics of Open Channels
Bleich: Buckling Strength of Metal Structures
Crandall: Engineering Analysis
Elevatorski: Hydraulic Energy Dissipators
Leontovich: Frames and Arches
Nadai: Theory of Flow and Fracture of Solids
Timoshenko and Gere: Theory of Elastic Stability
Timoshenko and Goodier: Theory of Elasticity
Timoshenko and Woinowsky-Krieger: Theory of Plates and Shells
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THEORY

.-

1 ,

OF

ELASTICITY
By S. TIMOSHENKO
And J. N. GOODIER
Professors of Engineering M echanics
Stanford University

Ralph H. Phelps, CHAIRMAN


Engineering Societies Library
New York

BIBLIOTECA CENTRAL
ONIVERSITATEA "POLITEHNICA

ENGINEERING SOCIETIES MONOGRAPHS COMMITTEE

llllillH

A. S. C. E.

00128156

Howard T. Critchlow
H. Alden Foster

A. I. M. E.
Nathaniel Arbiter
John F. Elliott
A.S. M.E.
Calvin S. Cronan
Raymond D. Mindlin

A. I. E. E.
F. Malcolm Farmer
Royal W. Sorensen

A. I. Ch. E.
Joseph F. Skelly
Charles E. Reed

NEW YORK

To RNTOL'nN'

McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, lNc.


1951

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

THEORY OF ELASTICITY
Copyright, 1934, by the United Engineering
Trustees, Inc. Copyright, 1951, by the McGrawHill Book Company, Inc. Printed in the United
States of America. All rights reserved. This book,
or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any
form without permission of the publishers.
XIII

64719

The many developments and clarifications in the theory of elasticity


and its applications which have occurred since the first edition was
written are reflected in numerous additions and emendations in the
present edition. The arrangement of the book remains the sarne for
the most part.
The treatments of the photoelastic method, two-dimensional
problems in curvilinear coordinates, and thermal stress have been
rewritten and enlarged into separate new chapters which present many
methods and solutions not given in the former edition. An appendix
on the method of finite differences and its applications, including the
relaxation method, has been added. N ew articles and paragraphs
incorporated in the other chapters deal with the theory of the strain
gauge rosette, gravity stresses, Saint-Venant's principle, the components
of rotation, the reciproca! theorem, general solutions, the approximate
character of the plane stress solutions, center of twist and center of
shear, torsional stress concentration at fillets, the approximate treatment of slender (e.g., solid airfoil) sections in torsion and bending,
and the circular cylinder with a band of pressure.
Problems for the student have been added covering the text as far
as the end of the chapter on torsion.
It is a pleasure to make grateful acknowledment of the many helpful
suggestions which have been contributed by readers of the book.

S. TIMOSHENKO
J. N. GoonIER
PALO ALTO, CALIF.

February, 1951

THE MAPLE PRFSS COMP ANt, YORK, P A.

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION


During recent years the theory of elasticity has found considerable
application in the solution of engineering problems. There are many
cases in which the elementary methods of strength of materiais are
inadequate to furnish satisfactory information regarding stress distribution in engineering structures, and recourse must be made to the
more powerful methods of the theory of elasticity. The elementary
theory is insufficient to give information regarding local stresses near
the loads and near the supports of beams. It fails also in the cases
when the stress distribution in bodies, all the dimensions of which
are of the sarne order, has to be investigated. The stresses in rollers
and in balls of bearings can be found only by using the methods of the
theory of elasticity. The elementary theory gives no means of
investigating stresses in regions of sharp variation in cross section of
beams or shafts. It is known that at reentrant corners a high stress
concentration occurs and as a result of this cracks are likely to start
at such corners, especially if the structure is submitted to a reversai of
stresses. The majority of fractures of machine parts in service can
be attributed to such cracks.
During recent years considerable progress has been made in solving
such practically important problems. ln cases where a rigorous solution cannot be readily obtained, approximate methods have been
developed. ln some cases solutions have been obtained by using
experimental methods. AB an example of this the photoelastic
method of solving two-dimensional problems of elasticity may be
mentioned. The photoelastic equipment may be found now at
universities and also in many industrial research laboratories. The
results of photoelastic experiments have proved especially useful in
studying various cases of stress concentration at points of sharp
variation of cross-sectional dimensions and at sharp fillets of reentrant
corners. Without any doubt these results have considerably influenced the modero design of machine parts and helped in many cases
to improve the construction by eliminating weak spots from which
cracks may start.
Another example of the successful application of experiments in
the solution of elasticity problems is the soap-film method for determining stresses in torsion and bending of prismatical bars. The
vii

viii

PREF ACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

PREFACE '1'0 THE FIRST FDITION

difficult problems of the solution of partial differential equations with


given boundary conditions are replaced in this case by measurements
of slopes and deflections of a properly stretched and loaded soap film.
The experiments show that in this way not o~y a vis~al picture_ of
the stress distribution but also the necessary mformat10n regardmg
magnitude of stresses can be obtained with an accuracy sufficient for
practical application.
.
.
.
. .
Again, the electrical analogy wh1ch glv~s a means of mvest1gatmg
torsional stresses in shafts of variable dlameter at the fillets and
grooves is interesting. The analogy between the p.r?blem of bending
of plates and the two-dimensio?al pr?blem of elast1~ity ~as also been
successfully applied in the solut10n of 1mportant engmeermg problem~.
ln the preparation of this book the intention was to give to eng1neers, in a simple forro, the neces.sary fundame~tal knowledge of. the
theory of elasticity. It was also mtended to ~nn~ together solut10ns
of special problems which may be of pract1cal 1mportance ~nd to
describe approximate and experimental methods of the solut10n of
elasticity problems.
. .
Having in mind practical applications of the the?ry of elast1c1ty,
matters of more theoretical interest and those wh1ch have not at
present any direct applications in engineering have be~n omitted in
favor of the discussion of specific cases. Only by studymg such cases
with all the details and by comparing the results of exact investigations
with the approximate solutions usually given in the elementary books
on strength of materiais can a designer acquire a thorough understanding of stress distribution in engineering structures, and lear.n to
use, to his advantage, the more rigorous methods of stress analys1s.
ln the discussion of special problems in most cases the method
of direct determination of stresses and the use of the compatibility
equations in terms of stress components has been. applied .. This
method is more familiar to engineers who are usually mterested m the
magnitude of str((sses. By a suitable introduc~ion o~ stress fu~ctions
this method is also often simpler than that m which equat10ns of
equilibrium in terms of displacements are used.
ln many cases the energy method of solution of elas~icity pro_ble~s
has been used. ln this way the integration of differential equat10ns 1s
replaced by the investigation of minimum conditi?n~ of certain int~
grals. Using Ritz's method this problem of vanat10nal calculu~ 1s
reduced to a simple problem of finding a minimum o~ a f~ct1on.
. ln this manner useful approximate solutions can be obtamed m many
practically important cases.

1X

To simplify the presentation, the book begins with the discussion of


two-dimensional problems and only la ter, when the reader has familiarized himself with the various methods used in the solution of problems
of the theory of elasticity, are three-dimensional problems discussed.
The portions of the book that, although of practical importance, are
such that they can be omitted during the first reading are put in small
type. The reader may return to the study of such problems after
finishing with the most essential portions of the book.
The mathematical derivations are put in an elementary forro and
usually do not require more mathematical knowledge than is given in
engineering schools. ln the cases of more complicated problems all
necessary explanations and intermediate calculations are given so
that the reader can follow without difficulty through all the derivations. Only in a few cases are final results given without complete
derivations. Then the necessary references to the papers in which the
derivations can be found are always given.
ln numerous footnotes references to papers and books on the theory
of elasticity which may be of practical importance are given. These
references may be of interest to engineers who wish to study some
special problems in more detail. They give also a picture of the
modem development of the theory of elasticity and may be of some
use to graduate students who are planning to take their work in this
field.
ln the preparation of the book the contents of a previous book
("Theory of Elasticity," vol. I, St. Petersburg, Russia, 1914) on
the sarne subject, which represented a course of lectures on the theory
of elasticity given in several Russian engineering schools, were used
to a large extent.
The author was assisted in his work by Dr. L. H. Donnell and Dr.
J. N. Goodier, who read over the complete manuscript and to whom
he is indebted for many corrections and suggestions. The author
takes this opportunity to thank also Prof. G. H. MacCullough, Dr.
E. E. Weibel, Prof. M. Sadowsky, and Mr. D. H. Young, who assisted
in the final preparation of the book by reading some portions of the
manuscript. He is indebted also to Mr. L. S. Veenstra for the preparation of drawings and to Mrs. E. D. W ebster for the typing of the
manuscript.

S.
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

December, 1933

TIMOSHENKO

CONTENTS
V

f>REFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

vii

PREFACE TO THE FrnsT EDITION. .

. xvii

NoTATION . .
CHAPTER 1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

INTRODUCTION
1

Elasticity . . . . . . .
Stress. . . . . . . . .
Notation for Forces and Stresses . .
Components of Stress.
Components of Strain.
Hooke's Law.
Problems . . . . . .

CHAPTER 2.

2
3
4
5
6
10

PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN

7. Plane Stress . . .
8.
9.
10.
11.

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Plane Strain . . .
Stress at a Point .
Strain at a Point .
Measurement of Surface Strains
Construction of Mohr Strain Circle for Strain Rosette.
Differential Equations of Equilibrium.
Boundary Conditions . . . .
Compatibility Equations . . .
Stress Function. .
Problems . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER 3. TWO-DIMENSIONAL
COORDINATES
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

22.
23.
24.

PROBLEMS

IN

11
11
13
17
19

21
21
22

23
26
27

RECTANGULAR

Solution by Polynomials. . .
Saint-Venant's Principle. . .
Determination of Displacements .
Bending of a Cantilever Loaded at the End
Bending of a Beam by Uniform Load . . .
Other Cases of Continuously Loaded Beams .
Solution of the Two-dimensional Problem in the Form of a Fourier
Series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Applications of Fourier Series. Gravity Loading . .
Problems . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
xi

29
33
34
35
39

44
46
53
53

xii

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 4.

TWO-DIMENSION AL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

General Equations in Polar Coordinates. . . .


Stress Distribution Symmetrical about an Axis.
Pure Bending of Curved Bars . . . . . . . .
Strain Components in Polar Coordinates. . . .
Displacements for Symmetrical Stress Distributions.
Rotating Disks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bending of a Curved Bar by a Force at the End . .
The Effect of Circular Holes on Stress Distributions in Plates
Concentrated Force at a Point of a Straight Boundary
Any Vertical Loading of a Straight Boundary
Force Acting on the End of a W edge . . .
Concentrated Force Acting on a Beam. . .
Stresses in a Circular Disk. . . . . . . .
Force ata Point of an Infinite Plate. . . .
General Solution of the Two-dimensional Problem in Polar Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40. Applications of the General Solution in Polar Coordinates . .
41. A Wedge Loaded along the Faces.
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.

CHAPTER 5. THE PHOTOELASTIC METHOD


42. Photoelastic Stress Measurement . . . . .
43. Circular Polariscope. . . . . . . . . . .
44. Examples of Photoelastic Stress Determination
45. Determination of the Principal Stresses .
46. Three-dimensional Photoelasticity . . .
CHAPTER 6.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.

CONTENTS

55
58
61
65
66
69
73
78
85
91
96
99
107
112
116
121
123
125

131
135
138
142
143

STRAIN ENERGY METHODS

Strain Energy . . . . . .
Principle of Virtual Work .
Castigliano's Theorem. . .
Principle of Least Work. .
Applications of the Principle of Least Work-Rectangular Plates.
Effective Width of Wide Beam Flanges .
Shear Lag . . .
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

146
151
162
166
167
171
177
177

CHAPTER 7. TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES


54. Functions ~f a Complex Variable. . . . .
55. Analytic Functions and Laplace's Equation
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56. Stress Functions in Terms of Harmonic and Complex Functions .
57. Displacement Corresponding to a Given Stress Function.
58. Stress and Displacement in Terms of Complex Potentials
59. Resultant of Stress on a Curve. Boundary Conditions .
60. Curvilinear Coordinates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

179
181
182
183
186
187
190
192

61. Stress Components in Curvilinear Coordinates


Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62. Solutions in Elliptic Coordinates . . . . . .
63. Elliptic Hole in a Plate under Simple Tension
64. Hyperbolic Boundaries. Notches . .
65. Bipolar Coordinates . . . . . . .
66. Solutions in Bipolar Coordinates
Other Curvilinear Coordinates . .

CHAPTER 8.
SIONS
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.

195
197
197

201
204
206
208
212

ANALYSIS OF STRESS AND STRAIN IN THREE DIMEN-

Specification of Stress at a Point . . . . . .


Principal Stresses. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stress Ellipsoid and Stress-director Surface . .
Determination of the Principal Stresses . . .
Determination of the Maximum Shearing Stress
Homogeneous Deformation . . .
Strain at a Point . . . .
Principal Axes of Strain.
Rotation.
Problem . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER 9.

xiii

213
214
215
217
218
219
221
224
225
227

GENERAL THEOREMS

Differential Equations of Equilibrium.


Conditions of Compatibility . . . . .
Determination of Displacements . . .
Equations of Equilibrium in Terms of Displacements . .
General Solution for the Displacements .
The Principle of Superposition .
82. Uniqueness of Solution . . . . . . . .
83. The Reciproca! Theorem. . . . . . . .
84. Approximate Character of the Plane Stress Solutions .
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. ....
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.

228
229
232
233
235
235
236
239
241
244

CHAPTER 10. ELEMENTARY PROBLEMS OF ELASTICITY IN THREE


DIMENSIONS
Uniform Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stretching of a Prismatical Bar by Its Own Weight . .
Twist of Circular Shafts of Constant Cross Section . .
Pure Bending of Prismatical Bars.
Pure Bending of Plates . . . . . . . . . . .

245
246
249
250
255

HAPTER 11. TORSION OF PRISMATICAL BARS


90. Torsion of Prismatical Bars . . .
91. Bars with Elliptical Cross Section. .
92. Other Elementary Solutions . . . .
93. Membrane Analogy. . . . . . . .
. .
94. Torsion of a Bar of N arrow Rectangular Cross Section

258
263
265

85.
86.
87.
88.
89.

268
272

CONTENTS

CONTENTB

xiv
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.

Torsion of Rectangular Bars. . . . . . . . . . .


Additional Results . . .
Solution of Torsional Probie~sb~ En~r~ Meth~d .
Torsion of Rolled Profile Sections
The Use of Soap Filma in SolvingT~~i~n P~oble~~- .
Hydrodynamical Analogies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Torsion of Hollow Shafts
Torsion of Thin Tubes
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

103. Torsion of a Bar in which ~e C~o~ Se~ti~n. R~~ains. Pia~e:


104. Torsion of Circular Shafts of Variable Diameter .
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 12.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.
115.

275
278
280
287
289
292
294
298
302
304
313

BENDING OF PRISMATICAL BARS

Bending of a Cantilever.
Stress Function. . . .
Circular Cross Section. .
Elliptic Cross Section . .
Rectangular Cross Section . .
Additional Results . . . . . . .
Nonsymmetrical Cross Sections. .
Shear Center. . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Solution of Bending Problems by the
Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further Investigations of Bending . . .

316
318
319

. . . . . . . . .
Soap-film Method.
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .

321
323
329
331
333
336
340
341

CHAPTER 13. AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN A


SOLID OF REVOLUTION
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.
128.
129.
130.
131.

General Equations . . . .
Solution by Polynomials. .
Bending of a Circular Plate . . . . . . .
The Rotating Disk as a Three-dimensional Problem.
Force at a Point of an Indefinitely Extended Solid . . . . . .
Spherical Container under Internai or Externai Uniform Pressure.
Local Stresses around a Spherical Cavity. . . . . . . . . . .
Force on Boundary of a Semi-infinite Body . . . . . . . . . .
Load Distributed over a Part of the Boundary of a Semi-infinite Solid
Pressure between Two Spherical Bodies in Contact . . . . .
Pressure between Two Bodies in Contact. More General Case
lmpact of Spheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symmetrical Deformation of a Circular Cylinder . . .
The Circular Cylinder with a Band of Pressure.
Twist of a Circular Ring Sector. . . . .
Pure Bending of a Circular Ring Sector

CHAPTER 14. THERMAL STRESS


132. The Simplest Cases of Thermal Stress Distribution . . . . . .
133. Some Problema of Plane Thermal Stress. . . . . . . . . . .
134. The Thin Circular Disk: Temperature Symmetrical about Center

343
347
349
352
354
356
359
362
366
372
377
383
384
388
391
395

898
404
406

135.
136.
137.
138.
139.
140.

The Long Circular Cylinder .


The Sphere . . . .
General Equations . . . . .
Initial Stresses . . . . . . .
Two-dimensional Problema with Steady Heat Flow . .
Solutions of the General Equations . . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER 15.

XV

408
416
421
425
427
433

THEPROPAGATION OFWAVESINELASTIC SOLIDMEDIA

141. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
142. Longitudinal Waves in Prismatical Bars.
143. Longitudinal lmpact of Bars. . . . . .
144. Waves of Dilatation and Waves of Distortion in Isotropic Elastic
Media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
145. Plane Waves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
146. Propagation of Waves over the Surface of an Elastic Solid Body.

438
438
444
452
454
456

THE APPLICATION OF FINITE DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS


IN ELASTICITY
461
1. Derivation of Finite Difference Equations
465
2. Methods of Successive Approximation.
468
3. Relaxation Method. . . . . . . . .
473
4. Triangular and Hexagonal N ets . . . .
477
5. Block and Group Relaxation. . . . .
479
6. Torsion of Bars with Multiply-connected Cross Sections.
480
7. Points Near the Boundary. . . . . . . . . .
483
8. Biharmonic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . .
490
9. Torsion of Circular Shafts of Variable Diameter
495
AuTHOR !NDEX.
499
SuBJECT lNDEX.

APPENDIX.

NOTATION
x, y, z Rectangular coordinates.
r, O Polar coordinates.
~' '1

Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates; sometimes rectangular coordinates.


R, >f;, o Spherical coordinates.
N Outward normal to the surface of a body.
l,m,n Direction cosines of the outward normal.
A Cross-sectional area.
Moments of inertia of a cross section with respect
to x- and y-axes.
I v Polar moment of inertia of a cross section.
g Gravitational acceleration.
p
Density.
q Intensity of a continuously distributed load.
p Pressure.
X, Y,Z Components of a body force per unit volume.
X, :Y,Z Components of a distributed surface force per unit
area.
M Bending moment.
Mt Torque.
<T,,,, <Tu, <T Normal components of stress parallel to x-, y-, and
z-axes.
<T,. Normal component of stress parallel to n.
<Tr, <Te Radial and tangential normal stresses in polar
coordinates.
<T~, <T~ Normal stress components in curvilinear coordinates.
<Tr, O"o, CTz
Normal stress components in cylindrical coordinates.
e = IT~ + ITy + IT = ITr + 11'8 + tT,.
'T
Shearing stress.
1":1:11, Tzz., T11z.
Shearing-stress components in rectangular coordinates.
Tre Shearing stress in polar coordinates.
Th Shearing stress in curvilinear coordinates.
-r,9, -rg., -r,. Shearing-stress components in cylindrical coordinates.
S Total stress on a plane.
u, v, w Components of displacements.
Unit elongation.
z, u, Unit elongations in x-, y-, and z-directions.
xvii

NOTATJON

xviii

Radial and tangential unit elongations in polar


coordinates.
e = Es + Ev + Ez Volume expansion.
'Y
Unit shear.
'Ysv, 'Yss, 'Yv Shearing-strain components in rectangular coordinates.
'YrB, 'YB 'Yrz Shearing-strain components in cylindrical coordinates.
E Modulus of elasticity in tension and compression.
G Modulus of elasticity in shear. Modulus of
rigidity.
11
Poisson's ratio.
vE

= G,

(1

+ 11)(1

- 2>)

"'

Y,(z), x(z)

z
C
ti

F = 2G8
V
V0
t
T
a

Lam's constants.
Stress function.
Complex potentials; functions of the complex
variable z = x + iy.
The conjugate complex variable x - iy.
Torsional rigidity.
Angle of twist per unit length.
Used in torsional problems.
Strain energy.
Strain energy per unit volume.
Time.
Certain interval of time. Temperature.
Coefficient of thermal expansion.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1. Elasticity. AH structural materials possess to a certain extent
the property of elasticity, i.e., if external forces, producing dejormation
of a structure, do not exceed a certain limit, the deformation disappears
with the removal of the forces. Throughout this book it will be
assumed that the bodies undergoing the action of external forces are
perjectly elastic, i.e., that they resume their initial form completely after
removal of forces.
The molecular structure of elastic bodies will not be considered here.
It will be assumed that the matter of an elastic body is homogeneous and
continuously distributed over its volume so that the smallest element
cut from the body possesses the sarne specific physical properties as the
body. To simplify the discussion it will also be assumed that the body
is isotropic, i.e., that the elastic properties are the sarne in all directions.
Structural materials usually do not satisfy the above assumptions.
Such an important material as steel, for instance, when studied with a
microscope, is seen to consist of crystals of various kinds and various
orientations. The material is very far from being homogeneous; but
experience shows that solutions of the theory of elasticity based on the
assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy can be applied to steel structures with very great accuracy. The explanation of this is that the
crystals are very small; usually there are millions of them in one cubic
inch of steel. While the elastic properties of a single crystal may be
very different in different directions, the crystals are ordinarily distributed at random and the elastic properties of larger pieces of metal
represent averages of properties of the crystals. So long as the geometrical dimensions defining the form of a body are large in comparison
with the dimensions of a single crystal the assumption of homogeneity
can be used with great accuracy, and if the crystals are orientated at
random .the material can be treated as isotropic.
When, due to certain technological processes such as rolling, a certain orientation of the crystals in a metal prevails, the elastic properties
of the metal become different in different directions and the condition
?f anistropy must be considered. We have such a condi~n, for
tnstance, in the case of cold-rolled copper,
1

INTRODUCTION

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

2. Stress. Let Fig. 1 represent a body in equilibrium. Under the


action of external forces P1, . . . , P1, internal forces will be produced
between the parts of the body. To study the magnitude of these forces
at any point O, let us imagine the body divided into two parts A and B
by a cross section mm through this point. Considering one of these
parts, for instance, A, it can be
stated that it is in equilibrium
z
under the action of external
forces P 1, , P 1 and the inner
forces distributed over the cross
Pa section mm and representing the
actions of the material of the
part B on the material of the part
A. It will be assumed that
these forces are continuously distributed over the area mm in the
sarne way that hydrostatic pressure or wind pressure is continFrn. 1.
uously distributed over the surface on which it acts. The magnitudes of such forces are usually
defined by their intensity, i.e., by the amount of force per unit area of
the surface on which they act. ln discussing internal forces this
intensity is called stress.
ln the simplest case of a prismatical bar submitted to tension by
forces uniformly distributed over the ends (Fig. 2), the internal forces
are also uniformly distributed over any cross section
mm. Hence the intensity of this distribution, i.e., the
stress, can be obtained by dividing the total tensile
force P by the cross-sectional area A.
In the case just considered the stress was uniformly m~---1--:m
distributed over the cross section. In the general case
of Fig. 1 the stress is not uniformly distributed over
mm. To obtain the magnitude of stress acting on a
small a~ea A, cut out frm the cross section mm at any
FIG. 2.
point O, we assume that the forces acting across this
elemental area, dueto the action of material of the part
B on the material of the part A, can be reduced to a resultant P. If
we now continuously contract the elemental area A, the limiting value
of the ratio P / A gives us the magnitude of the stress acting on the
cross section mm at the point O. The limiting direction of the resultant
6P is the diretion of the stress. ! the ~eneraJ ci;i.se the direction Qf

~t~ess

is inclined to the area A on which it acts and we usually resolve

it mto two components: a normal stress perpendicular to the area and

a shearing stress acting in the plane of the area A.


'
3. Notation for Forces and Stresses. There are two kinds of externai forces which may act on bodies. Forces distributed over the surface. of the body, such as the pressure of one body on another, or hydrostatrn pressure, are called surface forces. Forces distributed over the
volume of a body, such as gravitational forces, magnetic forces or in
the case of a body in motion, inertia forces, are called body forces.' The
surface force per unit area we shall usually resolve into three components.par~lle! to the coordinate axes and use for these components the
notat10n X, Y, Z. We shall also resolve the body force per unit volume
into three components and denote
z
these components by X, Y, Z.
OZ
We shall use the letter u for denoting normal stress and the letter
T for shearing stress.
To indicate
the direction of the plane on which
the stress is acting, subscripts to
these letters are used. If we take a
;y
very small cubic element ata point
O, Fig. 1, with sides parallel to the
coordinate axes, the notations for
t
the components of stress acting on
Frn. 3.
~he. sides ?f t~is element and the directions taken as positive are as
mdi~ated l~ Fig. 3. For the sides of the element perpendicular to the
Y:axis, for mstance, the normal components of stress acting on these
sid:s are denoted by u11 The subscript y indicates that the stress is
act~n~ on a pla~e normal to the y-axis. The normal stress is taken
positive when it produces tension and negative when it produces
compression.
e Th: shearing stress is resol:ed into two components parallel to the
. oo:dmate axes. Two subscnpt letters are used in this case the first
the di rect10n
of the normal to the plane under consideration
'
mdic a t mg
and :he second indicating the direction of the component of the stress.
For mstance, if we again consider the sides perpendicular to the y-axis
the. co~ponent in the x-direction is denoted by Tyz: and that in th~
~-direction by T11z The positive directions of the components of shear~; st~ess on any side ~f the cubi? element are taken as the positive
ect10ns of the coordmate axes if a tensile stress on the sarne side
Would have the positive direction of the corresponding axis. If the

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

INTRODUCTION

tensile stress has a direction opposite to the positive axis, the positive
direction of the shearing-stress components should be reversed. Following this rule the positive directions of all th.e comp~ne~ts o~ stress
acting on the right side of the cubic element (Fig. 3~ ~omc~de ':ith the
positive directions of the coordinate axes. The positive direct10ns are
all reversed if we are considering the left side of this element.
4. Components of Stress. From the discussion of the previous
article we see that, for each pair of parallel sides of a cubic element,
such as in Fig. 3, one symbol is needed to denote the normal component
of stress and two more symbols to denote the two components of shearing stress. To describe the stresses acting on the six sides of a cubic
element three symbols, u,,, u11 , u., are necessary for normal stresses; ~nd
six symbols, T,;y, T 11,,, T,,., T..,, T 11., T. 11 , for shearmg
z
stresses. By a simple consideration of the equilibrium of the element the number of symbols
f~r shearing stresses can be reduced to three.
If we take the moments of the forces acting on
E"yz
the element about the x-axis, for instance, only
dy
the surface stresses shown in Fig. 4 need be conO "'-:~===-~-y sidered. Body forces, such as the weight of the
'zy4
element, can be neglected in this instance, which
Fm.
follows from the fact that in reducing the
dimensions of the element the body forces acting on it diminish as
the cube of the linear dimensions while the surface forces diminish as
the square of the linear dimensions. Hence, for a very small element,
body forces are small quantities of higher order than surface forces and
can be neglected in calculating the surface forces. Similarly, mo~ents
due to nonuniformity of distribution of normal forces are of higher
order than those due to the shearing forces and vanish in the limit.
Also the forces on each side can be considered to be the area of the side
times the stress at the middle. Then denoting the dimensions of the
small element in Fig. 4 by dx, dy, dz, the equation of equilibrium of this
element, taking moments of forces about the x-axis, is
Tzy

dx dy dz =

T 11

dx dy dz

The two other equations can be obtained in the sarne manner.


these equations we find
Tzy

Tyo

From
(1)

Hence for two perpendicular sides of a cubic element the components of

shearing stress perpendicular to the line of intersect1on of these sides


are equal.
The six quantities u,,, u11, u., T,;y = T 11 ,,, r,,, = Tzr, r 11 = T, 11 are therefore
sufficient to describe the stresses acting on the coordinate planes
through a point; these will be called the components of stress at the
point.
It will be shown later (Art. 67) that with these six components the
stress on any inclined plane through the sarne
z
point can be determined.
5. Components of Strain. In discussing
the deformation of an elastic body it will be
assumed that there are enough constraints to
prevent the body from moving as a rigid
body, so that no displacements of particles
Frn. 5
of the body are possible without a deformation of it.
ln this book, only small deformations such as occur in engineering
structures will be considered. The small displacements of particles of
a deformed body will usually be resolved into components u, v, w
parallel to the coordinate axes x, y, z, respectively. It will be assumed
that these components are very small quantities varying continuously
over the volume of the body. Consider a small element dx dy dz of an
elastic body (Fig. 5). If the body undergoes a deformation and u v w
' '
are the components of the displacement of the point O, the displacement in the x-direction of an
o~--dx---~
adjacent point A on the x-axis
is
V
u-L-.-..L _ - - - V+v'
:dii
dy

''
,,,,

-r-----~'

...ir

dueto the increase (au/ax) dx


of the function u with increase
1\
B
1 \
of the coordinate x. The in~------4) B,
crease in length of the element
~ u +.!!!!. dx
OA dueto deformation is there"JI.,
Fm. 6.
fore (au/ax) dx. Hence the
unit elongation at point O in the
x-direction is i:Ju/ ax. ln the sarne manner it can be shown that the
unit elongations in the y- and z-directions are given by the deriva tives
iJv/ay and aw/i:Jz.
1\

Let us consider now the distortion of the angle between the elements
OA and OB, Fig. 6. If u and vare the displacements of the point O in
the x- and y-directions, the displacement of the point A in the y-direc-

,li'

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

INTRODUCTION

tion and of the point B in the x-direction are v + (v / x) dx and


u + (u/y) dy, respectively. Due to these displacements the new
direction O' A' of the element OA is inclined to the initial direction by
the small angle indicated in the figure, equal to v / x. ln the sarne
manner the direction O'B' is inclined to OB by the small angle u/y.
From this it will be seen that the initially right angle AOB between the
two elements OA and OB is diminished by the angle v/x + u/y.
This is the shearing strain between the planes xz and yz. The shearing
strains between the planes xy and xz and the planes yx and yz can be
obtained in the sarne manner.
We shall use the letter E for unit elongation and the letter 'Y for unit
shearing strain. To indicate the directions of strain we shall use the
sarne subscripts to these letters as for the stress components. Then
from the above discussion
u

Ez

= x'

"fzy =

u
v
y + x'

Ey

'Yxz

E,= Tz

-1

y
u
Z

w
+ x'

"fyz

av aw
az + ay

(2)

It will be shown later that, having the three unit elongations in three
perpendicular directions and three unit shear strains related to the
sarne directions, the elongation in any direction and the distortion of
the angle between any two directions can be calculated (see Art. 73).
The six quantities E.,, , "fyz are called the components of strain.
6. Hooke's Law. The relations between the components of stress
and the components of strain have been established experimentally and
are known as Hooke's law. Imagine an elemental rectangular parallelopiped with the sides parallel to the coordinate axes and submitted
to the action of normal stress G'., uniformly distributed over two opposite sides. Experiments show that in the case of an isotropic material
these normal stresses do not produce any distortion of angles of the element. The magnitude of the unit elongation of the element is given
by the equation

E.,=

G'.,

(a)

in which E is the modulus of elasticity in tension. Materials used in


engineering structures have moduli which are very large in comparison
with allowable stresses, and the unit elongation (a) is a very small
quantity. ln the case of structural steel, for instance, it is usually
smaller than 0.001.

Extension of the element in the x-direction is accompanied by lateral


contractions,
Ey

G'x
-11

Jjj'

E,=

G'.,
-11

(b)

in which v is a constant called Poisson' s ratio. For many materials


Poisson's ratio can be taken equal to 0.25. For structural steel it is
usually taken equal to 0.3.
Equations (a) and (b) can be used also for simple compression.
Within the elastic limit the modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio
in compression are the sarne as in tension.
If the above element is submitted to the action of normal stresses
u.,, uy, u,, uniformly distributed over the sides, the resultant components
of strain can be obtained by using Eqs. (a) and (b). Experiments
show that to get these components we have to superpose the strain components produced by each of the three stresses. By this method of
superposition we obtain the equations
1

+ u,)]

+ u,)]

Ex

= E [u., - 11(u11

Ey

= E [u11 - 11(ux

Ez

E [G'z

11(u.,

(3)

+ u11 )]

. ln_ our furth~r discussion we shall often use this method of superposition m calculatmg total deformations and stresses produced by severa!
forces. This method is legitimate as longas the deformations are small
and the corresponding small displacements do not affect substantially
the action of the externa! forces. ln such cases we neglect small
changes in dimensions of deformed bodies and also small displacements
of the points of application of externa! forces and base our calculations
on initial dimensions and initial shape of the body. The resultant displacements will then be obtained by superposition in the form of linear
functions of externa! forces, as in deriving Eqs. (3).
There are, however, exceptional cases in which small deformations
cannot be neglected but must be taken into consideration. As an
example of this kind the case of the simultaneous action on a thin bar
of axi~l and late~al forces may be mentioned. Axial forces alone produce s1mple tens10n or compression, but they may have a substantial
effect on the bending of the bar if they are acting simultaneously with
lateral forces. ln calculating the deformation of bars under such con-

------===-JNTRODUCTION

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

8
ditions the effect of the deflection on the moment of the externa!
forces
1
must b~ considered, even though the deflections are very small. Then
the total deflection is no longer a linear function of the forces and cannot be obtained by simple superposition.
Equations (3) show that the relations between elongations and
stresses are completely defined by two physical constants E and v.
The sarne constants can also be used to define the relation between
shearing strain and shearing stress.
Let us consider the particular case of deformation of the rectangular
parallelopiped in which u11 = -u.
z
andu., = O. Cutting out an element
b
abcd by planes parallel to the x-axis
O"y~
and at 45 deg. to the y- and z-axes
(Fig. 7), it may be seen from Fig. 7b,
~~...,.-~--:r
by summing up the forces along and
perpendicular to bc, that the normal
fh)
stress on the sides of this element is
zero and the shearing stress on the
(a)
sides is
Fm. 7.

Olc

(e)

Such a condition of stress is called pure shear. The elongation of the


vertical element Ob is equal to the shortening of the horizontal elements
Oa and Oc and neglecting a small quantity of the second order we conclude that the lengths ab and bc of the element do not change during
deformation. The angle between the sides ab and bc changes, and the
corresponding magnitude of shearing strain 'Y may be found from the
triangle Obc. After deformation, we have

Oc
Ob

=tan(~-:r)
4

= l+E11
1

+ Ez

Substituting, from Eqs. (3),


E,

E (u, - vu'll)
(1

E11 =

(1

+ v)11.
E

+ v)u,
E

and noting that for small 'Y


1

Several examples of this kind can be found in S. Tiro,oshenko, "Strength of

Materials," vol. II, pp. 25-49.

we find
'Y = 2(1

v)u.

= 2(1 + v}r

(4)

Thus the relation between shearing strain and shearing stress is defined
by the constants E and v. Often the notation

E
G = 2(1

is used.

(5)

+ v)

Then Eq. (4) becomes

The constant G, defined by (5), is called the modulus of elasticity in


shear or the modulus of rigidity.
If s?eari?g stresses act on the sides of an element, as shown in Fig. 3,
the d1stort10n of the angle between any two coordinate axes depends
only on shearing-stress components parallel to these axes and we
obtain
1
1
(6)
'Y11 =

a"111

'Yzz

= GT.,,

The elongations (3) and the distortions (6) are independent of each
other. Hence the general case of strain, produced by three normal and
three shearing components of stress, can be obtained by superposition:
on the three elongations given by Eqs. (3) are superposed three shearing strains given by Eqs. (6).
Equations (3) and (6) give the components of strain as functions of
the components of stress. Sometimes the components of stress
expressed as functions of the components of strain are needed. These
can be obtained as follows. Adding equations (3) together and using
the notations
e=E,.+E11+E,

e~~+~+~

we obtain the following relation between the volume expansion e and


the sum of normal stresses:

e=

1 - 2v
-E-e

(8)

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

10

.form hydrostatic pressure of the amount p we


ln t h e case of a Unl
have
=

<l:i;

<ly

and Eq. (8) gives

<lz

-p

CHAPTER 2

3(1 - 2v)p
E

e=

PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN

which represents the relation between unit volume expansion e and


hydrostatic pressure p.

t E/3 (1 - 2 v) is called the modulus of volume expansion.


t
The quan l Y
f
find
Using notations (7) and solving Eqs. (3) or <Tx, <Ty, <T,, we
<lx

vE

+ v)(l

(1

e+___ e.,
- 2v)

<Ty-(l+v)(l-2v)
<lz

= (1

vE

+ v)(l
=

and Eq. (5), these become

1+

(10)

(1 + v)(l - 2v)

<T.,

= }.e+

<Tu

= }.e

<lz

(9)

e+~e.

vE

Ey

l+v

- 2v)

or using the notation

1+
+ __!!__
V

vE

7. Plane Stress. If a thin plate is loaded by forces applied at the


boundary, parallel to the plane of the plate and distributed uniformly
over the thickness (Fig. 8), the stress components <T,, r,,,, Tyz are zero on
both faces of the plate, and it may be assumed, tentatively, that they
are zero also within the plate. The state of stress is then specified by
<Tx, <T11 , Tzy only, and is called plane stress.
It may also be assumed that

2Ge.,

+ 2Gev
= }.e + 2Ge,

(11)

Problems
f F' 4 motion and
h w that Eqs. (1) continue to hold if the element o ig. is m
1 S o
.
.
. 'd b 0 d
has an angular accelerat1on hke ngi . Y
umber of evenly distributed
1
2. Suppose an elast_ic material contams : ~e~~ :xerts on any element d:c dy dz
small magnetized part1cles, so th~t a mal~~et1c th x-axis. What modification will
a moment d:c dy dz about an ax1s para e o e
be needed in Eqs. (1}?
las (2 ) will be valid for snutll strains on~y..
3. Give some reaso~1.s why t~e formu ween two erfectly rigid plates, to wh1ch it
4. An elastic layer is sandw1ched betb
thp lates the compressive stress
compressed etween e P

18
is bonded. The 1~yer
hment to the plates prevents lateral stram
being <1'z. Supposmg that t:~e:~t~~ung's modulus (i.e., <1',/E,) in terms of E.and "
~.. Eu completely' find t~e app . h . t . 1 f the layer is nearly incompress1ble by
Show that it is many trmes E if t e ma ena o
hydrostatic pressure.
)
d (5)
6. Prove that Eq. (S) follows from Eqs. (11), (10 'an .

y
FIG. 8.

these three components are independent of z, i.e., they do not vary


through the thickness. They are then functions of x and y only.
8. Plane Strain. A similar simplification is possible at the other
extreme when the dimension of the body in the z-direction is very large.
If a long cylindrical or prismatical body is loaded by forces which are
perpendicular to the longitudinal elements and do not vary along the
length, it may be assumed that all cross sections are in the sarne condition. It is simplest to suppose at first that the end sections are confined between fixed smooth rigid planes, so that displacement in the
axial direction is prevented. The effect of removing these will be
examined later. Since there is no axial displacement at the ends, and,
by symmetry, at the mid-section, it may be assumed that the sarne
holds at every cross section.
There are many important problems of this kind-a retaining wall
with lateral pressure (Fig. 9), a culvert or tunnel (Fig. 10), a cylindrical
tube with interna} pressure, a cylindrical roller compressed by forces in
11

---- ----..

INSTITUTUL POUTEHfi:~
TIHl~.OAR"
81BLIOTEC1' CENTl!ALA

13

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN

a diametral plane as in a roller bearing (Fig. 11). ln each case of


course the loading must not vary along the length. Since conditions
are the sarne at all cross sections, it is sufficient to consider only a slice
between two sections unit distance apart. The components u and v of
the displacement are functions of x and y but are independent of the

By Eqs. (a) and (6), the stress components r,., and Tyz are zero, and,
by Eq. (b), " can be found from ""' and "u Thus the plane strain problem, like the plane stress problem, reduces to the determination of
u,,, uy, and Tzu as functions of x and y only.
9. Stress at a Point. Knowing the stress components ""'' u 71, Tzu at
any point of a plate in a condition of plane stress or plane strain, the
stress acting on any plane through this point perpendicular to theplate
and inclined to the x- and y-axes can be calculated from the equations
of statics. Let O be a point of the stressed plate and suppose the stress
components ""'' u 71 , Tzu are known
(Fig. 12). To find the stress for any
plane through the z-axis and inclined
to the x- and y-axes, we take a plane
BC parallel to it, ata small distance
"X
from O, so that this latter plane
together with the coordinate planes
cuts out from the plate a very small
(<T)
y
triangular prism OBC. Since the
stresses vary continuously over the
Fm. 12.
volume of the body the stress acting
on the plane BC will approach the stress on the parallel plane through
O as the element is made smaller.
ln discussing the conditions of equilibrium of the small triangular
prism, the body force can be neglected as a small quantity of a higher
order (page 4). Likewise, if the element is very small, we can neglect
the variation of the stresses over the sides and assume that the stresses
are uniformly distributed. The forces acting on the triangular prism
can therefore be determined by multiplying the stress components by
the areas of the sides. Let N be the direction of the normal to the
plane BC, and denote the cosines of the angles between the normal N
and the axes x and y by

12

71f\WMVn<<V>>t<YJA\VJJ\\9PVVJ21V1J\i#JW>>\W

Fm. 10.

Fm. 9.

Fm. 11.

Since the longitudinal displacement w is

longitudinal coordinate z.
zero, Eqs. (2) give
"luz

V
Z
U

'Y

'""

+ y

= Q

=-+-=O
Z
X

(a)

E=-= Q

cos Ny = m

cos Nx = l,
The longitudinal normal stress" can be found in terms of u,. and ""
by means of Hooke's law, Eqs. (3). Since e, = O we find

or

(b)

These normal stresses act over the cross sections, including the ends,
where they represent forces required to maintain the plane strain, and
provided by the fixed smooth rigid planes.

Then, if A denotes the area of the side BC of the element, the areas of
the other two sides are Al and Am.
If we denote by X and Y the components of stress acting on the side
BC, the equations of equilibrium of. the prismatical element give

+ mTzy

X=

lu,,

y =

m<171

+ lrzy

(12)

Thus the components of stress on any plane defined by the direction

PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN

THEORY OF ELASTICITY
14
cosines l and m can easily be calculated from Eqs. (12), provided the
three components of stress u.,, uy, rxu at the point O are known.
Letting a be the angle between the normal N and the x-axis, so that
l = cos a and m = sin a, the normal and shearing components of stress
on the plane BC are (from Eqs. 12)
u =

X cos a

= Y cos

+ Y sin a

a -

X sin

+ <Jy sin a+ 2rxu sin a cos a


a - sin a)
+ (<Iy - u.,) sin a cos a

= rxu(cos 2

Comparing with Eqs. (13') it is seen that the coordinates of point D


give the numerical values of stress components on the plane BC at liiie
angle a. To _b_rin~ into coincidence the sign of the shearing component
we take r pos1t1ve m the upward direction (Fig. 13) and consider shearing stresses as positive when they give a couple in the clockwise direction, as on the si~es bc_ and
of the element abcd (Fig. 13b). Shearing
stresses of opposite direct10n, as on the sides ab and de of the element
are considered as negative.1
'
the ~lane BC rota~es a~out an axis perpendicular to the xy-plane
(Fig. 12) m the clockw1se direction, and a varies from O to 7r/2, the

= u,, cos a

3
(l )

1:s

I t may be seen that the angle a can be chosen in such a manner that the
shearing stress r becomes equal to zero. For this case we have

rxu(cos 2

sin 2

a -

or

+ (u

11 -

u,,) sin

sina cosa
cos 2 a - sin a

cos

<ly

1
2

(14)

From this equation two perpendicular directions can be found for


which the shearing stress is zero. These directions are called principal
directions and the corresponding normal stresses principal stresses.
lf the principal directions are taken as the x- and y-axes, r""" is zero
and Eqs. (13) are simplified to
2
<I = <Ix cos 2 a + <Iy sin a
(13')
r = t sin 2a(<Iy - u,,)
The variation of the stress components <I and r, as we vary the angle
a, can be easily represented graphically by making a diagram in which
u and r are taken as coordinates. 1 For each plane there will correspond
a point on this diagram, the coordinates of which represent the values
of u and r for this plane. Figure 13 represents such a diagram. For ',
the planes perpendicular to the principal directions we obtain points A
and B with abscissas u,, and <Iy, respectively. Now it can be proved
that the stress components for any plane BC with an angle a (Fig. 12)
will be represented by coordinates of a point on the circle having AB as ;
a diameter. To find this point it is only necessary to measure from the '
point A in the sarne direction as a is measured in Fig. 12 an are subtending an angle equal to 2a. lf D is the point obtained in this manrier, then, from the figure,

.OF

= OC

+ CF =

+
~ + ~ cos 2a =
<l

<l

<l

<ly

ax.----~

(a}

u,,

cos

a+ u

11

sm

O'

a - l>

JO!
(}

FIG. 13.

point J? in Fig. 13 moves from A to B, so that the lower half circle


determmes the stress variation for all values of a within these limits.
The upper half of the circle gives stresses for 7r/2 ~ a ~ 'Ir.
P{olonging the radius CD to the point D 1 (Fig. 13), i.e., taking the
ang e ':
2a, instead of 2a, the stresses on the plane perpendicular to
BC (Fig. 12) are obtained. This shows that the shearing stresses on
equal as previously proved.
two p erpend'icu1ar p1anes are numencally

~for normal stresses, we see from the figure that OF1 + OF = 20C,
i:e., the sum of the normal stresses over two perpendicular cross sections remains constant when the angle a changes.
t .The ~aximum ~hearing stress is given in the diagram (Fig. 13) by
?e max1mum ordmate of the circle, i.e., is equal to the radius of the
circle. Hence

'Tmax.

= CD sin 2a = j-(u,, - u11) sin 2a


This graphical method is due to O. Mohr, Zivilingenieur, 1882, p. 113. &ie .,
also his "Technische Mechanik,'' 2d ed., 1914.

DF

'l:

=O

- - - - -2- = - tan 2a

'Txy
"" -

a)

15

<lx -

<ly

{15)

It acts on the plane for which a = 7r/4, i.e., on the plane bisecting the
angle between the two principal stresses.
~ ~ rule is used only in the construction of Mohr's circle.
e gi.ven on p. 3 holds.

Otherwise the

17

PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN


THEORY OF ELASTICITY

16

xz and yz (Fig. 15a) and the other on the planes inclined to xz and yz by the angle fJ

The diagram can be used also in the case when one or both principal
stresses are negative (compression). It is only nece.ssary to cha~ge the
sign of the abscissa for compressive stress. ln th1s manner ~1g. 14a
represents the case when both principal stresses are negative and
Fi~. 14b the case of pure shear.
r
T

<T

<T

O".x

O";y

(b)

raJ
FIG.

14.

nd 14 it is seen that the stress ata point can be resolved into two
Froro Figs. 13 a
h" h. .
b th
.
parts: One, uniform tension or compression, the magmtude of w ic is g1vei_i Y e
abscissa of the center of the circle; and the other, pure shear, the m~gn~tud? of
which is given by the radius of the circle. When sev~ral plane stress d1stnbutions
are superposed, the uniform tensions or compress1ons can be added together

z:t

Tt

(Fig. 15b). ln Fig. 15a.the coordinates of point D represent the shear and normal
stress on plane CB produced by the first system, while the coordinate of D1 (Fig.
15b) gives the stresses on this plane for the second system. Adding OD and OD 1
geometrically we obtain 00, the resultant stress on the plane dueto both systems,
the coordinates of G giving us the shear and normal stress. Note that the magnitude of 00 does not depend upon a. Hence, as the result of the superposition of
two shears, we obtain a Mohr circle for pure shear, the magnitude of which is
given by 00, the planes of maximum shear being inclined to the xz and yz planes by
an angle equal to half the angle GOD.

A diagram, such as shown in Fig. 13, can be used also for determining
r
principal stresses if the stress components <Ix, <Iy, Txy for any two perpendicular
planes (Fig. 12) are known. W e begin
in such a case with the plotting of the two
points D and D 1, representing stress con- O ~--+---->F----+-O"
ditions on the two coordinate planes
(Fig. 16). ln this manner the diameter
DD 1 of the circle is obtained. Constructing the circle, the principal stresses u 1 and
Frn. 16.
u 2 are obtained from the intersection of
the circle with the abscissa axis. From the figure we find
u1 =

OC +CD= <Ix

~ <Iy + ~(y)2 +
+

7:1

(16)

~(<Ix
- <Iy) +
--2-

Txy

The maximum shearing stress is given by the radius of the circle, i.e.,

(a}

r2j

Tmax.

(6)
FIG.

<Iy <I2 -- OC - CD -- <Ix


-2--

rxy

15.

algebraically. The pure shears must be added ~ogether by taking into acc~unt
the directions of the planes on which they are actmg. It cai_i be shown that,k we
superpose two systems of pure shear whose pla:es of maximum shear ma e an
angle of fJ with each other, the resulting system _will be another case of pure shear.
For example, Fig. 15 represents the deterininat10n of stress ?n any plane defined
by a, produced by two pure shears of magnitude n and -r2 actmg one on the planes

~ (u1 -

<I2) =

~(<Ix; <Iyy + r"112

(17)

ln this manner all necessary features of the stress distribution at a


point can be obtained if only the three stress components <Ix, <Iy, Txy are
known.
10. Strain at a Point. When the strain components Ex, Ey, 'Y"11 ata
point are known, the unit elongation for any direction, and the decrease
of a right angle-the shearing strain-of any orientation at the point
can be found. Aline element PQ (Fig. 17a) between the points (x,y),
(x + dx, y + dy) is translated, stretched (or contracted) and rotated
into the line element P'Q' when the deformation occurs. The dis-

1r=---~-'"
i

+ ~~dX + :dy,

v
V+

The line element PT at right angles to PQ makes an angle 8


(11"/2)
with the x-direction, and its rotation i/lo+:!!. is therefore given by (d) when

iJXdX

+ ydy

+ uU
d
y y,
!>

RQ"

(7/2) is substituted for 8.


sin [8 + (11"/2)] = cos 8, we find
(J

If P'Q' in Fig. 17a is now translated so that P' is brought back to P,



/1
f F" 17b
d QR RQ" represent the com"t is in the posit10n PQ o ig.
' an
'
~onents of the displacement of Q relative to P. Thus
au d
QR = x x

19

PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

18
placement components of p are u, v, and those of Q are

ax

8-

+ (ir/2)]

= - sin

(V
. 8 cos 8 - -dU cos2 8
- - dU)
sm
ay

ax

ay

8,

(e)

The shear strain 'Yo for the directions PQ, PT is if;o - i/lo+!,
so
2

(a)

= -x dx + -dy y

dV sm.

tfio+! = -

Since cos [8

79 = (:;

The components of this relative displacement QS, SQ", normal to


PQ" and along PQ", can be found from these as
QS = -QR sin 8 + RQ" cos 8,
SQ" = QR cos 8 RQ" sin 8 (b)

or

+ ~~) (cos2 8 -

sin 2 8)

ho = hZ11 (cos 2 8 - sin2 8)

+ (~~ - ~~) 2 sin 8 cos 8


+

(eu - Ex) sin 8 cos 8

(f)

Comparing (e) and (f) with (13), we observe that they may be obtained
from (13) by replacing <F by Ee, 7 by 'Yo/2, <Fx by Ex, <F11 by E11, 'Tey by 'YZ11/2,
anda by 8. Consequently for each deduction made from (13) as to
a and -r, there is a corresponding deduction from (e) and (f) as to Eo and
'Yo/2. Thus there are two values of 8, differing by 90 deg., for which
'Yo is zero. They are given by

ignoring the small angle QPS in comparison with 8. Since the shor,~
line QS may be identified with an are of a circle with center P, SQ

~- = tan 28
Ex - Ey
(b}
FIG. 17.

gives the stretch of PQ. The unit elongation of P'Q', denoted by Ee, is
SQ" /PQ. Using (b) and (a) we have

u dy\
.
(iJV dx + dV dy\
+ ay ds J + sm 8 ax ds ay ds)
a cos2 (J + (u
av) sin 8 cos 8 + av
. 8
~
-ay + -ax
ay sm
ax

u dx
Ee = cos 8 ( ax ds
=

or

+ 'YZ11 sin 8 cos 8 + E11 sm

(e)

fo:

which gives the unit elongation


any dire~tion 8.
The angle if;e through which PQ is rotated is QS/PQ.
and (a),
if;e

or

= -

au dx
sin 8 ( ax ds

au dy)
ay ds

+ cos (J

dV cos2 8 + (Vy - dU)


sin 8
.,,e x
x

.1.

'YO

Ee = Ex cos 2 8

(v dx
x ds

COS

8-

Thus from (b)

av dy
y ds

~Uy sin2 8

The corresponding strains Eo are principal strains. A Mohr circle


diagram analogous to Fig. 13 or Fig. 16 may be drawn, the ordinates
representing 'Yo/2 and the abscissas e9 The principal strains Ei, E2 will
be the algebraically greatest and least values of Ee as a function of 8.
The greatest value of 'Ye/2 will be represented by the radius of the
circle. Thus the greatest shearing strain 'Yo max. is given by

(d)

max.

El -

E2

11. Measurement of Surface Strains. The strains, or unit elongations, on a surface are usually most conveniently measured by means of
electric-resistance strain gauges. 1 The simplest forro of such a gauge
is a short length of wire insulated from and glued to the surface. When
stretching occurs the resistance of the wire is increased, and the strain
can thus be measured electrically. The effect is usually magnified by
looping the wires backward and forward severa! times, to forro severa!
gauge lengths connected in series. The wire is glued between two tabs
of paper, and the assembly glued to the surface.
The use of these gauges is simple when the principal directions are
1

A detailed account of this method is given in the "Handbook of Experimental


Stress Analysis," Chaps. 5 and 9 .

lpF
1

'

PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN


THEORY OF ELASTICITY
20
known. One gauge is placed along each principal direction and direct
measurements of Ei, E2 obtained. The principal st_resses u1, u2 may ~hen
be calculated from Hooke's law, Eqs. (3), w1th u., = u1, <Tu - u2,
u. = o, the last holding on the assumption that there is no stress acting
on the surface to which the gauges are attached. Then

(1 - v2)u 1 = E(Ei + vE 2),


(1 - v2 )u2 = E(E2 + VE1)
When the principal directions are not known ~n ~dvance, three measurements are needed. Thus the state of stram is completely determined if E.,, Ey, 'Yzu can be measured. But since the strain gauges meas-

he
e

O'L-~--1~::...i.....~~-'-~

t:..p

EtJt.+/l+tP 5a+tj

(e}

()

(a,)

FIG. 18.

ure extensions, and not shearing strai~ di~ectly, it is c~nvenient to


measure the unit elongations in three direct10ns at the po1?t. Such a
set of gauges is called a "strain rosette." The Mohr circle ?n. be
drawn by the simple construction 1 given in Art. 12, and the prmc1pal
strains can then be read off. The three gauges are represented by the
three full lines in Fig. 18a. The broken line repres~nts the (~nk~own)
direction of the larger principal strain Ei, from whrnh the direct10n of
the fi.rst gauge is obtained by a clockwise rotation e/>.
If the x- and y-directions for Eqs. (e) and (f) of Art. 10 had been
taken as the principal directions, E., would be Ei, Eu would be E2, and 'Yzu
would be zero. The equations would then be
Eo = E1 cos2 8

+ E2 sin2 8,

ho = - (E1 -

E2)

sin 8 cos

where 8 is the angl~ measured from the directio of E1.


written
EO = i-(E1

+ Ez) + t(E1

- E2) cos 2ll,

ho =

(J

These may be

-t(E1 - E2) sin 2ll

and these values are represented by the point P on the circle _in Fi_g. l~c.
If li takes the value e/>, p corresponds to the point A on the mrcle m Fig.
i

Glenn Murphy, J. Applied Mechanics (Trans, A.S.M.E.), vol. 12, P A-209,

1945; N. J. Hoff, ibid.

.21

18b, the angular displacement from the Ee-axis being 2cJ>. The abscissa.
of this point is E~, which is known. If li takes the value cJ> + a, P moves
to B, through a further angle AFB = 2a, and the abscissa is the known
value EaH If li takes the value e/> + a + {3, p IDOVeS On to C, through
a further angle BFC = 2{3, and the abscissa is Ea+llH
The problem is to draw the circle when these three abscissas and the
two angles a, {3 are known.
12. Construction of Mohr Strain Circle for Strain Rosette. A temporary horizontal E-axis is drawn horizontally from any origin O', Fig.
18b, and the three measured strains E~, EaH, Ea+llH laid off along it.
Verticais are drawn through these points. Selecting any point D on
the vertical through EaH, lines DA, DC are drawn at angles a and f3 to
the vertical at D as shown, to meet the other two verticais at A and C.
The circle drawn through D, A, and C is the required circle. Its center
F is determined by the intersection of the perpendicular bisectors of
CD, DA. The points representing the three gauge directions are A,
B, and C. The angle AFB, being twice the angle ADB at the circumference, is 2a, and BFC is 2{3. Thus A, B, C are at the required angular
intervals round the circle, and have the required abscissas. The Ee
axis can now be drawn as OF,
and the distances from O to the
(O"y}4
intersections with the circle give
E1, E2. The angle 2cJ> is the angle
(r.,.,.,l,
of F A below this axis.
4h
13. Differential Equations of
rxy)3
Equilibrium. W e now consider
1
3
(:;c,y)
the equilibrium of a small rectan(<T..:x;Ja
(O".x
.k
gular block of edges h, k, and
(Z"xy).z
2
unity (Fig. 19). The stresses
rr.,.,y)z
acting on the faces 1, 2, 3, 4, and
their positive directions are in(o-,.-Jz
dicated in the figure. On acFm. 19.
count of the variation of stress
throughout the material, the value of, for instance, u., is not quite
the sarne for face 1 as for face 3. The symbols u.,, uu, Tzu refer to the
point x, y, the mid-point of the rectangle in Fig. 19. The values at the
mid-points of the faces are denoted by (u.,)i, (u.,) 3, etc. Since the faces
are very small, the corresponding forces are obtained by multiplying
these values by the areas of the faces on which they act. i
~ore precise considerations would introduce terms of higher order which
vamsh in the final limiting process.
1

'

il1

22

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN

The body force on the block, which was neglected as a small quantity
of higher order in considering the equilibrium of the triangular prism
of Fig. 12, must be taken into consideration, because it is of the sarne
order of magnitude as the terms due to the variations of the stress
components which are now under consideration. If X, Y denote the
components of body force per unit volume, the equation of equilibrium
for forces in the x-direction is
(u,,)1k - (u,.)ak

+ (rey)2h

- (rey)Ji,

+ Xhk

= O

or, dividing by hk,


(u,,)r ~ (u,.)a

+ (rey)2 ~

(rey)4

+X

If now the block is taken smaller and smaller, i.e., h-+ O, k-+ O, the
limit of [(u,,)r - (u,.)a]/h is au,,/ax by the definition of such a derivative.
Similarly [(rey}2 - (rey)4l/k becomes orey/oy. The equation of equilibrium for forces in the y-direction is obtained in the sarne manner.
Thus
O<Tx + OTey +X= O
ax
ay
(18)
O<Ty + OTey + y = o
ay
ax
ln practical applications the weight of the body is usually the only
body force. Then, taking the y-axis downward and denoting by p the
mass per unit volume of the body, Eqs. (18) become
O<Tx
ax
O<Ty
iJy

+ OTey

=O

ay

+ Tey
+ pg =o
ax

{19)

Ttl~e are the differential equations of equilibrium for two-dimensional


problems.
14. Boundary Conditions. Equations (18) or.(19) must be satisfied
at all points throughout the volume of the body. The stress components vary over the volume of the plate, and when. we arrive at the
boundary they must be such as to be in equilibrium with the externai
forces on the boundary of the plate, so that externai forces may be
regarded as a continuation of the internai stress distribution. These
conditions of equilibrium at the boundary can be obtained from Eqs.
(12). Taking the small triangular prism OBC (Fig. 12), so that the
side JlC coincides with the boundary of the plate, as shown in Fig. 20,

23

and denoting by X and Y the components of the surface forces per unit
area at this point of the boundary, we have
X= Urx + mrey
Y = muy + lrX'/I

(20)

in which l and m are the direction cosines of the normal N to the


boundary.
ln the particular case of a rectangular plate the coordinate axes are
usually taken parallel to the sides of the plate and the boundary conditions (20) can be simplified. Taking, for instance, a side of the plate
parallel to the x~axis we have for this part of the boundary the normal
N parallel to the y-axis; hence l = O and
m = 1. Equations (20) then become
x
X = rey1

Y=

uy

Here the positive sign should be taken if the


normal N has the positive direction of the
N
;y
y-axis and the negative sign for the opposite
Fm. 20.
direction of N. It is seen from this that at
the boundary the stress components become equal to the components
of the surface forces per unit area of the boundary.
15. Compatibility Equations. The problem of the theory of elasticity usually is to determine the state of stress in a body submitted to
the action of given forces. ln the case of a two-dimensional problem
it is necessary to solve the differential equations of equilibrium (18),
and the solution must be such as to satisfy the boundary conditions
(20). These equations, derived by application of the equations of
statics for absolutely rigid bodies, and containing three stress components u,,, uy, Tey, are not sufficient for the determination of these components. The problem is a statically indeterminate one, and in order to
obtain the solution the elastic deformation of the body must also be
considered.
The mathematical formulation of the condition for compatibility of
stress distribution with the existence of continuous functions u, v, w
defining the deformation will be obtained from Eqs. (2). ln the case
of two-dimensional problems only three strain components need he
considered, namely,
iJu
av
au
av
E= -1
(a)
Ex= iJx'
"/ey = ay + ax
y
ay
These three strain components are expressed by two functions u and v;
hence they cannot be taken a:i;bitra,_rily,canil. there exists a certain rela-

PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

24

tion between the strain components which can easily be obtained from
(a). Differentiating the first of the Eqs. (a) twice with respect to y,
the second twice with respect to x, and the third once with respect to x
and once with respect to y, we find
J2Ez

ay 2

+ J2Ey = J2-yZI/
ax 2

1 (uz
=E

11u11 ),

'YZll =

GTzy

E11

1 (u11 - llU:r')
=E

{22)

2(1 + 11)
E
Tzy

(23)

Substituting in Eq. (21), we find


a2

<Jy2 (uz - 110"11)

a2

<Jx2 (uy - llUz)

+ ") dX
a2r""'
Jy

= 2(1

(b)

This equation can be written in a different form by using the equations


of equilibrium. For the case when the weight of the body is the only
body force, differentiating the first of Eqs. (19) with respect to x and
the second with respect to y and adding them, we find

2 J2Tzy = - J2Uz - J2Uy


ax 2

ax ay

ay 2

Substituting in Eq. (b), the compatibility equation in terms of stress


components becomes
( : :2

+ ::

2)

(uz

+ Uy)

=O

(24)

Proceeding in the sarne manner with the general equations of eq,uilib


rium (18) we find
a2

a2 )

( <Jx2 + <Jy2

(u,, + Uy)

-(1+11)

(X + aY)

ln the case of plane strain (Art. 8), we have


<T8

11(u,.

+ Uy)

Ez

dX

iJy

1
E
[(1
2(1

(26)

- 112)u11 - 11(1 + 11)u.,]

+ 11) Tzy

(27)

Substituting in Eq. (21), and using, as before, the equations of equilibrium (19), we find that the compatibility equation (24) holds also for
plane strain. For the general case of body forces we obtain from Eqs.
(21) and (18) the compatibility equation in the following form:
a2
( <Jx2

a2)
+ <Jy2
(uz + u11)

= -

1 (X + TyaY)

1 - "

ax

(28)

The equations of equilibrium (18) or (19) together with the boundary


conditions (20) and one of the above compatibility equations give us a
system of equations which is usually sufficient for the complete determination of the stress distribution in a two-dimensional problem. 1
The particular cases in which certain additional considerations are
necessary will be discussed later (page 117). It is interesting to note
that in the case of constant body forces the equations determining
stress distribution do not contain the elastic constants of the material.
Hence the stress distribution is the sarne for all isotropic materials, provided the equations are sufficient for thc complete determination of the
stresses. The conclusion is of practical importance: we shall see later
that in the case of transparent materials, such as glass or xylonite, it is
possible to determine stresses by an optical method using polarized
light (page 131). From the above discussion it is evident that experimental results obtained with a transparent material in most cases can
be applied immediately to any other material, such as steel.
It should be noted also that in the case of constant body forces the
compatibility equation (24) holds both for the case of plane stress and
for the case of plane strain. Hence the stress distribution is the sarne
in these two cases, provided the shape of the boundary and the external
forces are the sarne. 2
1

(25)

= E [(1 - 11 2)u,, - 11(1 + v)u11 ]

E11 =
'YZll

This differential relation, called the condition of compatibility, must be


satisfied by the strain components to secure the existence of functions
u and v connected with the strain components by Eqs. (a). By using
Hooke's law, [Eqs. (3)], the condition (21) can be transformed into a
relation between the components of stress.
ln the case of plane stress distribution (Art. 7), Eqs. (3) reduce to
Ez

and from Hooke's law (Eqs. 3), we find

(21)

ax ay

25

ln plane stress there are compatibility conditions other than (21) which are in
fact violated by our assumptions. It is shown in Art. 84 that in spite of this the
method of the present chapter gives good approximations for thin plates.
2
This statement may require modification when the plate or cylinder has holes,
for then the problem can be correctly solved only by considering the displacements as well as the stresses. See Art. 39.

26

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN

16. Stress Function. I t has been shown that a solution of twodimensional problems reduces to the integration of the differential
equations of equilibrium together with the compatibility equation and
the boundary conditions. If we begin with the case when the weight
of the body is the only body force, the equations to be satisfied are (see
Eqs. 19 and 24)

aV

X=

az

Equations (18) become

~ {u, - V)
a:i;

.!._ {u11 - V)

(a)

(e)

aV
ay

Y=
in which V is the potential function.

21

ay

+ h-,u
ay
+ aTy
az

These equations are of the sarne form as Eqs. (a) and can be satisfied by taking

(b)

To these equations the boundary conditions (20) should be added.


The usual method of solving these equations is by introducing a new
function, called the stress function. 1 As is easily checked, Eqs. (a) are
satisfied by taking any function q, of x and y and putting the following
expressions for the stress components:
u,,

a2q,

iJy2 -pgy,

7"
Z'//

iJ2q,
ax ay

=---

(29)

ln this manner we can get a variety of solutions of the equations of


equilibrium (a). The true solution of the problem is that which satisfies also the compatibility equation (b). Substituting expressions (29)
for the stress components into Eq. (b) we find that the stress function
q, must satisfy the equation
J4q,
iJx4

<J4q,

J4q,

+ 2 ax2 ay2 + iJy4 =

(30)

Thus the solution of a two-dimensional problem, when the weight of


the body is the only body force, reduces to finding a solution of Eq. (30)
which satisfies the boundary conditions (20) of the problem. ln the
following chapters this method of solution will be applied to several
examples of practical interest.
Let us now consider a more general case of body forces and assume that these
t'Orces have a potential. Then the components X and Y in Eqs. (18) are given
by the equations
1

This function was introduced in the solution of two-dimensional problems by


G. B. Airy, Brit. Assoe. Advancement Sei. Rept., 1862, and is sometimes called the
Airy stress function.

" 11 -

a'cf>

(31)

az'

in which e/> is the stress function. Substituting expressions (31) in the compatibility equation (25) for plane stress distribution, we find
(32)
An analogous equation can be obtained for the case of plane strain.
When the body force is simply the weight, the potential V is -pgy. ln this
case the right-hand side of Eq. (32) reduces to zero. By taking the solution e/> = O
of (32), or of (30), we find the stress distribution from (31), or (29),
" = -pgy,

"" =

-pgy,

T,y

(d)

as a possible state of stress dueto gravity. This is a state of hydrostatic pressure


pgy in two dimensions, with zero stress at y = O. It can exist in a plate or cylinder
of any shape provided the corresponding boundary forces are applied. Considering a boundary element as in Fig. 12, Eqs. (13) show that there must be a normal
pressure pgy on the boundary, and zero shear stress. If the plate or cylinder is to
be supported in some other manner we have to superpose a boundary normal
tension pgy and the new supporting forces. The two together will be in equilibrium,
and the determination of their effects is a problem of boundary forces only, without
body forces. t
Problems

1. Show that Eqs. (12) remain valid when the element of Fig. 12 has acceleration.
2. Find graphically the principal strains and their directions from rosetti>
measurements
q, = 2 X 10-a,

where a
1

a+<i> = 1.35 X

10-3,

a+/3+<1> = 0.95 X 10- 3 in. per inch

= f3 = 45.

This problem, and the general case of a potential V such that the right-hand
side of Eq. (32) vanishes, have been discussed by M. Biot, J. Applied Mechanics
(Trans. A.S.M.E.), 1935, p. A-41.

r
i

28

THEORY OF ELASTICJTY

3. Show that the line elements at the point x, y which have the maximum and
minimum rotation are those in the two perpendicular directions 8 determined by
tan 28 =

(v
ay _ au)
ax / (ov
ax + au)
ay

4. The stresses in a rotating disk (of unit thickness) can be regarded as due to
centrifugai force as body force in a stationary disk. Show that this body force is
derivable from the potential V = -!pw 2 (x 2
y 2), where p is the density, and w the
angular velocity of rotation (about the origin).
5. A disk with its axis horizontal has the gravity stress represented by Eqs.
(d) of Art. 16. Make a sketch showing the boundary forces which support its
weight. Show by another sketch the auxiliary problem of boundary forces which
must be solved when the weight is entirely supported by the reaction of a horizontal
surface on which the disk stands.
6. A cylinder with its axis horizontal has the gravity stress represented by Eqs.
(d) of Art. 16. Its ends are confined between smooth fixed rigid planes which
maintain the condition of plane strain. Sketch the forces acting on its surface,
including the ends.
7. Using the stress-strain relations, and Eqs. (a) of Art. 15 in the equations of
equilibrium (18), show that in the absence of body forces the displacements in
problems of plane stress must satisfy

CHAPTER 3

au + au + 1 + ".!!.. ()u + )v)


ax ay 1 - v ax ax ay

and a companion equation.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
IN RECTANGULAR COORDINATES

17. Solution by Polynomials. It has been shown that the solution


of two-dimensional problems, when body forces are absent or are constant, is reduced to the integration of the differential equation

a4cJ>
a4ct>
a4cJ>
ax 4 + 2 ax 2 ay 2 + ay 4 = 0

(a)

having regard to boundary conditions (20). ln the case of long


rectangular strips, solutions of Eq. (a) in the form of polynomials are
of interest. By taking polynomials
2
-;h2
of various degrees, and suitably adjusting their coefficients, a number of
-- -- ...... __t.
practically important problems can be
solved. 1
Beginning with a polynomial of the
second degree
y
(b)
FIG. 21.
(

which evidently satisfies Eq. (a), we find from Eqs. (29), putting
P(J = 0,

a2ct>2

cr., = ay 2 =

8. The figure represents a "tooth" on a plate in a state of plane stress in the


plane of the paper. The faces of the tooth (the two straight lines) are free from
force. Prove that there is no stress at ali at the apex of the tooth. (N.B.: The
sarne conclusion cannot be drawn for a reentrant, i.e., internai, corner.)

C2,

All three stress components are constant throughout the body, i.e., the
stress function (b) represents a combination of uniform tensions or
compressions 2 in two perpendicular directions and a uniform shear.
The forces on the boundaries must equal the stresses at these points as
discussed on page 23; in the case of a rectangular plate with sides
parallel to the coordinate axes these forces are shown in Fig. 21.
1 A. Mesnager, Compt. rend., vol. 132, p. 1475, 1901.
See also A. Timpe, Z.
Math. Physik, vol. 52, p. 348, 1905.
2 This depends on the sign of coefficients a2 and b,.
The directions of stresses
indicated in Fig. 21 are those corresponding to positive values of a2, b,, c2

29

30

Let us consider now a stress function in the forro of a polynomial of


the third degree:
aa
ba
Ca
da
(e)
<Pa = - - x 3 + - x 2 y + - xy 2 + -- y
32
2
2
32
Using Eqs. (29) and putting pg =O, we

This also satisfies Eq. (a).


find

a2 <1>a

+ day
aax + bay

U,, = - = CaX
iJy2

ax<1>a
2

uu =
T"'11

= -

2 =
iJ2cp3
x y

31

TWO-DIMENSJONAL PROBLEMS

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

for instance, the stress function in the forro of a polynomial of the


fourth degree,
(d)

and substituting it into Eq. (a), we find that the equation is satisfied
only if
The stress components in this case are

a2q,4

u,, = y 2 = C4X 2 + d4Xy - (2C4

= -baX - CaY

0'11

For a rectangular plate, taken as in Fig. 22, assuming ali coefficients


except da equal to zero, we obtain pure bending. If only coefficient aa
is different from zero, we obtain pure bending by normal stresses
applied to the sides y = e of the plate. If coefficient b3 orca is taken

a2 q,4

= iJx2 = a4X 2 + b4XY


2 cp4

T"'11

+ a4)y 2

+ C4y 2

b4

d4

= x y = - 2 x2 - 2C4Xy - 2 y2

Coefficients a4, . . . , d4 in these expressions are arbitrary, and by


suitably adjusting them we obtain various conditions of loading of a
rectangular plate. For instance, taking ali coefficients except d4 equal
to zero, we find

0'11

=o,

(e)

o
X

e
l
y

J'
FIG. 22.

FIG. 23.

different from zero, we obtain not only normal but also shearing
stresses acting on the sides of the plate. Figure 23 represents, for
instance, the case in which ali coefficients, except b3 in function (e), are
equal to zero. The directions of stresses indicated are for b3 positive.
Along the sides y = e we have uniformly distributed tensile and
compressive stresses, respectively, and shearing stresses proportional
to x. On the side x = l we have only the constant shearing stress -b 3l,
and there are no stresses acting on the side x = O. An analogous stress
distribution is obtained if coefficient c3 is taken different from zero.
ln taking the stress function in the forro of polynomials of the second
and third degrees we are completely free in choosing the magnitudes of
the coefficients, since Eq. (a) is satisfied whatever values they may
have. ln the case of polynomials of higher degrees Eq. (a) is satisfied
only if certain relations between the coefficients are satisfied. Taking,

Assuming d4 positive, the forces acting on the rectangular plate shown


in Fig. 24 and producing the stresses (e) are as given. On the longitudinal sides y = e are uniformly distributed shearing forces; on the
ends shearing forces are distributed according to a parabolic law. The
shearing forces acting on the boundary
of the plate reduce to the couple 1
~
~1----+------+.-~.x
~

~~~--="'--==-~--~--==-~--~=f'--'-This couple balances the couple produced by the normal forces along the Y
side x = l of the plate.
FIG. 24.
Let us consider a stress function in the forro of a polynomial of the
fifth degree.

The thickness of the plate is taken equal to unity.

_____

,,.. ....

~--

...

INSTITUTUL POLHfoJ.:,
li.!

Ili

'

'1

tlMl~Or\R
-~--

...--&li.

'!'

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

32

TWO-DIMENSION AL PROBLEMS

Substituting in Eq. (a) we find that this equation is satisfied


e5 = - (2c5 + 3a5)
f5 = -t(b5
2d5)

The corresponding stress components are:


u,,

o2cf>s

uy =
T
zy

C5

= ay2 = 3
a2cf>5

x3

x 2 = asx 3

= -

cf>

ax y

+ d5x 2y

- (2cs

+ b&X y + CsXY
2

= - _!. b5x 3
3

+ 3as)xy 2 - 31 (b5 + 2d5)y


+ 3ds y
3

1
3

C&X 2y - d&XY 2 + - (2cs

+ 3as)Y

Again coefficients a 5, , d& are arbitrary, and in adjusting them


we obtain solutions for various loading conditions of a plate. Taking,
e

-- 'i

"ds(l 2c-.l..c 3 )
"

----t--~~ 3'dsc3

~\

y
()

(a)
Frn. 25.

for instance, all coefficients, except ds, equal to zero we find


u,, = ds(x 2y - -b)
3
Uy = idsy
2
Tzy = -dr,:xy

(g)

The normal forces are uniformly distributed along the longitudinal


sides of the plate (Fig. 25a). Along the side x = l, the normal forces
consist of two parts, one following a linear law and the other following
the law of a cubic parabola. The shearing forces are proportional to x
on the longitudinal sides of the plate and follow a parabolic law along
the side x = l. The distribution of these stresses is shown in Fig. 25b.
Since Eq. (a) is a linear differential equation, it may be concluded
that a sum of several solutions of this equation is also a solution. W e
can superpose the elementary solutions considered in this article and
in this manner arrive at new solutions of practical interest. Several
examples of the application of this method of superposition will be
considered.

33

18. Saint-Venant's Principle. 1 ln the previous article severa! cases


were discussed in which exact solutions for rectangular plates were
obtained by taking very simple forms for the stress function cf>. ln
each case all the equations of elasticity are satisfied, but the solutions
are exact only if the surface forces are distributed in the manner given.
ln the case of pure bending, for instance (Fig. 22), the bending moment
must be produced by tensions and compressions on the ends, these
tensions and compressions being proportional to the distance from the
neutral axis. The fastening of the end, if any, must be such as not to
interfere with distortion of the plane of the end. If the above conditions are not fulfilled, i.e., the bending moment is applied in some
different manner or the constraint is such that it imposes other forces
on the end section, the solution given in Art. 17 is no longer an exact
solution of the problem. The practical utility of the solution however
is not limited to such a specialized case. It can be applied with sufficient accuracy to cases of bending in which the conditions at the ends
are not rigorously satisfied. Such an extension in the application of
the solution is usually based on the so-called principle of Saint-Venant.
This principle states that if the forces acting on a small portion of the
surface of an elastic body are replaced by another statically equivalent
system of forces acting on the sarne portion of the surface, this redistribution of loading produces substantial changes in the stresses locally
but has a negligible effect on the stresses at distances which are large in
comparison with the linear dimensions of the surface on which the
forces are changed. For instance, in the case of pure bending of a
rectangular strip (Fig. 22) the cross-sectional dimensions of which are
small in comparison with its length, the manner of application of the
externa} bending moment affects the stress distribution only in the
vicinity of the ends and is of no consequence for distant cross sections,
at which the stress distribution will be practically as given by the solution to which Fig. 22 refers.
The sarne is true in the case of axial tension. Only near the loaded
end does the stress distribution depend on the manner of applying the
tensile force, and in cross sections at a distance from the end the
stresses are practically uniformly distributed. Some examples illustrating this statement and showing how rapidly the stress distribution
becoms practically uniform will be discussed later (see page 52).
1

This principie was stated in the famous memoir on torsion in Mm. savants
trangers, vol. 14, 1855. Its relation to the principie of conservation of energy is
di:icussed later (see p. 150).

34

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS

19. Determination of Displacements. When the components of


stress are found from the previous equations, the components of strain
can be obtained by using Hooke's law, Eqs. (3) and (6). Then the
displacements u and v can be obtained from the equations

20. Bending of a Cantilever Loaded at the End. Consider a cantilever having a narrow rectangular cross section of unit width bent by a
force P applied at the end (Fig. 26). The upper and lower edges are
free from load, and shearing forces, having a resultant P, are distributed along the end x = O. These conditions can be satisfied by a
proper combination of pure shear,
with the stresses (e) of Art. 17 reprel
sented in Fig. 24. Superposing the
;,
pure shear r zv = - b2 on the stresses
X
(e), we find
p

u
X

av

=E,,,

fJy

oy

Ey,

+ X

(a)

= 'YX11

The integration of these equations in each particular case does not


present any difficulty, and we shall have severa! examples of their
application. It may be seen at once that the strain components (a)
remain unchanged if we add to u and v the linear functions
U1

=a+ by,

v1

= e - bx

= E (u,, - vuy),

Ey

E1 (uy

Ex

= E [u,,

Ey

E [o-11

'YX11 =

GTX'll

- v(uy

+ u,)]

= E [(1 - v )u,, - v(l

v(u.,

+ u.)]

b2 - 2d4

E [(1 -

v2 )u11

v(l

;e

~~

y
FIG. 26.

To have the longitudinal sides y


(rX'll)ll=c

e free from forces we must have

= -b2 -

from which

d c2

=o

To satisfy the condition on the loaded end the sum of the shearing
forces distributed over this end must be equal to P. Hencei

f
from which

e Tzv

-e

dy =

-e

(b2 - ~e y

2)

dy = P

~ !:.

4 e

Substituting these values of d4 and b2 in Eqs. (a) we find

+ v)o+

:e

(a)

y2

b2 =

and in the case of plane strain the strain components are:

=O

u11

- vu,,),

: 1
1

= d4xy,

TzY = -

(b)

in which a, b, and e are constants. This means that the displacements


are not entirely determined by the stresses and strains. On the displacements due to the interna! strains a displacement like that of a
rigid body can be superposed. The constants a and e in Eqs. (b) represent a translatory motion of the body and the constant b is a small
angle of rotation of the rigid body about the z-axis.
It has been shown (see page 25) that in the case of constant body
forces the stress distribution is the sarne for plane stress distribution or
plane strain. The displacements however are different for these two
problems, since in the case of plane stress distribution the components
of strain, entering into Eqs. (a), are given by equations
E,,

O"z

35

3P
u,,=-2caxy,
11]

Txy

3P (1 -

4c

v)u,,]

It is easily verified that these equations can be obtained from the preceding set for plane stress by replacing E in the latter by E/(1 - 11 2),
and 11 by 11/(l - 11). These substitutions leaveG, which is E/2(1 + 11),
unchanged. The integration of Eqs. (a) will be shown later in discussing particular problems.

O"y=

y2)
c
2

N oting that ic 3 is the moment of inertia I of the cross section of the


cantilever, we have
Pxy
-

-,

_ !:_ ! (c2 _
12

O"y

=o

y2)

(b)

The minus sign before the integral follows from the rule for the sign of shearing
stresses. Stress Tz~ on the end x = O is positive if it is upward (see p. 3).

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

36

TW<J..DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS

This coincides completely with the elementary solution as given in


books on the strength of materiais. It should be noted that this
solution representa an exact solution only if the shearing forces on the
ends are distributed according to the sarne parabolic law as the shearing stress rey and the intensity of the normal forces at the built-in end
is proportional to y. If the forces at the ends are distributed in any
other manner, the stress distribution (b) is not a correct solution for the
ends of the cantilever, but, by virtue of Saint-Venant's principie, it can
be considered satisfactory for cross sections at a considerable distance
from the ends.
Let us consider now the displacement corresponding to the stresses
(b). Applying Hooke's law we find
au
E,,

'YX11

u,,

Pxy
El'

= ax = E = U

ay

Tey

+ ax = G

av

Ey

= ay

= - 2IG (c

(e)

2
Y)

2
-

2El

+ f(y),

+ fi(x)

in which f(y) and f 1(x) are as yet unknown functions of y only and x
only. Substituting these values of u and v in Eq. (d) we find
_ Px 2
2El

+ df(y) + vPy 2 + df1(x)


dy

2El

= _ _!!___ ( 2 _

2IG e

dx

2)
y

ln this equation some terms are functions of x only, some are functions
of y only, and one is independent of both x and' y. Denoting these
groups by F(x), G(y), K, we have
F(x)

2
Px
- 2El

+ --rJX'
dfi(x)

G( )

df(y)
dy

+ vPy2 2El

Py2
2IG

Pc 2

K = - 2IG

and the equation may be written


F(x)

+ G(y)

(e)

and
2
df1(x) = Px
dx
2EI

+d
'

Functions f(y) and fi(x) are then


f ( y)

vPy 3

=K

Such an equation means that F(x) must be some constant d and G(y)
some constante. Otherwise F(x) and G(y) would vary with x and y,
respectively, and by varying x alone, or y alone, the equality would be

Py 3

+ 6IG + ey + g
Px
= 6 EI + dx + h
= - 6EI
3

f1(x)

Substituting in the expressions for u and v we find


Px 2y
vPy 3
Py 3
2EI - 6El
6IG
2
3
vPxy
Px
2El
6El
dx
h

u = -

2El

V =

Thus

(d)

The procedure for obtaining the components u and v of the displacement consists in integratmg Eqs. (e) and (d). By integration of Eqs.
(e) we find
vPxy 2
Px 2 y
u = -

violated.

37

v=

+ ey + g
(g)

The constants d, e, g, h may now be determined from Eq. (e) and from
the three conditions of constraint which are necessary to prevent the
beam from moving as a rigid body in the xy-plane. Assume that the
point A, the centroid of the end cross section, is fixed. Then u and v
are zero for x = l, y = O, and we find from Eqs. (g),
g

=o,

Pl3

h=---dl
6EI

The deflection curve is obtained by substituting y


second of Eqs. (g). Then
(v)y-o

Px 3
Pl
6El - 6EI - d(l - x)

O into the

(h)

For determining the constant d in this equation we must use the third
condition of constraint, eliminating the possibility of rotation of the
heam in the xy-plane about the fixed point A. This constraint can be
realized in various ways. Let us consider two cases: (1) When anelement of the axis of the beam is fixed at the end A. Then the condition
of constraint is

(::)~~~ = o

(k)

(2) When a vertical element of the cross section at the point A is fixed,

'

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

39

instead of a horizontal element of the axis, we find from condition (l)


and the first of Eqs. (g)

Then the condition of constraint is

and from Eq. (e) we find

ln the first case we obtain from Eq. (h)


Pl 2
d= - 2EI

Substituting in the second of Eqs. (g) we find

and from Eq. (e) we find

Px 3
Pl 2x
(v)y=o = 6El - 2EI

Pl 2
Pc 2
e= 2EI - 2IG

Px 2 y
vPy 3
Py
( Pl 2
Pc 2 )
u = - 2EI - 6EI
6IG
2EI - 2IG y
vPxy 2
Px 3
Pl 2x
Pl 3
V = 2EI
6EI - 2EI
3EI

Pl 3

+ 3EI +

Pc 2
2IG (l - x)

(r)

Comparing this with Eq. (n) it can be concluded that, dueto rotation

Substituting all the constants in Eqs. (g), we find

pz2
e= 2EI

(l)

=O
( i)u)x=l
y y=O

(m)

The equation of the defiection curve is


Px
Pl 2x
(v)y=o = 6EI - 2EI

Pl 3

+ 3EI

which gives for the defiection at the loaded end (x = O) the value
Pl 3 /3EI. This coincides with the value usually derived in elementary
books on the strength of materials.
To illustrate the distortion of cross sections produced by shearing
stresses let us consider the displacement u at the fixed end (x = l).
For this end we have from Eqs. (m),
vPy 3
(u)x=z = - 6EI
vPy
- 2EI

Py 3
Pc 2y
6IG - 2IG

Py 2
Pc 2
2IG - 2IG

1
1

(n)
---

1
_J

l3PJ

(a)

(b)

4cG

FIG. 27.

of the end of the axis at A (Fig. 27b), the defiections of the axis of the
cantilever are increased by the quantity
Pc 2
2IG (l - x)

(o)

3P

-4cG
The shape of the cross section after distortion is as shown in Fig. 27 a.
Due to the shearing stress ,,. xY = -3P / 4c at the point A, an element of
the cross section at A rotates in the xy-plane about the point A through
an angle 3P / 4cG in the clockwise direction.
If a vertical element of the cross section is fixed at A (Fig. 27b).

3P
4cG (l - x)

This is the so-called effect of shearing force on the defiection of the beam.
ln practice, at the built-in end we have conditions different from those
shown in Fig. 27. The fixed section is usually not free to distort
and the distribution of forces at this end is different from that given
by Eqs. (b). Solution (b) is, however, satisfactory for comparatively long cantilevers at considerable distances from the terminals.
21. Bending of a Beam by Uniform Load. Let a beam of narrow
rectangular cross section of unit width, supported at the ends, be bent

40

THEORY OF ELASTJCITY

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS

by a uniformly distributed load of intensity q, as shown in Fig. 28


The conditions at the upper and lower edges of the beam are:

- 3q
4 C3 ( x2y

(a)

f.

= +ql,

<x

dy

!~. <TxY dy = O

=o,

(b)

- e2+2)
Y
-3 e

(d)

It can easily be checked that these stress components satisfy not only
conditions (a) on the longitudinal sides but also the first two conditions
(b) at the ends. To make the couples at the ends of the beam vanish
we superpose on solution (d) a pure bending, <Tx = day, <Ty = Txy = O,
shown in Fig. 22, and determine the constant da from the condition at
X=

+ -2)
e = - -q(l
-3 y
3
21

- 3q (c2 - y2)x = - .!L (c2 - y2)a;


4c
21

The last two of Eqs. (b) state that there is no longitudinal force and no
bending couple applied at the ends of the beam. All the conditions
(a) and (b) can be satisfied by combining certain solutions in the form

2 y) -- - 21
q ( x2y - 3
2 y)
- 3

-3q(l- y - c2y
= - 4c
3

l are

The conditions at the ends x =

f- Teydy

<111

41

l
from which
y

d3 =

fcJ

(6)

(a)

of polynomials as obtained in Art. 17. We begin with solution (g)


illustrated by Fig. 25. To remove the tensile stresses along the side
y = e and the shearing stresses along the sides y = e we superpose a
simple compression <Ty = a2 from solution (b), Art. 17, and the stresses
<Ty = bay and Txy = -bax in Fig. 23.
ln this manner we find

<Ty

Tzy

= dr,(x 2y - jy)
= td5y 3 + bay + a2
= -dr,Xy 2

(e)

bsX

From the conditions (a) we find


-d5C 2 - ba =
-ld5c + bac + a2 = O
-j-d5c 3 - bac
a2 = -q
3

from which
a2 = -

2"'

ba

3q
-4c-,

- ~)5

Hence, finally,

FIG. 28.

<Tx

~lj_(~
4e c

d5 = -

3 q

4 C3

Substituting in Eqs. (e) and noting that 2c/3 is equal to the moment of
inertia l of the rectangular cross-sectional area of unit width, we find

u., = =

~4 c2. (x2y - 3~ y) + ~4 2e (~c - ~)


y
5
2

.!L (z2 - x2)y


21

+ .!L
(~ y - ~5 c2y)
21 3

(33)

The first term in this expression represents the stresses given by the
usual elementary theory of bending, and the second term gives the
necessary correction. This correction does not depend on x and is
small in comparison with the maximum bending stress, provided ths
span of the beam is large in comparison with its depth. For such
beams the elementary theory of bending gives a sufficiently accurate
value for the stresses <Tz. It should be noted that expression (33) is an
exact solution only if at the ends x = l the normal forces are distributed according to the law
X-

= -3q(2
-3 - y8
4c

2 c 2y)

l from
Eq. (33). These forces have a resultant force anda resultant couple
equal to zero. Hence, from Saint-Venant's principle we can conclude

i.e., if the normal forces at the ends are the sarne as ux for x =

,!

.:

that their effects on the stresses at considerable distances from the


ends, say at distances larger than the depth of the beam, can be
neglected. Solution (33) at such points is therefore accurate enough
for the case when there are no forces X.
The discrepancy between the exact solution (33) and the approximate solution, given by the first term of (33), is dueto the fact that in
deriving the approximate solution it is assumed that the longitudinal
fibers of the beam are in a condition of simple tension. From solution
(d) it can be seen that there are compressive stresses uy between the
fibers. These stresses are responsible for the correction represented
by the second term of solution (33). The distribution of the compressive stresses <Ty over the depth of the beam is shown in Fig. 28c
The distribution of shearing stress rxv, given by the third of Eqs. (d),
over a cross section of the beam coincides with that given by the usual
elementary theory.
When the beam is loaded by its own weight instead of the distributed load q,
the solution must be modified by putting q = 2pgc in (33) and the last two of Eqs.
(d), and adding the stresses

=o,

Uy

(e)

= pg(C - y),

For the stress distribution (e) can be obtained from Eqs. (29) by taking

t/>

= !pg(cx

+y

43

TWO-DIMENSION AL PROBLEMS

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

42

/3)

beam is not at the center line.

Due to the compressive stress

(uy)y=O

= - ~

the center line has a tensile strain vq/2E, and we find


vqx
(u)v=O = 2E

From the expression for v we find the equation of the deflection curve,
x4
1
12 - 5 c2x2

q [z2x2

(v)v~o = - 2EI

2 -

+ ( 1 + 21 v)

Assuming that the deflection is zero at the ends (x


line, we find

= !_ ql

24 EI

c2x2

(f)

= l) of the center

+ 512 l2c2 (45 + 2V)]

(34)

The factor before the brackets is the deflection which is derived by the
elementary analysis, assuming that cross sections of the beam remain
plane during bending. The second term in the brackets repreilents the
correction usually called the effect of shearing force.
By differentiating Eq. (f) for the deflection curve twice with respect
to x, we find the following expression for the curvature:

(dxdv)2 v=o = EIq [z2- 2- x2- + c (45 + 2v)J


2

and therefore represents a possible state of stress due to weight and boundary
forces. On the upper edge y = -e we have ay = 2pgc, and on the lower edge
y = e, au = O. Thus when the stresses (e) are added to the previous solution,
with q = 2pgc, the stress on both horizontal edges is zero, and the load on the beam
consists only of its own weight.

The displacements u and v can be calculated by the method indicated in the previous article. Assuming that at the centroid of the
middle cross section (x = O, y = O) the horizontal displacement is zero
and the vertical displacement is equal to the deflection , we find, using
solutions (d) and (33),
u =

2~1 [ (z

x -

q { y4

~) y + x (~ y
c2y2

= - 2EI 12 - 2

~ c y) + vx
2

+ 32 cy + v [ (l2 -

q [z2x2
- 2EI 2

x2)

x4
1
12 - 5 c2x2

y2

cy

+~c

3
)]

+ 6y4 - 51 c2y2 ] }

+ ( 1 + 21 v)

c2x2

It ca.n be seen from the expression for u that the neutral surface of the

(35)

It will be seen that the curvature is not exactly proportional to the


bending moment 1 q(l 2 - x 2) /2. The additional term in the brackets
represents the necessary correction to the usual elementary formula.
A more general investigation of the curvature of beams shows2 that the
corr~ction term given in expression (35) can also be used for any case of
contmuously varying intensity of load. The effect of shearing force
on the deflection in the case of a concentrated load will be discussed
later (page__107).
'
An elementary derivation of the effect of the shearing force on the curvatura
of the de~ection curve of beams has been made by Rankine in England and by
Grashof 4 m Germany. Taking the maximum shearing .strain at the netral
:This was pointed out first by K. Pearson, Quart. J. Math., vol. 24, p. 6, 1889.
See paper by T. v. Krmn, Abhandl. aerodynam. Inst., Tech. Hochschule
'
Aachen, vol. 7, p. 3, 1927.
3
Rankine, "Applied Mechanics,'' 14th ed., p. 344, 1895.
~ Grashof, "Elastizitt und Festigkeit," 2d ed., 1878.

45

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS

axis of a rectangular beam of unit width as !(Q/2cG), where Q is the shearing force,
the corresponding increase in curvature is given by the derivative of the above
shearing strain with respect to x, whiah gives f(q/2cG). The corrected expression
for tbe curvature by elementary analysis then becomes

evident that the first terms in the expressions for u,, and -r Z1/ are the
values of the stresses calculated by the usual elementary formulas.
On the top end of the beam (x = O) the normal stress is zero. The
shearing stress is

'14

z2 -

q
x2
EI. - 2 -

q
+ 32 2cG
=

[z2 -

q
z2
EI - 2 -

+ c (l + v) ]

TZll = - .!L3 (c4 - y4)


8c

Comparing this with expression (35), it is seen that the elementary solution gives
an exaggerated value 1 for the correction.
The correction term in expression (35) for the curvature cannot be attributed
to the shearing force alone. It is produced partially by the compressive stresses u,.
These stresses are not uniformly distributed over the depth of the beam. The
lateral expansion in the x-direction produced by these stresses diminishes from the
top to the bottom of the beam, and in this way a reversed curvature (convex
upwards) is produced. This curvature together with the effect of shearing force
accounts for the correction term in Eq. (35).

22. Other Cases of Continuously Loaded Beams. By increasing


the degree of polynomials representing solutions of the two-dimensional
problem (Art. 17), we may obtain solutions of bending problems with various
types of continuously varying load. 2
By taking, for instance, a solution in the
l
e e
forro of a polynomial of the sixth degree
and combining it with the previous
solutions of Art. 17, we may obtain the
stresses in a vertical cantilever loaded
by hydrostatic pressure, as shown in
FIG. 29.
Fig. 29. ln this manner it can be
shown that all conditions on the longitudinal sides of the cantilever are
satisfied by the following system of stresses:
u"'

- qxy
- 4c

+ 4c
q (
-

u11 = - qx
2

TZll

3qx

2 s
xy

+ 56 e xy
2

+ qx (:t...
- 3y)
4c
4c

(a)

= Se (c2 - y2) - Se (c4 - y4)

q 3
+ 4c
5 c2(c2 -

_ y2)

Although these stresses are different from zero, they are very small all
over the cross section and their resultant is zero, so that the condition
approaches that of an end free from externai forces.
By adding to u,, in Eqs. (a) the term -q1x, in which q1 is the weight
of unit volume of the material of the cantilever, the effect of the weight
of the beam on the stress distribution is taken into account. It has
been proposed 1 to use the solution obtained in this way for calculating
the stresses in masonry dams of rectangular cross section. It should
be noted that this solution does not satisfy the conditions at the bottom
of the dam. Solution (a) is exact if, at the bottom, forces are acting
which are distributed in the sarne manner as u,, and -rZll in solution (a).
ln an actual case the bottom of the dam is connected with the foundation, and the conditions are different from those represented by this
solution. From Saint-Venant's principie it can be stated that the
effect of the constraint at the bottom is negligible at large distances
from the bottom, but in the case of a masonry dam the cross-sectional
dimension 2c is usually not small in comparison with the height l and
this effect cannot be neglected. 2
By taking for the stress function a polynomial of the seventh degree
the stresses in a beam loaded by a parabolically distributed load may
be obtained.
ln the general case of a continuous distribution of load q, Fig. 30, the stresses
at any cross section at a considerable distance from the ends, say at a distance
larger than the depth of the beam, can be approximately calculated from the
following equations: 3
1

M. Levy, Compt. rend., vol. 126, p. 1235, 1S98.


The problem of stresses in masonry dams is of great practical interest and has
?een discussed by various authors. See K. Pearson, On Some Disregarded Points
m the Stability of Masonry Dams, Drapers.' Co. Research Mems., 1904; K. Pearson
and C. Pollard, An ]_Bxperimental Study of the Stresses in Masonry Dams, Drapers'.
Co. Researeh Mems., 1907. See also papers by L. F. Richardson, Trans. Roy.
Soe. (London) series A, vol. 210, p. 307, 1910; and S. D. Carothers, Proe. Roy. Soe.
Edinburgh, vol. 33, p. 292, 1913. I. Muller, Publieations du laboratoire de photolasticit, Zrich, 1930. Fillunger, Oesterr. Wochschr. jfentl. Baudienst, 1913,
Heft, 45. K. Wolf, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 123, 1914.
8
F. Seewald, Abhandl. aerodynam. Inst., Tech. Hoehschule Aachen vol. 7 p. 11
1927.
'
'
,
,
2

y2)

Here q is the weight of unit volume of the fluid, so that the intensity of
the load at a depth x is qx. The shearing force and the bending
moment at the sarne depth are qx 2 /2 and qx 3/6, respectively. It is
A better approximation is given by elementary strain-energy considerations.
See S. Timoshenko, "Strength of Materiais,'' 2d ed., vol. 1, p. 299.
1 See papers by Timpe, Zoe. cit.; W. R. Osgood, J. Researeh N atl. Bur. Standards,
vol. 28, p. 159, 1942.
1

+ 4c
.!L ~ c2(c2
5

46

THEORY OF ELASTICITY
O":i;

11
Tz11

+ q (E_
.!1!:)
2c
10 e

= My
I

The general integral of this linear difl'erential equation with constant coefficients is

'1

= -

+ q (3y
- E)
4c
4c

~ (c2

(36)

- y2)

+ q (y
2c -

My

<T

11

'1

Tz11

+ q (3y
4c

j(y) = C1 cosh ay

+ C2 sinh ay + C,y cosh ay + C,y sinh ay

The stress function then is

in which M and Q are the bending moment


and shearing forces calculated in the usual
e
way and q is the intensity of load at the
1----------1----1--x cross section under consideration. These
equations agree with those previously obe
tained for a uniformly loaded beam (see Art.
21).
If the load of intensity q, in the downy
ward direction, is distributed along the lower
Frn. 30.
edge (y = +e) of the beam, the expressions
for the stresses are obtained from Eqs. (36) by superposing a uniform tensile stress,
a 11 = q, an
<Tz

47

TWO-DIMENSION AL PROBLEMS

sin ax(C1 cosh ay

+ C2 sinh ay + C,y cosh ay + C4Y sinh ay)

(d)

and the corresponding stress coroponents are


a,. =

:~~

.sin ax [C1a 2 cosh ay

= !'</>
!x' =

<Ty

Tzy

+ C2a

sinh ay

+ C a(2 sinh ay
3

+ ay cosh ay) + C4a(2 cosh ay + ay sinh ay)J


+ C2 sinh ay + C 3y cosh ay + C 4 y sinh ay)

-a 2 sin ax(C1 cosh ay

!'<J>
= - iJxiJy

(e)

+ C2a cosh ay + c.(cosh ay


+ ay sinh ay) + C4(sinh ay + ay cosh ay)J

-a cos ax[C1a sinh ay

Let us consider a particular case of a rectangular bearo supported at the ends


and subjected along the upper and lower edges to the action of continuously

3 y)
10

- E)
4c

</> =

(36')

(c2 - y2)

23. Solution of the Two-dimensional Problem in the Form of a Fourier Series.


It has been shown that if the load is continuously distributed along the length of a
rectangular beam of narrow cross section a stress function in the forro of a polynomial may be used in certain simple cases. If the load is discontinuous, a stress
function in the forro of a trigonoroetric series should be used,1 The equation for
the stress function,
(a)
roay be satisfied by taking the function
</> =

</>

in the forro

sin ~f(y)
l

(b)

Frn. 31.
d~stributed vertical forces of the intensity A sin ax and B sin ax, respectively.
Figure 31 shows the case when a = 47/l and indicates also the positive values of
A and B. The stress distribution for this case can be obtained froro solution (e).
The constants of integration C1, . . . , C4 roay be deterroined froro the conditions
on the upper and lower edges of the beam, y = e. These conditions are:

For y

=+e,

in which m is an integer andf(y) a function of y only. Substituting (b) into Eq. (a)
and using the notation m1/l =a, we find the following equation for deterroining
f(y):

a4f(y) - 2a2j(y)

+ JIY(y)

= O

(e)

1 The first application of trigonometric series in the solution of beam problema


was given by M. C. Ribiere in a thesis, Sur divers cas de la fl.exion des prismes
rectangles, Bordeaux, 1889. See also his paper in Compt. rend., vol. 126, pp. 402404 and 1190-1192. Further progress in the application of this solution was roade
by L. N. G. Filon, Phil. Trans., series A, vol. 201, p. 63, 1903. Severa! particular
examples were worked out by F. Bleich, Bauingenieur, vol. 4, p 255, 1923.

Tz11

Fory""

0,

<Tu=

-B sin ax
(f)

-e,
T~ 11

== 0,

Substituting these values in the thirc\ of Eqs. (e), we find


C1a sinh ac

+ C2a cosh ac + C,(cosh ac + ac sinh ac)

-C:ia smh 0<c

+ C4(sinh ac + ac cosh ac)

... O

+ ac cosh ac)

=O

+ C2a cosh ac + Ca(cosh ac + ac sinh ac)

- C,(sinh ac

48

TWO-DIMENSJONAL PROBLEMS

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

For long beams ac, equal to m7rc/l, is small, provided the number or waves m is not
large. Then, substituting in (l),

from which

e
e
a cosh ac
a= - 2 coshac+acsinhac
e
e1
asinhac
4

= -

(g)

sinhac +accoshac

Usiug the conditions on the sides y =

e in the second of Eqs.

a 2 (C1 cosh ac + C2 sinh ac + Cac cosh ac


a 2(C1 cosh ac - C2 sinh ac - Cac cosh ac

Ci = A + B . sin~ ac + ac cosh ac
a2
smh 2ac + 2ac
c2 = _ A - B . cosh ac + ac sinh ac
a2
sinh 2ac - 2ac
Ca = A - B a cosh ac
a2
sinh 2ac - 2ac
= _ A + B. . a sinh ac
a2
smh 2ac + 2ac

(h)

e,

Substituting in Eqs. (e), we find the following expressions for the stress components:
A + B) (ac cosh ac - sinh ac) cosh ay - ay sinh ay sinh ac . .
sinh 2ac + 2ac
sm ax
B) (ac sinh ac - cosh ac) sinh ay - ay cosh ay cosh ac .
A
- ( sinh 2ac - 2ac
. sm ax

= (

u,, = - (

,,1:

A + B) (ac cosh ac + sinh ac) cosh ay - ay sinh ay sinh ac .


sinh 2ac + 2ac
sm ax

A
+(

1.1

I'

'i

1.,:

'1

B) (ac sinh ac + cosh ac) sinh a1F..:... ay cosh a'fi cosh ac .


sinh 2ac - 2ac
sm ax
A + B) ac cosh ac sinh ay - ay: cosh ay sinh ac
- (
sinh 2ac + 2ac
cos ax
(A
B) ac sinh ac cosh ay - ay sitih-ay cosh ac
.
cos ax
smh 2ac - 2ac

(k)

-+

These stresses satisfy the conditions shown in Fig. 31 along the sides y = e.
At the ends of the beam x =O and x = l, the stresses u., are zero and only shearing
stress Tu is present. This stress is represented by two terms [see Eqs. (k)]. The
first term, proportional to A + B, represents stresses which, for the upper and
lower halves of the end crosfliect1on, are of the sarne magnitude but of opposite
sign. The resultant of these stresses over the end is zero. The second term,
proportional to A - B, has resultants at the ends of the beam which-J]!ainfain
equilibrium with the loads JH>l".Ked_to the_ l9ngitu-dinaLsides (y = e).
H these loads are the sarne for both s1des, coeffic!ent A is equal to B, and the
reactive forces at the ends vanish'. Lt us consider this particular case more :fu
detail, assuming that the length of the beam is large in comparison with its depth.
From the second of Eqs. (k) the normal stresses u 11 over the middle plane y =O
()f the beam are
_ 2A ac cosh ac + sinh ac sin oa:
(l)
=
sinh 2ac + 2ac

uv

cosh ac = 1 + (ac) + (ac) +


2
24

. ax ( 1 - "24
(ac)4)
, u, = - A s1n

= B
= A

By adding and subtracting these equations and using Eqs. (g), wefin

u"'

(ac)5
(ac) 3
sinhac = ac + - - + - - +
6
120
'

and neglecting small quantities of higher order than (ac)4, we find

(e), we find

+ C c sinh ac)
+ C c sinh ac)
4

49

Hence for small values of ac :the distribution of stresses over the middle plane is
practically the sarne as on both horizontal edges (y = e) ofthe beam. It
can be concluded that pressures are
transmitted through a beam or plate
without any substantial change, provided the variation of these pressures
along- the sides is not rapid.
The shearing stresses 'Tu for this case
are very cmall. On the upper and
lower halves of the end cross sections
y
they add up to the small resultants
FIG. 32.
necessary to balance the small difference
between the pressures on the horizontal edges (y = e) and the middle plane
(y =O).
ln the most genera~ case the distribution of vertical loading along the upper
and lower edges of a beam (Fig. 32) can be represented by the following series:i
For the upper edge,
q.. = Ao +

l"'

Am sin mrx +

m=l

l"'

Am' cos mrx

m=l

For the lower edge,


qi = B O

(m)

\'"'
+ 1...
m=1

. ffl7rX
m E''ll - 1-

"'

\'

+ 1...
m=l

Bm'

ffl1X

COS -

1:he const~nt terms Ao and Bo representa uniform loading of the beam, which was
d1sc~ssed m Art. 21. Stresses produced by terms containing sin (m7rx/l) are
obta1ned by summing up solutions (k). The stresses produced by terms containing
cos (m7rx/l) are easily obtained from (k) by exchanging sin ax for cos ax and vice
versa, and by changing the sign of 'Txy.
To illustrate the application of this general method of stress calculation in
rectangular plates, let us consider the case shown in Fig. 33. For this case of
symmetrical loading the terms with sin (m1x/l) vanish from expressions (m) and
the coefficients Ao and Am' are obtained in the usual manner
'
1
For Fourier series see Osgood, "Advanced Calculus" 1928 or Byerly "Fourier
series
. and Spherical Harmonics," 1902; or Churchill "Fourier
'
' Series and
' Boundary Value Problemil," 1941.

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

50

Ao= Bo

qa

T'

Am'

= Bm' = l

mr:i:

-a q cos - 1- dx

TWO DIMENSJON AL PROBLEMS

2 sin~
q
l
mr

(n)

The tcrms Ao and Bo representa uniform compression in the y-direction equal to


qa/l. The stresses produced by the trigonometp
ric terms are obtained by using solutions (k),
exchanging sin aX for cos ax in this solution
and changing the sign of Tzy
Let us consider the middle plane y = O, on
~

Lz

I \

il.O

1.5

'1:5 0.5
la

l_J

.a o
~ -3 -z

:y
Fm. 33.

which there is only the normal stress <Ty.

'

'

-1
1
Voilues ofx/c
Fm. 34.

By using the second of Eqs. (k) we find

also the case shown in Fig. 35 when the forces P are displaced one with respect to
the other. The distribution of shearing stresses over the cross section nn in this
case is of practical interest and is shown in Fig. 36. It may be seen that for small
values of the ratio b/c this distribution does not resemble the parabolic distribution
given by the elementary theory, and that there are very large stresses at the top
and bottom of the beam while the middle
X
portion of the beam is practically free
e
from shearing stresses.
ln the problem of Fig. 34 there will by
1.0 ~~:t==t==i==i=:::::i::-. symmetry be no shear stress and no
0.81-~~:--14-:=""-~===+:--I vertical displacement at the middle line
y = O. The upper half therefore corre0.6 1----f--,A,~"'tsponds to an elastic layer resting on a
rigid smooth base. 1
Let us consider now another extreme
case when the depth. of the plate 2c is
0.2 t--++-f---H--H+

Ot--H-t--lf-++-"'~~+---+---1

- 0.2 i----tt-+-tt--il+t--+---1--+---I
-O~i-----v--~t--Yl'-+--+---1--+---1

-0.6 t----t--""'dh""lil--t---+---1--+---I
(T'll

-0.8 t-:~7f--fT--i--;:;J;;::=---I
0.5

This stress was evaluated by Filon 1 for an infinitely long strip when the dimension
a is very small (i.e., concentrated force P = 2qa). The results of this calculation

1.0

-jhl-

1:i

~lJ.

!,

1;

~b

~+
:n

.11~

2l

are shown in Fig. 34. It will be seen that 11y diminishes very rapidly with x. Ata
value x/c = 1.35, it becomes zero anJ is then replaced by tension. Filon discusses
1 L. N. G. Filon, Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 201, p. 67, 1903.
The
sarne problem was discussed also by A. Timpe, Z. Math. Physik, vol. 55, p. 149,
1907; G. Mesmer, Vergleichende spannungsoptische Untersuchungen . . . ,
Dissertation, Gttingen, 1929; F. Seewald, Abhandl. aerodynam. Inst., Tech.
Hochschule, Aachen, vol. 7, p. 11, 1927; and H. Bay, lngenieur-Archiv, vol. 3,
p. 435, 1932. An approximate solution of the sarne problem was given by M.
Pigeaud, Compt. rend., vol. 161, p. 673, 1915. The investigation of the problem in
the case of a rectangular plate of finite length was made by J. N. Goodier, J.
Applied Mechawics (Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 54, no. 18, p. 173, 1932.
1

f:

lil

.:
1

3.0 35

-p-

Fm. 37.

targe in comparison with the length 2l (Fig. 37). We shall use this case to show
that the distribution of stresses over cross sections rapidly approaches uniformity
as the distance from the point of application of the forces P increases. By using
the second of Eqs. (k) with cos a:i; instead of sin aX and expressions (n) for coefficients Am', equal to Bm', we find

..

Fm. 35.

2.5

Fm. 36.

nP

,.1

1.5 2.0
2c-rx;y

qa
l

4q lsinaa (accoshac+sinhac) coshay-aysinhaysinhac


--
.
cosax (p)
7r
m
smh 2ac + 2ac

<Ty- - - - -

m=l

in which qa = P /2. If l is small in comparison with e, ac is a large number and it


can be neglected in comparison with sinh ac. We can also put
sinh ac

= cosh ac = ie

For cross sections at a large distance from the middle of the plate we can write
1

The rough base is considered by K. Marguerre, lngenieur-Archiv, vol. 2, p. 108,


1931, anda flexible but inextensible layer embedded in the elastic material, a case
of interest in soil mechanics, by M. A. Biot, Physics, vol. 6, p. 367, 1935.

sinh ay

= cosh aY = }eu.

Substituting these in Eq. (p), we find

.,
_ qa _ 4q "\' sin aa [(ac
u,, =
l
.,..
2m

i./

+ l)e"<u-c) -

aye<rl] cos ax

m=l
00

_ qa _ 4q.
l
.,..

2:

-z-[

+ 1] e-r<u-c) cos -zmr

ffl7ra

s1n
___
~ (e - y)
2m
l

53

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

.52

m.,..:i;

24. Other Applications of Fourier Series. Gravity Loading. The problems


considered in Art. 23 concemed a single "span" l or 2l. The solutions, however,
can equally well be regarded as representing periodic states of stress in long strips
parallel to the x-axis, since a Fourier series represents a periodic function. A continuous beam consisting of a sequence of equal spans similarly loaded will have
such a periodic stress distribution if the end conditions are appropriate. If, as
in certain reinforced-concrete bunker constructions, the beam is essentially a wall
supported at points whose distance apart is comparable with the depth (Fig. 39),
useful results can be obtained by the present method. 1 ~he elementary beam

m=l

H e - y is not very small, say e - y > l/2, this series converges very rapidly and
it is only necessary to take a few terms in calculating u 11 Then we can take

and putting 2aq = P, we find

u 11 = -

:Z - ~

l [t
.,

11

(e - y)

+1

~"'(y-c)

m.,..:i;

cos -z-

m= 1

,.

J1~-q,~

q.I

JIL

~,y

21>

2h

Jll
2b

FIG. 39.

For y = e - l, for instance,


0'11

= -

+ 1 cos ..-xl + 2..- + 1 cos 2..-x


+ 3..-e3..+ 1 cos 3..-x
+ . . )
er
l
l

p (..-

2l - 7

e2..

The first three terms of the series are sufficient to give good accuracy ~nd .the
stress distribution is as shown in Fig. 38b. ln the sarne figure the stress distributions for e - y = l/2 and e - y = 2l are
~
~
also given.1 It is evident that ata distance
~I
from the end equal to the width of th~ strip
1~
(a)
L -- _J
the stress distribution is practically uniform,
which confirms the conclusion usually made
~
on the basis of Saint-Venant's principle.
For a long strip such as in Fig. 37 the u,.
stresses will be transmitted through the
' l : > I T T p width 2l of the plate with little change, pro(6)
~-f]JllllllllllllllllJllll_i_tzt vided the rate of variation along the edge is
'--~-~
not too rapid. The stresses of the present
c-y=l solution will, however, require some correcITr
tion on this account, especially near the ends,

1f;

c-rJ

!;;

Ll

11
1

!'

1'
1

<cJ

~lliilllliiilQlllllllrnill~ 1& ~1= wTt~ cA=so;t~; ~ ~;:e~fe:~i!~~;


~

c-y=2l yields a practically uniform compressive


;-.:
stress over the middle horizontal section, in
FIG. 3S.
agreement with Fig. 38c. The stresses in
the vicinity of the points of application of the loads P will be discussed later (see
page 85).

See paper by F. Bleich, loc. cit.


a J. N. Goodier, Trans. A.S.M.E., vol. 54, p. 173, 1932,

li!

i:i

''.:;

theory is not adequate. A uniformly distributed load q1 on the lower edge, supported by upward reactions uniformly distributed in widths 2b at intervala l,
presents a special case covered by Eqs. (m) of Art. 23. If the load q1 is applied
on the upper edge it is merely necessary to add the stress distribution due to equal
and opposite uniformly distributed pressures q1 on both upper and lower edges.
If the load is the weight of the beam itself the resulting body-force problem may
at once be reduced to an edge-load problem. The simple stress distribution
u,.

= O,

u 11

-pg(y +e),

-r, 11 = O

satisfies the e(!uations of equilibrium and compatibility (19) and (24). It clearly
represents support by uniformly distributed pressure 2pgc on the lower edge in
Fig. 39. The condition that u11 is zero at the lower edge, except at the supports
(of width 2b), is satisfied by adding this stress distribution to that represented by
Fig. 39 when q1 is replaced by 2pgc, and the stress is due to q and q1 without body
force.
Problems

1. Investigate what problem of plane stress is solved by the stress function


ti>

= 3F

4c

(xy _3cxy) + ~2 y
2

2. Investigate what problem is solved by


_: ! ti> = -

xy2(3d - 2y)

applied to the region included in y = O, y = d, x = O, on the side x positive.


1
Problems of this kind are discussed, with references, in the book "Die Statik im
Eisenbetonbau," by K. Beyer, 2d ed., p. 723, 1934; see also H. Craemer, IngenieurA.rchiv, vol. 7, p. 325, 1936.

THEORY OF ELASTICITY
3. Show that

q,

8~3

[ x2

(y - 3c2y +2c) - ~ y (y2 - 2c2)]

is a stress function, and find what problem it solves when applied to the region
included in y = e, x =O, on the side x positive.

CHAPTER 4

4. The stress function


2
3
2
1
xy
ly)
.P=s ( x yxy
- -4c2
- +ly
- +4c2
4
4c
4c

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

is proposed as giving the solution for a cantilever (y = e, O < x < l) loaded by


uniform shear along the lower edge, the upper edge and the end x = l being free
from load. ln what respects is this solution imperfect? Compare the expressions for the stresses with those obtainable from elementary tension and bending
formulas.
6. The beam of Fig. 28 is loaded by its own weight instead of the load q on the
upper edge. Find expressions for the displacement components u and 11. Find
also an expression for the change of the (originally unit) thickness.
6. The cantilever of Fig. 26, instead of having a narrow rectangular cross section, has a wide rectangular cross section, and is maintained in plane strain by
suitable forces along the vertical sides. The load is P per unit width on the end.
Justify the statement that the stresses ux, u., .,.,. are the sarne as those found
in Art. 20. Find an expression for the stress u,, and sketch its distribution along
the sides of the cantilever. Write down expressions for the displacement components u and 11 when a horizontal element of the axis is fixed at x = l.
7. Show that if V is a plane harmonic function, i.e., it satisfies the Laplace
equation

av
2

az2

av
+ ay2
2

=O

then the functions xV, yV, (x 2 + y2 )V will each satisfy Eq. (a) of Art. 17, and
so can be used as stress functions.
8. Show that
is a stress function.
Derive series expressions for the stresses in a semi-infinite plate, y
normal pressure on the straight edge (y = O) having the distribution

> O, due to

"'
\'b.
L, ,,. Slll m'lrX
- 1

m=l

Show that the stress ux ata point on the edge is a compression equal to the applied
pressure at that point. Assume that the stress tends to disappear as y becomes
large.
9. Show that (a) the stresses given by Eqs. (e) of Art. 23 anel (b) the stresses in
Prob. 8 satisfy Eq. (b) of Art. 16.

26. General Equations in Polar Coordinates. ln discussing stresses


in circular rings and disks, curved bars of narrow rectanglar cross section with a circular axis, etc., it is advantageous to use polar coordinates. The position of a point in the middle plane of a plate is then
defined by the distance from the origin O (Fig. 40) and by the angle 8
between r and a certain axis Ox fixed in the plane.
Let us now consider the equilibrium of a small element 1234 cut out
from the plate by the radial sections 04, 02, normal to the plate, and by
two cylindrical surfaces 3, 1, normal to the
plate. The normal stress componeilt in
the radial direction is denoted by u,, the
normal component in the circumferential
direction by u9, and the shearing-stress
component by r,9, each symbol representing stress at the point r, 8, which is the
'
ruoJr /.
mid-point P of the element. On account
f-rz.9 )2 !
(o;.J.t
of the variation of stress the values at the
;y
rr;.eh
mid-points of the sides 1, 2, 3, 4 are not
r=OP
4
quite the sarne as the values u,, u 9, r, 9, and
Fra.
are denoted by (u,)i, etc., in Fig. 40. The radii of the sides 3, 1 are
denoted by ra, r1. The radial force on the side 1 is u, 1r 1 d8 which may
be written (u,r)i d8, and similarly the radial force on side 3 is -(u,r)a
d8. The normal force on side 2 has a component along the radius
through P of -(u9)2(r1 - ra) sin (d8/2), which may be replaced by
-(uJJh dr (d8/2). The corresponding component from side 4 is
-(u9)4 dr (d8/2). The shearing forces on sides 2 and 4 give [(r, 9)2 (r.9)4]dr.
Summing up forces in the radial direction, including body force R
per unit volume in the radial direction, we obtain the equation of
equilibrium
(u,r)i d8 - (u,r)a d8 - (u9)2

dr~ - (u 9) 4 dr~

+ [(r,9)2 55

:li
'l

1 .

(r,9)4] dr

+ Rr d8 dr = O

56

Using these, and considering q, as a function of r and O, we find

Dividing by dr dO this becomes


(11,r)i

d", (11,r)a -

~ [(119)2

+ (119)4) + (r,9)2 ~O (r,9)4 + Rr =

aq, = aq, ar
ax
r ax

If the dimensiona of the element are now taken smaller and smaller, to
the limit zero, the first term of this equation is in the limit a(11,r)/ar.
The second becomes 11 8, and the third ar.e/ ao. The equation of equilibrium in the tangential direction may be derived in the sarne manner.
The two equations take the final forro

a11,
ar

+ ! ar,e + 11, - 118 + R = O


r ao
r
_! a11e + ar,9 + 2r,e = O
r ao

ar

11e

!r

aq, ao = aq, cos o - .!. aq, sin o


iJO ax
ar
r O

ax 2 (.!ar cos o- !r sin o~)


ao ("'
r cos 8 - !r "'
ao sin e)
2

"'

a2q, cos2 0
r 2

2
2
coso
2 iJ <P sin Ocos O + aq, sin o + 2 aq, sino 2
(J iJr

iJr

ao

a q, sin o
2

(37)

+ ao

(b)

ln the sarne manner we find

"'r + .lr2a2q,
a8 2

a2q, = a2 q, sin 2 0 + 2 a2 q, sino cos o + aq, cos2 8


ay 2
r 2
ao r
r
ar r
_ aq, sin 8 cos O + 2 q, cos 2 O (e)
2
ao
r2
8 2 r2
Adding together (b) and (e), we obtain

a2q,
r 2

(38)

a2q,
ax 2

(1 "')

a r ao.
ar

where q, is the stress function as function of r and 8. This of coure


may be verified by direct substitution. A derivation of (38) is included
in what follows.
i To yield a possible stress distribution, this function must ensure that
the condition of compatibility is satisfied. ln Cartesian coordinates
(see page 26) this condition is

iJ4q,
ax4

To get the second derivative with respect to x, it is only necessary to


repeat the above operation; hence

These equations take the place of Eqs. (18) when we solve twodimensional problema by means of polar coordinates. When the body
force Ris zero they are satisfied by putting

11

57

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

THEORY OF ELASTIC ITY

J4q,
+ 2 ax2 y2

4"'
+ ay4 =O

a2 q,
a2 q,
ay 2 = r 2

1 aq,

1 a2 q,

+ r r + Ti 80

(d)

Using the identity

a4q,
x'

a4q,

aq,

+ 2 ax2 ay2 + y4 =

( 82
axz

a2 )

+ ayz

(2"'
2"')
ax2 + ay2
0

and Eq. _(d), the compatibility equation (a) in polar coordinates


becomes
2
a22)
( ara + r1 ara + Ti1 0
2

(a)

(r2+ r aq,r + T2 a0q,)2


2

"'

(39)

for the present purpose. we need this equation transfortned to polar


rordinates.~ _Th~ relatiQn between pola:rand Q.11.rtes_ian coordinate,s-is
given by

From various solutions of this partial differential equation we obtain


solutions of two-dimensional problema in polar coordinates for various
boundary conditions. Several examples of such problems will be discussed in this chapter.

frniwhich

The first. and second of the expressions (38) follow from Eqs. (b) and (e). If
we choose any point in the plate, and let the x-axis pass through it, we have O = O,
and <rz, <rv are the sarne, for this particular point, as u,, u 8 Thus from (e), putting

ar X
= - =coso
x r
'
sin
ao
_ JL =
iJx =
r2
r
-

iJr = '!!.. = sin O


_y _ r, -0,
aO
X
COS 0
ay = T2 = - r -

___

(J

=o,

59

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

This expression continues to represent <Tr whatever the orientation of the x-axis.
We find similarly from (b), putting O = O,

r = O. Hence, for a plate without a hole at the origin and with no


body forces, only one case of stress distribution symmetrical with
respect to the axis may exist, namely that when ur = u9 = constant
and the plate is in a condition of uniform tension or uniform compression in all directions in its plane.
If there is a hole at the origin, other solutions than uniform tension
or compression can be derived from expressions (43). Taking B as
zero, 1 for instance, Eqs. 43 become

58

and the third expression of (38) can be obtained likewise by finding the expressiori
for -aq,/Jx Jy analogous to (b) and (e).

26. Stress Distribution Symmetrical about an Axis. lf the stress


distribution is symmetrical with respect to the axis through O perpendicular to the xy-plane (Fig. 40), the stress components do not
depend on (J and are functions of r only. From symmetry it follows
also that the shearing stress Tro must vanish. Then only the first of
the two- equations of equilibrium (37) remains, and we have

au.+~+R =0
ar

(40)

If the body force R is zero, we may use the stress function cf>.
When this function depends only on r, the equation of compatibility
(39) becomes

2 1 dq,)
d2
1 d) (d q,
(dr 2 + rdr dr 2 + r dr

d4q,

2 d 3 q,

+ r dr

3 -

2<J> + 1 dcf> dr 2
dr -

1d

T2

ra

(41)

This is an ordinary differential equation, which can be reduced to a


linear differential equation with constant coefficients by introducing a
new variable t such that r = e1 ln this manner the general solution
of Eq. (41) can easily be obtained. This solution has four const~n.ts of
integration, which must be determined from the boundary cond1t10ns.
By substitution it can be checked that
cf> = A log r + Br 2 log r + Cr 2 + D
(42)
is the general solution. The solutions of all problems of symmetrical
stress distribution and no body forces can be obtained from this. The
corresponding stress components from Eqs. 38 are
r

= -1acf>
- = -A
+ B(l
r ar
r2

a2q,
u8 = - 2
iJr

Tr8

= -

+ 20
(44)

-+
2C
r2

This solution may be adapted to represent the stress distribution in a


hollow cylinder submitted to uniform pressure on the inner and outer
surfaces 2 (Fig. 41). Let a and b denote theinner and outer radii of the
cylinder, and p; and Po the uniform interna! and externa! pressures.
Then the boundary conditions are:

(a)

= - 2A
r

Substituting in the first of Eqs. (44), we obtain the following equations


to determine A and C:
A
-a2
+ 2C =-pi

b2

+ B(3 + 2 log r) + 2C

-p

Substituting these in Eqs. (44) the following expressions for the stress
components are obtained:,

(43)

= 0

+ 2C =

from which

+ 2 log r) + 2e

If there is no hole at the origin of coordinates, constants A and B vanish since otherwise the stress components (43) become infinite when:

'

U9

A
r

= 2

(ur)r=a = -p;,

= dr4

Ur

a 2b2 (Po -

Ur

uo

= -

b2 - a2

Pi)

a 2b2 (Po -

b2 - a2

1
r2

Pi)

Pob 2
b2 - a2

p;a 2

Pob
. -1 + p;a
.,____ - _;__
r2

(45)

b2 - a2

Proof that B must be zero requires consideration of displacements. See p. 68


The solution of this problem is due to Lam, "Leons sur la thorie . . .
de l'lasticit," Paris, 1852.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

, It is interesting to note that the sum <Tr + <Ts is constant through the
thickness of the wall of the cylinder. Hence the stresses <Tr and <Te produce a uniform extension or contraction in the
direction of the axis of the cylinder, and cross
sections perpendicular to this axis remain plane.
Hence the deformation produced by the stresses
(45) in an element of the cylinder cut out by
two adjacent cross sections does not interfere
with the deformation of the neighboring elements, and it is justifiable to consider the element in the condition of plane stress as we did
Fm. 41.
in the above discussion.
ln the particular case when Po = O and the cylinder is submitted to
internal pressure only, Eqs. 45 give

27. Pure Bending of Curved Bars. Let us consider a curved bar


with a constant narrow rectangular cross section 1 and a circular axis
bent in the plane of curvature by couples M applied at the ends (Fig.
42). The bending moment in this case is constant along the length of
the bar and it is natural to expect that the stress distribution is the
sarne in all radial cross sections, and that the solution of the problem

a2p;

b2)
1 - r2

<Tr

= b2 - a2

<TB

= b2a?;a2 ( l

+ ~9

(ue)max. is always numerically greater than the internai pressure and


approaches this quantity as b increases, so that it can never be reduced
below p;, however much material is added on the outside. Various
applications of Eqs. (46) and (47) in machine design are usually discussed in elementary books on the strength of materials. 1
The corresponding problem for a cylinder with an eccentric bore is
considered in Art. 66. It was solved by G. B. Jeffery. 2 If the radius
of the bore is a and that of the externai surface b, and if the distance
between their centers is e, the maximum stress, when the cylinder is
under an internai pressure p;, is the tangential stress at the internai
surface ai the thinnest part, if e < }-a, and is of the magnitude

<T

2b 2(b 2 + a 2 - 2ae - e2)


]
p; [ (a 2 + b2) (b 2 - a 2 - 2ae - e2) - 1

If e = O, this coincides with Eq. (47).


See, for instance, S. Timoshenko, "Strength of Materiais," vol. 2, p. 236, 1941.
Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 221, p. 265, 1921. See also Brit.
Assoe. Advancement Sei. Repts., 1921.
1
1

ll

(46)

These equations show that <Tr is always a compressive stress and <Te a
tensile stress. The latter is greatest at the inner surface of the cylinder, where
p;(a2 + b2)
(47)
(us)mu:. =
b2 - a2

!'

61

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

60

Fm. 42.

can therefore be obtained by using expression (42). Denoting by a


and b the inner and the outer radii of the boundary and taking the
width of the rectangular cross section as unity, the boundary conditions
are
(1)
<Tr = O for r == a and r = b

(2)

(3)

ue dr = O,
Tr8

Lb u9r dr =

-M

(a)

O at the boundary

Condition (1) means that the convex and concave boundaries of the
bar are free from normal forces; condition (2) indicates that the normal
stresses at the ends give rise to the couple M only, and condition (3)
indicates that there are no tangential forces applied at the boundary.
Using the first of Eqs. (43) with (1) of the boundary conditions (a) we
obtain
A
2 + B(l + 2 log a) + 2C = O
a
A

b2

+ B(l + 2 log b) + 2C =O

(b)

From the general discussion of the two-dimensional problem, Art. 15, it follows
that the solution obtained below holds also for another extreme case when the
dimens~on of the cross section perpendicular to the plane of curvature is very large,
as, for mstance, in the case of a tunnel vault (see Fig. 10), if the load is the sarne
along the length of the tunnel.

TWO-DIMENSlONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

62

Substituting the values (f) of the constants into the expressions (43)
for the stress components, we find

From (2) of conditions (a) we find

fb
a

u8 dr =

Jb
a

a2q,
- 2 dr = \ct>\b
= O
ar
ar a

ur

or substituting for e/> its expression (42), we find

[~ + B(b + 2b log b) + 2Cb]


- [ ~ + B(a + 2a log a) + 2Ca J= O

<18
Tr8

(e)

Comparing this with (b), it is easy to see that (e) is satisfied, and the
forces at the ends are reducible to a couple, provided conditions (b) are
satisfied. To have the bending couple equal to M, the condition

[b uer dr = [b c/>2 r dr =
},
}a ar
must be fulfilled.
a

(d)

-M

W e have

fb

fb

a2q,
-rdr
= \ct>
- r\b ar 2
ar a

aq,
\ct>
-dr=
- r1b - \e/> lb
ar
ar a
a

and noting that on account of (b)

aq, r\b =O
\ ar a
we find from (d),
or substituting expression (42) for e/>,

A log~

!:
i i~

+ B(b 2 log b -

a 2 log a)+ C(b 2

a 2) = M

(e)

This equation, together with the two Eqs. (b), completely determines
the constants A, B, C, and we find
2M 2
4M
b
B = - (b - a2 )
A = - N a 2b2 log a'
N
(f)
M 2
2
2
2
C = N [b - a + 2(b log b - a log a)]
where for simplicity we have put

N
I'

= (b 2 -

63

2 2
)
-

4a 2b2

(1og ~)

(g)

(a

2 2
b + b2 log b + a 2 log r
= - 4M
N 7 b log a

2 2
4M (
a b
b
r
a
= - N
- T2
log + b2 log b + a 2 log

r + b2 -

)
a2

(48)

This gives the stress distribution satisfying all the boundary conditions1
(a) for pure bending and represents the exact solution of the problem,
provided the distribution of the normal forces at the ends is that given
by the second of Eqs. (48). If the forces giving the bending couple M
are distributed over the ends of the bar in some other manner the stress
'
distribution at the ends will be different from that of the solution
(48).
But on the basis of Saint-Venant's principle it can be concluded that
the deviations from solution (48) are very small and may be neglected
at large distances from the ends, say at distances greater than the
depth of the bar.
It is of practical interest to compare solution (48) with the elementary solutions usually given in books on the strength of materials. If
the depth of the bar, b - a, is small in comparison with the radius of
the central axis, (b + a)/2, the sarne stress distribution as for straight
bars is usually assumed. If this depth is not small it is usual in practice to assume that cross sections of the bar remain plane during the
bending, from which it can be shown that the distribution of the normal stresses <18 over any cross sections follows a hyperbolic law. 2 ln
all cases the maximum and minimum values of the stress u 8 can be presented in the forro
M
u9 = m(h)
a2
1
This solution is due to H. Golovin, Trans. Inst. Tech., St. Petersburg, 1881.
The paper, published in Russian, remained unknown in other countries, and the
sarne problem was solved later by M. C. Ribiere (Compt. rend., vol. 108, 1889,
and vol. 132, 1901) and by L. Prandtl. See A. Fppl, "Vorlesungen ber technishe Mechanik," vol. 5, p. 72, 1907; also A. Timpe, Z. Math. Physik, vol. 52,
p. 348, 1905.
2
This approximate theory was developed by H. Rsal, Ann. mines, p. 617, 1862,
and by E. Winkler, Zivilingenieur, vol. 4, p. 232, 1858; see also his book "Die
Lehre von der Elastizitt und Festigkeit,'' Chap. 15, Prag, 1867. Further development of the theory was made by F. Grashof, "Elastizitt und Festigkeit," p. 251,
1878, and by K. Pearson, "History of the Theory of Elasticity " vol. 2 pt. 1 p. 422
1893.
'
'
'
'

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

64

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

The following table gives the values of the numerical factor m calcu~
lated by the two elementary methods, referred to above, and by the
m

CoEFFICIENT

OF

EQ. (h)

b
a

Linear stress
distribution

Hyperbolic stress
distribution

Exact solution

1.3
2
3

66.67
6.000
1.500

+72.98, -61.27
+ 7.725, - 4.863
+ 2.285, - 1.095

-61.35
+73.05,
+ 7.755, - 4.917
+ 2.292, - 1.130

exact formula (48). 1 It can be seen from this table that the elementary
solution based on the hypothesis of plane cross sections gives very
accurate results.
.m
10
8

~\~ 6

l:ili

ba2a

i\.

tl

i'-...

r--...,._

IJ

iJr

.......

61.0 1.1 t.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 . 1.6 1.1' 1.8 1.9 2.0
Valuesof ~

/J
t.S

_.,,,

0.9
tl 0.6

C):'j

0.3

~---

.......

......

Frn. 43.

It will be shown later that, in the case of pure bending, the cross

sections actually do remain plane, and the discrepancy betwe~n the


elementary and the exact solutions comes irom the fact that m. t~e
elementary solution the stress component ur is neglected and it is
The results are taken from the doctorate thesis, Univ. Michigan, 1931, of

V. Billevicz.

:.

'

au

'

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0
Values offr

nents of the displacement in the radial and tangential directions, respec:tively. If u is the radiaf displacemnt of the si de ad of the element
abcd (Fig. 44), the radial displacement of the side bc is u + (au/ar) dr .
Then the unit elongation of the element abcd in the radial direction is

gax.(/.070)

~ ...

b=Za'=>"
f

r-... ,Neutralaxis(I=l44J)

assumed that longitudinal fibers of the bent bar are in simple tension
or compression.
From the first of Eqs. (48) it can be shown that the stress ur is always
positive for the direction of bending shown in Fig. 42. The same can
be concluded at once from the direction of stresses ue acting on the elements n - n in Fig. 42. The corresponding tangential forces give
resultants in the radial direction tending to separate longitudinal fibers
and producing tensile stress in the radial direction. This stress
increases toward the neutral surface and becomes a maximum near this
surface. This maximum is always much smaller than (ue)max. For
instance, for b/a = 1.3, (ur)max. = 0.060(ue)ma:.:.; for b/a = 2, (ur)max. =
0.138(ue)max.; for b/a = 3, (ur)max. = 0.193(ue)max.. ln Fig. 43 the distribution of ue andurfor b/a = 2 is given. From this figure we see that
the point of maximum stress ur is somewhat displaced from the neutral
axis in the direction of the center of curvature.
28. Strain Components in Polar Coordinates. ln considering the
displacement in polar coordinates let us denote by u and v the compo-

..............

~1~1.2

65

Er

(49)

= ar

As for the strain in the tangential direction it shpuld be ebserved that


it .depends not only on the displacement v b~t ~l~o- on the ~ad~l cfi;_
placement u. A.ssumjpg, ior instaf!ce, th!!t .:the pointsa and doUIJ,e
element abcd. (Fig. 44) have only the radil displacement u, the new
le'ngth bf the a.rc adis (r + u) dO and the tangential strain is therefore
(r

+ u) d O r dO

r dO

= -

The difference in the tangential displacement of the sides ab a:nd cd of

66

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

the element abcd is (av/ao) do, and the tangential strain dueto the displacement V is accordingly av/r ao. The total tangential strain is thus 1

EB

av

au

av
ar

= E (u, -

Eg

'Yr9 =

E (<18

V<TB)

(52)

V<Tr)

+ 2(1

::i::;

1[
E
-

(1

+r v)A + 2(1

- v)B log r

+ (1

-3v) B

+ 2(1 -

v)C

- v)Br log r - B(l

+ v)r

= Fr,

f1(r)

f(o) do

+ f i(r)

(b)

f(O) dO -

!r f1(r)

(e)

f(O) = H sin O+ K cos O

(d)

where F, H, and K are constants to be determined from the conditions of constraint of the curved bar or ring. Substituting expressions (d) into Eqs. (a) and (b), we find the following expressions for the
displacements. 1

=E1 [ -

v)r]

4B~

v = ']JJ

(1

+r v)A + 2(1 -

v)Br log r - B(l

+ v)r

+ f(O)

(a)

+ Fr + H cos O -

- v)r]

+ H sin O+ K cos O

(53)

.
K sm O

in which the values of constants A, B, and C for each particular case


should be substituted. Consider, for instance, pure bending. Taking
the centroid of the cross section from which Ois measured (Fig. 42) and
lso an element of the radius at this point, as rigidly fixed, the conditions of constraint are
u

The symbol Eg was used with a different meaning in Art. 10.


It is assumed here that we have to do with plane stress, i.e., that there is no
etress perpendic-ul11r to the plane of the plate (see p. 11).

!r af(O)
+ afi(r)
+ !r
ao
Jr

+ 2C(l

+ 2C(l 1

wheref1(r) is a function of r only. Substituting (a) and (b) in Eq. (51)


and noting that 'Yre is zero since Tre is zero, we find

GTr(J

By integration we obtain
u

we can obtain sufficient equations for determining u and v.


29. Displacements for Symmetrical Stress Distributions. Substituting in the first of Eqs. (52) the stress components from Eqs. 43,
we find

au
l[(l+v)A
ar = E
r2

4Bro
v= 1
r

(51)

Substituting now the expressions for the strain components (49), (50),
(51) into the equations of Hooke's law, 2
Er

from which, by integration,

from which

'YB=-+---

r ao

From the second of Eqs. (52), we

av = 4Br _ f(O)
ao
E

(50)

T + r ao

Considering now the shearing strain, let a'b' e'd' be the position of the
element abcd after deformation (Fig. 44). The angle between the
direction ad and a' d' is due to the radial displacement u and is equal to
au/r ao. ln the sarne manner the angle between a'b' and ab is equal
to av/iJr. It should be noted that only part of this angle (shaded in
the figure) contributes to the shearing strain and the other part, equal
to v/r, represents the angular displacement dueto rotation of the element abcd as a rigid body about the axis through O. Hence the total
change in the angle dab, representing the shearing strain, is
r

in whichf(O) is a function of O only.


find, by using Eq. 50,

67

=o,

V=

0,

~
a+b
ar= O for O =O and r = ro = - 2

Applying these to expressions (53), we obtain the following equations


for calculating the constants of integration F, H, and K:
1
Equation (e) is satisfied only when f f(O) do is taken from (d) without an additive constant.

68

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

X({l + v)A + 2(1 E


ro

v)Bro log To - B{l

TWO-DIMENSIONAL.PROBLEMS IN. POLAR COORDINATES

+ v)ro

+ 2C(l -

v)ro] + K
Fro

= O

=O
F =O

This means that the displacement of any cross section consists of a


translatory displacement - K sin 8, the sarne for all points in the cross
section , and of a rotation of the cross section by the angle 4B8 /E about
.
the center of curvature O (Fig. 42). We see that cross sect10ns remam
plane in pure bending as is usually assumed in the elementary theory
of the bending of curved bars.
ln discussing the symmetrical stress distribution in a full ring (page
59) the constant B in the general solution (43) was taken as zero, and
in this manner we arrived at a solution of Lam's
problem. Now, after obtaining expressions (53) for
displacements, we see what is implied by taking B
as zero. B contributes to the displacement v the
term 4Br8/E. This term is not single valued, as it
changes when we increase 8 by 211", i.e., if we arrive
at a given point after making a complete circle round
45
Fw.
the ring. Such a many-valued expression for a displacement is physically impossible in a full. ring, and so, for this case,
we must take B = O in the general solution (43).
A full ring is an example of a multiply-connected body, i.e., a body
such that some sections can be cut clear across without dividing the
body into two parts. In determining the stresses in such bodies we
sually arrive at the conclusion that the boundary conditions referring
to the stresses are not sufficient to determine completely the stress distribution, and additional equations, representing the conditions that
the displacements should be single valued, must be considered (see
page 118).
The physical meaning of many-valued solutions can be explained by
considering the initial stresses possible in a multiply-connected body.
If a portion of the ring between two adjacent cross sections is cut out
(Fig. 45). and the ends of the ring are joined again by welding or other

means, a ring with initial stresses is obtained, i.e., there are stresses in
the ring when externai forces are absent. If a is the small angle measuring the portion of the ring which was cut out, the tangential displacement necessary to bring the ends of the ring together is

+H

From this it follows that F = H = O, and for the displacement v we


obtain
4Br8

(54)
v="E-Ksm8

69

(e)

v =ar

The sarne displacement, obtained from Eq. (54) by putting 8 = 211", is


V=

4Br
211"E

(f)

From (e) and (f) we find


(g)

The constant B, entering into the many-valued term for the displacement (54) has now a definite value depending on the way in which the
initial stresses were produced in the ring. Substituting (g) into Eqs.
(f) of Art. 27 (see page 62), we find that the bending moment necessary
to bring the ends of the ring together (Fig. 45) is

(b 2
M=-E
811"

a 2) 2

2(b 2

4a 2b2 (1og
-

a 2)

~)
a

(h)

From this the initial stresses in the ring can easily be calculated by
using the solution (48) for pure bending.
30. Rotating Disks. The stress distribution in rotating circular
disks is of great practical importance. 1 If the thickness of the disk is
small in comparison with its radius, the variation of radial and tangential stresses over the thickness can be neglected 2 and the problem
can be easily solved. 3 If the thickness of the disk is constant Eq. (40)
can be applied, and it is only necessary to put the body force equal to
the inertia force. 4 Then

(a)
1 A complete discussion of this problem and the bibliography of the subject can
be found in the well-known book by A. Stodola, "Dampf- und Gas-Turbinen,"
6th ed., pp. 312 and 889, 1924.
2
An exact solution of the problem for a disk having the shape of a flat ellipsoid
of revolution was obtained by C. Chree, see Proc. Roy. Soe. (London), vol. 58, p. 39,
1895. It shows that the difference between the maximum and the minimum stress
at the axis of revolution is only 5 per cent of the maximum stress in a uniform disk
with thickness one-eighth of its diameter.
8 A more detailed discussion of the problem will be given !ater (see Art. 119).
' The weight of the disk is neglected.

70

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

where p is the mass per unit volume of the material of the disk and
the angular velocity of the disk.
Equation (40) can then be written in the forro

applied there, we have


(<l,)r=b

=C

- 3

pw2b2

71

=Q

from which

e= 3 +V pw2b2

(b)

and the stress components, from Eqs. (g), are


This equation is satisfied if we derive the stress components from a
stress function F in the following manner:
T<fr

= F,

dF
dr

= -

<TB

+ pw2r

(e)

The strain components in the case of symmetry are, from Eqs. (49)
and (50),
u
du
E9 = T
E, =dr'
Eliminating u between these equations, we find
E9 -

Er

+ r -de9
dr

(d)

Substituting for the strain components their expressions in terms of


the stress components, (52), and using Eqs. (e), we find that the stress
function F should satisfy the following equation:

d 2F
r 2 dr 2

+ r dF
dr - F

+ (3 + v)pw r

2 3

= O

(e)

and from Eqs. (e) we find

(f9

3+v
=8 - pw2(b2 - r2)

<T9

38
+V- pw2b2 - 1-+
3v
=8 - pw2r2

(55)

These stresses are greatest at the center of the disk, where


<T,

<T9

3+v
8

= - - pw 2b2

(56)

ln the case of a disk with a circular hole of radius a at the center the
constants of integration in Eqs. (g) are obtained from the condi;ions
at the inner and outer boundaries. If there are no forces acting on
these boundaries, we have
(u,),._ = O,

=O

(u,).....

(h)

from which we find that


3+v
e = -8pw2(b2 + a2);

Substituting in Eqs. (g),

It can be verified by substitution that the general solution of this


equation is
1
3 +V
(f)
F = Cr + C1 - - - - pw 2r3

<T,

<fr

3 +V
- - - pw 2r2
8
1
1 + 3v 2 2
= C - C1-2 - - - - pw r
r
8

+ C1 r-1

(b2 + a2 - a;~2 - r2)


ue = 3 + v pw2 (b2 + a2 + a2b2 - 1 + 3v 2)
8
r2
3+ v r
<T,

= 3

v pw2

We find the maximum radial stress at r =


(g)

The integration constants C and C 1 are determined from the boundary


conditions.
For a solid disk we must take C 1 = O since otherwise the stresses (g)
become infinite at the center. The constant C is determined from the
condition at the periphery (r = b) of the disk. If there are no forces

(O"r) max.

Vab,

(57)

where

3 +V
- 8 - . pw 2 (b - a) 2

(58)

The maximum tangential stress is at the inner boundary, where


3+v pw 2 ( b2 +
()
0"9 max. = - 4

1-v)
+

a2

It will be seen that this stress is larger than (u,)max..

(59)

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

When the radius a of the hole approaches zero, the maximum tan.,.
gential stress approaches a value twice as great as that for a solid di~k
(56); i.e., by making a small circular hole at the center of a sohd
rotating disk we double the maximum stress. This phenomenon of
stress concentration ata hole will be discussed later (see page 78).
Assuming that the stresses do not vary over the thickness of the disk,
the method of analysis developed above for disks of constant thickness
can be extended also to disks of variable thickness. lf h is the thickness
of the disk, varying with radius r, the equation of equilibrium of such
an element as shown in Fig. 40 is

A good approximation to the actual shapes of rotating disks can be


obtained by dividing the disk into parts and fitting approximately to
each parta curve of the type (m). 1 The case of a conical disk has been
discussed by several authors. 2 Very often the calculations are made
by dividing the disk into parts and considering each part as a disk of
constant thickness. 3
1
31. Bending of a Curved Bar by a Force at the End. 4 W e begin
.withJ4e shnple case shown in Fig. 46. A bar
P
_of a na,rrow rectangular cross section. and
_with a circular axis is constrained at the lower
end and bent by aforceP applied at theupper
end in the radial direction. The bending
moment at any cross section mn is propor
tional to sin O, and the normal stress uo,
according to elementary theory of the bending
of curved bars, is proportional to the bending
moment. Assuming that this holds also for Y
Fm. 46.
the exact solution, an assumption which the
results will justify, we find from the second of Eqs. (38) that the stress
functjon q,, satisfying the equation

72

:r (hru,) - hus

+ hpw 2r2 = O

(k)

This equation is satisfied by putting

dF
2 2
hus = dr+ hpw r

hrur = F,

where F is again a stress function.


Substituting these expressions for the stress components into the compatibility equation (d) we arrive at the following equation for the stress
function F:

+ r dF
d~
~

r2 d2F

_hr ddh (r ddF - vF) =O (Z)


r
r
ln this manner the problem of finding the stress distribution in a disk
of variable thickness is reduced to the solution of Eq. (Z). ln the
particular case where the thickness varies according to the equation
h = Crn
(m)
in which C is a constant and n any number, Eq. (I) can easily be
integrated. 1 The general solution has the form
F = mrn+a +Ar+ Brfl
in which
(3 + v)pw 2C
m = - (vn + 3n + 8)
while

a2 1 a 1 a2 )
( ar2+ r ar+ T2 ao 2

+ (3 + v)pw2hr -

and (3 are the roots of the quadratic equation

x2

nx

vn - 1 = O

and A and B are integration constants which are determined from the
boundary conditions.
i This case was investigated by Stodola, Zoe. cit.
Turbinenwesen, 1915.

See also H. Holzer, Z. ges.

should be proportional to sin O.

q,

(Pc/>

ar 2

aq,

<J2q,)

+ r ar+ T2 ao2

73

(a)

Taking

=J(r) sin O

(b)

and substituting in Eq. (a), we find thatf(r) must satisfy the following
ordinary di:fferential equation:
See M. Grbler, V.D.!., vol. 50, p. 535, 1906.
See A. Fischer, Z. oesterr. lng. Arch. Vereins, vol. 74, p. 46, 1922; H. M. Martin,
Engineering, vol. 115, p. 1, 1923; B. Hodkinson, Engineering, vol. 116, p. 274,
1923; K. E. Bisshopp, J. Applied Mechanics (Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 11, p. A-1,
1944.
3 This method WJl.S developed.hy M.. Donath; seecJ:lls book, "Die Berechnung
rotierender Scheiben und R.ige," ~Berlin, 1912.---- It is described in English by
H. Hearle in Engineering, vol. 1061 p. 131,_ 1918. A further development of the
method was given by R. Grammel 1' Dinglers. Polytech,. J., _v-01. 338, p. 217, 1923.
The case when materiar does not follw -Hooke's lw was investigated by M.
Grbler, V.D.!., vol. 41, p. 860, 1897, and vol. 44, p. 1157, 1900. See also H.
Schlechtweg, Z. angew. Math. Mech., vol. 11, p. 17, 1931, and lngenieur-Archio,
vol. 2, p. 212, 1931.
' H. Golovin, Zoe. cit.
1

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

1'1

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

74
2

d
( dr 2

in which

..!) (ddrf + !.r dfdr _ L)


=0
r
2

1 d _

+ r dr

Cc)

r2

N = a2

This equation can be transformed into a lin~ar differential ~qu~tion


with constant coefficients (see page 58), and its general solut1on is

+ B ~ + Cr + Dr log r

f(r) = Ar 3

(d)

<TO=

- !.r acJ>
+ _! a2cJ>
ar r2 ao2

(2Ar - 2Br + D)
sin
r

<ro

TO= _
r

or, from Eqs. (60),

= Tro = O for r
B
2
2Aa - -

{60)

2Ab -

The last condition is that the sum of the shearing forces distributed
over the upper end of the bar should equal the force P. !k~ng the
width of the cross section as unity-or P as the load per umt thicknes&
of the plate-we obtain for O = O,

ib

Tro

dr =

ib :r (~::)dr l~ ::\:
=

= \Ar2

or
-A(b2 - a2)
From Eqs. (e) and

p
A= 2N'

+ ~ + C + D log

- a2)
+ B (b2 a2b?

b
- D log

Cn we find
Pa 2b2
B=---1
2N

ri:

D= -

=
(a2

b
log a

(J

<n

+ b2)

(g)

(h)

+b

2) ]

= 7r /2,

p [ 3r
= -N

1]

(k)

a2b2
- - r 3 - (a 2 + b2) -r

The expressions (60) constitute an exact solution of the problem only


when the forces at the ends of the curved bar are distributed in the
2.0

= a and r = b

+ -a =
~
2B + !!. =
b
b

For the lower end,

ue

From the conditions that the outer and inner boundaries of the curved
bar (Fig. 46) are free from external forces, we require that
<rr

[r + a2b2
- !. (a
r
r

Tr8

= - P

Tre

(J

~ + !!.)
sin 9
r
2
~
(!.
acJ>\ = - (2Ar - ~ +Dr) cos 9
ar r ao)
r

= ar2<f> = (6Ar +

+ (a + b

Substituting the values (g) of the constants of integration in Eqs. (60),


we obtain the expressions for the stress components. For the upper
end of the bar, (J = O, we find

hi h A B e and D are constants of integration, which are deter1n w c


, , ,

(d)
mined from the boundary conditions. Substituting solut10n
m
expression (b) for the stress function, and using the general formulas
(38), we find the following expressions for the stress components:
<lr -

b2

l.S

~1t~'

1~"

~
~

s
.-..._

- -~ ~b~
v -:J..

//~~ V

11 / / [

i/ .,,ef.244(6'-a;J.

0.5

o ,.

""

::JJ/(6-a)

~ ,(}.4JS(b-a}
,:.soo(h-aJ

1
1

-1

().

1-

--

-~ ,__~
.....,
~

Ir-......... t--..... -.....

~~

......... ............ ~ ........


~
........ ....

.......

'

'~ ~

.......... ~

~~

.......... ~

~
"'11

....

fh'-a,
FIG. 47.

manner given by Eqs. (h) and (k). For any other distribution of
forces the stress distribution near the ends will be different from that
given by solution (60), but at larger distances this solution will be
valid by Saint-Venant's principie. Calculations show that the simple
theory, based on the assumption that cross sections.remain plane during bending, again gives very satisfactory results.
ln Fig. 47 the distribution of the shearing stress Tre over the cross
section 9 = O (for the cases b = 3a, 2a, and l.3a) is shown. The
abscissas are the radial distances from the inner boundary (r = a).
The ordinates represent numerical factors with which we multiply the
average shearing stress P/(b - a) to get the shearing stress at the

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

76

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

point in question. A value 1.5 for this factor gives the maximum
shearing stress as calculated from the parabolic distribution for
rectangular straight beams. From the figures it may be seen that the
distribution of shearing stresses approaches the parabolic distribution
when the depth of the cross section is small. For such proportions as
are usual in arches and vaults the parabolic distribution of shearing
stress, as in straight rectangular bars, can be assumed with sufficient
accuracy.
Let us consider now the displacements produced by the force P
(Fig. 46). By using Eqs. (49) to (52), and substituting for the stress
components the expressions (60), we find
au
sin () [
2B
- = -E 2Ar(l - 3v) - - 3 (1
ar
r
av
a() = res -

'YrB

au
= r ao

v)

av
ar -

(m) and (n), are then

2D
= - E()
cos

v =

8+

D 8 sin 8 -

sin () [

JT D(l - v) log r

-D(l - v) log r ]

= -

cos () [Ar2(5

v)

r
+ ~ (1 +

v)

+ D(l

- v) log r]

+ f(O)

H = O,

(m)

(u)s=o

+ r~ (1 +

v) - D log r(l - v)

f(O) d()

+ F(r)

(n)

+ f'(O) + rF'(r)

- F(r)

(r)

L =

1;

(s)

1; =

+ b2)
+ (a + b

P7r(a2
-

b2)

log

~]

(61)

The application of this formula will be given later. When b approaches


'. and the depth of the curved bar, h = b - a, is small in comparison
w1th a, we can use the expression
log

~a

= log

(1 + ~)a = ~a - ! ah
2

+!

h
3

3 a3

Substituting in (61) and neglecting small terms of higher order, we


obtain

4D cos O
E

f} () cos () + K sin O+ L cos O

f (O) = - 2

E [ (a 2

(u)s=o = -

This equation is satisfied by putting


F(r) = Hr,

+ Hr

The deflection of the upper end is, therefore, using (g),

in which F(r) is a function of r only. Substituting now (m) and (n)


in the third of Eqs. (l) we arrive at the equation
f(O) dO

cos () - L sin 8

(q)

The constant L is obtained from the condition at the built-in end


(Fig. 46). For () = 7r/2 we have v = O; av/ar = O, hence, from the
second of Eqs. (q),

+ D(l - v)] -

+ D(l E+ v) cos 8 + K

(u)o=o = L

(l)

where j(O) is a function of () only. Substituting (m) in the second of


Eqs. (l) together with the expression for es and integrating, we find

- 3v)r2

. 8 + L cos 8
+ B(l r2+ v)] + K sm
cos () [A(5 + v)r2 + B(l + v)
E
r2

From the first of these equations we obtain by integration


u = si;() [ Ar2(1 - 3v)

+ A(l

The radial deflection of the upper end of the bar is obtained by putting
() = O in the expression for u, which gives

-Dr (1 - v) ]

17

(p)

in which H K 1 and L are arbitrary constants, to be determined from


the conditi~ns of constraint. The components of displacements, frcm

~~ ;
3

which coincides with the elementary formula for this case.1


By taking the stress function in the form
e/> = f(r) cos ()
1

See S. Timoshenko, "Strength of Materiais," vol. 2, Art. 13, 1941.

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

and proceeding as above, we get a solution for the case when a :'ertical
force and a couple are applied to the upper end of the bar (Fig. 46).
Subtracting from this solution the stresses produced by the couple (see
Art. 27), the stresses dueto a vertical force applied at the upper end of
the bar remain. Having the solutions for a horizontal and for a
vertical load, the solution for any inclined force can be obtained by
superposition.
In the above discussion it was always assumed that Eqs. (e) are
satisfied and that the circular boundaries of the bar are free fro~
forces. By taking the expressions in (e) different fro~ zero, w~ obtam
the case when normal and tangential forces proport10nal to sm ~ ~nd
cos oare distributed over circular boundaries of the bar. Combmmg
such solutions with the solutions previously obtained for pure bending
and for bending by a force applied at the end we can approach the
1
condition of loading of a vault covered with sand or soil.
32. The Effect of Circular Holes on Stress Distributions in Plate~.
Figure 48 represents a plate submitted to a uniform tension of magm-

These forces, acting around the outside of the ring having the inner
and outer radii r = a and r = b, give a stress distribution within the
ring which we may regard as consisting of two parts. The first is due
to the constant component jS of the normal forces. The stresses it
produces can be calculated by means of Eqs. (45) (page 59). The
remaining part, consisting of the normal forces jS cos 20, together
with the shearing forces -jS sin 20, produces stresses which may be
derived from a stress function of the form

78

cf>

= f(r) cos 20

79

(b)

Substituting this into the compatibility equation

we find the following ordinary differential equation to determine f(r):

m1

The general solution is


f(r) = Ar 2

+ Br + C r21 + D
4

The stress function is therefore


y

Fm. 48.

tude S in the x-direction. If a small circular hole is made n the middle


of the plate, the stress distribution in the neighborh ood _of ~he hole will
1
be changed, but we can conclude from Saint-Venant s prmcipl~ that the
change is negligible at distances which are large compared w1th a, the
radius of the hole.
Consider the portion of the plate within a concentric circle of radius
b, large in comparison with a. The stresses at the radius b are e~ec
tively the sarne as in the plate without the hole and are therefore g1ven
by
(<r,)r=1> = S cos 2 O = jS(l + cos 20)
(a)
(r,e)r..b = - jS sin 20
1 Several examples of this kind were discussed by Golovin, loc. cit., and Ribiere,
Zoe. cit., and Compt. rend., vol. 132, p. 315, 1901.

.il

cf> = ( Ar

+ Br + C~ + D) cos 20
4

(e)

and the corresponding stress components, from Eqs. (38), are


1 a cf>
(
6C
4D)
r ar + -r -ao = - 2A + -r + -r cos 20
a cf> = ( 2A + 12Br + T4
6C) cos 20
<Ts = ar
<Tr

1 acp
= - ~

(1

Tre = - -a - -act>) =

ar r ao

( 2A + 6Br 2 -

2D)
.
r

-6C4 - r

(d)

sm 28

The constants of integration are now to be determined from conditions


(a) for the outer boundary and from the condition that the edge of the
hole is free from externa! forces. These conditions give

'
?

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

80

6C 4D
1
+-+b4
b2 = --S
2
6
2A + C + 4D =O
a4
a2
6C
2D
2A + 6Bb
b4
b2 =

2A

2A

+ 6Ba

a4

1
- -2 S

2D
a2 = O

Solving these equations and putting a/b = O, i.e., assuming an infinitely


large plate, we obtain

a4

C = - -S,

B =O,

A=--,
4

Substituting these values of constants into Eqs. (d) and adding the
stresses produced by the uniform tension ~S on the outer boundary
calculated from Eqs. (45) we find 1

(i - 2) + _ (i + r4
= . (i +
_ (i + r~ )
r
3
= - ~ (i - ~ + ~ )

<T

r2

<18

)
2

T,9

4~2)
cos 28
r

3a4 -

cos 28

(62)

sin 28

If ris very large, <Tr and Tre approach the values given in Eqs. (a). At
the edge of the hole, r = a and we find
<lr

Tr8

= O,

<To

= 8 - 28 cos 20

It can be seen that <Te is greatest when O= 7/2 or O= 37/2, i.e., at


the ends m and n of the diameter perpendicular to the direction of the
tension (Fig. 48). At these points (<Te)max. = 38. This is the ~axi
mum tensile stress and is three times the uniform stress S, apphed at
the ends of the plate .
._At the points p and q, 8 is equal to 7 and O and we find _
1,,

<18

= -

so that thefe is a compression stress in the tangential dii-ection at these


points.
i This solution was obtained by Prof. G. Kirsch; see V.D.!., vol. 42, 1898. It
has been well confirmed many times by strain measurements and by the photo~tic method (see Chap, 5 and the p90k;a, cited on P 131).

81

For the cross section of the plate through the center of the hole.and
perpendicular to the x-axis, 8 = 7/2, and, from Eqs. (62),
Tr8

6C
-

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

<19

= -8

(2

+ -a2r + 3 -4)
r
2

It is evident that the effect of the hole is of a very localized character,


and, as r increases, the stress <Te approaches the value S very rapidly.
The distribution of this stress is shown in the figure by the shaded area.
The localized character of the stresses around the hole justifies the
application of the solution (e), derived for an infinitely large plate, to a
plate of finite width. If the width of the plate is not less than four
diameters of the hole the error of the solution (62) in calculating (<Te)max.
does not exceed 6 per cent. 1
Having the solution (d) for tension or
compression in one direction, the solution
for tension or compression in two perpendicular directions can be easily obtained by
.m.z
x
superposition. By taking, for instance,
tensile stresses in two perpendicular directions equal to S, we find at the boundary
of the hole a tensile stress <Te = 28 (see S
S
page 72). By taking a tensile stress 8 in
:Y
the x-direction (Fig. 49) anda compressive
Fm 49.
stress -8 in the y-direction, we obtain the case of pure shear. The
tangential stresses at the boundary of the hole are, from Eqs. (62),
<Te

= 8 - 28 cos 28 - [8 - 28 cos (20 - 7)]

For 8 = 7/2 or 8 = 37/2, i.e., at the points n and m, we find <Te = 48.
For 8 = O or 8 = 7, i.e., at ni and m 1, <To = -48. Hence, for a large
plate under pure shear, the maximum tangential stress atthe boundary
of the hole is four times larger than the applied pure shear.
The high stress concentration found at the edge of a hole is of great
practical importance. As an example, holes in ships' decks may be
mentioned. When the hull of a ship is bent, tension or compression is
produced in the decks and there is a high stress concentration at the
holes. Under the cycles of stress produced by waves, fatigue of the
metal at the overstressed portions may result finally in fatigue cracks. 2
1

See S. Timoshenko, Bull. Polytech. Inst., Kiew, 1907. We must take S equal
to the load divided by the gross area of the plate.
~ See. paper by T. L. Wilson, The S.S. Leviathan, Damage, Repairs and Strength
al_Ys1s, presented ata meeting of the American Society of Naval Architects and
Manne Engineers, November, 1930.

83

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

It is often necessary to reduce the stress concentration at holes, such


as access holes in airplane wings and fuselages. This can be done by
adding a bead 1 or reinforcing ring. 2 The analytical problem has been
solved by extending the method employed for the hole, and the results
2
have been compared with strain-gauge measurements.
The case of a circular hole near the straight boundary of a semiinfinite plate under tension parallel to this boundary (Fig. 50) was
analyzed by G. B. Jeffery. 3 A corrected result anda comparison with
4
photoelastic tests (see Chap. 5) were given later by R. D. Mindlin.

This stress should be compared with the tensile stress at the point m
on the straight edge of the plate, given by the formula

82

<18

The stress at the hole, at the point n nearest the edge, becomes a very
large multiple of the undisturbed tensile stress when mn is small compared with np.
G. B. Jeffery also investigated the case of a uniform normal pressure
Pi acting on the boundary of the hole. This is a pr?blem of practic~l
interest. It gives the stresses near a rivet hole while the hot plast1c
rivet is being forced home under pressure. If the hole is very far from
the straight edge the stresses at the boundary of the hole, from Eqs.
(46) (page 60), are
<fr = -p;
<18 = p;,
If the hole is near the straight edge, the tangential stresses are no
longer constant along the boundary of the hole. The maximum tangential stress is at the points k and l and is given by the formula

(u8)max.

= p;

+ r2

d2
d2 -

r2

1 See S. Timoshenko, J. Franklin I nst., vol. 197, p. 505, 1924; also S. Timoshenko,
"Strength of Materials,'' 2d ed., vol. 2, p. 317.
2 S. Levy, A. E. McPherson, and F. C. Smith, J. Applied Meehanics <!ran~.
A.S.M.E.), vol. 15, p. 160, 1948. References to prior work may be found m thii;o.

paper.
3 Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 221, p. 265, 1921.
Proc. Soe. Expl. Stress Analysis, vol. 5, p. 56, 1948.

r2

(64)

= 0.758

at the point m.
The method used in this article for
FIG. 51.
analyzing stresses round a small circular hole can be applied when the plate is subjected to pure bending.2
The cases of a row of circular holes in an infinite plate, 3,4,5 a row of
holes in a strip, 56 and in a semi-infinite plate, 6 and a ring of holes in
a plate 7 (under all-round tension) have also been investigated. A
method devised by Hengst has been applied to the case of a hole in a
square plate 8 under equal tension in both directions, and under shear 9
when the hole is plain or reinforced.
Solutions have been obtained for the infinite plate with a circular
hole when forces are applied to the boundary of the hole, 1 for the corre1

R. C. J. Howland, Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), Series A, vol. 229, p. 49, 1930.
Z. Tuzi, Phil. Mag., February, 1930, p. 210; also Sei. Papers Inst. Phys. Chem.
Researeh (Tokyo), vol. 9, p. 65, 1928. The corresponding problem for an elliptieal
hole was solved earlier by K. Wolf, Z. teeh. Physik, 1922; p. 160. The circular
hole in a strip is discussed by R. C. J. Howland and A. C. Stevenson, Trans. Roy.
Soe. (London), series A, vol. 232, p. 155, 1933. A proof of convergence of the series
solutions is given by R. C. Knight, Quart. J. Math., o~ord series vol 5 .P 255
1934.
"'J'
'
'

'
2

(63)

4p;r 2
d2 -

For d = r 0, the two expressions have the sarne magnitude. If d


is greater than this the maximum stress is at the circular boundary,
and if it is less, the maximum stress is at the point m.
The case of a plate of finite width with a circular hole on the axis of
symmetry (Fig. 51) was discussed by R. C. J. Howland. 1 He found,
for instance, that when 2r = id,
o- 8 = 4.38 at the point n and
0"8

FIG. 50.

M. Sadowsky, Z. angew. Math. Meeh., vol. 8, p. 107, 1928.


: R. C. J. Howland, Proe. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 148, p. 471, 1935.
K. J. Schulz, Proe. Nederl. Akad. van Wetensehappen, vol. 45, pp. 233, 341, 457,
an~ 524, 19~2, vol. 48, pp. 282 and 292, 1945.
R C. B. Ling, P. S. Wang, and K. S. Jing, Teeh. Rept. No. 9, Bur. Aeronaut.
eseareh, Chengtu, China, Jan. 1944.
: C. B. Ling and P. S. Wang, Teeh. Rept. No. 6, ibid., June, 1943.
H. Hengst, Z. angew. Math. Meeh., vol. 18, p. 44, 1938.
9

C. K. ~ang, J. Applied Meehanics (Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 13, p. A-77, 1946.


10
W. G. Bickley, Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 227, p. 383, 1928.

84

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

sponding problem of the strip, 1 and for a row of holes parallel and near
to the straight edge of a semi-infinite plate 2 (row of rivet holes).
li an elliptical hole is made in an infinite plate under tension S, with
one of the principal axes parallel to the tension, the stresses at the ends
of the axis of the hole perpendicular to the direction of the tension are

the hole is small in diameter compared with the thickness between the
ends, the disturbance will be confined to the neighborhood of the ends.
But if the diameter and the thickness are of the sarne order of magnitude, the problem must be treated as essentially three-dimensional
throughout. Investigations of this kind 1 have shown that tre remains
the largest stress component and its value is very close to that given
by the two-dimensional theory.
33. Concentrated Force ata Point of a Straight Boundary. Let us
consider now a concentrated vertical force P acting on a horizontal
p

(65)

where 2a is the axis of the ellipse perpendicular to the tension, and 2b


is the other axis. This and other problems concerning ellipses, hyperbolas, and two circles are discussed in Chap. 7, where references will
be found.
A very slender hole (a/b large) perpendicular to the direction of the
tension causes a very high stress concentration. 3 This explains why
cracks transverse to appled forces tend to spread. The spreading can
be stopped by drilling holes at the ends of the crack to eliminate the
sharp curvature responsible for the high stress concentration.
When a hole is filled with material which is rigid or has elastic constants different from those of the plate (plane stress) or body (plane
strain) itself, we have the problem of the rigid or elastic inclusion.
.This has been solved for circular 4 and elliptic inclusions. 5 The results
for the rigid circular inclusion have been confirmed by the photoelastic
method6 (see Chap. 5).
The stresses given by Eqs. (62) for the problem indicated by Fig. 48
are the sarne for plane strain as for plane stress. ln plane strain, however, the axial stress
tr. = v(u, + uo)
must act on the plane ends, which are parallel to the xy-plane, in order
to make Ez zero. Removal of these stresses from the ends, to arrive at
the condition of free ends, will produce further stress which will not
be of a two-dimensional (plane stress or plane strain) character. li
R. C. Knight, Phil. Mag., series 7, vol. 19, p. 517, 1935.
2 C. B. Ling and M. C. Hsu, Tech. Rept. No. 16, Bur. Aeronaut. Research,

Chengtu, China, February, 1945.


a The problem of a narrow slot was discussed by M. Sadowsky, Z. angew. Math.
Mech., vol. 10, p. 77, 1930.
4 K. Sezawa and G. Nishimura, Rept. Aeronaut. Research Inst., Tokyo Imp.
Univ., vol. 6, no. 25, 1931; J. N. Goodier, Trans. A.S.M.E., vol. 55, p. 39 (1933).
s L. H. Donnell, "Theodore von Krmn Anniversary Volume,'' p. 293, Pasadena, 1941.
6 W. E. Thibodeau and L. A. Wood, J, Research Natl. Bur, Standards, vol, 20,
p. 393, 1938.

L11

85

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

.X

fa)

(6)

FIG. 52.

st~aig~t boundary AB of an infinitely large plate (Fig. 52a). The distnbut10n of the load along the thickness of the plate is uniform as indica~ed in Fig. 52b. The thickness of the plate is taken as unit; so that
P is the load per unit thickness.
The distribution of stress in this case is a very simple one2 and is
called a simple ra<lial distribution. Any element C at a distance r froro
~he point of application of the load is subjected to a simple compression
m the radial direction, the radial stress being
tTr
1

2P cos 6
r

(66)

S A. E. Green, Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 193, p. 229, 1948; E.
tern berg and M. Sadowsky, J. Applied Mechanics (Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 16,
P. 27'1949.
2
1:he solution of this problem was obtained by way of the three-dimensional
~~~~ion ~f J. Boussines<_l (p. 362) by Flamant, Compt. rend., vol. 114, p. 1465,
Bo '!'ar1s. The extens1on of the solution to the case of an inclined force is dueto
M'ussmesq, Compt. rend., vol. 114, p. 1510, 1892. See also the paper by J. H.
a~?hell, Proc. L~n ~ath. Soe., vol. 32, p. 35, 1900. The experimental investi~ ion of stre$s d1str1bution, which suggested the above theoretical work was done
Y Carus Wilson, Phil. Mag., vol. 32, p. 481, 1891.
'

THEORY OF ELASTICI_TY

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

The tii.ngential stress u 8 and the shearing stress T,e are zero. It is easy
to see that these values of the stress components satisfy the equations
of equilibrium (37) (page 56).
The boundary conditions are also satisfi.ed because ue and 'Tro are zero
along the straight edge of the plate, which is free from externai forces
except at the point of application of the load (r = O). Here ur becomes
infinite. The resultant of the forces acting on a cylindrical surface of
radius r (Fig. 52b) must balance P. It is obtained by summing the
vertical components urr d8 cos (} acting on each element r d(} of the surface. ln this manner we fi.nd

plane at any point M (Fig. 52a) are calculated from the simple compression in the radial direction,

.2

4:o

ur cos (} r d8 = -

...

cos 2

(}

d8 = -P

To prove that solution (66) is the exact solution of the problem we


must consider also the equation of compatibility (39). The above
solution is derived from the stress function

u,, = u, cos 2 8
u 11

u, sin 2 8

rZ'll

Ur

q, = - -7r r8 sm (}

(66')

7rd

the point of application of the load.


Taking a horizontal plane mn at a distance a from the straight edge
of the plate, the normal and shearing components of the stress on this

i,

(67)

(}

2P .
sm (} cos 3 (}

- -

7r

-- 7
/

o
-;- -r-

cos 4 8

.
2P sin 8 cos 2 8
s1n 8 cos 8 = - -

2P cos

i.e., the stress is the sarne at all points on the circle, except the point O,

it

'Ira

which coincides with solution (66). Substituting the function (a) into
Eq. (39), we can easily show that this equation is satisfied. Hence, (a)
represents the true stress function and Eqs. (66') give the true stress
distribution.
' Taking a circle of any diameter d with cnter on the x-axis and tangent to the y-axis at O (]'ig. 52a), we have, for any point C of the circle,
d cos 9 = r. Hence, from Eq. (66),
2P
= -

= - 2p sin 2 (} cos 2

(a)

(!

Ur

'Ira

'Ira

ln Fig. 53 the distribution of stresses u,, and 'Tzv along the horizontal
plane mn is represented graphically.
At the point of application of the load the stress is theoretically
infinitely large because a finite force is acting on an infinitely small

We can verify .this by using Eqs. (38) as follows:

aq, 1 a2q,
'1r = r ar + T2 ao2 = a2q,
uo = -ar2 =o
'Tr8 = - ~
ar r aq,)
ao = . o

2P

7r

IP

Pz .1111

01

02

2P cos 3 8

= - - -- = - -

87

~ f--8, 13'

'-7

"

l"I

lP
1fa

""
n

ss

JqB

~X

' ~ R'
u.,

.......... h&

--

l,L1'.,,

""

,_

,.,

i..--

X
FIG. 53.

area. ln practice, at the point 0f application there is always a certain


yielding of material and as a result of this the load will become dis~
tributed over a finite area. Imagine that the portion of materiai
which suffered a plastic flow is cut out from the plate by a circular
cylindrical surface of small radius as shown in Fig. 52b. Then the
equations of elasticity can be applied to the remaining portion of the
plate.
An analogous solution can be obtained for a horizontal force P
applied to the straight boundary of the semi-infinite plate (Fig. 54).
The stress components for this case are obtained from the sarne Eqs.
(66'); it is only necessary to measure the angle (} from the direction of
the force, as shown in the figure. By calculating the resultant of the
forces acting on a cylindrical surface, shown in Fig. 54 by the dotted

88
lin~,

'

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

we find

we find

.._

- -2Plc" cos 2 8 d8 = -P
7r
o

.,,1

.
= -Pa (8 + sm

Fm. 54.

Fm. 55.

a horizontally (Fig. 55), the radial stress at any point C is, from Eqs.

(66'),

! [p

cos a cos 8

+ .P sin a cos (~ + o) J
2P

= - -

?rr

cos (a

+ 8)

(68)

Hence Eqs. (66') can be used for any direction of the force, provided in
each case we measure the angle 8 from the direction of the force.
The stress function (a) may be used also in the case when a couple is acting on
the straight boundary of an mfinite plate (Fig. 56a). It is easy to see that the
stress functi.on for the case when the tensile force P is at the point 01, at a distance a
from the origin, is obtained from e/>, Eq. (a), regarded for the nioment as a function
of x and y instead of r and 8, by writing y + a instead of y and also - P instead of P.
This and the original stress function cf> can be combined, and ~e then obtain the
stress function for the two equal and opposite forces applied at O nd Oi, in te forro
-cf>(x,y +a)

4>2 = 4>1 - (c/>1

1 a)
+ c/>
y

2Ma

-1rT

l'ubstituting (a) in ~q. (b), and noting (see page 57) thaij

"' . ,;. "' am..

itfJ "" fJr

+ <lc/>
ao oosr 8

(69)

cos 3 8

(70)

fa)

Fm. 56.

Having the distribution of stresses, the corresponding displacements


can be obtained in the usual way by applying Eqs. (49) to (51). For
a force normal to the straight boundary (Fig. 52) we have .

au

Er

'YrO

2P cos 8

=ar = - ?rE_r_
r

When a il!I very i;mall, this app:roaches the value


()y

+ ain 8 coa 8)

a3 4>1

Eo = '.!

(b)

(8

If the directions of the couples are


changed it is only necessary to change
the sign of the function (70).
A series of stress functions obtained
by successive differentiation .has been
employed to :solve the problem of stress
concentration due to a semicircular notch
in a semi-infinite plate in tension parallel
to the edge. 1 The maximum tensile
stress is slightly greater than three times
the undisturbed tensile stress away from
the notch. The strip with a semicircular
notch in each edge has also been investigated. 2 The stress-concentration factor
(ratio of maximum to mean stress at mini~um section) falls below three, approachmg unity as the notches are made larger.

+ cf>(x,y)

c/>i =,-a i>cf>

= -M11'.

in which M is the moment of the applied couple.


.
Reasoning in .the sarne manner, we find that by differentiation of 't'h
.i.
we obtain
the stress f unct10n c/>2 for the case when two equal and opposite couples M are
acting at two points O and 0 1 a very
small distance apart (Fig. 56b). We thus
P
. find that

= -

ur = ...,...

8 coa 8)

1("

This resultant balances the externai force P, and, as the stress components Tro and u 9 at the straight edge are zero, solution (66') satisfies the
boundary conditions.
Having the solutions for vertical 11nd horizontal concentrated forces,
solutions for inclined forces are obtained by superposition. Resolving
the inclined force P into two components, P cos a .;ertically and P sin

$9

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

u
r ii{J

v =

r ao

+ r -

2P cos 8

?rE

(e)

rv = 0

t F. G. Maunsell, Phil. Mag., vol 21 p 765 1936


2 C B

. ' .
'
.
H p . Ling, J. Ap?lied Mechanics (Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 14, p. A-275 1947;
oritsky, H. D. Smvely, and C. R. Wylie, ibid., vol. 6, p. A-63, 1939.
'

straight boundary of the plate. The horizontal displacements are


obtained by putting 8 = r/2 in the first of Eqs. (g). We find

Integrating the first of these equations, we find


..
2P
u = - rE cos fJ log -r

where f(O) is a function of O only.


(e) and integrating it, we obtain

v=

= - (l ~;)P 8 sin

+A

(d)

(u)

Substituting in the second of Eqs.

in which F(r) is a function of r only.


third of Eqs. (e), we conclude that
j(O)

+ f(fJ)

~: sin fJ + =~ log r sin fJ -

sin 8

f(fJ) d8

+ F(r)

(e)

Substituting (d) and (e) in the

+B

cos O,

F(r) = Cr

(f)

where A, B, and C are constants of integration which are to be determined from the conditions of constraint. The expressions for the displacements, from Eqs. (d) and (e), are
u = - 2p cos

v=

rE
2vP
- sin 8
rE

olog r

(l -Ev)P fJ sin 8
r

2P

+ r-E log r sm 8 + (l

+A

(1 - v)P
r

~Ev)P sin

+A

sin 8

+B

cos 8

O cos 8

= -

2P
rE log r

(g)

cos O - B sin 8 + Cr

+B

(h)

To find the constant B let us assume that a point of the x-axis ata distance d from the origin does not move vertically. Then from Eq. (h)
we find

,.. = _ (1 - v)P,
2E

2P

= rE log d

Having the values of all the constants of integration, the displacements


of any point of the semi-infinite plate can be calculated from Eqs. (g).
Let us consider, for instance, the displacements of points on the

(u)

9 =2

,, = _ (1 - v)P
2E

9 = -2

(7 l)

The straight boundary on each side of the origin thus has a constant
displacement (71), at all points, directed toward the origin. We may
regard such a displacement as a physical possibility, if we rmember
that around the point of application of the load P we removed the portion of material bounded by a cylindrical surface of a small radius (Fig.
52b) within which portion the equations of elasticity do not hold.
Actually of course this material is plastically deformed and permits
di8placement (71) along the straight boundary. The vertical displacements on the straight boundary are obtained from the second of
Eqs. (g). Remembering that vis positive if the displacement is in the
direction of increasing 8, and that the deformation is symmetrical with
respect to the x-axis, we find for the vertical displacements in the downward direction ata distance r from the origin
(v)

Assume that the constraint of the semi-infinite plate (Fig. 52) is such
that the points on the x-axis have no lateral displacement. Then
v = O, for 8 = O, and we find from the second of Eqs. (g) that A = O,
C = O. With these values of the constants of integration the vertical
displacements of points on the x-axis are
(u)e=o

91

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

90

9=

,.. = - (v)

-2

.. = 2p log ~ - (l

9 =2

rE

v)P
rE

~72)

"

At the origin this equation gives an infinitely large displacement. To


remove this difficulty we must assume as before that a portion of material around the point of application of the load is cut out by a cylindrical surface of small radius. For other points of the boundary, Eq. (72)
gives finite displacements.
34. Any Vertical Loading of a Straight Boundary. The curves for
(j"' and -rZll of the preceding article (Fig. 53) can be used as influence
lines. We assume that these curves represent the stresses for P equal
to a unit force, say 1 lb. Then for any other value of the force P the
stress (j"' at any point H of the plane mn is obtained by multiplying the
ordinate HK by P.
If several vertical forces P, P 1, P 2, , act on the horizontal
straight boundary AB of the semi-infinite plate, the stresses ori the
horizontal plane mn are obtained by superposing the stresses produced
by each of these forces. For each of them, the (j"' and -rZ!I curves are
obtained by shifting the (]',, and -rZll curves, constructed for P, to the new
origins 01, 02, . . . From this it follows that the stress(]',, produced,
for instance, by the force P 1 on the plane mn at the point D is obtained
by multiplying the ordinate H 1K 1 by P 1. ln the sarne manner the (j"'
stress at D produced by P 2 is H 2 K 2 P 2, and so on. The total normal

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

92

stress at Don the plane mn produced by P, P1, P2,


""' = DD1

+ H1K1

P1

+ H2K2

is

P2

---

another manner by means of a stress function in the form


(a)

Hence the <T., curve shown in Fig. 53 is the infiuence line for the normal
stress""' at the point D. ln the sarne manner we conclude that the rZll
curve is the influence line for the shearing stress on the plane mn at the
point D.

in which A is a constant.

The corresponding stress components are

a2q,
"' = r ar + T2 ao2 = 2A8
a2q,
<Te= - 2 = 2A8
ar
r,e = - .!!.._
ar r aq,)
ao = -A
1 aq,

}-Atr

93

(b)

(!

Applying this to the semi-infinite plate we arrive at the load distribution shown in Fig. 57a. On the straight edge of the plate there acts a
uniformly distributed shearing force of intensity -A and a uniformly
distributed normal load of the intensity A7r, abruptly changing sign at
the origin O. The directions of the forces follow from the positive
directions of the stress components acting on an elemente.
By shifting the origin to 01 and changing the sign of stress function
cp, we arrive at the load distribution shown in Fig. 57b. Superposing
the two cases of load distribution (Figs. 57 a and 57b), we obtain the
case of uniform loading of a portion of the straight boundary of the
semi-infinite plate shown in Fig. 57 e. To obtain the given intensity q
of uniform load, we take
2A1r

= q,

1
A= - q
211"

The stress at any point of the plate is then given by the stress function 1

q, =

FIG. 57.

Having these curves, the stress components at D for any kind of


vertical loading of the edge AB of the plate can easily be obtained.
If, instead of concentrated forces, we have a uniform load of_ intensity q, distributed over a portion 8s of the straight boundary (Fig. 53),
the normal stress <T., produced by this load at the point D is obtained by
multiplying by q the corresponding infiuence area shaded in the figure.
The problem of the uniformly distributed load can be solved in

Jl !ii11

A(r 28 - r 12 8 1) = ~ (r 28 - r 1 2 81)

(e)

From Eqs. (b) we see that the first term of the stress function (e) gives, at any
point M of the plate (Fig. 58a), a uniform tension in all directions in the plane of
the plate equal to 2A8 anda pure shear -A. ln the sarne manner the second
term of the stress function gives a uniform compression -2A8 1 anda pure shear A.
The uniform tension and compression can be simply added together and we find a
uniform compressive stress
p = 2A8 - 2A8 1 = 2A(8 - 81) = -2Aa

(d)

in which a is the angle between the radii r and r 1


ln superposing the two kinds of pure shear, one corresponding to the direction r
and the other to the direction r 1 , we shall use Mohr's circle (Fig. 58b), which in this
case has a radius equal to the numerical value of the pure shears A. By taking
1
This solution of the problem is dueto J. H. Michell, Proc. London Math. Soe.,
Vol. 34, p. 134, 1902.

94

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

the two diameters, DD1 parallel to r andFF1 perpendicular to r, as the r-and <r-axes,
we have a representation of the pure shear corresponding to the r-direct1on. The
radii CF and CF1 represent the principal stresses A and -A making angles .,,./4
with r at the point M, corresponding to this pure shear, and the radius CD representa the shearing stress -A on the plane mn perpendicular to r. For any plane
m1n 1 inclined at an angle f3 to mn (Fig. 58a), the stress components are given by the
<10ordinates" and r of the point G of the circle, with the angle GCD equal to 2{3.

When r1 - r = O, the angle f3 determines the direction of one of the pri:i:icipal


stresses at M. From the figure we see that r and Tt are numerically equal
if 2(3 = 2(a - (3), from which f3 = a/2. The direction of the principal stress
therefore bisects the angle between the radii r and r 1 The magnitudes of the
principal stresses are therefore

2<T

= 2A sin 2{3 = 2A sin a

95

(e)

Combining this with the uniform compression {d) we find for the total values of
the principal stresses at any point M,
'
-2A(a +sina),

-2A(a - sina)

(j)

Along any circle through O and 01 the angle a remains constant, and so the pri:i:icipal stresses (f) are also constant. At the boundary, between the points O and Oi;
x--~---l-----...i

(a)

Frn. 59.

(Fig. 58a), the angle a is equal to .,,., and we find, from (f), that both principal
stresses are equal t? -:-2'll"A = -q. For the remaining portions of the boundary
a = O, and both pnnc1pal stresses are zero.
Hence if an arbitrary load distribution (Fig. 59) is regarded as composed of a
large n~mber of loads of varying intensities on short elements of the boundary,
the. horizontal stress <Tz under one such load element (as indicated in Fig. 59) is
ent1rely due to that element, and
(g)

H
(b)

FIG. 58.

The sarne circle can be used also to get the stress components due to pure shear
Considering again the plane mini, and noting
that the normal to this plane makes an angle a - f3 with the direction r1 (Fig. 58a),
it appears that the stress components are given by the coordinates of the point H
of the circle. To take care of the sign of the pure shear corresponding to the
r 1-direction, we must change the signs of the stress components, and we obtain in
this manner the point H 1 on the circle. The total stress acting on the plane mini
is given by the vector CK, the components of which give the normal stress
- (<r
1) and the shearing stress ri - r. The vector CK has the sarne magnitude
for ali values of f3 since the lengths of its components CH1 and CG, and the angle
between them, .,,. - 2a, are independent of fJ. Hence, by combining two pure
shears we obtain again a pure shear (see page 17).

in the direction r 1 (see page 16).

+ .,.

ll,11111

all along the straight boundary.


. Se_veral other cases of distributed load on a straight boundary of the semiinfinite plate were discussed by S. D. Carothers, 1 and by M. Sadowsky.1 Another
manner of solving this problem will be discussed later (see page 125).

The deflections of the straight boundary of the plate can be found


for any load distribution by using Eq. (72) obtained for the case of a
co~centrated force. If q is the intensity of vertical load distribution
(Fig. 59), the deflection produced at any point O ata distance r from
the shaded element q dr of the load, from Eq. (72), is
2q log <!:_dr ~E
r

(l

+ v)q d

~E

~ Proc. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 97, p. llO, 1920.


Z. angew. Math. Mech., vol. 8, p. 107, 1928.

;~;,;~1~ -;~~~E;M\t .

ti

t-\

\'.)OARA

8\BUOTEC~ CENTIULl
. ...

96

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

and the total deflection at O is


2
7rE

Vo = -

1l+x q log -d
"'

dr - - -

7rE

1l+x q
"'

dr

(h)

ln the case of a uniformly distributed load, q is constant and we find


Vo

= -2q [ (l
7rE

d + x) log-l +X

d] +1--- q
V
xlogl
X
7rE

The constant k will now be adjusted so as to satisfy the condition of


equilibrium at the point O. Making the resultant of the pressures on
the cylindrical surface (shown by the dotted line) equal to -P we find
.
-2
from which

kP c;s
k

(i)

rde = - kP (a + ~ sin 2a) = - p

a+ i- sin 2a

Then, from Eqs. (a),1

ln the sarne manner, for a point under the load (Fig. 00), we find

2
vo = q [<l - x) log-d7rE
l - X

97

TWO-DIMENSIONAL l'ROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

+ xlog~]
+
X

"' = - r(a
1

- v ql
7rE

(j)

P cose
sin 2a)

+t

(73)

By_ making a = 7r /2 we ar.rive at solution (66) for a semi-infinite plate,


wh1ch has already been d1scussed. lt may be seen that the distribu-

Equation (h) can be used also for finding the intensity q of load distribution, which produces a given deflection at the straight boundary,

1
.___,-t-----'I
X

y
Fm. 60.

Fm. 61.

FIG. 62.

Assuming, for instance, that the deflection is constant along the loaded
portion of the straight boundary (Fig. 61), it can be shown that the distribution of pressure along this portion is given by the equation 1

p
q = ----;:===

7rVa2 - x2

35. Force Acting on the End of a W edge. The simple radial stress
distribution discussed in Art. 33 can be used also in investigating the
stresses in a wedge due to a concentrated force at its apex. Let us consider a symmetrical case, as shown in Fig. 62. The thickness of the
wedge in the direction perpendicular to the xy-plane is taken as unity.
The conditions along the faces, 8 = a, of the wedge are satisfied by
taking for the stress components the values
"' =
1

Sadowsky, loc. cit.

kP cose
r

Fm. 63.

tion of normal stresses over any cross section mn is not uniform and
the ratio of the normal stress at the points m or n to the maxi~um
stress at the center of the cross section is found to be equal to cos4 a.
If the force is perpendicular to the axis of the wedge (Fig. 63), the
sarne solution (a) can be used if 8 is measured from the direction of the
force. The constant factor k is found from the equation of equilibrium
~+a
2
[

from which

k
and the radial stress is
<1r

" = o,

T,9 =

(a)

= -P

u, cos 8 rd8

-a

1
1

a -

2 Slll

2a

P cose
t sin 2a)

r(a 1
This solution is di.ie to Michell, loc. cit.

chausses, 1901,

.
..

'

~-:.'

.,. '

-...

(74)

See also A. Mesnager, Ann. por$~

98

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

clockwise.

The normal and shearing stresses over any cross section mn are
q

!/ -

:ti/ -

Pyx sin 4 O
y 3 (a - t sin 2a)
Px 2 sin 4 O
y 3 (a - t sin 2a)

Ur

-,-~~---.,.-

Tre

ln the case of a small angle a, we can put


.
(2a) 3
2a - sm 2a = - 6
Then writing I for the moment of inertia of the cross section mn we
find from (b) that
4
tan
U11 =
( -a- Sin 0
T:l;IJ

).
tan ) .
(
--

Sin

The stresses are

=-

(b)

-,--~---=--,-

(e)

For small values of a, the factor (tan a/a) 3 sin 4 Ocan be taken as nearly
unity. Then the expression for u11 coincides with that given by the
elementary beam formula. The maximum shearing stress occurs at
the points m and n and is twice as great as that given by the elementary
theory for the centroid of a rectangular cross section of a beam.
Since we have solutions for the two cases represented in Figs. 62 and
63, we can deal with any direction of the force P in the xy-plane by
resolving the force into two components and using the method of superposition.1 It should be noted that solutions (73) and (74) represent
an exact solution only in the case when, at the supported end, the
wedge is held by radially directed forces distributed in the manner
given by the solutions. Otherwise the solutions are accurate only at
points at large distances from the supported end.
The problem of the wedge loaded by a bending couple M, in the
plane of the wedge, and concentrated at the tip, is solved by the stress
function. 2
_ M sin 20 - 20 cos 2a
(d)
<P 2(sin 2a - 2a cos 2a)
where ()is as indicated in Fig. 62 and the applied couple M is counter1 Severa! examples of stress distribution in wedges are discussed by Akira Miura,
"Spannungskruven in rechteckigen und keilfrmigen Trgern," Berlin, 1928.
Forces not at the vertex, on a wedge, or a plate from which a wedge has been cut,
are considered by J. H. A. Brahtz, Physics, vol. 4, p. 56, 1933, and by W. M.
Shepherd, Proc. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 148, p. 284, 1935.
t C. E. lnglis, Trans. Inst. Nav. Arch. (l.nndon), 1922, vol. 64.

99

M
-4.sm 20'
2(sin 2a - 2a cos 2a) r 2

uo

=O
(e)

2a - 2 a cos 2 a ) 2r (cos 20 - cos 2a)


2 (s1n

36. Concentrated Force Acting on a Beam. The problem of stress


distribution in a beam subjected to the action of a concentrated force
is of great practical interest. It was shown before (Art. 22) that in
continuously loaded beams of narrow rectangular cross section the
stress distribution is obtained with
satisfactory accuracy by the usual
elementary theory of bending.
e
N ear the point of application of a
concentrated force, however, a serious local perturbation in stress dis:Y
tribution should be expected and a
further investigation of the problem
Fm, 64.
is necessary. The first study of these local stresses was made experimentally by Carus Wilson. 1 Experimenting with a rectangular beam
of glass on two supports (Fig. 64) loaded at the middle, and using
polarized light (see page 132), he showed that at the point A, where the
load is applied, the stress distribution approaches that produced in a
semi-infinite plate by a normal concentrated force. Along the cross
section AD the normal stress <Yx does not follow a linear law, and at the
point D, opposite to A, the tensile stress is smaller than would be
expected from the elementary beam theory. These results were
explained on the basis of certain empirical assumptions by G. Q.
Stokes. 2 The system represented in Fig. 64 can be obtained by superposing two systems shown in Fig. 65. The radial compressive stresses
acting on the sections mn, np, and pq of a semi-infinite plate (Fig. 65a)
are removed by equal radial tensile stresses acting on the sides of the
rectangular beam supported at n and p (Fig. 65b). The stresses in
this beam should be superposed on the stresses in the semi-infinite
plate in order to get the case discussed by Stokes.
ln calculating the stresses in the beam, the elementary beam
formula will be applied. The bending moment at the middle cross
section AD of the beam is obtained by taking the moment of the reac1

Loc. cit.
Wilson, loc. cit.; also G. G. Stokes, "Mathematical and Physical Papers," vol. 5,
p. 238.
2

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

100
tion p /2 and subtracting the moment of all the radially directe~ tens~le
forces applied to one-half of the beam. This .latter mo~ent IS eas1ly
calculated if we observe that the radially distr1buted tensile forces are
statically equivalent to the pressure distribution over the .quadrant ab
of the cylindrical surface abc at the point A (Fig. 65c) or,.usmg Eq. (66),
are equivalent to a horizontal force P /7r and a vertical force P /2,
p

A better approximation is obtained if we observe that a continuously


distributed load is applied to the bottom of the beam (Fig. 65b) and use
Eqs. (36'). The intensity of this load at the pointD, from Eq. (66), is
P /7rc. Substituting this in (36') and combining with the value of u,.
above, we obtain, as a second approximation,
u,. = 3P

2c

z--;

mr-t

Uy

~
~~~~::,.,-~~---iq-r

= 27rC

(.!:.2 _ ~) y + 27rC
_f_ + P
'Ir

1rC

Uz;

Then the bending moment, i.e., the moment

applied at A (Fig. 65d).


about the point O, is

~l
2

~e
'Ir

and the corresponding bending stresses are

u,.' =

j (~ - ;) y = ;~ (~ -

;) y

To these bending stresses the uniformly distributed tensile stress


p /27rc produced by the tensile force P /ir sh?uld ?e a~ded. The normal
stresses over the cross section AD, as obtamed m th1s elementary way,
are therefore
q,.

3P

= 2c3

(zZ - :;;:e) y + 27rCP

As before we take p as the force per unit thickness of the plate.

(a)

4c - 4c 3

Uy

2P
--(c_+_y_)

(b)

-'Ir

21rC

lP

+ 27rC + 51rC

= - 0 254 C

while the more accurate solution gives only -0.133(P /e).


The first attempt to get a more accurate solution of the problem was
made by J. Boussinesq. 1 He used Flamant's solution (see Art. 33) for
the semi-infinite plate. To annul the stresses over the boundary np
(Fig. 65a), he superimposes an equal and opposite system of stresses
and uses again the Flamant solution, i.e., considers the beam as a semi~nfinite plate extending above the line np. This corrective system
mtroduces extra stresses over the top of the beam, which again can be
removed by repeated application of Flamant's solution, and so on.
This process is too slowly convergent and did not lead to a satisfactory
result.
A solution of the problem by means of trigonometric series was
obtained by L. N. G. Filon. 2 He applied this solution to the case of concentrated loads and made calculations for severa! particular cases (see
Art. 23), which are in good agreement with more recent investigations.
1

This coincides with the formula given by Stokes.

y)

3
10 C

as for a semi-infinite plate, in order to obtain the total stresses along


the section AD.
A comparison with a more accurate solution, given below (see table,
page 106), shows that Eqs. (a) and (b) give the stresses with very good
accuracy at all points except the point D at the bottom of the beam at
'
which the correction to the simple beam formula is given as
3P

Frn. 65.

(3y y)

'lrC

( y
2c 3

These stresses should be superposed on the stresses

101

Compt. rend., vol. 114, p. 1510, 1892.


L. N, G, Filon, Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 201, p. 63 1 1903,

THEORY OF ELASTICITY
102
Further progress in the solution of the problem was made by H.
Lamb.1 Considering an infinite beam loaded at equal intervals by
equal concentrated forces acting in the upward and downward directions alternately, he simplified the solution of the two-dimensional
problem and obtained for several cases expressions for the deflection
curves. It was shown in this manner that the elementary BernoulliEuler theory of bending is very accurate if the depth of the beam is
small in comparison with its length. It was shown also that the correction for shearing force as given by Rankine's and Grashof's elementary theory (see page 43) is somewhat exaggerated and should be
diminished to about 0.75 of its value. 2
A more detailed study of the stress distribution and of the curvature near the
3
point of application of a concentrated load was made by T. v. Krmn and F.
Seewald. a Krmn considers an infinitely long beam and makes use of the solution
for a semi-infinite plate with two equal and opposite couples acting on two neighboring points of its straight boundary (Fig. 56b). The stresses along the bottom
of the beam which are introduced by this procedure can be removed by using a
solution in the forro of a trigonometric series (Art. 23) which, for an infinitely long
beam, will be represented by a Fourier integral. In this manner Krmn arrives
at the stress function
Ma
(ac cosh ac + sinh ac) cosh ay - sinh aC sinh ay. ay
da
</> = 7
}o
sinh 2ac + 2ac
cos ax
Ma f 00 (ac sinh ac + cosh ac) sinh ay - cosh ac cosh ay ay
da (e)
- 7 }o
sinh 2ac - 2ac
cos ax
a
This function gives the stress distribution in
the beam when the bending moment diagram
.
consists of a very narrow rectangle, as shown
in
Fig. 66. For the most general loading of
M
the beam by vertical forces applied at the top
;:._ _ _ _ _-J--1--c- .
of the beam 4 the corresponding bending-moL----+=;...-------'~c X
ment diagram can be divided into elementary
rectangles such as the one shown in Fig. 66,
Y
and the corresponding stress function will be
FIG. 66.
obtained by integrating expression (e) along the
length of the beam.
This method of solution was applied by Seewald to the case of a beam loaded by a
concentrated force P (Fig. 64). He shows that the stress O',, can be split into two

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

y=-C

3.0

2.5 2.0 1.5

H. Lamb, Atti IV congr. intern. matemat., vol. 3, p. 12, Rome, 1909.


s Filon came to the sarne conclusion in his paper (loc. cit).
a Abhandl. aerodynam. lnst., Tech. Hochschule, Aachen, vol. 7, 1927.
'The case of a concentrated load applied half way between the top and bottom
of the beam was discussed by R. C. J. Howland, Proc. Roy. Soe. (London), vol. 124,
p. 89, 1929 (see p. 115 below), and pairs of forces within the beam by K. Girkmann,
lngenieur-Archiv, vol. 13, p. 273, 1943. Concentrated longitudinal forces in the web
of an 1-beam are considered by Girkmann in Oe$terr. lngenieur-Archiv, vol.1, p. 420,

LO

0.5

0.5

1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0


(a)

y=-f
~

<:

e::::;

e::::;

\(>

<::>

, I

.3.0 2.5 2.0

1.5

1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0


(b)

y=O

" "' ....

~~~~~
i-'~c::::;~~

,.-f.;:: 'r 'r

;2;

e::::;

e::::;

g;

<::)
1

!
3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5

1.0 0.5

0.5 1.0

.o

3.0 2.5 2.0

.X

,~,.,'1-::>

.....

')>'ji<:jl~~

<::)

~. ~~~

1.5 1.0 0.5

0.5

1.0

1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0


(e)

'1-

~
;.

.....

c::::;
;.

~
<::)
;.

1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

(d}

y=+C

1946.

.2;

r"'

o:.,
=,8 C
1!.
X

~
~

1'

;.

c::::;

3.0 2.5 2.0

1.5

1.0 0.5

c::::;

1.5 2.0 2.5


(eJ
FIG.

67.

c::::;
;.

3.0

103

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

104

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

parts: one, which can be calculated by the usual elementary beam formula; and
another, which represents the local effect near the point of application of the load.
This latter part, called <r/, can be represented in the form {J(P /e), in which J3 is a
numerical factor depending on the position of the point for which the local stresses
are calculated. The values of this factor are given in Fig. 67. The two other
stress components " and " can also be represented in the form {J(P /e). The
corresponding values of J3 are given in Figs. 68 and 69. It can be seen from the
figures that the local stresses decrease very rapidly with increase of distance from

1.5

2.0

1.0

0.5

1.0

0.5

1.5

2.0 2.5

....

yc-f
3.0

p
3.0 2.5

p .......

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

~
~~
~
~ <:><:> ...
~ 1/ ~

<:)

-f----.,,

1.0

1.0 0.5

l.S

<:)

...

~l/

2.0 2.s 3.0

ll:g~

'r'i'~'r~

~
;;:::

<::!
;.

<:)

<::i

;.

<:)

...

3.0

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

(e)

1 That is, stresses which must be superposed on those obtained from the ordinary
beam formula.

1"

1 \.

3.0

~
i::;

<::!

<::i

<::i <::!<::!

0.5

(}

l..I

. 3.0

1.0 1.5 2.0

-'-

the point of application of the load and at a distance equal to the depth of the
beam are usually negligible. Using the values of the factor J3 for x = O, the local
stresses at five points of the cross section AD under the load (Fig. 64) are tabulated
below. For comparison the local stresses,1 as obtained from Eqs. (a) and (b}
(page 101), are also given. It is seen that these equations give the local stresses
with sufficient accuracy.
Knowing the stresses, the curvature and the defiection of the beam can be
calculated without any difficulty. These calculations show that the curvature
of the defiection curve can also be split into two parts--one as given by the

2.0

1/ ...,~ ...,~~"'> ...,~


o

fl~~

FIG. 68.

:i .~\

l.O l.S

I
1.0

~~~~~

;.

o;::>

y=O

22

fJ

o.s o o.s
.....

0.5

<:$

<:)

~U

(b)

1.0

.. ..

::;:;

/J ._..._

1.5

<::!
;.

y=O

= z

<::i <::i <::i <::i


;.
;.

- '-

(a}

2.5 2.0

(a)

<::!

3.0

~~

1.5

\~ ~1

2.0

!'-

~~
~ 'I:. ~~

3.0

li

r\

3.0 2.5

y=+f

~J

<::i

2,0

1.5
-

L-0 . 0.5
-

-- -

--

JI

IJ -

li
-'-

::s

a~
.,..<Si
""'<:'>! e::>~
I/~
<:::s <::! <::!
<::i
!:<>

l/v

--

0.5 - l.O -1.s 2.0

(C)

&1

<::i

3.0

--

105

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

106

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

TABLE OF F ACTORS fl FOR THE MIDDLE

-e

y=

The corresponding deftection at the middle is

-2

Uu

0.121
-0.456

0.428
-1.23

00

-0.136
-0.145

-0.133

Cfy

0.426
-1.22

00

0.159
-0.477

-o .108

-0.254
1

= o

elementary beam theory and the other representing the lo~al effect of the concm.1.trated load P. This additional curvature of the center line can be represented
by the formula
1
p
- ==a(d)

Ecz

Taking

'

L...

-~
3.0

2.5 2.0

l.S

1.0

,/

f:=a~z
~
....
""" ~ !'.
~~

~ ~ ~i::)
V~~ """f\
~ <::i<::j~i'.:)

o.s

....,

"<

i- ~

~C::S<::i<::S
..............

o.s

1.0

~
e::;
1

~~
1

Pl

2 = 48EI

( 3
+ Pl
4c 4G

3
311)
P
- lOE - 4E - 021 E

(75)

= 0.3, this gives


3
[

+ 2.85 (2c)
T -

0.84 (2c)
T

(75')

The elementary Rankine-Grashof theory (see page -43) gives for this case
3

PlEJ
= 48

+ 3.90 (2c)2]
T

(g)

It appears that Eq. (g) gives an exaggerated value for the correction dueto shear.
ln these formulas the defiection due to
p
local deformation at the supports is not
taken into account.

e::;
1

11

+ i

Pl
= 48EI

in which a is a numerical factor varying along_the length of the beam .. Several


values of thi'l factor are given in Fig. 70. It is seen that at cross sect1ons at a

(f)

Denoting now by o the defiection as calculated by using the elementary theory,


the total deflection under the load is

-0.155
1

(2 - -2_
- ")
lOE
4E

4c 4G

2 = 0.21

Approximate solution

0.573

qz' =

= !! = Pl

From this defl.ection a small further correction 2, removing the sharp che.nge of
slope at A, should be subtracted. This quantity was also calculated by Seewald
and is equal to

Exact solution
tl:c'

107

+:&.

1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

FIG. 70.

distance greater than half of the depth of the beam the additional curvature is
negligible.

37. Stresses in a Circular Disk.


Let us begin with the simple case
d
of two equal and opposite forces
-=--t--=-~-\-~__,.~~~~--rD=-if-x
P acting along a diameter AB (Fig.
72). Assuming that each of the
forces produces a simple radial
stress distribution [Eq. (66)], we can
find what forces should be applied
at the circumference of the disk in
y
order to maintain such a stress disFIG.
72.
tribution. At any point M of the
circumference we have compressions in the directions of r and r1 equal to
2P cos 8
2P cos 81
.
1
~ -r- and -r -r,
respectively.
Since r and r 1 are perpendic1
ular to each other and
fl

On account of this localized effect on the curvature, the two branches of the
deflection curve AB and AC (Fig. 71) may be considered to meet at an angle
eque.I to
(e)

cos 8
- r-

cos 81

= --;:;--- = d

It is e.ssumed that P is the force per unit thickness of the disk.

(a)

109

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

where d is the diameter of the disk, we conclude that the two principal
stresses at M are two equal compressive stresses of magnitude 2P /7d.
Hence the sarne compressive stress is acting on any plane through M
perpendicular to the plane of the disk, and normal compressive forces
of the constant intensity 2P /7d should be applied to the circumference
of the disk in order to maintain the assumed pair of simple radial stress
distributions.
If the boundary of the disk is free from externai forces, the stress at
any point is therefore obtained by superposing a unif orm tension in the
plane of the disk of the magnitude 2P /7d on the above two simple
radial stress distributions. Let us consider the stress on the horizontal
diametral section of the disk at N. From symmetry it can be concluded that there will be no shearing stress on this plane. The normal
stress produced by the two equal radial compressions is

The normal MN to thetangent at M is the diameter of the disk; henc


MAN and MBN are right-a:iigled triangles and the angles which the
normal MO makes with r and r1 are?r/2 - 81 and?r/2 - 8, respectively.
The normal and shearing stresses on an element of the boundary at M
are then

108

- 2 . 2P cos 8 . cos2 8
7 r

= _ 4P cos 8

11

+ 2P
?rd

or, using the fact that


cos 8 =

-=====
2
2

yd + 4x

we find
2P [

4d4

"11 = ?rd 1 - (d2 + 4x2)2

FIG. 73.

(b)

The maximum compressive stress along the diameter CD is at the center of the disk, where
6P
<I11 = - 1d
At the ends of the diameter the compressive stress u11 vanishes.
Consider now the case of two equal and opposite forces acting along
a chord AB (Fig. 73). Assuming again two simple radial distributions
ra?iating from A and B, the stress on a plane tangential to the circumference at M is obtained by superposing the two radial compressions
2P cos-8 and 2P
cos81 actmg
.
t h e d'1rect10ns

- m
r and r1, respect'1vely.
.,,.

r1

.,,.

_ 2P (cos 8 sin Ih
.,,.

+ cos 81 sin
r1

81 cos 8
= - 2P
-.,,. (cos
-r-8 sm
1

cos

01
-~

8)

(e)

sm
8 cos 8)

These equations can be simplified if we observe that, from the triangles


MAN andMBN,
r = d sin 81,
r 1 = d sin 8
Substituting in Eqs. (e), we find

in which r is the distance AN, and 8 the angle between AN and the
.
vertical diameter. Superposing on this the
uniform tension 2P /7d, the total normal
stress on the horizontal plane at N is
<r

f)i) _2P.,,. cosr1 81 cos 2 (~2 _

" = _ 2P cos 8 cos 2 (~ :

<r

2P

= - ?rd sin (8

+ 81),

r = O

(d)

From Fig. 73 it may be seen that sin (O + 81) remains constant around
the boundary. Hence uniformly distributed compressive forces of the
intensity 2P j.,,.d sin (O + 01) should be applied to the boundary in order
to maintain the assumed radial stress distributions. To obtain the
solution for a disk with its boundary
free from uniform compression it is
only necessary to superpose on the
above two simple radial distributions
a uniform tension of the intensity
2P /.,,.d sin (O + 01).
The problem of the stress distribution in
a disk can be solved for the more general
case when any system of forces in equilibrium
is acting on the boundary of the disk. 1 Let
us take one of these forces, acting at A in the
FIG. 74.
?irection of the chord AB (Fig. 74). Assummg again a simple radial stress distribution we have at point M a simple radial
compression of the magnitude (2P /7) cos fh/r 1 acting in the direction of AM.
1

The problems discussed in this article were solved by H. Hertz, Z. Math. Physik,
Vol. 28, 1883, or "Gesammelte Werke," voI. 1, p. 283; and J. H. Michell, Proc.
London Math. Soe., vol. 32, p. 44, 1900, and vol. 34, p. 134, 1901. The problem
corresponding to Fig. 72 when the disk is replaced by a rectangle is considered by
J: N_. Goodier, Trans. A.S.M.E., vol. 54, p. 173, 1932, including the effects of
distnbution of the load over small segments of the boundary .

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

110

'I'he moment of all the externa! forces with respect to O, from Fig. 74, is

Let us take as origin of polar coordinates the center O of the disk, and measure 9
as shown in the figure. Then the normal and the shearing components of the
stress acting on an element tangential to the boundary at M can easily be calculated if we observe that the angle between the normal MO to the element and the
direction ri of the compression is equal to 7r/2 - 92. Then
<Tr

2P cos 9i .
= - - - - s1n 2 92
7r ri
2P cos 9i

Tr8 =

7r

(e)

- - Slil 92 COS 92
Ti

p sin (Ili
= - 1rd

+ 92)

cos (9i

+ 92)

'TrfJ

= - 1rd

pd sin

1r

(92 -

9i)

- 1rd cos (92 -

9i)

obtained by superposing the following three stresses on the element.


(1) A normal stress uniformly distributed along the boundary:

sin (9i

+ 92)

(g)

(2) A shearing stress uniformly distributed along the boundary:


p
- 1rd cos (9i

+ 92)

(h)

(3) A stress of which the normal and shearing components are


(k)

and

Observing that the angle between the force P and the tangent at M is Oi - 92, it
can be concluded that the stress (k) is of magnitude P /7rd and acts in the direction
opposite to the direction of the force P.
Assume now that there are several forces acting on the disk and each of them
produces a simple radial stress distribution. Then the forces to be applied at the
boundary in order to maintain such a stress distribution are:
(1) A normal force uniformly distributed along the boundary, of intensity

-I:i~~+~

ro

on the simple radial distributions.


By using this general method, various other cases of
stress distribution in diskR can easily be solved. i We
may select, for instance, the case of a couple acting on
the disk (Fig. 75), balanced by a couple applied at the
center of the disk. Assuming two equal radial stress
distributions at A and B, we see that, "in this case,
(Z) and the summation of (k) are zero and only shearing
FIG. 75.
forces (m) need be applied at the boundary in order to
maintain the simple radial stress distributions. The intensity of these forces,
from (m), is
2P
2Mt
(n)
- -d cos (Oi + 92) = - 1r
7rd
wher~ Mt

is the moment of the couple. To free the boundary of the disk from
forces and transfer the couple balancing the pair of forces p from the
crrc_umfe~en?e o~ the disk to its center, it is necessary to superpose on the simple
radial distnbut1ons the stresses of the case shown in Fig. 75b. These latter
stresses, produced by pure circumferential shear, can easily be calculated if we
observe that for each concentric circle of radius r the shearing stresses must give a
couple Me. Hence,
Mt
Tr921rT 2 = M1,
Tr9 = (p)
27rr 2
s~earmg

These stresses may aleo be derived from the general equations (38) by taking as
the stress function

"'= ~;9

(2) Shearing forces of intensity

-I:i

"

1
i

cos (9i

+ 92)

(m)

(3) A force, the intensity and direction of which are obtained by vectoria~ summation of expressions (k). The summation must extend over all forces acting on

:'

~,.1

ft> boundary .

+ 92)d

(f)

This stress acting on the element tangential to the boundary at point M can be

-:i

p cos (9~

and, as this moment must be zero for a system in equilibrium we conclude that
the shearing forces (m) are zero. The force obtained by summ~tion of the stresses
(k), proportional to the vectorial sum of the externa! forces, is also zero for a system
in equilibrium. Hence i~ is onl:y necessary to apply
p
at the boundary of the disk a uniform compression (Z)
in order to maintain the simple radial distributions.
If the boundary is free from uniform compression, the
stress at any point of the disk is obtained by superposing a uniform tension of magnitude

Since, from the triangle AMN, ri = d sin 92, Eqs. (e) can be written in the forro
q,

111

from which
Ur
1

== 0'9 = O,

M1
Tr9 = 27rT2

Several interestini examples are discussed by J. H. Michell, loc . .U.

(q)

::

"

~i1

112

1'WO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

1'HEORY OF ELAS1'ICI1'Y

38. Force at a Point of an lnfinite Plate. If a force P acts in the


middle plane of an infinite plate (Fig. 76a), the stress distribution can
easily be obtained by superposition of systems which we have already
discussed. We cannot, however, construct a solution by simple superposition of two solutions for a semi-infinite plate as shown in Figs. 76b
and 76c. Although the vertical displacements are the same in both
these cases, the horizontal displacements along the straight boundaries
are different. While in the case 7Gb this displacement is away from

113

the case of a se~i-infinite plate. The displacement along the straight


boundary of t~Is plate in the direction of the shearing force acting on
the boundary IS, from Eq. (61),
D'll'
(b)

1:he constant of int~gration D must now be adjusted so as to make the


displacement resultmg from (a) and (b) vanish. Then
(e)

With
the result of superposing cases 76b , 76e, 76d , an d
this adjustment
fi
e
IS
an
m
mte
p
1
ate
loaded at a point, Fig. 7Ga.
76
The
stress
distribution
in the plate is now easily obtaI'ned b y super
h
.
posmg t e stresses m a semi-infinite plate produced by a normal load
P /2
at theh boundary (see Art. 33) on the stresses in the curved b ar conammg

. t e constant of integration D ObservI'ng the d'ff


I erence m
t
measun~g the angle fJ in Figs. 46 and 76 and using Eqs. (60), the
stresses m the curved bar are, for fJ as in Fig. 76,

(a)
.X

D cos fJ

ur=
uo

= D cos
r

fJ

- D sin 6

Tro -

---

1 - v P cos fJ

-~--r-

1 - v p cos fJ

=~--r-

1 - v P sin ()
=- --471'

Combining this with stresses (66) calculated for the load P/2
bt
the f n
t
d' .
, we o ain
o owmg s ress Istnbution in the infinite plate:
O'r

(C)

471'
r
1 - vP cos fJ

FIG. 76.

o-o=~

the point O, in the case 76c it is toward the point O. The magnitudes
of these displacements in both cases, from Eq. (71), is

Tro

1 -

)1

-4E
P

= 1 - PP COS () _ P COS (}

(a)

(3

v) P COS ()

471'

(76)

1 - vP sin (}
471'
r

= -----

~:u:~:~n~ out fr~m t~e plate at the point O (Fig. 76a) a small element
ct
yh a cy~md~Ical surface of radius r, and projecting the forces
g
on
t
e cylmdncal boundary of the element on the x - and y-axes,
we find

actin
This difference in the horizontaldisplacements may be eliminated by
combining the cases 76b and 76c'with the cases 76d and 76e in which
shearing forces act along the straight boundaries. The displacements
for these latter cases can be obtained from the problem of bending of a
curved bar, shown in Fig. 46. Making the inner radius of this bar
ap\)roach zero and the outer radius increase indefinitely, we arrive at

lo" (<Tr cos () = 2 lo" (o-, sin fJ +

X = 2

Tro

sin O)r d() = p

Tro

cos O)r dfJ = O

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

114

we can obtain thef solution of the problem shown in Fig. 78.


stress components or this case are

i.e., the forces acting on the boundary of the cylindrical element represent the load P applied at the point O. By using Eqs. (13) the stress
components, in Cartesian coordinates, are found from Eqs. (76):
p cos 8

o-,,= 4ir-r- [-(3


p cos 8
o- = 4ir-r- [1 11

'TzY

+ v) + 2(1 + v) sm
.
v - 2(1 + v) sm
8]

47r

81

+ 2(1 + v) cos

(77)

TzY

81

,=

O"z -

o-,,= dP [-(3
41T 2

11

TzY

+ v) cos 8 + (1
2

= dP [(1 - v) cos 2 8 + (1
41T 2

dP [ -(6
41T 2

- v) sin 2

8 + 8(1 + v)

sin

8 cos

+ 3v) sin2 8
- 8(1

+ 2v) + 8(1 + v) sin

O"r

dP

= -2(1 - v)-1
47rr 2

8]

v) sin 2 8 cos 2 81

8] sin 8 cos 8

It can beseen that the stress components decrease rapidly, asr increases,
and are negligible when r is large in comparison with d. Such a result
is to be expected in accordance with Saint-Venant's principle if we have
two forces in equilibrium applied very near to each other.
By superposing two stress distributions such as given by Eqs. (78) 1

0"9

FIG. 78.

= 2(1 - v) 4irr2'
~
d

Tro

= O

(79)

This solution can be made to agre_e with solution (46) for a thick cylin~er subm1tted to the action of internai pressure
if t_he o_uter diameter of _the cylinder is taken
as mfimtely great.
Y
ln the sarne manner we can get a- solution
for the case shown in Fig. 79a. The stress
components are 1
O"r

0"9

=O,

(80)

They represen_t the stresses produced by a


couple M apphed at the origin (Fig. 79b).

FIG. 79.

(78)

Y-t~------!

-2(1 - v) dP2 sin 28


47rr

( O"x +ao-,,
d) = - d -ao-,, = - d (ao-,,
sin 8)
-ar COS 8 - -ao-,,
ax
ax
a8 -r-

Thus the stress components for the case of Fig. 77 are obtained from
Eqs. (77) by differentiation. ln this manner we find

The

-2(1 - v) dP2 (1 - 2 sin 2 8)


47rr

The sarne stress distribution expressed m


polar coordinates is

From solution (77), for one concentrated force, solutions for other
kinds of loading can be obtained by superposition. Take, for instance, the case shown
in Fig. 77, in which two equal and opposite
forces acting on an infinite plate are applied at
two points O and 0 1 a very small distance d
apart. The stress at any point M is obtained
by superposing on the stress produced by the
force at O the stress produced by the other
force at 0 1 . Considering, for instance, an
element at M perpendicular to the x-axis and
FIG. 77.
denoting by o- x the normal stress produced on the element by the force at
O, the normal stress o-,/ produced by the two forces shown in the figure is
O"z

u11 = 2(1 - v) 4irr


dP2 (1 - 2 sin2 8)

P sin
- 8 [1 - v

= - -

O"z

115

FIG. 80.

If instead
an infinite p1~t e ~e h ave to d eal with
an infmitely long strip subjected
to the of
action
(77) as if the la of a l~ng1t~d1~al for~e p ~Fig. 80), we may begin with solution
the strip resulEngt~ wer:~-nfimte m all direct1ons. The stresses along the edges of
t lS procedu~e can be annulled by superposing an equal and
opposite system
mined by using ~h
s r~sses pro uced by this corrective system can be deterR. C. J. Howland :;oenera method described in Art. 23. Calculations made by
p diminish rapidly aswt~ha~~~e loca~ stresses produced by the concentrated force
increases and at d"
e lS ance rom the point of application of the load
stresses ~ver the c:;tance~.gre~ter tha_n the wi~th of the strip the distribution of
i A
ss sec lOil lS pract1cally umform. ln the table below several

;i:

~cE. :S:t . LoSeve, "Theory of Elasticity,'' p. 214, Cambridge 1927


ealsoapape r b Y E MI
'
vol. 5, p. 314
1925, . c i .
e an, Z. angew. Math. Mech.,

117

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

.
t d on the assumption that the
values of the stresses u. and u are g1v~n, c~1cu1~ e. 1
. . fixed at the end x = + oo and P01sson s rat10 is
s t np1s

The first three terms in the first line of this expression represent the solution for
the stress distribution symmetrical with respect to the origin of coordinates (see
Art. 26). The fourth term gives the stress distribution for the case shown in
Fig. 57. The fifth term gives the solution for pure shear (Fig. 75b). The first
term in the second line is the simple radial distribution for a load in the direction
8 = o. The remaining terms of the second line represent the solution for a
portion of a circular ring bent by a radial force (Fig. 46). By a combination of
ali the terms of the second line the solution for a force acting on an infinite plate
was obtained (Art. 38). Analogous solutions are obtained also from the third line
of expression (81), the only difference being that the direction of the force is changed
by .,,./2. The further terms of (81) represent solutions for shearing and normal
forces, proportional to sin n8 and cos n8, acting on the inner and outer boundaries
of a circular ring. We had an example of this kind in discussing the stress distribution around a small circular hole (Art. 32).
In the case of a portion of a circular ring the constants of integration in expression (81) can be calculated without any difficulty from the boundary conditions.
If we have a complete ring, certain additional investigations of thc displacements
are sometimes necessary in determining these constants. We shall consider the
general case of a complete ring and assume that the intensities of the normal and
shearing forces at the boundaries r = a and r = b are given by the following
trigonometrical series:

116

u,2c

y=O

.. . . .

.....

+0.159

+0.511

0.532

0.521

0.500

0.110

0.364

.....

.....

.....

7r

30

18

.....

=
=

y=O

u,2c

u,2c

<Ty2C

7r

7r

~=

y=c

-0.992

u,2c

y=O

- 30

-0.118

y=O

7r

- 18

u,2c

y=c

-9

-3

7r

7r

7r

- =

7r

00

7r

.....

1.992

1.118

1.002

0.479

0.468

0.489

0.841

0.973

.....

.....

-0.364

-0.110

-0.049

ao log r + bor2 + cor2 log r + dor28 + ao'8


+ ~ r8 sin 8 + (b,r + a1'r-1 + b,'r log r) cos 8
2
- ~ r8 cos 8 + (dir + ei'r-1 + di'r log r) sin 8
2

l.,

(anr"

+ b,.rn+2 + an'r-n + bn'r-n+2) cos n8

n=2

l.,

(c,.r"

+ d,.rn+2 + c,.'r-n + d,.'r-n+2) sin n8

(81)

n=2

1 Z. angew. Math. Me~h., vol. 12, p.


2 This solution was given ~y J.

34~, 1!~2Proc.

London Math. Soe., vol. 31,


Physik vol. 52, p. 348, 1905. An
~llip:c~l ring w~s given by A. Timpe, M ath.

Hi ~c~h

p. 1100, 18991. t1~oi: f:~s~h~.c~~mJe~n


ana ogous so u
z., vol. 17, p. 189 1 1923.

(ur)r..a = Ao

l
+l
.,
+ l
+ l

.,

A,. cos nlJ

n=l

e distance
Stresses produced in a semi-infimte plate by a force apphed at som
d'
d b E Melan 1
from the edge have been iscuss~
~ . nsionitl Problem in Polar Coordinates.
39. General Solution of th~ lwo- me f the two dimensional problem in polar
. d'
d various part1cu ar cases o
.
f th
Havmg iscusse
.
.t.
t write down the general solut1on o
e
. t
re now in a pos1 ion o
. .
h
d
coor ma es we a
.
f the stress function </>, sat1sfymg t e comproblem. The general express1on or
2
patibility equation (39) is
</> =

.,

(ur)r-1> = Ao'

(rre)r-b = Co'

B,.' sin n6

n=l

C,. cos n8

n=l

'

l
.,
+ l
+ l

A,.' cos nlJ

n=l

helr-a = Co

B,. sin nlJ

n=l

(a)

D,. sin n6

n=l

C,.' cos nlJ

n=l

D,.' sin n8

n=l

in which the constants Ao, A,., B,., . . . , are to be calculated in the usual manner
from the given distribution of forces at the boundaries (see page 49). Calculating
the stress components from expression (81) by using Eqs. (38), and comparing
the values of these :.iomponents for r = a and r = b with those given by Eqs. (a),
we obtain a sufficieL:t number of equations to determine the constants of integration in all cases with n ;:;: 2. For n = O, i.e., for the terms in the first line of
expression (81), and for n = 1, i.e., for the terms in the second and third lines,
further investigatiom are necessary .
Taking the first line of expression (81) as a stress function, the constant ao' is
determined by the magnitude of the shearing forces uniformly distributed along
the boundaries (see page 111). The stress distribution given by the term with the
factor do is many valued (see page 93) and, in a complete ring, we must assume
do = O. For the determination of the remaining three constants ao, b0 , and cr
we have only two equations,
and

(ur)r-b

= Ao'

119

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

The additional equation for determining these constants is obtained from the
consideration of displacements. The displacements in a complete ring should be
single-valued functions of 8. Our previous investigation shows (see Art. 26) that
this condition is fulfilled if we put co = O. Then the remaining two constants
ao and bo are determined from the two boundary conditions stated above.
Let us consider now, in more detail, the terms for which n = 1. For determining the eight constants a1, b1, . . . , dl' entering into the second and the third
tines of expression (81), we calculate the stress components u, and Tr9 using this
portion of <f>. Then using conditions (a) and equating corresponding coefficients
of sin n8 and cos n8 at the inner and outer boundaries, we obtain the following

E'.qs. (q), we find the following many-valued terms in the


d1splacements u and v, respectively:
expressions for the

118

eight equations:

(a1 + bl')a- 1 + 2b1a - 2ai'a- 3 = A 1


(a 1 + b1')b- 1 + 2b 1b - 2a1'b- 3 = A 1'
(c1 + dl')a- 1 2d1a - 2c1'a- 3 = B1
(c 1 d 1')b-1 + 2d1b - 2c1'b- 3 = Bi'
2d1a - 2ci'a- 3 + d1'a-1 = -C 1
2d1b - 2c1'b- 3 + d1'b- 1 = -C,'
2b1a - 2a1' a- 3 + b1' a- 1 = D 1
2b 1b - 2a 1'b-a + b1'b- 1 = D 1'

8sin 9

2 - r (J cos (J + --i

(J

a1 l -

11

a1 l -

2b'

2b'

11

cos

(J

These terms must vanish in the case of a com Plet e nng,

h ence
a1 l -

2b'

2 - r +--i =o
11

or
(b)

2 - r 8sm 8 +--i

b'
1

_a1(l-11)

(j)

Considering the third line of expression (81) in th e sarne manner, we find


te)

d ' = _ c1(l - 11)

Comparing Eqs. (b) with (e) it can be seen that they are compatible only if
a1a- 1 = Al - Dl
aib- 1 = Ai' - D,'
c1a- 1 = B1 + C1
c1b-1 = Bi' + C1'

(d)

(g)

Equations (j) and (g) together with E


(b) d
qs.. an (e), are now sufficient for determining all the constant~ in the stre
.d .
f
.
ss funct1on represented by the second and th
e
thir 1mes o express1on (81).
We conclude that in the case of a complete rin th b
d
..
not sufficient for the determination of the stress
arydc?td1tions (a) are
consider the displacements The d" 1
t .
' an 1 is necessary to
valued and to satisfy this ~ondition I~e a~:~te~a:~n a complete ring must be single

Jistr~bu~~o:

from which it follows that


(e)

a(A1 - Dl) = b(Ai' - Dl'),

Co

It can be shown that Eqs. (e) are always fulfilled if the forces acting on the ring
are in equilibrium. Taking, for instance, the sum of the components of all the
forces in the direction of the x-axis as zero, we find

fo

1!
i

" { [b(ur)r-b

- a(ur)r-al

COS

8 -

[b(Tr9)r-; - a(Tr9)r-al sin 8} d8 =

Substituting for ur and r,8 from (a), we arrive at the first of Eqs. (e). ln the sarne
manner, by resolvingall the forces along the y-axis, we obtain the second of Eqs. (e).
When a1 and c1 are determined from Eqs. (d) the two systems of Eqs. (b) and
(e) become identical, and we have only four equations for determining the remaining six constants. The necessary two additional equations are obtained by considering the displacements. The terms in the second line in expression (81) represent the stress function for a combination of a simple radial distribution and the
1
bending stresses in a curved bar (Fig. 46). By superposing the general expressions for the displacements in these two cases, namely Eqs. (g) (page 90) and
Eqs. (q) (page 77), and, substituting ai/2 for -P /'Ir ..'n Eqs. (g) and bl' for D in
1 It should be noted that 8 + (7r/2) must be substituted for 8 if the angle is
measured from the vertical axis, as in Fig. 52; instead of from the horizontal axis,
as in Fig. 46.

bl' = -

= 0,

' (1 4-

li)

'

'

= _ c1(l - 11)
4

(82)

!~: s:;et~ed:~:~r~!~on ~~ ~ecomple~e ~ing will usually depend on the.ela!~i:o~~~~~~


We see that the constants bl' and dl' depend on Poisson's ratio

'

and e, vanish so that


if [see Eqs. (d)]
'

fro:~es 1~2 ep~~d~nt ~f


q. (

Al = Dl

the elas~ic con~tants only when


), 1 - d 1 = O. Th1s particular case occurs
and

B 1 = -C 1

et

Wethe
have
such
ring
va:i~~:sdit"i~;h t~e r:sultant of the forces applied to each boundary
of
tion of forces applied to th eh or ~ns ance, the res~ltant component in the x-direce oun ary r =a. Th1s component, from (a), is

o2r

(ur

cos

(J -

Tr9

sin 8)a d9 = a,,-(A1 - D1)

If it vanishes we find A - D
I
the y-direction we obta; -B :_ ~ the sarne manner, by resolving the forces in
we may concl~de h
m 1 - - 1 when the y-component is zero. From this
of the elastic const!n~: the stress d~st~ibution in a complete ring is independent
boundary is zero Th of the material if the resultant of the forces applied to each
'
e moment of these forces need not be zero,

I'

o;==~-

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

120

These conclusions for the case of a circular ring hold also in the most general
case of the two-dimensional problem for a multiply-conneeted body. From general
investigations made by J. H. Michell, 1 it follows that, for multiply-connected
bodies (Fig. 81), equations analogous to Eqs. (82) and expressing the condition
that the displacements are single valued should be derived for each independent
eircuit such as the circuits A and B in the figure.
The stress distributions in such bodies generally
depend on the elastic constants of the material.
They are independent of these constants only if the
resultant force on each boundary vanishes. 2 Quantitatively the effect of the moduli on the maximum
stress is usually very small, and in practice it can be
neglected. 3 This conclusion is of practical importance. W e shall see later that in the case of trans:FIG. 81.
parent materials, such as glass or bakelite, it is possible to determine the stresses by an optical method, using polarized light (see
page 131) and this conclusion means that the experimental results obtained with
a transparent material can be applied immediately to any other material such as

121

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

effect

an mit1al
.
t . by making a cut along a vertma1 radms and imposmg
. is obtained
isplacemen
ot
one
end
of
the
ring
with
respect
to
th
th

0
d
(Fi 82b)
Th
e
er m the vertical direct
10n
g.
. .Figs. 82 a and
82b
d .to th e m1tial stresses produced in the cases shown m
correspon .
e many-valued terms of the general solution when Eqs (j) d
(g) are not sat1sfied.

an
Thet complete
of these problems can be obt ame
. d b Y app1ymg
. the results
31 Th solution
d
of Ar . . d t e fisplacements
d
given by Eqs. (q) of Art 31 will b e foun d to have
(see p rob. 4, page 126).
th e reqmre ype o IBcontmmty when applied to a rmg

r.

,,

'~

1\,
~,

!'),,

10~

~'

f/'.:~

V,-+>'. t? !lo.

~~ ~ ~
b 0.9b

steel if the external forces are the sarne.

~o.
~

lrO.lb/ ~-6~

'/ b

N~ ~~ f0
~ ~ !/.%
,,~

,,

'

1~'
i;'l, f0 0, ~ \

0.9b

o.

I(}

l(Gl ]b

''-.:~ ~ ~
~ r~ 0,

(a)

~
I~

o. b

I\' ~F/,:

l'S 10
8=90

:/,tl.6b

~ 10 V',,; ~
'~ ~1% ~
(\~ 1/,1.~

8=0

'~

~. ~

'~
~

1\
\

(h}

(a)
FIG. 82.

It was mentioned before (see page 68) that the physical meaning of manyvalued solutions can be demonstrated by considering initial stresses in a multiplyconnected body. Suppose, for instance, that Eq. (f) above is not satisfied. The
corresponding displacement is shown in Fig. 82a. Such a displacement can be
produced by cutting the ring and applying forces P. If now the ends of the ring
are joined again by welding or other means, a ring with initial stresses is obtained.
4
The magnitudes of these stresses depend on the initial displacement d. A similar

Loc. cit.
It must be remembered that the body forces were taken as zero.
a An investigation of this subject is given by L. N. G. Filon, Brit. Assoe. Advancement Sei. Rept., 1921. See E. G. Coker and L. N. G. Filon, "Photo-elasticity,"
1

Arts. 6.07 and 6.16.


A discussion of such stresses is given by A. Timpe, Z. Math. Physik, vol. 52,
4
p. 348, 1905. A general theory is given by V. Volterra, Ann. eole norm., Paris,
series 3, vol. 24, pp. 401-517, 1907. See also A. E. H.Love, "Mathematical
Theory of Elasticity,'' 4th ed., p. 221, 1927; J. N. Goodier, Proe. Fifth InterP

Congr. Applied Meehanics, 1938, p. 129.

(cJ

()

FIG. 83.

40. Applications of the General Solution in p 1


.
application of the general solution of the t o-d
.ar ~oordmat~s. As a first
nates let us consider a circular r
w imens1ona problem m polar coordiacting along a diameterl (Fig ;:~ co~r~se~ by_ two equal and opposite forces
t
. a . . e egm w1th the solution for a solid disk
(Art. 37). By cutti
with normal and sh:a~i~~ f:r~~:~i~!;~~ ~o~ of radius a in this disk, we are left
forces can be annulled b
. I u e round the edge of the hole. These
This latter system can b; r:u~erpo:1~g ~n equal. and opposite system of forces.
.
. p esen e w1th sufficient accuracy by using the first
few terms of a F
.
obtained by usin ouner
the series
e
. The ~ th e correspondmg
stresses in the ring are
together with the ~tresse~ ;:ira\ stol~t10~ of the_ pr~vious article. These stresses
cu a e as or a sohd d1sk constitute the total stresses
1
See S. Timoshenko B ll p l
h
p. 1014, 1922. See als~ Ku Wieo ~~e . In~t. Kiew, 1910, and Phil. Mag., vol. 44,
II, p. 1119, 1915.
.
g rdt, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Wien, vol. 124, Abt.

122

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES 123

in the ring. The ratios a 8 : 2P /irb, calculated in this man~er f?r various points o~
the cross sections mn and m1n1 for the case b = 2a, are g1ven m the table below.

r =

0.9b

O.Sb

0.7b

0.6b

tion that there are only normal pressures acting on the inner and outer boundaries
having the magnitudes: 1

_ 2P cos o for _ "!: ~ e ~ '.!:


,..
a
2"' "'2
(<Tr)r-O = - 2P ~for '.!: ~ (} ~ 3,..
,..
b
2"' "2

0.5b

Exact theory

mn
m,n,

1.477
-2.185

2.610
-3.788

-0.1131
-0.594

-2.012
1.240

-4.610
4.002

-8.942
10 .147

-4.806
5.108

-8.653
11.18

-4.86
5.20

-7.04
8.67

i.e., the pressures are distributed along the lower half of the inner edge an:l the
upper half of the outer edge of the eye-shaped end of the bar. After expanding

Hyperbolic stress distribution

mn
m1n1

2.885
-7.036

1.6021
-5.010

0.001 1 -2.060
-2.482
0.772

Linear stress distribution

mn
m1n1

1.71
-5.20

3.90
-8.67
1

-0.48
-1.73

-2.67
1.73

For comparison we give the values of t~e sarne stre~ses calculated from the .two
elementary theories based on the followmg assumpt1ons: (1) that c~oss sections
remain plane; in which case the normal stresses over the cross sect10~ fo!low a
hyperbolic law; (2) that the stresses are d1stnbuted
according to a linear law. The table shows that for
the cross section mn, which is at a comparatively large
distance from the points of application of the loads P,
the hyperbolic stress distribution gives results which
are very nearly exact. The error in the maxim~m
stress is only about 3 per cent. For the cross section
m 1n 1 the errors of the approximate solution are much
larger. It is interesting to note that the resultant of
the normal stresses over the cross section m1n1 is P /.-.
This is to be expected if we remember the wedge action
of the concentrated force illustrated by Fig. 65d. The
distribution of normal stresses over the cross section
mn and m 1n 1 calculated by the three above methods is
Frn. 84.
Th
h d
li d
shown in Figs. 83b and 83c.
e met o app e
above to the case of two equal and opposite forces can be used for the general case
of loading of a circular ring by concentrated forces. 2
As a second example we consider the end of an eyebar 3 (Fig. 84). The distribution of pressures along the edge of the hole depends on the ~mount of clearancf,
between the bolt and the hole. The following results are _obtamed on the assumpThe thickness of the plate is taken as unity.
.
.
L. N. G. Filon, The Stresses in a Circular Ring, Se~e~ted E"!gineering Papers,
No. 12, London, 1924, published by the Institution of Civil Engmeers..
a H. Reissner, Jahrb. wiss. Gesellsch. Luftfahrt, p. 126, 1928; H. Reissner, and
F. Strauch, lngenieur-Archiv, vol. 4, p. 481, 1933.
i

+0.068

+J.85

+0.169

Frn. 85.

these distributions into trigonometric series, the stresses can be calculated by using
the general solution (81) of the previous article. Figure 85 shows the values of the
ratio ae :P /2a, calculated for the cross sections mn and m1n 1 for b/a = 4 and
2
b/a = 2. It should be noted that in this case the resultant of the forces acting on
each boundary does not vanish, hence the stress distribution depends on elastic
constants of the material. The above calculations are for Poisson's ratio 11 = 0.3.
41. A Wedge Loaded along the Faces. The general solution (81) can be used
also for polynomial distributions of load on the faces of a wedge. a By calculating
1

P is the force per unit thickness of the plate.


For experimental determinations of the stress distribution in eyebars by the
Photoelastic method see E. G. Coker and L. N. G. Filon, "Photo-elasticity," Art.
6.18, and K. Takemura and Y. Hosokawa, Rept. 12, 1926, Aeronaut. Research lnst.,
Tky Imp. Univ. The stress distribution in steel eyebars was investigated by
J. 3Mathar, Forschungsarbeiten, No. 306, 1928.
See S. Timoshenko, "Theory of Elasticity," Russian edition, p. 119, St. Petersb urg,
1914.
2

124

'J'HEORY OF ELAS'l'ICI'l'Y

'J'WO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINA'l'ES

the stress components from Eq. (81) in the usual way, and taking only the terms
containing rn with n :;:: O, we find the following expressions for the stress components in ascending powers of r:
ue = 2b 0 + 2do0 + 2a2 cos 20 + 2c2 sin 20
+6r(b 1 cos O + d 1 sin O + aa cos 30 + ca sin 30)
+ 12r2(b 2 cos 20 + d, sin 20
(n

from which (writing k = tan f3 - f3) we find


do = -

+ a, cos 40 + C sin 40)

+ 2)(n + l)rn[bn cos no + dn sin no + "+' cos


-do

+ r(2b

(n

+ 2)0
+ e"+' sin (n + 2)01

+ 2a2 sin 20 - 2c2 cos 20


sin O - 2d 1 cos O + 6a, sin 30 - 6cs cos 30)
+ r 2(6b 2 sin 20 - 6d 2 cos 20 + 12a. sin 40 - 12c, cos 40)

+ rn[n(n

+ l)bn sin nO

- n(n + l)dn CQS nO + (n + l)(n


2)
an+ sin (n + 2)0 - (n + l)(n
2)cn+ cos (n

+ 2)0]

Thus each power of r is associated with four arbitrary parameters so that, if the
applied stresses on the boundaries, O == a and O = {3, are given as polynomials in r,
the stresses in the wedge included between these boundaries are determined.
If, for instance, the boundary conditions are 1
(ue)e-a
(ue)e-fJ
he)e-a
(-rro)e-iS

=No+ N,r + N.r +


=No' + N,'r + N.'r 2 +
= So + S,r + S2r 2 +
= So' + S,'r + S2'r 2 +

ue = 'l_ ( - k
k
q (1
Tr9 = k 2 -

+ -21 tan f3

q( -k
u, = k

+ 21 tan {3

(a)

(b)

(n

+ 2)a1

N,.

with three other groups of equations for ue at O = {3 and Tr8


at O = a and o = {3. These equations are sufficient for calculating the constants entering into the solution (83).
Let us consider, as an example, the case shown in Fig. 86.
A uniform normal pressure q is acting on the face O = O of the
wedge and the other face O = {3 is free from forces. Using
only the first tines in the expressions (83) for ue and -r,8 the
equations for determining constants bo, do, a2, and c2 are
FIG. 86,
2bo

+ 2as

= -q
2dof3
2a2 cos 2{l
2c2 sin 2{l = O
-do - 2c2 =O
-d 0 + 2a 2 sin 2{3 - 2c2 cos 2{J = O

2bo

1 The terms No, N 0', S 0 , S 0' are not independent.


oorner r = O and only three can be assigned.

1.

O-

1
)
2 cos 20
1.
2 sm 20 + 21 tan {3

(e)

cos 20 )

( 7 -

O+

Fm. 87.

~ sin 20)

TrO

- !1- (1 - cos 20)

O'r

- ; ('l -

21

O-

(d)

~ sin 20)

1. Verify Eq. (d) of Art. 25 in the case


<f> =

+ 2)a
+ Cn+ sin

+ -21 sm 20)

Problems

= No
Cs sin 3a) = N,

(n

- o - -1 tan f3' cos 20


2

. 20
21 tan {3 sm

ue =

+ C2 sin 2a)

+ 2)(n + l)[b,. cos na+ dn sin na+ an+ cos

2k

'l

and generally
(n

-q+qtantl

2bo

The stress omponents for any other term in the


polynomial load distribution (a) may be obtained
in a similar manner.
The method developed above for alculating
stresses in a wedge is applicable to a semi-infinite
plate by making the angle f3 of the wedge equal
to
The stresses for the case shown in Fig. 87,
for instance, are obtained from Eqs. (e) by substituting f3 = 7 in these equations. Then

we have, by equating coefficients of powers of r,


2(bo
d 0a
a2 cos 2a
6(b 1 cosa +d, sina + a 3 cos 3a

!1-,

2k

Substituting in Eqs. (83), we obtain'

(83)
Tr9 =

125

They represent stress at the

x - y = (x 2

+ y 2)(x'

- y 2 ) = r 4 cos 20

2. Examine the significance of the stress function Co where C is a constant.


Apply it to a ring a < r < b; and to an mfinite plate.
A ring is fixed at r = a and subjected to a uniform circumferential shear at
r = b forming a couple M. Using Eqs. (49), (50), (51), find an expression for
the circumferential displacement v at r = b.
3. Show that in the problem of Fig. 45, if the inner radius a is small compared
with the outer radius b, the value of u9 at the inside is given by

aE (1 - 2 log ~)
47r
a
and sois large, and negative when a is positive (the gap is being closed).
1

This solution was obtained by another method by M. Levy, Compt. rend., vol
126, p. 1235, 1898. See also P. Fillunger; Z. Math. Physik, vol. 60, 1912. An
~pplic~tion of stress functior_is of this type to tapered box beams is given by
~eIBsner, J. Aeronaut. Sei., vol. 7, P 353, 1940. Other loads on wedges are
cons1dered by C. J. Tranter, Quart. J. Mechs. and Appl. Math., voL 1, p. 125, 1948.

126

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

What is the largest gap (value of a) which can be closed without exceeding the
elastic limit, if b/a = 10, E = 3 X 10 7 p.s.i., elas ti e limit = 4 X 10 4 p.s.i.?
4. Use the results of Art. 31 to obtain formulas for the stresses due to closing
the parallel gap a in Fig. 88a, and due to the
sliding of amount a in Fig. 88b, in terms of a.
5. Find by superposition from Eqs. (62)
the stresses in the infinite plate with a hole
when the undisturbed stress at infinity is uniform tension S in both the x- and y-directions.
The results should correspond with Eqs.
(45) for the special case b/a-+ oo, P =O,
(a)
(hJ
Po = -S. Use this as a check.
FIG. 88.
6. Find expressions for the displacements
..iorresponding to the stresses (62), and verify that they are single-valued.
7. Convert the stress function (a) of Art. 33 to Cartesian coordinates and hence
derive the values of ""'' " 'Tzu which are equivalent to the stress distribution of Eqs.
(66'). Show that these values approach zero as the distance from the force
increases in any direction.
8. Verify that in the special case of a = "Ir /2 the stress function (d), page 98,
agrees with Eq. (69), and investigate whether the stress distribution (e), page 99,
tends to agree with elementary bending theory for small a.
9. Show by evaluating the force resultants that the stress distribution (e),
page 99, does in fact correspond to loading by a pure couple M at the tip of the
wedge.
10. A force P per unit thickness is applied by a knife-edge to the bottom of a
90-deg. notch in a large plate as indicated in Fig. 89. Evaluate the stresses,
and the horizontal force transmitted across an are AB.

y
FIG. 91.

13. Determine the value of the constant C in the stress function


= Cr 2 (cos 28 - cos 2a)

</>

required to satisfy the conditions

o,

"8 =

= s on 8 =a
= -s on 8 =

Tr8

o,

"8 =

Tr8

-a

corresponding to uniform shear loading on each edge of a wed e d" t d


f
th
t
y enry that no concentrated force or couple acts
g , rrec e away
rom ~ ver ex.
on the
t
14. Fmd the stress function of the type
ver ex.
a,r 3 cos 38

+ brr

cos 8

which satisfies the conditions

o,

"8 =

"8

sr on 8 =
-sr on 8

Tr8 =

=o,

r,8

-a

s being ~ constant. Sketch the loading for positive s.


15. Fmd the stress function of the type

which satisfies the conditions

o,

r,8 =

=O,

Tr8 =

"8 =
"8

11. Find an expression for the stress ""' on the section mn indicated in Fig. 90.
The wedge theory of the present chapter and the cantilever theory of Chap. 3
give different stress distributions for the junction rs. Comment on this.
12. Determine the value of the constant C in the stress function
<f>

= C[r2(a - 8)

sr 2 on 8 = a
-sr 2 on 8 =

-a

s being a ~onstant. Sketch the loading.


16. Derive the stress distribution

FIG. 89.

+ r2 sin 8 cos 8 -

r2

cos 2

8 tan a]

required to satisfy the conditions on the upper and lower edges of the triangular
plate shown in Fig. 91. Evaluate the stress components <Ts, Tzv for a vertical

127

section mn. Draw curves for the case a = 20 de and

the curves given by elementary beam theory.


g.
draw also for companson

"., = - '!!_ (arctan


"Ir

"= -

J!.
X

+ x2___!?Jf__)
+ y '
'!!_ (arctan
1r

J!. X

Tzy

- '!!_

~)
+ y2

from the stress function [see Eq. (a), Art. 341


</> =

ir ((x + y arctan ~ - xy)


2

2
)

7r

y2

+ yt

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS IN POLAR COORDINATES

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

128

and show that it solves the problem of the semi-infinite plate indicated in Fig. 92,
with axes as shown. The load extends indefinitely to the left.

Pl 111 ! 11 ~ _,,

21. Show that if the pressure loading of p b 20


1
replacing p, the appropriate stress function i:o .
lS rep aced by shear loading, s.
</> =

()=ore ftm~

2:a [ xy log (x

+ y) + (x2y

;y

~ [!2 y2 log

(x 2

+ y2) + xy arctan 'X!!

p {

left. Show that " grows without limit as O is


approached from any direction. (This is due to
the discontinuity of load at O. A finite value is
obtained when this is smoothed out, depending
on the loading curve in the neighborhocd
FIG. 93.
of O.)
18. By superposition, using the results of Prob. 16, obtain " "ui"v,forpressurc
p on a segment -a < x <a of the straight edge of the semi-infinite plate. Show
that the shear stress is
p
4axy
- ;; [(x - a) 2 + y 2][(x + a) 2 + y 2]
and examine the behavior of this stress as the point x = a, y = O is approached
(a) along the boundary, (b) along the line x = a.
19. Using the results of Prob. 17, sketch the variation of " along the edge y = O,
for a uniform shear load s applied to the segment -a < x < a of the edge.
20. Show that the stress function
2~a

arctan '!!.
X

+ !3 y

log (x 2

+y

! xy]
3

solves the problem of the semi-infinite plate indicated in Fig. 94, the linearly
increasing pressure load extending indefinitely to the left.

- ;

xy
r2
- 3a 1g r1 2 -

[a4 + 21 (x + y) ( 1 -

x
6a

+ 2ay )]
+ 23 ax{J + 21 ay ( 1
2

Fm. 96.

for pressure, and


; { ::. (3a - 3x

+ y) log ~:: + ~ ay{J + ::. (x

- 3y - 3a)a

4::'}

for shear, where

"' =

r1 2 = (x - a)
y,
2ay
01 - O, = arctan
x
y - a'

r2 2

+ a) + y
+ 02 = arctan

= (x

fJ = 01

x2

Zxy
y - a

24. Show that in the problem f F' 72 h


.
along the vertical d'
t
o
lg.
t ere IS a tensile stress " = 2P /.,,.d
the semicircular pa~~m;;~ ~xcept a~A. and B. Account for the equilibrium of
d d y cons1 ermg small semicircles about A and B in
the manner of Fi s. 65
g
e an .
26 Verify that the stress function

"' == -

FIG. 94.

23. Show that the parabolic loading indicated in Fig 96 is .


b th
function

given Y e stress

s..;-=c:-=--P-==-=J=:"'l-----=x=

(!3 x' + xy 2)

- 3xy

FIG. 95.

- y]

solves the problem of the semi-infinite plate indicated in Fig. 93, the uniform shear
loading s extending from O indefinitely to the

q, = - J!_ [

Examine the value of ., ., (a) approaching O along the boundary Ox, (b) approaching O along the y-axis (the discrepancy is dueto the discontinuity of loading at 0).
17. Show that the stress function
=

- y 3) arctan

22. Show how the distributions of loadindicat d F'

superposition from loading of the type indicated ~n 1;'ig.1~4~5 may be obtamed by

:JC

Fra. 92.

q,

129

E{,,,,. cos _i c1 -

11)r log r cos O -

!2 rO sin o

+ 4a log r

a
32

(3 - 11)

r1 coso }

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

130

tisfies the boundary conditions for a force p acting in a hole in an infinite plate

.
finity , and that the circumferential stress round the bole 18
with zero st ress a t ll1
p [2 + (3 - v) cos B}
'll"d

CHAPTER 5

except at A (Fig. 97).


.
Show that it also corresponds to single-valued d1splacements.

Fm. 97.

Deduce from Prob. 25 by integration the circumferential stress round the


26
hole .due to uniform pressure p in the hole, and check the result by means of Eqs.

(4~7

F" d the general form of f(r) in the stress function Bf(r), and ~d the expresll1
Co ld uch a stress funct10n apply to a
u s
sions for the stress components .,.,, "' "O
closed ring?

THE PHOTOELASTIC METHOD


42. Photoelastic Stress Measurement. The boundaries of the
plates so far considered have been of simple geometrical form. For
more complex shapes the difficulties of obtaining analytical solutions
become formidable, but these difficulties can be avoided by resorting
to numerical methods (which are discussed in the Appendix) or to
experimental methods, such as the measurement of surface strains by
extensometers and strain gauges, or the photoelastic method. This
method is based on the discovery of David Brewster1 that when a piece
of glass is stressed and viewed by polarized light transmitted through
it, a brilliant color pattern dueto the stress is seen. He suggested that
these color patterns might serve for the measurement of stresses in
engineering structures such as masonry bridges, a glass model being
examined in polarized light under various loading conditions. This
suggestion went unheeded by engineers at the time. Comparisons o
photoelastic color patterns with analytical solutions were made by the
physicist Maxwell. 2 The suggestion was adopted much later by C.
Wilson in a study of the stresses in a beam with a concentrated load, 3
and by A. Mesnager in an investigation of arch bridges. 4 The method
was developed and extensively applied by E. G. Coker 5 who introduced
celluloid as the model material. Later investigators have used bakelite, and more recently, fosterite. 6
ln the following we consider only the simplest form of photoelastio
apparatus. 7 Ordinary light is regarded as consisting of vibrations iD
1

D. Brewster, Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), 1816, p. 156.

J. Clerk Maxwell, Sei. Papers, vol. 1, p. 30.

C. Wilson, Phil. Mag., vol. 32, p. 481, 1891.


A. Mesnager, Ann. ponts et ehausses, 4 Trimestre, p. 129, 1901, and 9 Series,
vol. 16, p. 135, 1913.
6
The numerous publications of Prof. Coker are compiled in his papers: Gen.
Elee. Rev., vol. 23, p. 870, 1920, and J. Franklin Inst., vol. 199, p. 289, 1925. See
also the book by E. G. Coker and L. N. G. Filon, "Photo-elasticity," Cambridge
University Press, 1931.
6
M. M. Leven, Proe. Soe. Expl. Stress Analysis, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 19, 1948.
7
More complete treatments may be found in the following books: "Handbook
of Experimental Stress Analysis," 1950; M. M. Frocht, "Photoelasticity," 2 vols.,
1941 and 1948; and the book cited in footnote 5.
131
4

THE PHOTOELASTIC METHOD


THEORY OF ELASTICITY

132

f th ray By reflection
ali directions transv.erse to the d irect10n o
e
.
. t
b
from a iece of plate glass covered on one si~e with black ~am ' or y
?.
h a olarizer-a Nicol prism, or Polaroid plate-we
transIDiss10n throug
p .
f 1 ht . which transverse vibra-
bt
ore or less polarized beam o lg m
. .

r~~~;~s:~:yfi~!~~;~~::~:r
~:~:~~~tio~e
~~:~sc~::~l~l::~ft~d;:::elcdy.
. .
f t
We sha cons1 er on
in the photoelastic mvest1gat1on o s ress.
monochromatic light.

t: ~ : ~ :

<a>

PQp

.4A

The displacement (a) in the plane OA is resolved into components


with amplitudes OB = a cos a and OC = a sin a in the planes Ox, Oy
respectively. The corresponding displacement components are
x = a cos a cos pt,

(b)

t1 = -,

(e)

V,,

(b)

Frn. 98.

i.

Since the light waves are transmitted without change of forro, the
x-displacement, x1, of the light leaving the plate at time t corresponds
to the x-displacement of the light entering the plate at a time t 1 earlier.
Thus
(d)
x 1 = a cosa cos p(t - t1),
Y1 = a sin a cos p(t - t 2)
On leaving the plate, therefore, these components have a phase dijference .1 = p(t 2 - t 1). It was established experimentally that for a
given material ata given temperature, and for light of a given wave
length, this phase difference is proportional to the difference in the
principal stresses. It is also proportional to the thickness of the plate.
The relationship is usually expressed in the forro
.i

(C)

Frn. 99.

I F' 99a abcd represents a small element of the left-ha~d face of


n ldg.l M 'the directions of the principal stresses 11,,, 11y be~ng ~rawn
t h e mo e
'

f r ht 1 nzed m the
vertical and horizontal for convenience. !1- ra! o lg p~a in Fi 99
1 ne OA (Fi . 99) arrives from P, the d1~ec~1on of the Y_
g.
pb ~ throug: the paper. The vibration lS s1mple harmoruc and may
eing
" d' 1
t"
be represented by the transverse
lSp acemen
(a)
s = a cos pt
h d' t'
OA where p is 211' times the frequency, depending on
,
.
.
. .

1n t e irec 10n
the color of the light, and t is the time.
.

y = a sin a cos pt

The effect of the principal stresses 11,, and 11u, acting at the point O of
the plate, is to change the velocities with which these components are
propagated through the plate. Let v,, and Vy denote the velocities in
the planes Ox and Oy. If h is the thickness of the plate, the times
required for the two components to traverse the thickness are

.
t 11 a plane polariscope. A
F'gure 98a represents d iagramma lCa y
.
h
1
. . ..
L
th ugh a polanzer p t en
beam of light ongmat~tng adt 1 .J~~:h ~~difies the light acc~rding
through the transparen mo. e .
.
.
A t a
to the stress, then. through an analyzer-a11;other P?lanzer - o .
..
S n which a pattern of i11terference frmges (F1gs. 100 to 104) lS
screen , o
- ..
formed.

(aJ

133

27h

= T C(11,, - 11y)

(e)

where is the wave length (in vacuo), and C the experimentally determined stress-optical coefficient. C depends on the wave length and
temperature as well as the material.
The analyzer A transmits on}y vibrations or components in its own
plane of polarization. If this is at right angles to the plane of polarization of the polarizer,1 and if the model is removed, no light is transmitted by A and the screen is dark. W e now consider what occurs
when the model is present. The components (d) on arrival at the
analyzer may be represented as
X2

= a cos

a cos if;,

Y2 = a sin a cos (if; - .i)

(j)

since they retain the phase difference .1 in traveling from M to A.


Rere if; denotes pt
constant.

The polarizer and analyzer are then said to be "crossed."

~~~ :-:-~~~

'

THE PHOTOELASTIC METHOD


THEORY OF ELASTICITY

134

.
t d by mn in Fig. 99a, for
The plane of polarization ofd4 isl reptre~e; e The components of the
.
It is set perpen icu ar o

convemence.
"tt d b A are the components a1ong
vibrations (f) which are transm1 e y
Om which are, using Eqs. (f)'
'

_
cosa = --!a sin 2a cos (lf; - )
1
x 2 sin a = "2"a
sm 2a cos 1/1,
Y2
The resultant vibration along mn is therefore
1
.
.,
_ a sm 2a [cos .,,1

(' _

cos .,,

)] = -a sin 2a sin

~2 sin (lf; - ~

. ( )

2
h
t the simple harmonic variation w1t
The factor sm 1/1 - 2 represen s
time.

The amplitude is

a sin 2a sm

135

The fringe value may be determined by loading a strip in simple


tension. Since the stress is uniform there are no fringes, the whole
piece appearing uniformly bright or dark on the screen. At zero load
it will be dark. As the stress is increased, it will brighten, then darken
as the stress difference (here simply the tensile stress) approaches the
fringe value. On further increase of load it brightens once more, then
darkens again when the stress is twice the fringe value, and so on.
Similar cycles of brightness and darkness will clearly occur at any
point of a nonuniform stress field as the load is increased-provided
the stress difference at the point reaches a multiple of the fringe value.
These cycles at individual points correspond, in the view of the whole
field, to gradual movement of the fringes, including the entrance of new

(g)

eh the screen unless either sin 2a = O

It follows that some hght w1 reah d t ns of the principal stresses


.
If 2a = O t e irec 10
or sm /2 = O.
sm
.
directions of polarization of p and
are parallel to the (perpendicular) h
h oints of M will be extin-

Thus rays which pass throug. sue ph


S will be dark.
d
omts on t e screen
ished
and
the
correspon
mg
P

d"
ted by a dark
gu
11 r n one or more curves, m ica
These points usua y ie o .
l d
" . cl1"nic " Very short lines
S h
rve is cal e an iso
.
.
band on S.
uc a cu d A
be drawn at numerous points on it
parallel to the axes of p and.
~ay f the principal stresses at these
th (parallel) irect1ons o
.
t"
to recor d e
A . dff
t (perpendicular) orienta 10ns,
.
B
tt" p and m i eren

d
pomts.
y se mg
.
Th hort lines then cover the fiel
different isoclinics are o~tamed.
e s t and it is possible to draw
f
fihngs over a magne ,
.
h . t t the principal axes of stress.
like a pattern o iron
curves which are tangential at eac pom . o . l stresses
The latter lines are trajectories of the prmc1paO 1 2 .
When
.
/
th
= 2n?r where n = , '

0
If sm 2 = '
en
Points where this occurs are
= O, the principal stresses a_re efqual.
b dark Points at which
.
.
.
.
. t and w1ll o course e
called isotrop1c pom s,
. e of the first order, points for wh1ch
n = 1 forro a dark band, or frmg ' d
These fringes are called
n = 2 a fringe of the second ordehr.'tanl. shot 1.ns. used they correspond to
(b
e when w I e ig
'
I
isochromatics ecau.s '
1 gth d therefore to a color band). t
anf .
- 2 has twice the value
extinction of acertam wave en
th t
_ u on a rmge n . .
Y d
To evaluate the prmc1pal
follows from E q. (e) a u,,

n
1
an
so
on.
of u,, - <Yy on a fnnge - '
t know the order of the
.
t therefore necessary o
stress d1fferences I is .
t d by the fringe of the first
fringes, and the stress d1fference represen e
order, or fringe value.

'li

FIG. 100.

fringes, as the load is increased. The orders of the fringes may therefore be determined by observing this movement and counting the
fringes.
For instance a strip in pure bending gives a fringe pattern as shown
in Fig. 100. The parallel fringes accord with the fact that in the portion of the strip away from the points of application of the loads, the
stress distribution is the sarne in all vertical cross sections. By watching the screen as the load is gradually increased we should observe that
new fringes appear at the top and bottom of the strip and move
toward the middle, the fringes as a whole becoming more and more
closely packed. There will be one fringe at the neutral axis which
remains dark throughout. This will clearly be the fringe of zero order
(n =O).
. 43. Circular Polariscope. W e have seen that the plane polariscope
~ust discussed provides, for a chosen value of a, the corresponding
isoclinic as well as the isochromatics or fringes. Figure 100 should

136

THEORY OF ELAST!CITY

THE PHOTOELASTIC METHOD

137
Before examining the effects of QA and A u on th .
. .
p . . e hght it Is convenient to represent the motion (k)
.
Th. .
b
as a superposit10n of two circular
is
may
e
do
f
ll
. t/t' _ (/ ) b . ,11
mo t 10ns.
- ;o
ne as o ows. Denotmg
2 y 'f'1 '
an d a / v 2 by b, Eqs. (k) give

therefore show darkness wherever the orientations of the principal


stresses coincide with the orientations of the polarizer and analyzer.
Figure 100 was actually obtained in a circular polariscope, which is a
modification of the plane polariscope designed to eliminate the isoclinics. 1 I t is indicated diagrammatically in Fig. 98b, which corresponds
to Fig. 98a with the addition of two quarter-wave plates QP, QA. A
quarter-wave plate is a crystal plate having two polarizing axes, which
affect the light like a uniformly stressed model, introducing a phase
difference as in Eq. (f) - but the thickness of the quarter-wave
plate is chosen so that = 7r/2. Using Eq. (f) with this value of
for the light leaving QP, we observe that a simple result is obtained by
choosing a, now denoting the angle between the plane of polarization
of P and one of the axes of QP, as 45 deg. Then we may write
I

a:2

a
./,
= y'2
cos '1'1

y 2,

Va 2 cos (''f'

z7r')

. '
Va 2 sm
't'

COS

{3

COS

1/1,

Ya

= _;

sin {3 cos (1/1 -

will merely result in a cha~ge ocf tahnge ho axes flor a circular motion
t
e p ase ang e ift" b
Thus the clockwise circular motion can be represented b y a cons ant.
of the forro
Y components

= -

--=::: Sln

y2

.
{3 Sln

i/t

where 1/1' = i/t

+ {3.

Va 2 COS .1,1
't',

X5

if;,

= c cos t/t,

Ys = c sin

(t/t -

~)

= -c cos 1"

(o)

1/1 ha ving again changed by a constant.

'

Ya = _; cos {3 sin (1/1 - )

(j)

Ya = _; sin (1/1' - )

(k)

lf the polarizer and analyzer rotate, their axes remaining perpendicular, the
fringes remain stationary and the isoclinics move. If the rotation is rapid the
isoclinics are no longer visible. The circular polariscope achieves the sarne effect
by purely optical means.
1

C COS

(i)

Adding the components in Eqs. (i) and (j) we find for the light leaving
the model
Xa

Y4 = c sin i/t
(n)
aiong the axes of QA, where i/t is again of the f r
Identifying X4 with the fast axis of Q we h II oh m pt + constant.
A,
s a
ave on emergence
from QA
X4

and for the light dueto Y2' only


Xa

(m)

pri!!~:~:;~:se~!s :a~;J~ E~.(~ and (7) are along the directions of

Xa

(!)

whwh represent the superposition of


. 1
.
.
(/2), clockwise in Fig. 99b (where th: circu ar modt10n of rad1us b cos
th
)
d .
ray passes ownward through
e paper ' an a circular motion of radius b sin (/2)
t 1 k .
ha
'coun erc oc w1se
We m
h
th
1 "! _now s ow t t if the polarizing axis of A is set at 45 deg t~
e po anzmg axes of QA one of th
. 1
.
t th
S
'
ese c1rcu ar motions is transmitted
o e screen ' the other extinguished
d th d .
e esired result-isochromatics without isoclinics-is obtain~d~n

(h)

Here x 2' corresponds to the "fast" axis of the quarter-wave plate. A


point moving with these displacement components (1/1 always having
the forro pt
constant for a given point along the ray) moves in a
circle. Such light is therefore described as circular polarized.
The components (h) are along the axes of polarization of Qp. Using
{3 for the angle between x2' and the direction of u., in the model (Fig.
99b), and once more for the phase difference caused by the stressed
element, we have, for the light leaving the model, dueto x2' only

x, ~ bcoo (.v' + i) ~ b(o i co, f" - ''" i ''" r)


y, ~ bffin (r -i) ~ b(co'iinf" - in~cor)

If we now set the anaiyzer (A) axis a t 45 de to Ox


.
99c), the components of the dispiacements (o) !iong it ~~:d Oy4 (Fig.

c cos 45 cos i/t - c cos 45 cos i/t


or ~ero._d T_hus ~he clockwise circular motion is extinguished
ons1 ermg m the sarne
th
.
motion 0 f E
(l)
. way
e counterciockwise part of the
qs.
and (m), i.e.,
w

XI
4

/.

= -c sm 't',

yi = -c cos 1"

(n')

e find that the trammitted dispiacement along the analyzer axis is

-c cos 45 sin i/t - c cos 45 sin i/t

-- -.. --,.-.. .

f lt~STITUTUL

--,.-~--

. ,._.

POUTEHNIC .

llMl':OARA
~ENTRALl

amuoTECf..

138

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

THE PHOTOELASTIC METHOD

139
ln such cases the maximum stress is at the b
.
obtained directly by the optical method beca~undary, and It ~a~ be
stresses
vanishes at the free boundary.
e one of the prmc1pal
.
Figure 101 shows the fringe pattern of a curved b i
M. The outer radius is three times th .
ar bent by couples
the fringes marked on the right-ha d edmhner. The. order numbers of
n en s ow a max1mum of 9 at both

and the amplitude is thus

v2c

or

V2 b sin ~

or

. t;.

asm

(p)

remembering that b denotes a/V2 and that a is the amplitude leaving


the polarizer. No account has been taken of course of loss of light in
the apparatus. Comparing this result with the result (g) for the plane
polariscope, we observe that the factor sin 2a is now absent, and therefore the isochromatics appear on the screen, but no isoclinics.

Fm. 101.

If t;. is zero, the amplitude (p) is also zero. Thus if there is no model,
or if the model is unloaded, the screen is dark. W e have a dark field
setting. If the analyzer axis is turned through 90 deg. with respect to
QA we should have a light field and light fringes taking the place of the
former dark fringes. The sarne effect is brought about in the plane
polariscope by baving the polarizer and analyzer axes parallel instead
of at right angles.
44. Examples of Photoelastic Stress Determination. The photoelastic method has yielded especially important results in the study of
stress concentration at the boundaries of holes and reentrant corners.

top and bottom. The re ui


.
tribution of bendin t g . ar hspacm~ corresponds to the linear disg s ress m t e stra1ght b k Th
.
marked along the top ed
h
h
s .n..
e frmge orders
ge s ow t e stress d1stribution in the curved
1

E. E Weibel T

'

rans.

s .M.E., vol. 56, p.

637, 1934.

140

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

part (the complete model continues above this top edge, which is its
axis of symmetry), indicating a compressive stress at the inside represented by 13.5, anda tensile stress at the outside represented by 6.7.
These values are in very close agreement, proportionally, with the
theoretical "exact-solution" values in the last line of the table on
page 64.
Figures 102, 103 represent 1 the case of bending of a beam by a force
applied at the middle. The density of distribution of dark fringes
indicates high stresses near the point of application of the load. The
number of fringes crossing a cross section diminishes as the distance of

.J

STRESS CONCENTRATJON FACTORS


TENSJON

o-D/d=J
o-D/d=l.S

d\
~

0.1

"'...
0.2

... ~

1
2

M. M. Frocht, Trans. A.S.M.E., vol. 53, 1931.


See paper by Weibel, loc. cit.

0.3

R~tioR/d
lcrn. 105.

Frn. 106.

D
1

Frn. 104.

the cross section from the middle of the beam increases. This is due
to decrease in bending moment.
Figure 104 represents the stress distribution in a plate of two different widths submitted to centrally applied tension. It is seen that the
maximum stress occurs at the ends of the fillets. The ratio of this
maximum stress to the average stress in the narrower portion of the
plate is called the stress-concentration factor. It depends on the ratio
of the radius R of the fillet to the width d of the plate. Severa! values
of the stress-concentration factor obtained experimentally 2 are given
in Fig. 105. It is seen that the maximum stress is rapidly increasing
as the ratio R/d is decreasing, and when R/d = 0.1 the maximum
stress is more than twice the average tensile stress. Figure 106 repre-

141

THE PHOTOELASTIC METHOD

d
-.

0.4

1--

,.,

0.5

0.6

143

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

THE PHOTOELASTIC METHOD

sents the sarne plate submitted to pure bending by a couple applied at


the end and acting in the middle plane of the plate. Figure 107 gives
the stress-concentration factors for this case.
46. Determination of the Principal Stresses. The ordinary polariscope, as we have seen, determines only the difference of the principal
stresses and their directions. When it is required to determine the
' stresses throughout the model, or at a boundary where there
principal
is unknown loading, further measurement, or calculation, is required.

forro an air film with thickness variations determined by the thickness


variations in the plate, yields the required information in a single
photograph.
The differential equation satisfied by the surn of the principal
stresses, Eq. (b) on page 26, is also satisfied by the deflection of a
membrane of constant tension, such as a soap film, and if the boundary
values are made to correspond, the deflection represents <T,, + O"y to a
certain scale. 1 In many cases the boundary values of <T,,
O"y required
for the construction of the membrane can be found frorn the photoelastic fringe pattern. The latter gives O",, - O"y. At a free boundary
one principal stress, say <Ty, is zero, and <T,,
<Ty becornes the sarne as
O",, O"y.
Also ata boundary point where the loading is purely normal
to the boundary and of known magnitude, it constitutes one principal
stress itself, and the photoelastic rneasurement of the difference suffices
to determine the surn. The sarne differential equation is satisfied by
the electric potential in flow of current through a plate, and this can be
made the basis of an electrical method. 2 Effective numerical methods
have been developed as alternatives to these experimental procedures.
These are discussed in the Appendix. The principal stresses can also
be determined by purely photoelastic observations, more elaborate
than those considered in Arts. 42 and 43. 2
46. Three-dirnensional Photoelasticity. The models used in the
ordinary photoelastic test are loaded at room temperature, are elastic,
and the fringe pattern disappears when the load is removed. Since
the light must pass through the whole thickness, interpretation of the
fringe pattern is feasible only when the model is in a state of plane
stress-the stress components then being very nearly uniform through
the thickness. When this is not the case, as in a three-dimensional
stress distribution, the optical effect is an integral involving the stress
at all points along the ray. 3
This difficulty has been surmounted by a method based on observations made by Brewster and by Clerk Maxwell, 4 that gelatinous rnaterials, such as isinglass, allowed to dry under load, then unloaded, retain
a pe_rmanent fringe pattern in the polariscope as though still loaded and
still elastic. Resins such as bakelite and fosterite loaded while hot
then cooled, have been found by later investigators to possess th~

142

STRESS CONCENTRATION FAC.TORS


PURE BENOING

2.6
1

-u
~

'

e
o
+: 2

IS

....

1:Q)
1..)

c[[):::D

"~
..........

1..)

"'

V)

......... .a.

Q)

L.

j)

o-D/d=J
D-D/d=lS

\_

1...

O.J

0.2

0.3
0.4
Ratio R/d

o.s

0.6

FIG. 107.

Many methods have been used, or proposed. Only a brief description


of some of these will be given here. 1
The sum of the principal stresses can be found by measuring the
changes in the thickness of the pla.te. 2 The decrease in thickness due
to the stress is

t.h = hv
E (<T,,

<Ty

(a)

whence O",,
O"y may be calculated if t.h is measured at each point where
the stresses are to be evaluated. Several special forros of extensometer
have been designed for this purpose. 3 The pattern of interference
fringes forrned when a model is placed against an optical fl.at, so as to
For further information see the references cited in footnote 7 on p. J31.
This method was suggested by Mesnager, Zoe. cit.
a See M. M. Frocht, "Photoelasticity," vol. 2.

1
1

J. P. Den Hartog, Z. angew. Math. Mech., vol. 11, p. 156, 1931.

See R. D. Mindlin, J. Applied Phys., vol. 10, p. 282, 1939.


See the article by D. C. Drucker in "Handbook of Experimental Stress Analysist which gives a comprehensive account of three-dimensional photoelasticity.
J. Clerk Maxwell, Sei. Papers, vol. 1, p. 30.
3

144

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

THE PHOTOELASTIC METHOD

sarne property. The explanation is that these materiais have the


structure of a strong elastic skeleton, or molecular network, which is
unaffectec by heat, the spaces being filled by a mass of loosely bonded
molecules which softens on heating. When the hot specimen is loaded
the elastic skeleton bears the load and is elastically deformed without
hindrance. On cooling, the softened mass in which this skeleton is
embedded becomes "frozen, " and holds the skeleton almost to the
1

145

NUT WITH
TAPERED LIP

FIG. 108.

sarne deformation even when the load is removed. The optical effect
is likewise substantially retained, and is not disturbed by cutting the
specimen into pieces. A three-dimensional specimen may therefore
be cut into thin slices, and each slice examined in the polariscope. The
state of stress which produced the optical effect in the slice is not plane
stress, but the other components Txz, Tyz, <lz are known to have no effect
on a ray along the z-direction, i.e., normal to the slice. The fringe
pattern shown in Fig; 108 was obtained from such a slice cut centrally
fr6m a ,round shaft (of fosterite) with a hyperbolic groove. 2 The
maximum stress obtained from this pattern is within two or three per
cent of the theoretical value. Figure 109 shows another fringe pattern
'M. Hetnyi, J. AppliedPhys., vol. 10, p. 295, 1939.
2 Leven, loc. cit.

CONVCNTIONAL NUT

FIG. 109.

of the sarne type, obtained from a (bakelite) model of a bolt and nut
fastening. 1 The lower nut was a conventional type. The upper one
has a tapered lip and shows a lower stress concentration than the conventional nut.
1

M. Hetnyi, J. Applied Mechanics (Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 10, p. A-93, 1943.


Results for severa! other forms of nut are given in this paper.

STRAIN-ENERGY METHODS

sponding to a larger amount of work. Thus a net amount of work


would have been gained from the element in a complete cycle.
The calculation of the work done is simplest if the forces, or stresses,
ali increase simultaneously in the sarne ratio. Then the relation
between each force and the corresponding displacement is still linear,
as in Fig. llOb, and the work done by all the forces is

CHAPTER 6

STRAIN-ENERGY METHODS
47. Strain Energy. When a uniform bar is loaded in simple tension
the forces on the ends do a certain amount of work as the bar stretches.
Thus if the element shown in Fig.
...
....
110 IS
-1
dA
. sub"Jec t t o norma1 st resses
~
u., only, we have a force u., dy dz
~x
dx which does work on an extension
o
B .x
E., dx.
The relation between these
(aJ
(b)
two quantities during loading is
Fm. 110.
represented by a straight line such
as OA in Fig. llOb, and the work done during deformation is given
by the area i(u., dy dz) (E., dx) of the triangle OAB. Writing dV for this
work we have
dV = iu.,E., dx dy dz
(a)

dV = Vodxdydz

1 If this were not so there would be a substantial difference between adiabatic


and isothermal moduli of elasticity. The actual differences are very slight. See
G. F. C. Searle, "Experimental Elasticity," Chap. 1.

~i

l11

'

'

'

1,'

1il1:1

146

(b)

where

rd.

It is evident that the sarne amount of work is done on all such elements,
if their volumes are the sarne. We now inquire what becomes of this
work-what kind or kinds of energy is it converted into?
In the case of a gas, adiabatic compression causes a rise of temperature. When an ordinary steel bar is adiabatically compressed there is
an analogous, but quite small, rise of temperature. The corresponding
amount of heat is, however, only a very small fraction of the work done
by the compressive forces. 1 For our purposes it is sufficiently accura~e
to disregard this small fraction. Then none of the work done IS
accounted for by heat, and we may say that it is all stored within the
element as strain energy. It is assumed that the element remains
elastic and that no kinetic energy is developed.
The sarne considerations apply when the element has all six components of stress u.,, <ry u., rzy, Tyz, Txz acting on it (Fig. 3). Conservation
of energy req~ires that the work done do not depend on the order in
which the forces are applied, but only on the final magnitudes. Otherwise we could load in one order, and unload in another order corre-

147

Vo = i(u.,E.,

+ <lyEy + <F,Ez + Tzy"fo;y + Ty,"fyz + Tzz'Yxz)

(e)

Thus Vo is the amount of work per unit volume, or strain energy per
unit volume.
ln the preceding discussion the stresses were regarded as the sarne on opposite
faces of the element, and there was no body force. Let us now reconsider the
work done on the element when the stress varies through the body and body force
is included. Considering first the force u, dy dz on the face 1 of the element in
Fig. IlOa, it does work on the displacement u of this face, of amount i(u,u)i dy dz,
where the subscript 1 indicates that the functions u,, u must be evaluated at the
point 1. The force u, dy dz on the face 2 does work -i(u,u)2 dy dz. The total
for the two faces
is the sarne, in the limit, as
1

2 ox (u,u)

dx dy dz

(d)

Computing the work done by the shear stresses Txy, -r., on the faces 1 and 2, and
adding to (d), we have the work done on the two faces by all three components
of stress as
1 a
2 oX (u,U + TxyV + TxzW) dx dy dz

where v and w are the components of displacement in the y- and z-directions.


The work done on the other two pairs of faces can be similarly expressed. We find,
for the total work done by the stresses on the faces,
I

[a

OX (uxU

+ TxyV + TxzW) + oya (uyV + TyzW + TxyU)


+ :z (u,w + -r.,u + TyzV)] dx dy dz

(e)

As the body is loaded the body forces X dx dy dz etc. do work

iCXu

+ Yv + Zw) dx dy dz

'J'.he total work done on the element is the sum of (e) and (!).
differentiations in (e) we find that the total work becomes

(f)

On carrying out the

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

148
au

l [

2 tTx )z

av
(v
au)
(w
av)
+ tTy Jy
+ tTz aw
)z + Txy
X + Jy + Tyz )y + az
+ Txz (U
+ W)
+ U (iJtTx
+ Txy
+ iJTxz
+ x)
()z
iJX
iJX
iJy
(}z
+ v (tTy
+ iJTy
+ iJTxy
+ y) + W (iJtTz
+ iJTxz
+ Ty
+ z)] dz dy dz
ay
az
ax
az
ax
ay

But on account of the equations of equilibrium (127) derived in Art. 76 the brackets
multiplying u, v, w are zero. The quantities multiplying the stress components
are, from Eqs. 2, Ex, , 'Yxy, . . Thus the total work done on the element
reduces to the value given by (b) and (e). These formulas therefore continue to
give the work done on the element, or strain energy stored in it, when the stress is
not uniform and body forces are included.

By means of Hooke's law, Eqs. (3) and (6), we can express Vo, given
by Eq. (e), as a function of the stress components only. Then
V

= ~

(<F:r: 2

+ q,y2 + <F, 2)

(<F:r:<J'y

+ <ly<lz + <lz<F:r:)

+ 2~ (r:r;y2 + Tya2 + T:r:a2)

(84)

Alternatively we may use Eqs. (11) and express Voas a function of the
strain components only. Then

V 0 = .p,e2 + G(e:r: 2 + Ey 2 + Ez 2)

j-G("'(:r:y

in which

e = E:r:

+ Ey + e.,

}..-

- (1

"'(yz

'Y:r:z )

,,

Vo = Xe

OE:r;

+ 2Ge:r: = u

!i'
1

(g)

:r:

= O,

we have
(86)

'l

The total strain energy of a deformed elastic body is obtained from


the strain energy per unit volume Vo by integration:

V=

~
'1

'

'

'

ill:1

Jf fVo dx dy dz

<Tx = u.'

+ p,

<Ty = u.'

+ p,

u,

u.'

+p

where
(h)

u.'

+ u.' + u.'

= O

the stress condition u.', u.', u.' produces only distortion, and the change in volume
depends entirely 3 on the magnitude of the uniform tension p. The part of the
total energy dueto this change in volume is, from Eq. (8),

- 2v)

For the case of plane stress, in which <Fz = T:r:z = Tyz


from (84)
1 (ux 2 + <ly 2) - E<F:r:<Fy
V
+ 2GT:r:y
1
2
Vo = 2E

The quantity of strain energy stored per unit volume of the material is sometimes used as a basis for determining the limiting stress at which failure occurs. 1
ln order to bring this theory into agreement with the fact that isotropic materials
can sustain very large hydrostatic pressures without yielding, it has been proposed
to split the strain energy into two parts, one due to the change in volume and the
other due to the distortion, and consider only the second part in determining the
strength.2
We know that the volume change is proportional to the sum of the three normal
stress components [Eq. (8)], so if this sumis zero the deformation consists of distortion only. We may resolve each stress component into two parts,

(85)

Ev

+ v) (1

It represents the total work done against interna! forces during loading. If we think of the body as consisting of a very large number of
particles interconnected by springs, it would represent the work done
in stretching or contracting the springs.
By using Eq. (84) or (85) it can be represented either as a function
of stress components or as a function of strain components. The
application of both these forros will be illustrated in the following
discussion.

Since, from this,

This forro shows at once that Vo is always positive.


It is easy to show that the derivative of Vo, as given by (85), with
respect to any strain component gives the corresponding stress _component. Thus taking the derivative with respect to E:r: and usmg Eq.
(11), we find
0

149

STRAIN-ENERGY METHODS

(87)

ep = 3(1 - 2v) 2 = 1 - 2v (
2
2E
p
6E
trx

+ trv + u,)

(i)

Subtracting this from (84), and using the identity


tTxtTy

+ tTytTz + tTz<Tx

= -j-[(trx - u.)2

+ (try

- u.) 2

+ (u,

- <rx) 2]

+ (trx + tTy2 + u,)


2

we can present the part of the total energy due to distortion in the forro

o-

1 - 2v

(ux

+ tTy + u,)

+v

= ~ [(trx - try) 2

+ (trz

- tTx) 2 ]

+ (try

- u,) 2

+ 21G (rx.2 + Txz 2 + Ty.2)

(88)

1
The various strength theories are discussed in S. Timoshenko, "Strength of
Materials," vol. 2.
2
M. T. Huber, Czasopismo technizne, Lw6v, 1904. See also R. v. Mises, Gttingen Nachrichten, Math.-phys. Klasse, 1913, p. 582, and F. Schleicher, Z. angew.
Math. Mech., vol. 5, p. 199, 1925.
3

The shearing components Txy, r , Txz produce shearing strains which do not
nvolve any change of volume.

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

STRAIN-ENERGY METHODS

ln the case of simple tension in the x-direction, <r., alone is different from zero, and
the strain energy of distortion (88) is (1+11)/3Etr., 2. ln the case ofpureshear,
say between the xz, and yz-planes, T.,v alone is different from zero and the energy of
distortion is (l/2G)Txy2. If it is true that, whatever the stress system, failure occurs
when the strain energy of distortion reaches a certain limit (characteristic of the
material), the ratio between the critical value for tensile stress alone and for
shearing stress alone is found from the equation

The above argument can be repeated without change for a load with non-zero
resultant, so long as there is a fixed surface element within or near to the loaded
part. Thus if a deformable material is bonded to a rigid one, pressure applied to a
small part of the former near to the attachment will produce only local stress.t

150

from which
(j)

Experiments with steel show 1 that the ratio between the yield point in tension
and the yield point in shear is in very good agreement with that given by (j).
Saint-Venant's principle (see p. 33) can be shown by consideration of strain
energy to be a consequence of the conservation of energy. 2 According to the
principle, two different distributions of force having the sarne resultant, acting on
a small part of an elastic body, will produce the sarne stress except in the immediate
neighborhood of the loaded part. If one of these distributions is reversed, and
combined with the other, there will be zero stress except in this neighborhood.
The combined load::s are self-equilibrating, and the principle is in fact equivalent
to the statement that a self-equilibrating distribution of force on a small part of an
elastic solid produces only local stress.
Such a distribution of force does work during its application only because there
is deformation of the loaded region. Let one surface element of this region be
fixed in position and orientation. If p denotes the order of magnitude (e.g.,
average) of the force per unit area, anda a representative linear dimension (e.g.,
diameter) of the loaded part, the strain components are of order (p/E) and the
displacements within the loaded part are of order pa/E. The work done is of
order pa 2 pa/E or p 2a 3 /E.
On the other hand, stress components of order p imply strain energy of order
p2/E per unit volume. The work done is therefore sufficient only for a volume of
)rder a 3, in accordance with the statement of the principle.
It has been supposed here that the body obeys Hooke's law and is of solid form.
'l"he former restriction may be dispensed with, E in the above argument then
denoting merely the order of magnitude of the slopes of the stress-strain curves
of the material. lf the body is nota solid form, as for instance a beam with a very
thin web, or a thin cylindrical shell, a self-equilibrating distribution of force on
one end may make itself felt at distances many times the depth or diameter. 3
i'
1 See the papers by W. Lode, Z. Physik, vol. 36, p. 913, 1926, and Forschungsarbeiten, No. 303, Berlin, 1928.
2
J. N. Goodier, Phil. Mag., series 7, vol. 24, p. 325, 1937; J. Applied Phys., vol.
13, p. 167, 1942.
V. Z. Vlasov, "Thin Walled Elastic Bars," Moscow, 1940; J. N. Goodier and
M. V. Barton, J. Applied Mechanics (Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 11, p. A-35, 1944;
N. J. Hoff, J. Aeronaut. Sei., vol. 12, p. 455, 1945.

!I

tilLi

151

48. Principie of Virtual Work. ln the solution of problems of


elasticity it is sometimes advantageous to use the principle of virtual,
work. ln the case of a particle, this principie states that if a partich
is in equilibrium the total work of all forces acting on the particle in anv
virtual displacement vanishes. As a virtual displacement of a particl~,
free to move in any direction, any small displacement can be taken.
If ou, ov, ow are components of a virtual displacement in the x-, y-, and
z-directions and ~X, ~Y, ~z are the sums of projections on the sarne
directions of forces, acting on the particle, the principie of virtual work
gives
ou ~X= O,
ov ~y =o,
ow ~z =o
These equations are satisfied for any virtual displacement if
~X=

O,

~y

=O,

~z

=O

Thus we arrive at the known equations of equilibrium of a particle.


ln applying the principie of virtual work the acting forces are considered
as constant during a virtual displacement. If some of the forces acting
on a point are elastic reactions, as reactions of bars in the case of a
hinge of a truss, we assume that virtual displacements are so small that
the change in magnitudes or directions of reactions can be neglected.
An elastic body at rest, with its surface and body forces, constitutes a
system of particles on each of which acts a set of forces in equilibrium.
ln any virtual displacement the total work done by the forces on any
particle vanishes, and therefore the total work done by all the forces of
the system vanishes.
A virtual displacement in the case of an elastic body is any small displacement compatible with the condition of continuity of the material
and with the conditions for the displacements at the surface of the
hody, if such conditions are prescribed. If it is given for instance
that a ~e~tain portion of the surface of the body, say a b~ilt-in end of ~
heam, is immovable or has a given displacement, the virtual displaceIi'.lent for this portion must be zero.
. Let us consider, as an example, the case of a plane stress distributior;
ma plate. Denote by u and v the components of the actual displace~ents due to the loads and by u and v the components of a virtual
displacement from the loaded position of equilibrium. These latter
1

Goodier, J. Applied Phys., Zoe. cit.

152

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

STRA/Jo-ENERGY METHODS

components are arbitrary small quantities satisfying the conditions of


continuity of an elastic deformation, i.e., they are continuous functions
of x and y.
For any system of displaccmcnts thc work done against the mutual
actions bet,veen the particlcs is equal to thc strain energy stored, i.e.,
the strain energy corresponding to the d;placements. If we change u
and v by u and fv, therefore, the work done against the mutual
actions bet'\veen the particles is the difference betv;een the strain
energy corresponding to u
llu, v + v, and the strain energy corresponding to u and v. 1'he virtual displacements llu, 6v produce the
rhange in strain cornponents

plate. The condition that the total work done during the virtual dis-placement vanishes, no\v takes the form, from (b), (e), and (d),
f(X !u

&UfVo dx dy - ff(Xu

iJx

The corresponding change in strain energy per unit volume, from


exprcssion (85), is

avo

l!Vo = ,,.----- l!E,,,


vE,,,

avo l!Ey + ~
avo <l'Y.<11 =
+- ,,.----VI\v')'.<11

u,,, <lE,,,

+ u,, <lE,, + Try <l-yry

(a)

The change of the total strain energy of the body is then f f (J Vo dx dy,
in ,vhich the integration is taken over the whole area of the plate of unit
thickness.
As already stated, this change in strain encrgy measures thc work
clone against the mutual actions between the particles. ln order to get
the work clone by the mutual actions the sign must be reversed.
Hence the 'vork clone by thesc forces during the virtual displacement is

-ff !Vodxdy

(e)

in which the integration is taken along the houndary s of the plate,_


Similarly the work dane by the body forces is

+Y

!v) dx dy

(d)

in which X and Y are the components of the body force per unit volume
Qf the plate, a.nd the integration is taken over the whole area of the

+ Y~) dx dy

- f(X-u

+ Yv) ds]

(89')

An equation analogous to (89) can easily be written down for a threedimensional stress distribution.
The principle of virtual \Vork is especially useful for finding the
deformation of an elastic body
produced by given forces. To
~
t
illustrate the application of the s A = 4 : - d x
ln S
method let us consider here a
-"f-l:::l=t+:-ltJIJl[[!jt:LJ-i:::J:~lf"---'!..
fe\y simple examples, the solu-i 1-.-~s
tions of which are already well
Fra. 111.
kno\vn.
The first is the deflection curve of a pcrfectly flexible clastic string
AB stretched by forces S bctween fixed points A and B (Fig. 111) and
loaded by a distributed vertical load of intensity q. We assume that

(b)

ln calculating the v.rork clone by externa! forces during a virtual displacement, consideration must be given the forces applied at the
boundary of the plate and the body forces. Denoting by X and Y the
components of the boundary forces per unit area, the work clone by
thcsc forces on the virtual displacements having components l!u and liv
may be \Vritten do\vn at once as

ff(X !u

(89)

'rhe first 1:erm in the hracket is the potential energy of deformation. The se<iond
and the third terms together represr.nt the potential energy of forces acting on the
hody if the potential energy of these forces for the unstressed condition (u = t' = O)
is taken a.s zero. The complete expression in brackets represcnts the tot.al potential
energy of the 8y8tem.
llence in comparing various values of the displaccments u and v it can be stated
that the displacement.<i which actually occur in an elastic system ~nder the action
of given externai forces are those which lead to zero variation of thc total potcntial
encrgy of the system ~or any virtual displacemcnt from the position of equilibrium,
1.e., the total potenhal energy of the system at the position of equilibrium is a
maximum or a minimum. To decide whether the energy is a maximum or a
111ini~1un, t_he small quantities of higher order, which were neglected' in our previow; discuss1on, shou!d be con.sidered. If in this way it can be sho\Vn that for
any virtual displacement the change in the total potential energy of the system is
positive we have the case of a minimum. If this change is always negative we
have the case of a maximum. For stable equilibrium it is aiv<ays ncces.sary to
demaad a positive work for any virtual displacement of the system from thi.s
position, henee in thi.s case the total potcntial energy of the systcm at thi.s position
is a minimum.

=v+llu

'Y"'11

ff 8V0 dxdy ~O

Since, in applying the principie oi virtual work, the given forces and the actual
stress components corresponding to the position of equilibrium are considered as
constar.t during a virtual displat'ement, the variation sign & can be put before the
integral signs in Eq. (89), and, changing signs throughout, we have

a !u
e~=ax'

+ i' v) d+ ff(X u + Y !v) dxdy -

153

We neglected them when we a.ssumed that stress components and forces reu1ain
con.stant during any virtual displaccment.

THEORY OI/ ELASTICITY

STRAIN-ENERGY METHODS

the initial tension of the string is so la.rge that the increase in tensile
force due toadditional stretchingduring the deflection can be neglected.
Then the increase in strain energy due to the deflection is obtained by
multiplying the initial tensilc forces S by the stretch of the string due
to the deflection. Taking coordinatcs as sho,vn in Fig. 111 1 we find

1'his equation will be satisfied for any virtual displacement Qy, only if

154

ds-dx=dx

[1+ (dy)']' -dx=z1(y)'


dx

dx

f' (d~)'

sd'v+q-o

(g)

dx'

Thus v.re obtain the kno-wn differential equation of a verlically loaded


<1tring.
T'he principle of virtual work can be used not only for establishing a
differential equation for the deftection
cur,c, as in the example given above,
~
but also for the direct determination
of deflections. 1 Take, for examplc, a
~ .x
pri:,;matical bar supported at the ends
/-and loaded by a force P (Fig. 112). Y
I n the most general case the deflection
1''ro. 112.
cu~ve of such a bar can bc represcnted in the form of a trigonometric
series,
, rx +
. 2-irx a 3 sin -3rx
y = a1 s1n T
a2 s1n - (h)
1
1

F__

dx

The stretching of the string is


(' (ds - dx)
}o

155

c_=L---''---------

dx

and the corresponding increase in strain energy of the string is

('(")'
dx
dx

!'2 } 0

(<)

To get the total strain energy of the string the constant strain energy
dueto initial stretching would have to be added to expression (e). The
principle of virtual work in this case gives the following equation,
analogous to Eq. (89):

Substituting this in the well-known formula for the strain energy of


bending of a prismatical bar, 2 we find

(fJ

V=

2E! lo('

('y)'
dx2

dx

~
413 4

Efr'

n4a,.2

(k)

n~l

Calculating the variation of thc second term, we find

('

lo

(dy)2
dx
dx

2 (ldy ady dx
dx dx

lo

2 [ldyd l'iy dx
dx dx

lo

Integrating by parts and taking into account that at the ends of thP
string f'iy = , "\Ve find
2

f' (dy) dy dx

lo

dx

dx

or

111:1

y = a,. SIIl
-nrx
-

V
Efr4
a,. ila,. = 2l3 n 4a,. an

P ua,.
1

"

d'
)' l'iydx =0
sdx;+q

(m)

and the work dane by the externai force P during the virtual displacemcnt (l) is

lo('d'd~ l'iy dx + lo(' q l'iy dx =O


lof'(

(l)

'fhe corresponding change of strain energy, from Eq. (k), is

- 2 (ldydx yl'o - lo(' d'y


y dx) dx

Substituting into Eq. (f), v.e obtain


S

Lct us consider a virtual displacement from t.he actual deflection curve


obtained by giving to any coefficient a,. in t.he series (h) a variation
ilan. Then

. nrc

Sln -

(n)

See S. Timoshenko, Bull. Polytech. lmt., Kiew, 1909. Sec also S. Timoshenko
'
Strength of Materiais," vol. 2, p. 44, 1941.
See S. Timoahenko, "Strength of Materiais," vol. 1, p. 297, 1941.

THEORY OF ELASTJCITY

156

STRAIN-E.llfERGY METHODS

By using (m) and (n) the equation of virtual work becomes


EJ,.

2l3 n 4a,. lla,.

. n11"c

lia,. s1n -

1-

ceed as in the case of the beam and take virtual di.spla.cements in the
form

~o

u = A,,.,. sin mrx sin nT1J


a
b

from '\rhich
2Pl .

a,.

nrc

v = B,,.n sin mrx sin nT1J


a
b

"" -l-

~~~~~

El14n 4

The equation (89) of virtual displacements then gives

Substituting in the series (h), '\\e find the deflection curve


.,

_ 2Pl 3
y - Ef11'4

"

f..t

nTC

n1'X

sin -1- "" -ln4

Am,.
(o}

B.,,"

This series rapidly converges, and a fe,v terms give a satisfactory


approximation. Taking, for instance, the load P at the middle of the
span (e = Z/2), the deflection undcr the load is

(y)

~ 2PI'
,,_21 Ef1r4

157

!!
ff

n~ dx dy =
Y sin m;x sin n-i;; dx dy =

X sin m;x sin

a:m,. ! ! V

Bmn

~mn

ff

dx dy

(q)

y dx dy
0

For the calculation of strain energy in the case of plane stress we use
the formula

v~Jjv.axay~JJ[ 2(1 E-

(i + _!.34 + _!.5' + ...)

Amn

(Ez '+

v2)

E11

'+ 2 l'E~~ )

+ 4(1 ~

By taking only the first term of this series, we obtain

v) 'Y""2 dx dy

(r)

Substituting in itl

We have a factor 48.7 while the exact value is 48, so that the error made
in using only the first term of thc series is about 1! per cent.
x
In the preceding discussion we had to consder
0
displaccment in only one direction and ,,,.e
represented it by a sine series (h). A similar
method can be applied in more complicated cases.
Let us consider a rectangular plate with fixed
Y
edges, Fig. 113, and acted upon by body forces
Fio. 113
parallel to its plane. General expressions for the
displacements u and v can be taken in the forra of series,

V=

\.' \.'

. m.x . n.-y

\.' \.' B

. m.x . n.-y

LtLt.4 mns1nas1nb
LtLt

1111.

nr
. mrx
nry
Lt "f..t TB,,.,.
sina cos -b-

_ r'Jv _ "
ay -

tu -

- r'Ju

1'>;11 -

(p)

mnBlllSlilT

+ x
r'Jv
" " n1r
m"lrX
n1ry
= Lt Lt T mn Slll a cos -b+

ll:

m'B
~
mn
a

COS

m1fx. n1fy
-- "" - a
b

and performing the integrations we find

V_ 'Eab
4

Each term of these series vanishes at the boundary, so the boundary


conditions are sa.tisfied. To calculate the coefficients A,,.n, Bmn we pro-

1.

mr A,,.,. cosmrx
n1fy
Lt "f..t a
-sinb
0

r'Ju = "
~~ = ax

['-'\.'A
, (. 1
Lt Lt ''"' 2(1 -

m'
v2) a 2

1 n')

+ 4(1 + v) b2

+ Lt
'.' Lt
'.' B mn , ( 2(1

1
n'
- v2) b2

+ 4(1 1+ v) m')]
a2

Su~t. is not ~~ays legitimate to differentiate a Fouriex series tcrm by term.


Clent condit1ona may be found in the book "Modera Anal "b E T "~'
ta.ker
d G N W
ySJll
y J1Itan

ataon, p. 169. ThCBC conditiona are fulfilled in the present
problem,

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

STRAJN-ENERGY METHODS

Substituting this expression for the strain energy into Eqs. (q) we

sions (s). The calculation of the variation of the strain energy ca.n b
simplified if '"e observe that
e

158

obtain
Eabr' (

A - 4

m'
a 2 (l-

112 )

Eafrir2 (
m2
B - 4 - 2a2(1+11)

+ 2 b (ln'+;)")

n2

+ b2(1 -

v2)

ff' m.x Y
ff as1nb
0

Xs1nas1nbdxdy
1>

Ys1n

m1t'X .

n'lry

" ~ .;.(x,y)

+l

am l/>m(x,y),

b .p.(x,y)

b"'

we can write as many equations of equilibrium, similar to equations (q)


in the preceding examplc, as the number of the coefficients in the
series (s). These equations 'vill be linear with rcspect to a1, . . . ,
a,,., b1, , b,,,, and solving them we will find the values of the coefficients in the series (s), reprcsenting the approximate solution of the
problem. 1
ln using the principle of virtual displacements (89) it is assumed that
t.he strain energy per unit volume V0 is represented as afunction of the
strain components [Eq. (r)] and these are calculated by using expres1 This method of solving problema in ele.sticity we.s proposed by W. Ritz and was
successfully used by him in an investigation of bending of rectangular ple.tes.
See J. reine u. angew. Math., vol. 135, pp. 1-61. See e.ISO "Gellll.mmelte Werke,"
p. 192, Paria, 1911.

11

Ey

+ r"ll y"ll) dx dy

f f [crx:x u + Uu a~ v +rzv(:y u +

0~v)]dxdy

u and v vanish at the bound-

f[(~:;+;;)ou+(~~+;;)v]dxdy

'faking for the virtual displacements expressions (t) vle then obtain the
necessary equations for ealculating the coefficients a 1, ' a''"
bi, . . . , bm in thf' following form:

u,,.

~r + u

V= -

am

(t)

(ur

Integrating by parts and ohserving that


ary we obtain

(')

which satisfy the prescribed boundary conditions. For example, v:e


can select !f>o and ,P0 so that they 'vill give at the boundary the required
displacements, and the rest of the functions q, and ,P can then vanish at
the boundary. For the calculation of the coefficicnts a1, . . . , am,
b1 , , b,.. v:e use the principle of virtual displacements (89). Taking virtual displacements in the form

ff

+ l am.P... (x,y)
m

dxdy

W e see that for any kind of volume forces the coefficients in exprcssions
(p) can be readily calculated and the complete solution of the problem
can be obtaincd.
The method of virtual displacements can be used for finding approximate solutions of tv;o-dimensional problems 1,..hen displaccments at the
boundary are given. Assume that the displacements u and v can be
represented with sufficient accuracy by series
u = ef>.(x,y)

159

'

f f X!j>,.,(x,y) dxdy f f (~~ + ~;) !f>m(x,y) dxdy


f f Yt.f;,,.(x,y) dx dy f f (~~+a::) f,,.(x,y) dx dy
JJ(~~ + ;;; + x) lf>,,.(x,y) dxdy
f f (~~ + ;; +
~O
=

-a,,.

-bm

=O

(90)'

Y).;.(x,y) dxdy

~s an example of the application of these equations let us again con~1der a rectangular platc (Fig. 113) and assume that three sides of it. are
fixed and along the fourth side (y = b) the displacements are given bv

t.he equations

u=O,

v=Cbsin11"X
a

The boundary conditions will be sat.isfied by taking


U=

v =

. m.x . n"11
4\ ' \ ' A mnSin7s1n-b
4
Cy sin 11"X + \' \' B
ffl"lrX . n7r'!J
a
44 ,,.,, s1nas1nT

(u)

E<;iuations of virtual displacements in this form are sometimes ealled Galerkin'~


equattons. liffwever both forms of equations representcd by Eqe ( )
d E
(90)
a d
..
.qan
qs.
are tn teate by W. llitz 1n the above-mentioned paper. f\ee "C'n~ammlt~
Werke," p. 228.

'" "
1

STRAIN-ENERGY .METHODS

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

160

The corresponding stress components will be

rr,.

~ (u
1_

"2

+ " ay
av)

ax

~ (\' \'

cos m'll"X sin n'fr'Y


L.t L.t A,,.,. m1f
a
a
b
Bm" nb1f sin m;x cos n;u + vC sin ":)

l -

11 2

L:L
~ "2(:~ + v!:) ~ "2(2:2:
+"

"

n; sin m;x cos n;


mr
nry)
+Csina+j) LtLtA,,... acosas1n-b-

TX

'T%11 -

2(1

Bmn

\' \'

ffl11"X

av) ~
E
( \ ' \ ' A,,.,. nr sin m1fx cos nny
+ v) (u
ay + ax
2(1 + v) LtLt
b
a
b
"\'
m
mrX . n"1J + e '
")
+ "\'
LtLtB,,.,.acosas1nb
Ya;cosa

Substituting into Eqs. (90) and assuming


ilu = 1iA,,.

ffl?l"X

Slll

n7r11

Bill

T'

&;

= B,,.

ffl'l<X

Bill - . - SIIl

n1'U

-b

've obtain, after integration,


_

ET

ab (

m'
a 2 (l

J12)

+ 2b2(1n'+ v) )

A .....

. ffl1fX s1nb""
. n'lry dxdy
+ of.b X s1n-J.

E1t ab (
-4-

b2 (1

n'
v 2)

+ 2a (1m'+ v) )
2

~o

B,,.,.

. 'll"X . ffl'll"X ,n n"1J


-c11"2J.f,b
ysm-s1n--
b dx dy
a2 0 0
a
a

.
JJ

mrx . n7rJJdxd

Ys1nasm-b-

Y ~

If the body forces vanish we find that all coefficients A,,.,, vanish also.
The coefficients B,,.,. are different from zero only when m = 1. Thcn

E'b(
n'
- 4 - b2(1

111 )

+ 2a 2(1 1+ v) )s
~

1
"

e,' f,b y Slll


. -b
nry
dy

- 2a

General considerations of the total energy of a system were applied


by_A. A. Griffith in developing his theory of rupture of brittle materials.1
It is known that matcrials always show a strength much smaller than
might be expected from the molecular forces. For a certain glass
Griffith found a theoretical strength in tension of the order of 1.6 X 10
p.s.i., 1vhile tensile tests "'ith glass rods gave only 26 X ios p.s.i. He
sho\ved that this discrepancy bet,veen theory and experimcnts can be
explained if \Ve assume that in such materials as glass there exist microscopic cracks or fiaws producing high stress concentrations and consequent spreading of the cracks. For purposes of calculation Griffith
takes a crack in the form of a very narrow elliptical hole, the major axis
of tvhich is perpendicular to the <lireetion of the tcnsile force. Consider a platc fixed along the sides ab and cd,
, ,
and stretched by uniformly distributed
a
tensile stress S, acting along the sarne sides
(Fig. 114). If a microscopic elliptical hole
AB of length l is made in the plate, ab and
cd rcmaining fixed, the initiul strain energy
e
d
duc to the tensile stresses S 'vill be reduced.
- ' t .This reduction can be calculated by using
F1G. 114.
the solution for an elliptical bole, 2 and for a plate of unit thickness it is
CfJual to
rl 28'
V= 4EIf the crack lengthens, there is a further reduction of strain energy
8torcd in thc plate. However, the lcngthening of the crack means an
increase of s-urface energy, since the surfaces of solids possessa surface
tension just as liquids do. Griffith found, for instance, that for the
kind of glass used in his experiments the surface energy T per unit surface area "'as of the arder 3.12 X 10-s in. lb. per square inch. Now if
the lengthening of the crack requires an increase of surface energy
'vhich can be supplied by the reduction of the strain energy, the
lengthcning can occur l'.'ithout increase of the total energy. The condition that the crack extends spontaneously is that these t'" quantities
of energy are equal, or, using (v),

av dl = ;.ts.; ai ~ ~--dl r
2

C?rb 2cos nr

2{1-n-

Determining B 1 ~ from this equation and substituting into the


formulas (u) 1,ve obtain the displacements produced by the assumed
displacements at the boundary.

161

dl

2E

A. A. Griflith, Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 221, p. 163, 1921.
See also his paper in Proc. Inlern. Congr. A.ppl. ~fech., Delft, 1924. A bibliography
of the subject can 1>e found in "Handbuch der physikalischen und technischcn
Mechanik," vol. 4, part 2, 1931, 11.rticle by Adolf SmekaJ.
1
See p. 201.

162

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

STRAIN-ENERGY METHODS

from which

163

in houndary forces; then, from boundary conditions (20), we find

(w)
Experiments in which cracks of kno,vn length were formed with a glasscutter's diamond sho?rcd a ve:ry satisfactory agreement '\Vith Eq. (w).
It '\'as also shown experimentally that, precautions are taken to
eliminate microscopic cracks, a much higher strength than usual can be
obtained. Some glass rods tested by Griffith shovred an ultimate
strength of the order of 900,000 p.s.i., which is more than half of the
theoretical strcngth mentioned above.
49. Castigliano's Theorem. In the previous article the equilibriu1n
configuration of an elastic body submitted to given bo<ly forces and
j!;iven boundary conditions V.'as compared \Vith neighboring configura
tions arrived at by virtual displacements au, liv from thc position of
equilibrium. It was established that the true displacements corresponding to the position of stable equilibrium are those which make the
total potential energy of the system a minimum.
J_,ct us consider now, instead of displaccmcnts, thc stresses corresponding to the position of equilibrium We take again, as an example,
the case of a plane stress distribution. We kno"' that the differcntial equations of equilibrium (18), togcther with the boundary conditions (20), are not suffi.cient for determining the stress components u",
uu, Tey. By taking various expressions for the stress function </> in Eqs.
(29) vre may find many diffcrent stress dist.ributions satisfying the
equations of equilibrium and the boundary conditions, and the question
arises: What distinguishes the true stress distribution from all the other
statically possible stress distributions?
Let u,,, uu, T%'11 he the true stress components corresponding to the position of equilibrium and liu,., liuu, lirey small variations of these components such that the new stress components u,,
liu%, Uu
liuy, Tey
lir"ll
satisfy the sarne equations of equilibrium (18). Then, by subtracting
the equations for one set from those of the other, we find that the
changes in the stress components satisfy the following equations of
equilibrium:

()
Corresponding to this variation of stress components there will be some
variation in the surface forces, Let !iX and Y be these small changes

+ lirey m =
+ liT,,u l =

liu,, l
liuu m

liX
liY

(b)

Consider no": thc change in strain encrgy of thc body due to the
above changcs 1n stress components. Taking the strain energy per
u~t volume. as a function of thc stress components (86), the change of
th1s energy 1s

(')
1

!Vo

FJ

iJu,, =

(u,, -

lltru) = Ez

uu =

FJ (uu -

Ptr,,) = Eu

av

1
()--;Tey =

!Vo

giving us

liVo =

t,.

liu,,

+ E.y liuu + 'Y""J liT~ 1

and the total changc in the strain


cnergy due to changes of stress components is
liV

')'ry

= JJ liVo dxdy = ff(E,, li11x


+Eu liuu + 'Yx liTrv) dx dy
11

,-~~~~~~~x

(d)

A ds

Lct us calculate this change in Y


energy, taking into consideration the
F1G. 11s.
boundary conditions (b). The first tcrm in (d) gives, integrating by
parts,

ff~*-fJ~~*-f~~
-

ff

----a;;
'"d

dy

(e)

in which ~he expression lu &r,,I represents thc diffcrence of the valucE" of


th~ funct1on u liu"' at two opposite points of the boundary1 such as the
po1nts A and B in Fig. 115. We then have
dylu

&r,,I = dy(u liu,,).1

- dy(u liu,Js

= ds(u liu:. cos Nx).1

+ ds(u &r~ cos Nx)

(f)

165

THEORY_ OF ELASTICITY

STRAIN-ENERGY METHODS

\ovhere cos Nx = lis the_cosine of the angle between the extemal normal
N and the x-axis, and ds is an element of the boundary. Summing up
such expressions as given in (f} we find

The right side of this equation represents the '\Vork produced by the
ehanges of externa! forces on the actual displacements.
The true stresses are those ""'hich satisfy this equation. An analogous equation can be obtaincd for the three-dimensional case, '"ith a
third term W Z added in the bracket in Eq. (91), and the integral
extending over the boundary surface instead of the boundary curve.
If ""'"e have concentrated loads instead of a continuous distribution of
surface forces, the integration in Eq. (91) should be replaced by a summation. Letting P1, P2, . . . , be indcpendent concentrated loads
and d1, d2, . . . , the actual displacements of the points of applications
of the loads in the directions of these loads, Eq. (91) becomes

164

and Eq. (e) becomes

JJ Brr~dxdy J
=

e:

u Bu:lds -

Jf

5
u a ::dxdy

(g)

in which the first integral is extended along the boundary and the second over the area of the plate.
In the sarne manner the second and the third terms on the right side
of Eq. (d) may be transfonned and we find

JJ'

J J:: ~ J !u,I
- JJ
J
JJva~ dxdy
JJ
J J:~ + J J:;
~ J ''~1- JJ ::~dxdy + J "'~I
Jf :;rir f
+f
JJ "'~
JJ ....
~ dx
va~"dxdy =

!u,dxdy

i'ru lh-Zll dx dy =

dy

dyl"

!u,dy

ua

dx dy
-

dxl"

11

v&r11 mds -

lrrru dx

,a

dx

ll-r"!I dy

(h)

dxlu

v 8rZll l ds

lircy

v iJx"'lldxdy-

m ds

u-a:y-dxdy

Substituting (g) and (h) in Eq. (d) we obtain


V =

[u(OO: l

(92)

+ 8-rq m) + v(llu"' m + lh-xy l)] ds

_JJ[u (a::+ a~ru) + v(a~u +a ;:~)]dxdy


in '\\hich the first integral is extended along the boundary and the second over the area of the plate. Making use of Eqs. (a) and (b) we
finally obtain the follo-.,ving expression for the change of strain energy
dueto variation of stress components:
(91)
V = f(u X + v Y) ds

ln this discussion we have taken the most general variations of the


stress components fulfilling the equations of equilibrium (a).
Let us consider no'\v a special case when the variations of the stress
components are such that they can be actually produced in an elastic
body by proper changes in the externai forces. We assume that the
stress components are expressed as functions of thc externai loads P 1 ,
P 2 , , and we take those changes of stress components which are
dueto the changes P1, llP2, , of these forces. Considering only
cases when the stress components are linear functions of the externa!
loads 1 P 1, P 2 , , and substituting these functions in Eq. (84), we
obtain the expression for the strain energy as a homogeneous quadratic
function of the externai forces.
It should be noted that the reactions at the supports, which can be
determined from the equations of equilibrium of a rigid body, '"ill be
expressed as functions of the given loads P1,P2, and ,~ill not enter
into thc expression for the strain energy. If there are redundant constraints, the corresponding reactions should be considercd togethcr
\Vith the loads P 1, P 2, as statically independent forces.
Having an expression for the strain energy in tcrms of the externai
forces, the change of this energy due to changes in the forces is

av

llV = llP1
aP1

av lJP2 +
+ -aP2

1
We exclude for instance such C!IBCS as the bcnding of thin hars by lateral forces
with simultaneous axial tension or comprel:lllion. In these cases the stresses
produced by the axial force dcpend on thc def\ections due to the lateral forccl;'I
aud are I!Ot linear functions of the externai loads.

166

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

STRAIN-ENERGY METHODS

Substituting this in Eq. (92}, we find

(av - d1) r,p1 + (v - d11)


iJP1

iJP2

l!P2

167

forces or couples acting in redundant elements or at redundant constraints of an elastic system, the magnitudcs of thcse statically indeterminate quantities can be calculated from the condition that the
strain energy of the system, represented as a function of X, Y, z,
must be a minimum, i.e., we have the equations

=o

The forces P 1 , P 2, are, as explained above, statically independent


and their changes 8P 1, lJP 2, , are completely arbitrary. We can
take ali but one of them equal to .zero; hence Eq. (i) requires

av

av

ax =o,

av

az =o,

aY =O,

(95)

(93)

We see that if the strain energy V of an elastic system is represented as


a function of statically independent externai forces P1, P2, . . . , the
partial dcrivatives of this function with respect to any of these forces
give the actual displacement of the point of application of the force in
the direction of the force. 1'his is the well-known Castigliano' s theorem.
50. Principie of Least Work. ln deriving Eq. (91) 've assume any
changes in stress components sati:;ying the equations of equilibrium.
If we assume now that the cbanges are such that the surface forces
remain unchanged, then, instead of Eqs. (b) of the previous article, we
obtain
lluJ
frr,;vm = O
lluum + llr,,yl =O
and Eq. (91) becomes
(94)

This means that if we have a body with given forces acting on the
houndary, and if wc consider such changes of stress components as do
not affect the equations of equilibrium and the boundary conditions,
the true stress components are those making the variation of strain
energy vanish. It can be sho,vn that these correct values of the stress
components make the strain energy a minimum. Then Eq. (94)
expresses tl1e so-called principle of least work.
This equation holds also if a portion of the boundary is held rigidly
fixed by the constraints and the changes of stress components are such
that there are variations of surfacc forces along this constrained portion
of the boundary. Since the displacement along the constrained
boundary is zero, the right sidc of Eq. (91) vanishes, and we arrive
again at Eq. (94).
The principle of least \Vork is used very oftcn in elementary treatments of statically indeterminate systems. 1 If X, Y, Z, ... are
'See, for instance, S. Timoshenko, "Strength of Materials," vol. 1, 1940, or
Timoshenko and Young, "Theory of Structures."

I:

Several applications of the principle of least work in the solution of


two-dimensional problems will be discussed in the follo"ring articles.
l. Applications of the Principie of Least Work-Rectangular
Plates. As an example let us consider a rectangular plate. Previously (page 46) it has been sho"-'Il that by using trigonometric series
the conditions on two sides of a rectangular plate can be satisfied.
Solutions obtained in this "\\'ay may be of practical interest \\Chen applied
to a plate whose width is small in
comparison with its length. If
Loth dimensions of a plate are of
thc sarne order, the conditions on
all four sides must be considered.
ln the solution of problems of this
kind the principie of minimum
cnergy can sometimes Lc successY
fully applied.
Fio. 116.
Let us consider the case of a rectangular platc in tension, \vhen the
tensile forces at the ends are distributed according to a parabolic lav;d
(Fig. 116). The boundary conditions in this case are:
Forx =a,

For y

1'"'11

=o,

Tzt1

= ,

b,
rly

(a)

The strain energy for a plate of unit thickness is, rom Eq. (86),

lt should be noted that for a simply connected boundary, such as \V(~


have in the present case, the stress distribution does not depend on the
1

See S. Timoshenko, Phil. Mag., vol. 47, p. 1095, 1924.

1~8

THEORY OF ELAS7'ICITY

STRAIN-ENERGl" Jf1'.'1'HOD,<;

elastic constants of the material (sce page 25) and further calculations
can thcrefore be simplificd hy taking Poisson's ratio v as zero. Then,
introducing the stress function q:,, and substituting in (b)

functions; the second derivative of this expression ,,.,ith respect to x


vaniF>hes at the sides y = b, and the second deriva tive ,,.,ith respect
to y vanishes at the sides x = a; the second derivative a2 /ax ay
vanishes on all four sides of the plate. The stress function can then bc
taken as

-..ve find
1
V = 2E

f f [('")' + (')' + ('" )']


ay2

iJx2

axay

=o

rp

dx dy

Sy 2 ( 1 -

~ ~:) + (x2 -

a2)2(y2 _ b2)2(a 1

(')

169

+ 0:2X2
+ asy2 + .. )

Only evcn po,vers of x and y are taken in the series because thc stress
distribution is symmetrical "'rith respect to the x- and y-axes. Limiting
uurselves to the first term a 1 in
02 04 06 08
series (f), we have
d xs
/.

1-'he correct expre8sion for the stress function is that satisfying conditions (a) and making the strain energy (e) a minimum.
If \VC apply variational calculus to determine the minimum of (e), we
shall arrivc at Eq. (30) for the stress function cfi. Instead of this wc
shall use the follo\~ing procedure for an approximate solution of the
problem. Vire take the stress function in the form of a series,

'

1
1

(d)

such ihat the boundary conditions (a) are satisfied, o: 1, o: 2, o: 3,


being constants to be determined later. Substituting this series in
expression (e) 1vc find Tr as a function of the second degree in o: 1, ai,
as, . . . The magnitude of the constants can then be calculated
from the minimum conditions

av
as

1'he first of Eqs. (e) then becomes


/

'

"
1

Illll

y
=

b) we find
0:1

Fio. 117.

r1z

(f~ =

6b

sinC'e this gives

, must be chosen so that the


1'hc rcmaining functions t/>1, t/>2, ,
stresses corresponding to thcm vanish at the boundary. To ensure
this "e take the expression (x 2 - a 2) 2 (y 2 - b2) 2 as a factor in all these

0.04253 ;
a

and the stress components are

1 2 ( 1--:iL
1 2')
-Sy
2

""

(e)

,,.,hich \Vill be linear equations in 0:1, 0:2, aa . .


By a suitable choice of the functions $1, $2, . . . , we ca.n usually
get a satisfactory approximatc solution by using only a fe\v terms in the
series (d). ln our case the boundary conditions (a) are satisfied by
taking

t/>o

For a square platc (a


=

(f)

7zir

S (1 -

~:)

- 0.1702,q (1 -

?;

-0.17028 (1 -

(1 -

~ ) (1 - a'x')'
2

~)

xy ( x') (1 - y')
-a2

-0.680581 - a2
a2

The distri.bution of rr~ on the cross section x = O is represent.ed b~


curve 11 1 (Fig. 117).
To obtain a closer approximation, we now take three terms in the
series (f). Then Eqs. (e), for calculating the constants o: 1, o: 2, o: 3, are
1

Curve I representa the paraholic stress distribution at the ends of the plate.

64
( 7

+ 256
b' + 647 b')
+ a,a ' (64
+ 64
b')
49 a
a
77
49 a
2

64
( 11

64 b4\
7 a~}

(192
a:ia 143
2

alf(l

64
(7

64 b 4)

+ TI a4 +
2

(64
77

64 b5)
77 a 6 = a4iJ!

4
)

77 a

7 a4

64
( 77

b' + 7764 ai;b')

a2

a4b2

(g)

64 b )
77 a 4
2

64 b2
( 49 a2

+ 256 b + !92 b
+ uaa

41

To deal with other symmetrical distributions of forces overthe edges


a we have only to change the form of thc function 4>o in expression (f). Only the right-hand expressions in Eqs. (g) have to be
changed.
As an example of stress distribution nonsymmetrical with respect to
the x-axis, let us consider thc case of bending shown in Fig. 118 1 in
'vhich the forces applied at the ends are (11,,),,_",, = Ay 3 (curve b in
Fig. 118b). Clcarly, the stress system "'rill be odd "\vith respect to thc

'(192 b
7 a2

256 b
77 4

+ 192 b

143 a6

:For a square plate these givc

'

'fhe distribution of

{u,,)....,0 = S

s
0.04040 6'

( ay')
1 -

a2

U"x

= aa =

0.16168

Fia. 118.

x-axis and even vrith respect to the y-axis. These conditions are satis
fied by taking a stress function in the form

y')

y' + y')

- 12 a2

15 -a"

ln Fig. 117 this stress distribution is shov.n by the curve III. 1


As the length of the plate incrcases, the stress distribution over Lhe
cross section x = O becomes more and more uniform. If v.e take for
instance a = 2b, we find, from Eqi!!. (g),

a 1 = 0.07983 a 4 b2 '

0.12.50 a 6b2'

a2 =

The corresponding values of


below:
0.2
"" = 0.6908 0.6848

11,,

4> =

Jrr Ays + (x2

1 - 3 a2

+ 0.0235 (1

a3

fb)

(a)

s
0.01174 8

on thc cross section z =O is given by


-

171

STRAIN-ENERGY METHODS

1'HA'ORY OF ELASTICITY

170

0.01826 a 6b2

over the cross section x = O are given

0,4

0.6

0.8

1.0

0.6698

0.6538

0.6498

0.6758

This distribution is represented in Fig. 117 by the dotted line. We see


that in this case the deviation from the average stress, jS, is very small.
1 Similar resnlts were obt11.ined by C. E. Inglis, Proc. Roy. Soe. (Ltmdon),
series A, vol. 103, 1923, 11.nd by G. Piekett, J. Applied Mechania (Trans. A.S.M.E.)
vol. 11, p. 176, 1944,

_ a2)2(y2 _ b2)2
(a1y
a2yx 2

+ a3y3 + a(X2y 3 + )

(h)

The first term, as before, satisfies the Loundary conditions for ip.
lJsing F:q. (h) '\\o"ith four coefficients 0:1,
, a4 in Eqs. (e), '"e find
for a square plate (a = b)

u,.

ay
'

= 2Aa 3

l'

T/ 3

(1 - t 2) 2[0.08392(5T/ 3

'

+ 0.004108(21T/ - 2011 + 311)]


~ 2 ) 2 [0.07308(511 3 311) + 0.04179(2111

311)

~ 2 (1

2011 3

+ 311)]}

(k)

where t = x/a and 71 = y/b. The distribution at the middle cross "lec
tion x =O is not far from being linear. It is shown in Fig. 118b by
curve a.
62. Effective Width of Wide Beam Flanges. As 11.nothcr ex11.mple of thc application of the minimum--cnergy principle to two-<limensional problems of rcctan!!,les,
let 1IB consider 11. be11.m \\o"ith very wide fl11.nges (Fig. 110). Such he!l.Illlj are enr,ountered very often in reinforced concrete structures and in the structures of hulls of
shlps. The elementary theory of bcnding assumes that the bending stresses are
1
These e11.lculations 11.re taken from J. N. Goodier's doctor's thesis Michigan
Univ., 1931. See alao Trans. A.S.M.E., vol. 54, p. 173, 1932.
'

172

STRAIN~ENERGY

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

proportional to the distance fron1 the neutral axis, i.e., that the stresses do not
change along the width of thc flange. Bnt if this 'vidth is vcry large it is known
that parts of the :lianges at a distance from the web do not take thei:r full sharc in
resisting bending mon1ent, and the beam is weaker than the elementary theory of
hending indicatcs. It is thc usual practice in cal!'ulating stresses in such beams to
replace the actual l\ridth of the flanges by a ccrtain reduccd width, such that the
elementary theory of bending applied to such a transformed beam cross section
gives the correct value of maximum bending stress. This reduced width of flange
is called the ejfecte widlh. ln the following discussion a theoretical basis for
dctermining the effcctivc width is given.t

173

METHODS

can be taken for our symmetrical case in the form of the series

11~.,

</>

f,.(y) cos n;x

(b)

-'
in whiehf,.(y) ar11 unetions of y only.
ing expression for fn(y):

Substituting in Eq. (a), we find the follow-

(o)

'l'o satisfy the eondition that stresses must VH11ish for an infinite value of y, \Ye
take C,. = D,. = O. The expression for the stress function is then

(d)

h
The coefficients A,. and B,. will now he detennined from the eondition that the
true stress distribution is that making the strain energy of the :flange together
,,,ith that of the '\\'eh a miuin1um. Substituting

y~,---~.--,,-,~~~~~
1

2l

<T~

J2<ji
x iJy

fb)

in the expression for strain energy

..

= Oy''

~
X

and using Eq. (d) for the stress function, the strain encrgy of the flange isl

Fui. 119.

To make the proble1n as sirnple as possible it is assume d that we have an infinitely


long continuous bea1n on equidistant supports. Ali spans are equally loaded by
loads ~yn1mctrical >vith respect to the middle of the spans. One o the supporta
of the ~pan shovn in Fig. 119 is taken as the origin of coordinates, with the :e-axis
in the direction of the axis of the beam. Due to symmetry, only one span and
oue half of the flange, say that corresponding to positive y, need be considered.
The width of the flange is assumerl infinitely large and its thickness h very small in
eomparWon >vith the depth of the beam. Bending of thc flangc as a thin plate
can then be neglected, and it can be assumed that during hl:nding of the beam the
forces are transmitted to the flange in its middle plane so that the stress distribution
in the flange presents a two-dimensional problem. Thc eorresponding stress
function </>, satisfying the differcntial cquation
O'<Ji

J44'

O'<i>

ax+ 2 axay+ay

=O

(o)

1 The suhicct wasinvestigated by T. v. Krmn;see "FestschriftAugustFppls,"


p. 114, 1923. Also G. Schnadel, Werft u.nd Reederei, vol. 9, p. 92, 1928; E. Reiasner,
Der Stahlbau., 1934, p. 206; E. Chwalla, Der Stahlbau, 1936; L. Beschkine, Publ3.
Intern.. Assoe. Bridge and Slruciu.ral Engineering, vol. 5, p. 65, 1988.

V1

. (B . +
f...i1

2h \'

n3.,.-3
2

A .. R ..
2G

+ A ..")
2G

()

n~l

ln considering the strain energy of the web atone, let A be its cross-sectional area,
l its moment of inertia about the horiionta.J axis through the centroid C, ande the
distance from the centroid of the web to the middle plane of the flangc (Fig. 119).
The total bending n1oment transmitted at any eross section by the web together
with the flangc ean be represented for our symmetrical case by the series

M = llfo

+ J.!

cos

1!f + M, cos 2 ~X + ...

lfl

ln this series 11-f o L~ a statically indctenninate quantity depending on the magnitude


of the bending moment at the supports, and the other coefficients J.f 1, M ,, . . . ,
are to be calculated from the conditions of loading. Letting N denote the compressive force in the flangc (Fig. 119c), the bcnding mornent 11-f can be divided into
1
The integrais entering into the expression for strain energy are calculated in the
paper by Krmn, l-Oc. cit.


174

175

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

STRAIN-ENERGY METHODS

two parts: a part M' taken by the web and a part J.f", equa.l to Ne, dueto the
longitudinal forces N in the web and fln.nge. From staties the normal stresses

Adding this to the strain energy (e) of the fiange, and introducing in this la.tt.er the
notations
n.
X n
2h-yA,.=

over any cross section of the complete bcam give a couple M, hence

fo a~dy =0
2he lo . a~ dy
M
00

N +2h
li!' where -2he

(g)

,~e find

the following expression for the total strain energy:

lo"' ax dy ~ M" is thepartofthe bendingmomenttaken bythell11.nge.

V=

hE

n[Y,.

+ (1

1E f X,.

+ v)X,.Y .. + (1+v)Xn'l+ 2

n~l

n-l

The strain energy of the \\'-eb is

...

+ 11.fo'l
+-'\'
EI
2El L

(h)

r ,,.~ dy

l"I'

.. + eX..)!

(l)

Thc quantities Mo, X,., Y .. are to be determined from the minimum condition
of the ~train energy (1). It can be seen that Mo appears only in the term M o'I/ b'l,
and from the minimum requirement for (1) it follows that Mo = O.
From the condition

From the first of Eqs. (g) we find

N = -2h )o

(M

-2h }o .,..
ay dy = 2h ay ..

From expression (d) for the strosa function it may be seen that

(~~)~-~

=o,

Hl!noo

\ ' nr

Jf' = M

2Y,.

zA,.cos-1

+ 2he }o
{

00

"~ dy ~ J.f

+ Ne

=O

+V
x ..
2

Substituting this and M 0 = O in Eq. (l) we get the following expression for tbe
atrain energy:

+ (1 + v)X,.

Y .. - - 1

n:irx

..f..i,

N = 2h

it follows that

\' n,..nrx
L
--yA~cos-1

.. ,

... x
+ 2he \'n,..
Li TA~ cos n-,-

,,. 3+2v-v 1
V = 2hE.
4

11=1

n=l

n~l

or, using the notation

Ln. X,. + 2AE \'x


1.. ..

\'

+ 211

-..ve may write

l.. ,

(M,.

+ eX,.)

(m)

From the oondition that X,. should make Va minimum it follows that

M' = M

...,lx.

+e

oos

n;x

=Mo+ "L (M,.

ax = o

.!f_

(k)

+ eX,.) cos nrz


-,-

from which we find

x.

Substituting in (h) and noting that

f 21 eos 1 ~ dx

}o

(2!
n,..-x
mor:e
Jo cos -,- <M - - d:e = O (when m ro!'. n}
1

= l,

we obtain

\'x+Mo'l+-'-"<M +X)'
L "
E/
2El f..
" e "
' ' - 2AE '1-1
n-1
, _

"

(n)

Let us oonaider a particular case when the bending-moment diagram ia a simple


line, say M = M, cos (:rX/l). Then, from Eq. (n),

~oaine

x,

176

THB'ORY OF ELASTICITY

STRAIN-ENERGY METHODS

and, from Eq. (k), the rnoment dueto the force N of the flauge iK

"

Taking, for instance, v ~ 0.3, we find


2X = 0.181(21)

(p)

lff" = - e1\' = -eX1COB/

177

for the a:ssumed bending-momcnt diagram the effective vdth of the fiange is

i.e.,
The distribution of the stress <T, along the \vidth of the flange can now be caleulated from (d) by taking all coeffiri('nts A,. and B., except A, and B., equal to zero,
and by putting (fol\owing our notations)

A, =_IX,,

2,h

This distribution of <T~ is shown by the curves in Fig. 119a. The stress <T, diminishes as the distanee from the wllh incrcaBeS.
Let us IlO\V determine a vdth 2X of the flange (Fig. 119a), of a T-bean1, such
that a uniform stress <liistribution over the cross section of t.he flange, sho\vn by the
sha<le<l area, gives the moincnt -~1 11 calculatcd above, Eq. (p). This viill then be
the effeetive width of thi: flange.
Dcnoting, as beforc, hy ,11 1 an<l llf" the portions of thc bcn<ling moment taken
by thc web and by the flange, by u, thc stress at the ccntroid C of the web, and by
" the stress at the middle plane of the flange, we find, from the elementary theory
of bending,
},f'e

u,=Tc+-y

(q)

and, from the equations of statics,

2Ah<r,

+ u,A

= O
2/Jin,t, = 11,f"

The expressions for the t\vO portions of the bending moment, from Eqs. (q) and
(r), are
llf'

(u, - u,) =

~ ( 1 + 2~h) u,

Jl,[ 11 = 2Xheu,

The ratio of M" to the t<ital lJ.,nding moment is


M"

2Xheu,

M-+M" - - - '( '")


2MM, +e 1 +A "

()

To makc this ratio E!q~~J.to th~-ratio M'';Aj Obtained from th exact solution (:o),
we must take
1
1rl3+2v-v
2Xhe = lie 2i
4.
From this we obtll.in the following exprcssion for the effcclfre width 2X:

approximatcly 18 per eent of the span.


.
1 the case of a: continuous beam with equal concentrated forces at the nuddlr
of t~c spans, thc ben<ling-moment diagram will be as shown in Fig. 120. Repref!enting this bending-moment diagranl
by a Fourier series and using thc general
1 nethod <leveloped above, \l'e fin<l that
the cffective voidth at the supports is

4l

2X = 0.85 . ;r(3

+ 2v

- v')

i.e., somewhat less than it is for the

1'1c. 120.
case of a moment diagram in the form
of a eosine line.
63. Shear Lag. A problem of the sarne general nature ~s that discussed in
Art. 52 occurs in aircraft structurcs. Considera box be,am, ~g.121, fornu;d from
. eJi~nnels ABJt'E and DCGII to "rhich are attachcd tbm sheets ABCD a:nd
t ~Ou
D
"bili"
EFGH, by riveting or welding along the edges. If the whole heam :3 u
1n
at the left-hand end, and loaded as a cantilcver by two forces P applied to t~e
channels at the other end, the elementary bending theory v1:ill give a tens1le
hendiug stress in thc sheet ABCD uniform across any section parallel t.o R_C.
Actually, hovocver, the shcct acqurres 1ts
tcnsile stress from shear streSBCs on its
edges communicated to it bythe cha:nnels,
~~;iJ~Z:--:;?.:::::-.,Jc as indicated in Fig. 121, and the distribu:_
tion of tensile stress across the width will
p not be uniform, but, asin Fig. 121, higher
a:t the edges than at the middle. This
departure from the uniformity assumed
by the ele1ni:ntary theory is known as
Fia. 121.
"shear lag,'' since it involves a sbcar
deformation in the sheets. Thc problem has been a:nalyzed by strain-energy
and other methods, voith the l1l'lp of simplifying assumptions.'

Problema

1. Find an exprcssion in terrns of u,, ""' T,~ for the strain energy V per 11nit
thiekncss of a cylinder or pri5111 in plane strain (, = O).
2. \Vrite dov.'11 the integral for thc strain energy V in tertns of polar coordinates
and polar stress components for the case of plane stre>;S [ef. Eq. (11), Art. 51].
The stress <listribution given by Eqs. (80) solves the prohlem indicated in Fig.
122, a couple ,l-[ being applied by uniform shear to the inside of a ring, and a
1 E. Reissner, Quart. Applied llfalh., vol. 4, p. 268, 194-6; J. Hadji-Argyris, (Brit.)
Aeranaut. Research Council, Reporls and Merrwranda, No. 2038, 1944; J. lladjikgyris and H. L. Cox, ibid., No. l\J61J, 1944. References to earlier investigations
are given in these papers.

178

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

balancing couple to the outside. Evaluate the strain ene:rgy in the ring, and by
equating this to the work done during loading deduce the rotation of the outside
circlc when the ring is fu:ed 11.t the inside (cf. Prob. 2,
page 125).
M
3. Evaluate the strain energy per unit length of a
cylinder a < r < b subjected to internai pressure p;
[scc Eqs. (46)]. Deduce the radial displaccmcnt of
the inner surface.
Obtain the same result by use of Eq. (50) (taking
v = O) and the stress-strain relations of plane stress.
b
4. Intcrpret thc cquation

CHAPTER 7

ffVo dx dy
FIG. 122.

ff(Xu

+ Yv) dx dy + j-J(X-u + Y-v) ds

and give thc justification of thc factors

j- on the right.

li. Sho\V from Eq. (84) that if \;e have a case of plane stress anda corres}Xlnding
case of plane strain (. =O) in which the stresses ux, ou, Txu are the sa.me, thc
strain encrgy is greater (per unit thickness) for the plane stress.
6. In Fig. 123, (a) represents a strip under compression, in which thc stress
thercfore extends throughout. ln (b) the deformable strip is bonded to rigid plates

(a)

f6)

fc)

FIG. 123.

on its top and bottom edgcs. 1Vill there be stress throughout the strip or only
locally at thc cnds? In (e) the upper edge is free, as in (a), hut the lower edge ili
fixed, as in (b). \\'ili thc stress be local or not?
'l. From the principie that a system in stable equilibrium has less pot.entia.l
energy than that corresponding to any neighboring confi.guration, show without
calculation that thc strain energy of the plate in Fig. 114 must either deereBBe or
remain the sarne whcn a fine cut AB is made.
8. Sta.te the Castigliano theorem expressed by Eq. (91) in a form suitable for
use in polar coordinatcs, thc boundary forces 2 and Y being repla.ced by radial
and tangcntial components R and T, and the diaplacement C(lmponents by the
polar componcnts u and i; of Chap. 4.
9. "Equation (91) is vatid whcn av, a:X, aYresult from any small changes in the
stress components which satisfy thc conditions of cquilibrium (a) Art. 49, v.'hether
these changes violate the conditions of compatibility (Art. 15) or not. ln the
latter case the changes in the stress are those which actually occur when the
boillldary forces are changed by 62, i'lP"." Is tbis statement correct?
Assuming that it is, show that thc radial displaccmcnt of Prob. 3 can be calculated from the formula

av

1
(u)r-a = --- 2,..-a Op;

TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES
64. Functions of a Complex Variable. For the problems solved
so far, rectangular and polar coordinates have prove<l adequate. For
other boundaries--ellipses, hyperbolas, nonconcentric circles, and lesa
simple curves-it is usually preferable to employ different coordinates.
ln the consideration of these, and also in
t.he construction of suitable stress functions, it is advantageous to use complex
variables.
Two ~ai numbers x, y form thc complex
numher x + iy, with irepresenting vf-=T. Since
i does not belong to thc real-number systcm,
the meaning of equality, addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division must be defincd.'
Thus, by definition, :r + iy = :r! + iy' mcans
x = x', y = y', and i 1 mcans -1. Otherwise
the operations are defined just as for real
numbers. For iMtance
(x + iy)' = x 1 + 2xiy + (iy)' = x' - y'

Fio. 124.

+ i2xy

sincc i

-1

C'.-0nverting to polar coordinates, as in Fig. 124,

z = x +iy = r(cos () +isin fJ)

(a)

Since

e'8 = 1

+ ifJ + 2~. (ifJ)' + -3\ . (ifJ) + 4.~ (ie) +


i2

-1, i3

-i, i' = 1, etc.,

We have

1
1
-21
+41

+ i(fJ

~ (JI

=cosfJ+iBinfJ

Ftom Eq. (a) therefore


z=x+iy=rei~
1

(b)

The definitions repreaent operations on pairs of real numbers the use ol i being

~erely a convenience. See for instance E. T. Whittaker and G. N, \Vatson


Modem Analysis," 3d ed., pp. 6-8.

'
179

180

PROBLEMS IN CURVILINEAR COORDI1'.'A'l'b'8

Algebraic, trigonomctric, exponential, logarithmic, and other functions can bc


formcd from z as well as from a real variable, provided an analytical rather than a
geometrical defiuition IB adoptcd. Thus sin z, cos z, =d e may be dcfincd by thcir
power series. Any such function can be separated into "real" and "imaginary"
parta, that is, put in the forro a(x,y) + ip(x,y) \vhere a(x,y), the real part, and
fJ(x,y), the imaginary part,' are ordinary real functions of x and y (thcy do not
contain i). For instance if the function of z,f(z), is 1/z, we have

derivatives which depend on z only, being the sarne for ali directions (of dz) at the
point z. Such functions are eallcd analytic.
The quantity x - iy may be regarded as a function of z, in the scnse that if z is
given, x and y are given, and so x - iy is determined. However, x - iy cannot be
formed from z as for instance Z", e are formed. Its derivative with respect to z
is the limit of (Ax - i Ay)/(fJ.:I; + i D.y) as D.x, D.y---> O. This is not indcpcndcnt
of the direction of the shift 8:1:, D.yi li we take this shift in thc x-direction, so
that Ay = O, we obtain 1 as the va\ue of the limit. li we take the shift in the
y-dircction, fJ.:I; = O and the limit is -1. Thus x - iy is not an analytic function of
x + iy. Analytic functions togethcr with x - iy will be used !ater in the construction of stress functions. Any function involving i will bc rcferrcd to as a
"complex function."
An annlytic function f(z) will have an indefinite integral, dcfincd n~ thc function
having /(z) as its derivative 'vith re~pect to z, an<l \vritten ff(z) dz. For inst.ance
if f(z) = 1/z we l1ave

f(z) = x

X -

+ iy

iy

(XTii/}(X --~i/j = x'

Similarly, observing that coah iy


ev = coa y i sin y, vre lind

+ y' + i

x'

!(e' +e-), sinh iy =

-y)

+ yt

~(

- e-), and

sinh (:i: + iy) = ~inh x cosh iy + co~h x sinh iy


sinh x cos y + icosh xsin y
cosh z = cosh (x + iy) = cosh x cosh iy + sinh x Binh iy
= cosh x cos y + isinh xsin y
sinh z

=
=

J~dz=logz+C

As an illustration of the general method for converting a complex denominator to


a real one, consider the function coth z. "\\Te havc
coth z = ~~h~ = cosh (x + iy) . sinh (x - iy)
sinh z
sinh (x + iy) sinh (x
iy)
(cosh x coa y + i sinh x sin y)(sinh x cos y - i cosh x sin y)
(sinh x co~ y + i cosh x slii y)(sirlh-Xcos y-~-{ cosh x sin y)

the additive const.ant C being now a complex number A + iB, containing t~'
real arbitrary coristants A and B.
55. Analytic Functions and Laplace's Equation. An analytic function /(z)
can be regarded as a function of x and y, having partia! derivatives. Thus

..i_ f(z)

The denominator is the snmc as the real quantity (sinh x cos y)' + (cosh x ain y)I.
Vl'hen the numcrator is multiplied out, and i' replaced by -1, the separation into
real and imngiuary parts is completed. The result can be simplified t-0

iJx

since i!z/&x = 1.

.'dz!:. f(z) iJx


<lz

sinh 2x - i sin 2y
cosh 2x - cos 2y

(o)

An alternntive procedure is indicated by Y.q. (p) of Art. 62.


The dcrivativc of f(z) \1ith rcspcct to z is by defuiition
df(z) = lim f(z
dz
<l.->O

+ D.z)

- /(z)

D.z

whcrc 8:11 = .X + i D.y and fu"l---> O means, of course, both /J.x---> O and D.y---> O.
We ean always think of x, y aa thc Cartesian coordinaWs of a point in a. plane.
Then D.x, D.y represent a shift to a neighboriug point. It rnight be expected at
first that (d) could bc dilerent for different directions of the shift. Nevertheless,
the liinit in () is calculable directly in terms of z and 8z justas if these were real
numbcrs, and the corresponding resulta, such ru:;

dz

(z')

2z,

dz Slll Z

ilx

ily

sincc az/ay = i.
But if /(z) is put in the forrn a(x,y)
=

"'

<lx

(o)

(b)

+ i{3(x,y), or for brcvity"' + i(J, we have


a
i!yf(z) ="'+i'J(j
iJy
iJy

+ iiJfJ
iJx

(e)

Comparing Eqs. (e) v.ith :Eq. (a) and Eq. (b) yields
i (~~

+ i x
iJfJ)

iJ"'

iJy

+ i y
a{3

(d)

Rcmembering that "'' fJ are real, i = -1, and that the equality irnplies that real
and imaginary parts are separately equal, \Ve find
a

f'(z) !!_.z_ = f'(z)

!_ f(z) = /'(z) iJz = i/'(z)

!_/(z)
iJx
(d)

Similarly
f)y

coth z

iJx

iJfJ

=-,
y

= COS Z

must appear, ind('pendent of the choice of 8.z, and of Ax and y. We may say,
therefore, that all the functions we 1nay form from z in the usual way will he.ve
1 It ahould be observe<l that this is real in apite of its name.

l,i

181

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

These nre called the Cauchy-Riemann eqnations. F.liminating fJ hy <lifferentiating


thc finit with respect to x, the second vth rcspcct to y, nnd adding, \VC obtain
(f)

182

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

PROBLEMS IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATEB

An equation o this form is called Laplace's equation and any aolution ia called a
h.ar7Wmic function. ln the same way elimination of a from Eqs. (e) yields

S. If r is a complex variable, and z = e cosh

d Slll
. h

dz

(g)

Thus if two functions a and {3 of x and y are derived as the real and imaginary
parta of a.n analytic function f(z), ea.ch will be a solution of Laplace's equation.
Laplace's equation is encountcrcd in many physical prohlems, including those o
elasticity [see for instance Eq. (b), Art. 16].
The functions a and {3 are called conju.gale harmonic functions. It is evident
that if we are giv('n any harmonic function a, Eqs. (e) will, but for a constant,
determine another function {3, \vhich will bc the conjugate to a.
As examples of the derivation of harmonic :functions from analytic functions of z,
considerei"', zn, log z, n being a real constant. '\\'e have

showing that mi. cos nx, e---no sin nx are harmonic functions. Chang:ing n to -n
we find that en~ cos n:t., e"" sin nx are a\so harmonic, and it follows that
sinh ny sin nx,

cosh ny sin nx,

sinh ny cos nx,

cosh ny cos nx

(h)

are harmonic since they can he formed by addition and subtraction of the foregoing functions with factors j-. From

+
+

r, find

nr

\Yriting r = E i11 find the real and imaginary parts of this derivative when
e and n are real.
4. If z = x iy, r = E i".,, and z = i"a coth r where a is re11.l, show that

a sin 11
x = cosh ~
cos .,,'

a sinh

y=cosh~

cos,,

56. Stress Functions in Terms of Harmonic and Complex Functions.


If 1/; is any function of x and y, '\\'e have by differentiation

' + ay')2 (xi/;) = x ("'


if;
(ax2
ax2+ ')
ay 2 + 2 ,ax
If ip is harmonic, the parenthesis on the right is zero.

. . ('ax 2+ ay')2 (")


ax

harmon1c funct1on, s1nce

r"

cos n9,

('" ')

ax ax2+ ay2

O.

Thus another application of the Laplacian operation to (a) yields

(::2 + ::2) (:: + ::2) (xY,) =O

(b)

which is the sarne as

rn sin n9,

cos n9,

From
log z = log rei9 = log r

r-.. sin n9

()

+ ie

we find the harmonie functions


log r,

'

lt is eaaily verificd that the functions (i) and (j) satisfy Laplace's equation in
polar coordinatcs [see Eq. (d), page 57], i.e.,
ll,f
&r

(a)

Also ay, / ax is a

we find the harmonic functions

183

+ .! lif + l. {J~if
r r

r ao

(k)

Problems
1. Determine the real functions o x and y which are the real and imaginary
parts of thc complcx unctions z2, ~. tanh z.
[x - y, 2xy; x - 3xy 1, 3x'y - y;

sinh 2x(cosh 2x + oos 2y)-I, sin 2y(cosh 2x +coo 2y)-1]


2. Determine the real functions of r and () which are the real and imaginary
parts of the complex functions .r, z log z.
[r- coa 2fJ, r- sin fJ; r log r cos 9 - rfJ sin 9, r log r sin fJ

+ r9 coa 9]

(:;, + 2 ax~;y2 + ::4) (xi/;)

=O

Cornparison with Eq. (a), page 29, sho\vs that xY, rnay be used as a
stress function, 1/; being harmonic. The sarne is true of yY,, and also,
of course, of the function Y, itself.
It can easily be shown by differentiation that (x 2
y 2)Y,, that is
r 2 Y,, also satisfies the sarne differential equation and rnay therefore be
taken as a stress function, f being harmonic.
For instance, taking the two harmonic functions

sinh ny sin nx,

cosh ny sin nx

from the functions (h), page 182, and multiplying them by y, we arrive
by superposition at the stress function (d), page 47. Taking the
harmonic functions (i) and (J), page 182, as they stand or multiplied by
x, Y, or r 2 , we can reconstruct ali the terms of the stress function in
polar coordinates given by Eq. (81), page 116.
The question of whether any stress function at ali can be arrived at
in this fashion remains open, and will be answered irnmediately, in the

~' .

THEORY 01'' ELASTICITY

PROBI,EMS li'./ CURVIL!J.'EAR COOill)lh'ATES

process of expressing the general stress function in terms of t"\\-o


arbitrary analytic functions.
Denoting the Laplacian operator

Equation (96) "\\'ili prove useful later, but it may be observed that
the use of both the functions p and q is not neccssary. Instead of Eq.
(g) "'e can write
v2 (q, - 2xp) = V 2 c/i - 4 ap = o

184

a2

a2

ax

- +ay2
-

iJx2

uy V2, Eq. (a) on page 29 can be 'vritten V2(V 2.P) = O or V4q, =O.
Writing P for v 2q,, ,vhich represents u,, + rfy, \Ve observe that P is a
harmonic function, and so \vill have a conjugate harmonic function Q.
Consequently P + iQ is an analytic function of z, and -..ve may \Vrite
(e)

Thc integral of this function \vith respect to z is another analytic function, 4 if(z) say. Then, \Yriting p and qfor thc real and imaginary parts
of if(z), \Ve have
if(z) = p
iq = tff(z) dz
(d)

so that if/(z) = .f(z).

We have also

" + iaq ~ ~f(') ~ f'(') '


iJx

ax

iJx

~ ~f(,)
~ ~(P
+ iQ)
4
4

showing that cJi - 2xp is harmonic, say cqual to p2, so that any stress
function must be expressible in the form
(h)

v.hcre p and p 2 are suitably choscn harmonic functions. Sirnilarly,


considering q, - 2yq, Vi'e may sho"\\' that any stress function must also
be expressible in the form

c/i

x(z)

(x - iy)(p

(n

Recalling that P = v 2q,, Eqs. (e) and (f) enable us to show that
q, - xp - yq is a harmonic function. For

v2(q, _ xp - yq)

ap

aq

v 2q, - 2 ax - 2 ay =O

(g)

,p

+ iq1

+ iq) + P1 + iq,

Rc ["/(')

zz 1/l(z)

q,-xp-yq=p1
Consequently

(96)
c/i = xp + yq +Pi
which shows that any stress function can be formed from suitably
chosen conjugate harmonic functions p, q anda harmonic function P1

Thus any stress func-

+ x(,)]

(97)

-v,here Re means "real part of," Z denotes x - iy, and f(z) and x(z) are
suitably chosen analytic functions. Conversely (97) yiclds a stress
function, that is a solution of Eq. (a), p. 29, for any choice of 1/l(z) and
x(z). It is applied later to the solution of several problems of practical interest.
'\Vriting the "complex stress function" in Lrackets in (97) as

Thus for any stress function c/i we have


where p 1 is some harmonic function.

= P1

is identical \vith thc right-hand side of Eq. (96).


tion is expressible in the form 1

Since p and q are conjugatc functions, they satisfy Eqs. (e) of Art. 55,
and so

+ Pa

Thcn it is easily vcrified that the real part of

(e)

aq~!.p

-2yq

\Vhere q and p 3 are suitably chosen harmonic functions.


Rcturning to the form (96), let us introduee the function q, \Vhich is
the conjugate harmonic to p 1 , and 'vrite

E4uating real parts of the first and last mcmbers we find

ay

185

'

+ x(z)

and observing that Zz = r 2 , and 1/l(z)/z is still a function of z, v,"e find


that any stress funetion ean also bc cxpressed as
r~p1

where p4, Pr. are harmonic.


1

+ Pr.

E. Goursat, Bull. soe. math. France, vol. 26, p. 206, 1898.


Math. Ann., vol. 107, pp. 282-312, 1932.

X. L ''Iuschelillvili,

~i .

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

186

PROBLEJ.fS IN CllllVIL!NEAR COORDil\fA'l'ES

57. Displacement Corresponding to a Given Stress Function. It


\\as shown in Art. 39 that the detcrmination of the stress in a multiplyconnected region requires thc cvaluation of displacement to ensure that
it is not discontinuous, that is, to cnsure that the stress is not partly
due to dislocations. For this reason, as wcll as for cases vrhere the
displaccments are of interest in themselves, \VC require a mcthod of
finding the displacement functions u and v >rhen a stress function is
g1ven.
The stress-strain relations for plane stress, Eqs. (22), (23), may be
written

au

E iJx

u,. -

'

E ay

vu 11 ,

= u11

a('
ax +u)
ay ~'

(b)

ey

Inserting thc stress function into the first, and rccalling that P
\Ve have
E

au

a2q, _ "a 2.p

ay 2

ax

ax 2

(P _a2q,) _

j)

= 'V 2 .p,

(e)

and similarly
ay

(1

+ JJ) a2q, + P

(d)

ay2

But from Eqs. (f) and (g) of Art. 56, v.e can replace P in Eq. (e) above
by 4 iJp/iJx, and in Eq. (d) by 4 iJq/iJy. Then, after division by 1 + JJ,

2G au = _
iJx

a2q, + _4_ ap,


iJx

2G

+ JJ iJx

av

ay

_ a2q, + _4_ aq
iJy 2

li

iJy

(')

and these imply, by integration,


2fJu ~ -

4
- + - p
iJx

l+JJ

+ f(y) '

20,

- :: + 1

'vhere f(y) and f1(x) are arbitrury functions.


in the left of Eq. (b), "\re obtain

_ o'<I + ---2._
iJxiJy

j)

iJx

2Gu = - iJx

2dy

!, +
q

f,(x)

(f)

2dx

,
w

(g)

But the first term on the left is equal to rw, and the parenthesis
vanishes because p and gare conjugate harmonic functions satisfying

(h)

on thc understanding that a rigid-body displaccment can be added.


These equations enable us to find u and v 'vhcn q, is kno"\vn. W e ha ve
first to find P as V 2cP, determine thc conjugate function Q by means of
the Cauchy-Riemann cquations

aP
iJy =

--ox
aQ

forro the functionj(z) = P + iQ, and obtain p and q by integration of


f(z) as in Eq. (d), Art. 56. The terms of Eqs. (h) can then be evaluated.
The usefulness of Eqs. (h) will appear in la ter applications, for -..vhich
the mcthod of determining displacements used in Chaps. 3 and 4 is not
suitable.
68. Stress and Displacement in Tenns of Complex Potentials. So
far the stress and displacemcnt components have been expresscd in
terms of the stress function q,. But since Eq. (97) expresses q, in terms
of two functions Y,(z), x(z), it is possiblc to express the stress and displacement in terms of thcse two "complex potentials."
Any complex functionj(z) can be put into the forma+ i{3 "\\'here a
and {3 are real. To this there corresponds the conjugale, 2 a - i{3, the
value taken by j(z) when i is replaced, whcrcvcr it occurs in j(z), by
-i. This change is indicated by the notation
J() ~ a - i~

Thus if f(z)
df,

-A

+ 1 + vp'

If these are substituted

(v + aq) + !e df + !e
ay

df,

'"here A is a constant. It follows that the termsf(y) andf1 (x) in Eq.


(f) represent a rigid body displacement. Discarding these terms \Vfl
may write Eqs. (f) as 1

axi

+ P) '
ax2 + p

dx

dx =

aP
aQ
-=-,
iJx
y
- (1

E av

dy

\Vhich implies

a2q,

ax 2

Hence

df+h~o

(a)

vu,.

the Cauchy-Riemann equations (Art. 56).

187

(a)

ein '\\'e have

(b)
A. E. H. Love, "11athematical Thcory of Elasticity," 4th cd., Arts. 144, 146,

1926.
1

The v.ord is used here with a significance quite distinct from that in the term
"conjuga.te harmonic functioos.''

189

PROBJ,f<.'}.18 IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES

THPJORY OF Ef.ASTIC!TY

188

Differentiating it "'ith respect to y and multiplying by i we have

This may bc contrasted with

0~ :y - ~~ =
2

!() ~ ""'

to illustrate the significance of the bar over the f in Eq. (a).


Evidently

1f/(z)

+ X"(Z)

(e)

(~hanging i

to - i on both sides of Eq. (101) yields the altcrnative form


11v -

+ x(') + 'f<') + iW)

2<P ~ "IV)

- 1/l(Z)

Simplcr forms are obtained by subtraciing and adding Eqs. (d) and (e).
Then'
(100)
11,,
11y = 21f/(z)
21//(Z) = 4 Re Y,'(z)
(101)
11y - rf,, 2irw = 2[zf"(Z) + X"(Z)]

ln the sarne -...vay if -...ve add to the function in brackets in Eq. (97) its
conjugate, the sum \\'ill be t"'icc the real part of this function. Thus
Eq. (97) may bc replaccd by

+ zl//'(z)

11,.

+ 2irw =

2[ZY,"(z)

+ x"(z)]

(102)

(98)

On separation of real and imaginary parts the right Ride of Eq. (102), or
(101), gives 11,, - 11y and 2rXll. The t"' cquations (100) and (102)
determine the stress component8 in terms of the complex potentials
t/t(z) and x(z). Thus by cl1oosing dcfinite functions for Y,(z) and x(z)
we finda possible state of stress from Eqs. (100) and (102), and the
dIBplaccments corresponding to this statc of stress are casily obtained
from Eq. (99).

'l'hese t\VO equations may bc combined into one by multiplying the


second by i and adding. Thcn

As a siniplc illustration of this method, consider the polynomial stress systcm


discusse<l ou page 32. A stress function in the form of a polyno1nial of the fifth
degree will evidently bc obtained from Eq. (98) by taking

and by diffcrentiation

2 ::
2

~: ~

'f'(')

+ f(') + x'(') + '"'() + f() + x'()

i["l'C<) - f(')

:: + i ~~ =

+ x'(')

Y,(z)

'f'()

+ f()

x'(ll

+ zlf;'(Z) + X'(Z)

f(z)

(d

(a,

+ ib,)z',

x(z) = (e,

\\'here ao, b., r,, d, are real arbitrary coefficicnts.

c:ombining Eqs. (h) of Art. 57 in the

2G(u

+ iv)

Rame

\\"RY

\\'C

find

f'(z) = 4(a,
ib,)z 3 ,
f"(z) = 12(ao + ib,)z 2,

(~: + i ~~) + 1 ! ~ (p + iq)

u,

+ uv

= 4Re4(a,
=

+ iv)

3+
- v' if;(z) - z1f;'(Z) - X'(Z)
1

(99)

u" - u, + 2iT,"

=
=

This equation determines u and v for plane stress when the complex
potentials Y,(z), x(z) are given. For plane strain 11/(l - 11) is sub1>tituted for 11 on the right of Eq. (99) in accordance with Art. 19.
The stress components 11,,, 11y, Tni can be obtained directly from the
second derivatives of Eq. (98). But, in vic\V of later application to
curvilincar coordinates, it is prcferable to proceed otherwise. Differentiating Eq. (e) with rcspect to x '''e have

::t + a: :y
2

1:

V/(z)

+ zlf/'(Z) + V/(Z) + X"(Z)

Then

+ i'd,)z'
+ id,)z

x'(z) = 5(c,
x"(z) = 20(c,

and Eqs. (100) and (102) yield

or, using Eq. (J) of Art. 56 and Eq. (e) above,


2G(u

+ id;)z'

+
+ +

1'he exprcssions in brackcts give uv - u-, and 2,.,,, rcspectively. Thc displacement oomponents corresponding to this stress distribution are easily obtained from
Eq. (99), which yields

2G(u

+ iv)

~~

: (ao

+ iD,)z

- 4(a, - ib,)zZ - 5(c, - id,)Z'

These results and Eq. (99) were obtained by G. Kolosoli in his doctoral ~rta
tlon, Thlrpat, 1909. See his paper in Z. J.fath. Physik., vol. 62, 1914.
1

(d)

ib,)z'
16 Re (a,+ ib;)[x' - 3xy 1 + i(3x 2y - y')]
16a,(x' - 3xy) - l6b,(3x'y - y')
2[12(as + ib,)Zz 2
20(c,; + ido)z']
24(a,
ib,)(x - iy)(x
iy) 2
20(,;, + id,)(x
iy)'
2
[24a.x(x
y') - 24b,y(x2
y')
20c,(x' - 3xy')
- 20d,(3xy - y')] + i[24a,y(x 2
y')
241>,x(x 2 + y')
20co(3x'y - y')
20d,(x' - 3xy')J

1i..

THEORY OF Ef,ASTICITY

190

PROBLEMS JN CURV/LINEAR COORDINATb'S

191

Jntegrating by parts yields 1


l}f = [

(ai

\Vhere a is the angle between the


left-hand normal N and the Xaxis To ds corrcspond a dx and a dy as indicated in Fig. 125b. ln
tra~ersing ds in the direction AB x decreases and dx \Vill be a ne~ative
number. Thc length of the horizontal side of the elementary tnangle
in Fig. 125b is therefore -dx. Thus
{)

I'ro. 125.

dx
srna=-ds

dy
cosa=d 8

(b)

Inserting these, together \Vith

ax ay
in Eqs. (a), we find
2
_
a2ct> dy
J cf> dx _ _!!___
X = ay2 . ds + ax ay. ds - iJy dy

(")

a'q, dx

a'q, dy
ax 2 ds - axayds

dy
ds

('") dx
+~
ax ay ds

!!:_ ('")
ds

By

B
A

d
ds

["ay - i axA
aq,]B ~
[" + "]

+ iF, ~
F,,

(")
["]B
ay
ay
(")
[']B

d
Ads
B

y ::

- i

i iJy

or, using Eq. (e) of Art. 58

The components of the resultant force on the are AB are therefore

J: - [X::+ J:

It will be evident from Eqs. (e) that if the curve AB represents an


unloaded boundary, so that X and Y are zero, a<1i/ax and arp/ay must
he constant along AB. If there are prcscribed loads on AB, Eqs. (e)
show that thcy can be specified by giving the values of arp;ax, aq,/y
along the boundary. This is cquivalent to giving the dcrivativcs
aq,/as along, and arp/an normal to, AB. These are kno>vn if rp and
<Ji/n are given along AB.2
Nov. let the are be continued to form a closed curve, so that B
coincides with A, but is still regardcd as the point reached after traversing the are, now a closcd circuit, AB. Then Eqs. (d) and (e) give
the resultant force and moment of the stresses acting on the piece of
the plate encloscd by the circuit. If thcsc are not zero, a<1i/ax and
<P/ay do not return to their starting values (A) after completing the
circuit (B). They are thcrefore discontinuous functions, such as the
angle (} of polar coordinates. This v.ill be the case only when loads
(equal and opposite to F~, Fv, M) are applied to the piece of the plate
v.'ithin the closed circuit.
ln terms of thc complex potentials -./t(z), x(z) of Eq. (98) the two
equations (d) may be >vritten as

(e)

d ('")
ds ax

4>

ds

ds=-

+ iF

11

-i[ifa(z)

+ zif'(Z) + X'(Z)]~

(103)

Eq. (e) becomes


(104)
(d)

XA

the square bracket representing the difference of the values of the


enclosed quantity at B and at A.
The momcnt about O, clock>vise, of theforce on AB is, using Eqs. (e),

Equations (103) and (104), applied to a complete circuit round the


origin, show that if -.f(z) and x(z) are taken in the form z" >vhere n is a
positive or negative integer, F,,, Fy, and Af are zero, since thc functions
1

Equations (d) and (e) serve to establish an analogy betveen plane stress and
the slow motion of a viscous fluid in two dncnsious. See J. N. Gvodier, Phil.
Mag., series 7, vol. 17, pp. 554 and 800, 1934.
1
These boundary eonditions lead to an analogy with the transverse deflections
of elastic plates. An aecount o this analogy, with references, is given by R. D.
Mindlin, Quart. Applied Math., vol. 4, p. 279, 1946.

1ii.

192

PROBJ,f','JIIS l!{ CURVILINEAR C00RDI,VAT1~8

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

in brackcts return to their initial valucs \Vhcn thc circuit is completed.


These functions by themsclves could not represent stress due to loads
applicd at the origin. The function log z = log r
ie does not return
to it.1:1 initial value on completing a circuit round the origin, since 8
increases by 27r. Thus if 'if;(z) = (! log z, or x(z) = Dz log z, '\vhere C
and D are (complcx} constants, Eq. (103) \Vill yield a non-zero value
for Fr
iF11 Similarly x(z) = D log z "\vill yield a non-zero value of
Jlf if D is imaginary, but a zero value if D is real.
60. Curvilinear Coordinates. l>uJar coordinates r, 8 (Fig. 124) may
hc regarded ai'! spccifying thc position of a point as thc int.ersection of a
circle (of radius r) and u radial line (at thc anglc Ofrom the initial line).
A changc from Cartesian lo p<>lar coordinates is effected by means of
the equations

and it is usually most convenient to begin '"ith these.


example, the two equations
x = e cosh

\vhere e is a constant.

(a)

The first, V.'hen r is givcn various constant values, represents the


family of circlc::i. The seC'ond, \vhen Ois givcn various constant values,
reprcseni the fumily of radial lincs.
Equati.ons (a) are a special case of equations of the forro

F i(x,y)

t,

F 2(x,y)

= 1J

(b)

Giving defini.te constant values to ~ and 1J, these eqiiations wHl represent t-..,vo {'urves \Vhich v.ill interscct, V.'hen F1 (:.r,y), F2 (x,y) are suitable
functions. Different >'alues of t and 1J v.ill yield different curves anda
different point of intersection. Thus each point in the xy-plane v.ill
be charactcrized by definite values of t and ?J-the values '''hich make
the t\VO curves given by Eqs. (b) pass through it-and t, 1J may be
regardcd a::;" coordinates" of a point. Since given values of t, 1J define
+.he point by n1eans of t""' intersecting curves, they are called curvi~
linear coordinaU:s. 1
Polar coordinates, with the associated stress cornponents, proved
vcry useful in Chap. 4 for problems of concentric circular boundaries.
'fhe stress and displacernent on such a bo11ndary become functions of O
only, sincc ris constant. lf the boundaries consist of other curves, for
instance ellipses, it is advantugeous to use curvilinear coordinates one
of \vhich is constant on each boundary cur,e.
If Eqs. (b) are solvcd for x and y, \Ve shall have t\VO equations of the
form
(')
1 The general theory of carvlincar coordinates \Vas <leveloped by Lam in the
book "Lcons sur les C<>0rtlonn{cs curviligncs," Paris, 185fl.

Consider, for

y = csinh sin 11

(d)

Elimination of 1J yields

x2
c2 cosh 2 ~

arctan '!!. = O

t cos 11,

193

+r

y2
sinh 2

= 1

If Eis constant this is the equation of an ellipsc "'ith semiaxcs e eosb


f. e sinh f, and \\'ith foci at x = e.
For different values of ~ \YC ohtain
diffcrent ellipses with thP i;;ame focilhat is, a family of confocal ellipses
(Iig. 12ti). ()n an}' one of these ellipscs E is coni;;tant and 1J varies
(through a range 2"11"), as on a circle in
polar coordinates r is constant and o
varies. ln fact in the present case 1/
is thc ccccntric angle 1 of a point on the
ellipse.
Y
If on the other hand \VC climinate E
FiG. 126.
from Rqi;;. (d), by means of the cquation cosh 2 ~-sinh2 E

x'
c2 cos 2 ~

1, \Ve have

y'

(e)

Fo~ a consta~t value of 1J this represents a hyperbola having the sainc


foc1 as thc clhpses. Thus Eq. (e) reprcscnts a fumily of confocal hyperholas, on any one of \Vhich 1/ is constant and t varies. 'l'hcsc coordinates are callcd elliptic.
'l'he t,vo equations (d) are equivalent to x + iy =e cosh (E+ i 11 ) or
z=ccoshl
where 1

(f)

t -+ i?J. 'l'his is evidently a special case of the relation


' ~ f(t)

(g)

Th'is,.besr'des defining
z as a function of 1, may be i;;olved to give 1 as !l
function of z. Thcn Eand 1/ are the real and imaginary parts of a func1 lf a, IJ ar~ the polar coordinates of a point on thc cirf'le cirf'umscribing an
lliPSe of sem1axes a b th
eth
to the x-axis intersects
.
' ' e pcrpcn d"icu1ar f rorn t h"1s po1nt
111pse 11.t the nnint x = a cos e
e
e
b

,.
o
ang\e of
this .
1-'~
' Y Slll ' IB cali e d t J1e eccentnc
IM>lnt on the ellipae.
-

------

l'iS 1HUTG'l POLITEH!lll'.


11tv\\)0/l.,,RA.
\

ft\St \GTE.CA. CEKTitALA


~

194

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

tion of

PROBLEMS IN C'RfllLINEAR COORDlA'ATES

z, and thcrefore satisfy the Cauchy-Riemann equations (e) of

Art. 55, also therefore the Laplace equations (f) and (g) of Art. 55.
The curvilinear coordinates to be used in this chapter will all be
derived from equations of the form (g), and as a consequence will
possess furthcr special propcrties. The point x, y having the curvilinear coordinates ~' 71, a neighboring point X
dx, y
dy will he.ve
curvilinear coordinates ~
d~, 11
d11, and since there will be two
equations of the type (e) Vte may \Vrite

dx

ax

= a~ d~

(h)

lf only ~is varied, the increments dx, dy correspond to an elcment of


are ds; along a curve 1J = constant, and

dx

ox

(i)

= a~ d~,

Since

(dx)'

(dy)'

ox

GiY +(:~)'](d()'

dx = -d11

" '

Procceding as above we shall find

that

ox

1/ =

and that ds,

where

"

? increasf'ng

Jd11, and

dy/dx

= -

Fia. 127.

cota

Comparing this last result with Eq. (n), we see that the curves
t = constant, 1J = constant, intersect at right angles, the direction
11-increasing making an angle (ir /2)
a with the x-axis (Fig. 127).
Consider for instance the elliptic coordinates defined by Eq. (f).
Wc have

(j)

f'(.I) = e sinh .1 =e sinh ~ cos 1/

= f(t) we ha vc

y =Jcosa

-J sin a,

'fhus

(a,,1 ~

7J = constant, in the direction ~-increasing, and the x-axis (Fig. 127).


ln the sarne \Vay, if only 1/ is varied, the incrcments dx and dy of Eqs.
(h) corrcspond to an element of are ds~ alonga curve~ = constant, and
instead of Eqs. (i) v.e havc

x
011 d11,

ax

.ay

ar

' ~ ' +' ' ~ arf<!l ai ~ f <rl

195

(k)

+ ic cosh t sin 1/

= Jeia.

C:omparing the real and imaginary parts of the last equality \Ve find
Jcosa

=csinh~cos11,

Jsina

ccosh tsin11

and thcreforc
J 2 = c2 (sinh 2 t cos 2 11

Now any complex quantity can be V.'ritten in the form J cos a


sina, or Jei<', "\Yhcre J anda are real. \Vith

+ iJ
<n

Eq. (k) yields

ex

-=Jcosa

ai

ay

'

and then Eq. (j) gives

-=

'

J sina
.

(m)

dse = J d~

dy = iJy/~ = tan a
x/~

2
~ sin 2 11) = tc 2(cosh 2t - cos 271)
tan a = coth t tan 11

(o)
(p)

61. Stress Components in Curvilinear Coordinates. Equations


(99), (100), and (102) give the Cartesian componcnts of displacement
and stress in terms of thc complex potcntials f(z), x(z). When curvilinear coordinates are used thc complex potcntials can be taken as
functions of .1, and z itself is given in terms o .1 by the equation of the
type of Eq. (g) of Art. 60 defining the curvilinear coordinates. Thcre
is thus no difficulty in expressing u%, u"'' r~ in terms of ~ and 11 It is
usually convenient, however, to specify the stress as
trt, the normal coroponent on a curve ~ = constant;

The slope of dse is, using Eqs. (i) and (m),

dx

+ cosh

u~, the normal component on a curve 1/ = constant;

(n)

Thus a 1 given by Eq. (l), is the angle between the tangent to the curve

ri:~,

the shear component on both curves.

T~cse components are indicated in Fig. 128. Comparing this and


Fig. 127 with Fig. 12, we see that ul: and Tt~ correspond to u and T in

F .ig. 12 .

PROHLE,l!S JJV

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

-196

rr cos 2a +
+ r:<11 cos 2a
11 )

TXJI

sin 2a

+ u~ =
+ 2irr;~ =
2G(u< - iu~) =
ur;

Replacing a by (7r/2) +a \Ve find similarly


rr, = !(rr,,

+ rr

11 )

u~ -

-}(rr,, - u11 ) cos 2a - T:<11 sin 2a

and from these v.c casily obtain the following equations:


rr, - ul"

rY<

+ u, =

rr,,
u"
2ir,, = e 2i" (u11 - u,,

+ 2iTXJ/)

(105)
(106)

e2ia

f'(l) = Jeia,

so that

e" ~ f'(t)

J'(i)

Dlreclion of /'-.-._ Oli'-ec;liOn o(


q-'m:reasinq/
"'--..... t,-H1creas1nq

e2ia

(107)

For example, our elliptic coordinatcs givcf'(!;} = e sinh ;;, and

Fia. 128.

sinh ;;
sinh f

(q)

With the valuc of c so determincd, Eqs. (105) and (106) express


in terms of u,,, uy, r:<11.
'l'he displacemcnt in curvilincar coordinates is specified by means of a
componenL
in the dircction l'-increasing (Fig. 127) anda ~omponent
u, in the direct.ion 17-increasing. If u and v are the Cartes1an comp~
nents of the displacemcnt, 've have

u 6 u,, T<

u,

u cos a

+ v sin a,
u,

+ iu, =

- Zif;'(z) - x'(z)

(111)

Problems

+
+

+
+

62. Solutions in Elliptic Coordinates. Elliptic Role in Uniform.ly


Stressed Plate. The elliptic coordinates t, 17, already considered in
Art. 60 and shov.'n in Fig. 125, ,,,-cre dcfined by

+ t"v)

Equations {105), (106), and (108) wcre obto.ined by Kolosoff, loc. L-it.

e cosh .1,

e cosh
d'

(108)

\vhieh give

d\

Uo:ing Eq. (99) v.rith z = f(!;), and Eq. (107), this enabl~s us to
cxpress u, and u, in terms of t and 17 '\'hen the complcx potent1als f(z)
and x(z) havc been chosen.

j,,,.

[~ ~ : f(Z)

1. Shov; that for polar coonlinates, given by z = er, Eq. (107) becomcs
r"" = ci,, and a = '! = O.
2. Ohtain the solntions of thc follo\ving problems in polar coordinates by means
of thc complex potentials indieatcd. Evaluatc thc strrss and displo.ccnent componcnts. Capitais denote constants, not necessarily real.
(a) A ring (a < r < b) with equal and opposite couples M applicd by means of
shear stress to the tvo boundaries (.Fig. 122). f(z) = O, x(z) = A log z.
(b) The ring under internai pressure pi, externa} pressure p. (src page 59).
f(z) = Az, x(z) = B log z.
(e) The pure bending of a curved bar, and the "rotational dislocation" of the
ring, aa in ,\rts. 27 and 29. f(z) = Azlog z
Bz, x(z) = C log z.
(d) The problen1 solved in Art. 31. t(z) = Az 2
Rlog z, x(z) = Czlog z D/z.
(e) Thc plate under tension with a circular hole (Art. 32). f(z) = Az
B/z,
x(<) = Clogz +Dz 2 +F/z 2
(/) Thc radial stress distribution of Art. 33. if:(z) = A log z, x(z) = Bi log z.
(g) The force ata point of an infinittJ plate (Art. 38). x(z) = A log z,

and

u,=vcosa-usina
e-i"(u

efr'

(109)
(110)

We shall USP theRe e(juations in thc solution of severa} proble1ns


inYolving curved boundaries.

and thercfore

2[if;'(z) + if'(Z)] = 4 Re f'(z)


2c 2i"[Zf"(z) + x"(z)]

x(z) = Bz log z

2 i

u,

ur;

for curvilinear coordinates defined by z = f(t) can be


found from Eq. (C) of Art. 60.
------x
This, with its conjugate, obtaincd
by changing i to - i throughout,
gives

'l'he factor

19i

COOJf/JlfiA.Tl1'S

Combining Eqs. (99), (100), and (102) 'vith (105), (106), and (108)
vre have the follo\Ving equations for the st.ress and displaccment componcnts (wit.h i replaced by - i in the last):

We may Lhercfore use Eq,. (13), and thus obtain


u, = -!(u,,
u11)
i(u,, ,,,, = -!(rr,, - rr11) sin 2a

Cf..!J~Vlf.fll'Ji:AR

cos 17,

. 1l
e ;;1n

'

.1

+ i11

(a)

y=csinh~sin11

"" = ;;inh
;;
e"'"
-.--s1nh r

(h)

The coordinate ~is con;;tant. and equal to ~ on an ellipse of semiaxes e


cosh ~' e sinh ~0 If thc semiaxes are givcn as a and b, e and ~ can bc
found from
e cosh t 0 = a,
e sinh t0 = b
(e)
and therefore one member of the family of ellipseR is given, the whole

198

TH/i:ORY OF ELASTICITY

PROBLEMS IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES

family of ellipses and also the family of hyperbolas (see page 193) are
definite. If E is very small the corresponding ellipse is very slender,
and in the limit t = O it becomes a line of length 2c joining the foci.
Taking Iarger and larger positive values of t the ellipse becomes larger
and larger, approaching an infinite circle in the limit t = oo. A point
on any one ellipse goes once around the ellipse as.,, goes from zero (on
the positive x-axis, Fig. 126) to 211". In this respect .,, resembles the
angle O of polar coordinates. Continuity of displacement and stress
components requires that they be periodic in 11 with period 2ir, so that
they will have the sarne values for.,, = 271" as they have for 'l = O.
Consider now an infinite plate in a state of uniform all-round tcnsion
S disturbed by an elliptical hole of semiaxes a and b, which is free from
stress. 1 These conditions mean that
(f~ =

fly

d! =Ti, =

at infinity (t - t oo)
on the elliptical boundary of the hole, where t
has the value to

(d)

2 Re iJ/(z) = S,

zy/'(z)

+ x"(z)

O at infinity

+ i cosh nt sin n71

+ i sinh nt sin n'I/

where n is an integer. The function x(z) = Bc 2r, B being a constant,


is also suitable to the problem.
Taking Y,(z) = Ac sinh r, 'vith A a constant, and using the first of
Eqs. (b) for dr/dz, which is thc reciprocal of dz/dr, ''le find

dS
i{/(z) = Ac cosh?; dz

cosh r
h
A ...-----------nh = A cot
si
?;

(h)

~os_!i f

-A

Sifih 3

S.

(<)

Bc 2!;, "\\'hcrc B is a constant, we have

X '( z)

= -B,
-,
;;inh?;

"(z
) _ - B cosh
x
- -S
sinh?;

Equations (i) and (J) show that ZV,"(z) and x"(z) each vanish at infinity.
The second of conditions (f) is therefore now satisfied.
The condition (e) can be satisfied by suitable choice of the constant
B. Subtracting Eq. (110) from Eq. (109) we have
U! -

i7~~ = 'ljt'(z)

+ ~'(Z)

- e2ia [~lf"(z)

and e '" is given by the second of Eqs. (b).


d!_ iTe,

=A (c?sh?;
s1nh r

+ x"(z)J

(k)

Thus

+ c?sh f) + s~nh t(A ~osh f + B ~osh t)


stnh

?;l S1n
. h

Slll12

s1nh ?;

s1nh il ?;

s1nh l

+ f) + cosh f]
+ B eoah l}
t.and?; + f = 2t.,, f = 2t

\A [::i':inh?; sinh (S

At the boundary of the elliptical bole t =


Then (l) reduces to
1
h' !; SIIl
. h r- (A cosh 2t
Slll

+ B)

(!)
-

?;.

cosh?;

C~ondition (e) is thercfore satisfied if

(g)

Solutions for the plate with an clliptical hole were :first given by Kolosoff,
loc. cil.; and C. E. lnglis, Trami. Inst. Naval Arch., London, 1913; Engineering,
vol. 95, p. 415, 1913. Sce siso T. Pschl, Math. Z., vol. 11, p. 95, 1921.. The
method employcd here is that of Kolosoff. 1.'he sarne method was applied to
eeveral two-dimensional problems of elasticity by A. C. Stevenson, Proc. Ruy ..s~.
(London), series A, vol. 184, pp. 129 and 218, 1945. Other references are given
la.ter in the chapter.

lL

Taking x(z)

WP- no,v have

At an infinite distance from the origin Eis infinite, and coth ?; has the
1

ZV,"(z)

(f)

Since the stress and displacement components are, for continuity, to


be periodic in 1) with period 2T, 've are led to consider forros for Y,(z) and
x(z) "\vhlch v.ill give a stress function .vith the sarne periodicity, and
such forms are
sinh nr, i.e., sinh nt cos n'I/
cosh nr, i.e., cosh nE cos n71

value unity. The first of conditions (f) is therefore satisfied jf 2A


From (g) we find further
A
1
V/'(z) =
and

(e)

From Eqs. (100) and (102) we find that the condition (d) is satisfied if

199

-A cosh 2t.

Y,(z) = jSc sinh ?;,

x(z)

-jS cosh 2to


=

(m)

-Sc2 cosh 2t. ?;

(n)

All the boundary conditions have now been satisfied. But ,ve cannot be sure that the complex potentials (n) reprcsent the solution of
our problem until we know that they imply no discontinuity in the displacement. The Cartesian components of displacement can be found
from Eq. (99), '\\-hich in the prcsent case gives
on(
""-" U

+.)
U!

3 - 'A . h'
- +
C Slll ~
1

AC

COS h

?;'

Cot h

8' f- - --.---h
&Il f

(o)

with A = S/2, and B as given by Eq. (m) . . T~e ~yperbolic fun~tio~s


have real and imaginary parts \'lhich are penod1c I.n TJ Thus a c1rcu1t
round any ellipsc ~ = constant, \Vithin the _plate, w1U br1ng u and_v back
to the initial values. The complex potent1als (n) therefore proVJde the
solution of the problem.
(!Og)
Th stress component 0"11 at the hole is easily found from Eq.
'

e
t
the
hole
is
zero
Inserting
the
value
of
y/(z)
from
Eq.
(g),
SlllCC<TfR
"
\'lith A

S/2 we have
,,.~

<T,

4 Re f'(z)

28 Re coth

But

(p)

Multiplying out the brackets in numerator and denominator, this


reduces to
sinh 2~ - i sin 21J
coth S = cosh 2~
cos 211
Hence

28 sinh 2~
cosh 2~ - cos 211
and at the boundary of the bole
28 sinh

201

PROBLEMS IN C!!RVILINEAR COORDI!>i'ATb'S

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

200

2~o

The greatest value, occurrin~ .at the ends of the major axis, \vhere
11 = Oand11",andcos211 = l,1s
28 sinh 2tc
(o-.),,,,... = cosh 2tc - 1

When a

b, so that the cllipse becomes a circle, both (o- 0 )max. and

(o-~)mt~. reduce to 28, in agreemcnt '\\-ith the value for the circular hole

under uniform all-round tension found on page 81.


The displacements can be evaluated from Eqs. (n) and (111) or (99).
1'hcy are of course continuous, bcing represented by single-valued continuous functions.
The problem of un-iform pressure 8 \Vithin an elliptical holc, 1 and
zero stress at infinity, is easily obtained by combining the above solut.ion "'ith the state of uniform stress (Te = (T" = -8, derivable from the
complex potcntial Y.,(z) = -Sz/2.
63. Elliptic Role in a Plate under Simple Tension. As a second
problem, consider t-he infinite platc in a state of simple tcnsile stress S
in a direction at an angh: f3 below
thc positive x-axis (Fig. 129), dist.urbed by an elliptical hole, '\\-ith its
major axis along the x-axis, as in
X
O a
thc preceding problem. The ellipp
b
tical bole \Vith major axis perpenx'
y'
dicular or parallel to the tension 2
s
y
iR a 8pecial case. The more general problem is, however, no more
1'10. 12\l,
difficult by the prcscnt method.
From its solution we can find the cffect of the elliptical bole on any statc
of uniform plane stress, spccified by principal stresses at infinity in any
oricntation with rCBpect to the hole.
Let- Ox', Oy' be Cartesian axes obtained by rotating Ox through the
angle f3 soas to bring it parallel to the tension S. Then by F.qs. (105),
(lOB)

It is easily sho,vn from Eqs. (e) that


c2 = a2 - b2,

sinh 2to

2ab

,,

cosh 2tc

~-,

a2

+ b2

= --,,-

(T,,

and with these v.c find that


(o-.)mo<- = 28 ~

\vhich becomes larger and larger

a::; i h c

m ade more, and more


eli -ipse is

slender d
f th minor axes
The least value of ((T.)i;~& occurs at the en s o
e
where cos 211 = -1. Thus
28 sinh 2to_ = 2 3 ~
cosh 2~ + 1
a

,,

l.11,

Since at infinity

(T'll

<T:'

8,

S,

r~'y'

a-v =
(T'll

,,-,,

O, -..ve have

+ 2ir"11

-Se-2i~

at infinity

and so, from Eqs. (100) and (102),


2[.Zf"(z)

At the boundary of the hole ~

+ x"(z)J

-Se- 2 ;JJ at. infinity

~ 've must havc (T<

T!~

(a)

O.

'Nonuniorm pressurc \Vithin an elliptical hole is considered by I. N. Sneddon


and H. A. Elliott, Quart. Applied l'<Iath., vol. 4, p. 262, 1946.
2
Soo the papers citcd in the footnote on P. 198.

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

PROBLEMS IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES

All these boundary conditions can be satisfied by taking Y,(z), x(z)


in the forms 1

tions toh
be satisfied by eight constants-A 'C' and B 1 B
D D E
,2,1,2,1,
E
hIC are the real and imaginary parts of B, D, E. They are con. 2, w
s1stent, and the solution is

41/l(z} = Ac cosh .\ + Bc sinh r


4x(z) = Cc 2 .\ + Dc 2 cosh 2r + Ec 2 sinh 2f
where A, B, C, D, E' are constants to be found.
Since z = e cosh .\, the term Ac cosh f in the expression for 41/l(z) is
simply Az. It will contribute to the stress function [Eq. (97)] a term
Re Azz or Re Ar2 This is zero if A is imaginary, and therefore A may
at once be taken as real. The constant C must also be real. For if
we insert the above expressions for f(z), x(z) in Eq. {104), taking for
the curve AB a complete circuit round the hole, V<'e find that all terms
except the term in (,' yield zero because the hyperbolic functions are
periodic in 11 with period 211". The term in C is Re [Cc 2 (t + i11) ]!.
This vanishes for a complete circuit only if C is real.
The constants B, D, E are complex, and we may write

B = B1

+ iB2,

(b)

Substitution of the above forms for !f(z), x(z) in the conditions (a)
yields
(o)
A+ B1 = S,
Subtracting Eq. (110) from Eq. (109) to obtain ue - ire~, we find

4(ui- - iri~) = cosech f[(2A


B coth .1) sinh f
(
B cosech 2 .\) cosh f
(C
2E) coscch .\ coth .\
- 4D sinh .\ - 4E cosh .\]

At the boundary of thc bole E = E. and f = 2E. - .\. lf this value of f


is inBerted in sinh f and cosh f in the above cxprcssion, and the functions sinh (2E
t), cosh (2t
expanded, the expression in square
brackets reduces to
0

.\)

(2A sinh 2a - 2iB 1 cosh 2a - 4E) cosh .\


- (2A cosh 2a - 2iB2 sinh 2a + 4D) sinh .\
+ (C + 2E + B cosh 2a} coth .\ cosech .\
This, and consequently 111; - iTr;~ at the hole, vanishes if the coefficients
of cosh .\, sinh r, coth .\ cosech .\ vanish. We have tbus three equations,
together with the two equations (e), to be satisfied by the constants
A, B, C, D, E. Since A and C are real, there are actually nine equa
' Steven110n, loc. cit.

A = Se 2e. cos 2{3


B = S(l - e2f,-2ill)
C = -S(cosh 2t - cos 2.8)

203

j.Se 2 e cosh 2(t


if3)
j.8e2 f sinh 2(t0
if3)
-

The complex potentials of this problcm are consequently given by

4lf(z)
4x(z)

=
=

8c[e 2 f cos 2{3 cosh .\ + (1 -8c2 [(cosh 26 - cosb 2{3).\

e 2 f.+ 2 i~)

+ j.e f
2

sinh .\]
cosh 2(.1 -

if3)1

The displacements can now be determined from Eq. (111). It may be


seen at once that they are single-valued.
The stress u, at the hole can be obtained from Eq. (109) since at the
bole "f is zero. Then

("~) f-e. -_ S sinh 2t.

+ cos 2.8 cosh 2t0

e2 f cos 2(~ - )
cos 211

When the tension S is at right angles to the major axis (.B

(11,) ~e.

S e,,

['icosh
nh

2Ml
20 -

+ r'')
cos 211

r/2),

and the greatest value, occurring at the ends of the maJor axis
(cos 211 = 1), reduces to

s(1+2~)
This increases without limitas the bole becomes more and more slender
When a = bit agrees v.'ith the value 38 found for t.he circular bole 0 ~
page 80. The least valuc of the stress round the elliptical bole is -S
at the ends of th~ minor axis. This is the sarne as for the circular hote'.
When the tens1on 8 is parallel to the major axis (fJ = O) the greatest
~alue of 11~ round the bole is found at the ends of the minor roi:is and is
t~l + Zb/a). This approachcs S v.'hen the ellipse is very slend~r. At
; ends of the major roi:is tbe stress is -S for any value of a/b.
th he effect of the elliptical hole on a st.ate of pure shear S parallel t.o
t e~- and Y-axes is easily found by superposition of the two cases of
ens1on S at .B = :ir/4 and -8 at .B = 311"/4. Then
_

28

e2f sin 211


cosh 2t. - cos 211

thc value of 11 is 21f - 1Jo Along the half ED of the other branch 71 is
11 and along E/i' it is 11"
11
Consider the plate ABCFED 'Yithin these hyperbolic boundaries, in
a state of tension in the direction Oy. 1 The tensile stress at infinity
must fall to zero to preserve a finite tensile force across the waist EOB.
Complex potentials 'vhich permit this, and satisfy thc other necessary
conditions of symmetry about Ox and Oy, and freedom of the hyperholic boundaries, are

This vanishcs at thc ends of both the major and the minor axes and has
the greatest values

-ir -

+s<a+b)2
-

ab

at the points determined b~r tan 1J = tanh ~ = b/a. When thc ellipse
is vcry slendcr thcsc valucs are vcry large, and the points at -..vhich they
occur are close to the ends of thc major axis.
Solutions have becn found for the elliptical hole in a platc suhjcct to
pure flexure in its plane 1 2 and to a paraholic distribution of shear as in
a thin rcctangular beam,2 for an elliptical bole 'vith cqual and opposite
concentrated forces at the ends of the minor diametcr,3 and for rigid
and elastic "inclusions" filling the l1ole in a plate under tension. 4
1lorc general series forms of the real <1tress funclion <P in cllipt.ic coordinates have becn con:oidered. 5 Their equivalent complex poientials can
be constructed from thc functions
used or mentioncd herc, together
'vith the analogucs of the simple
e
.......
functions quoted in the J>roblcms
'l:2fr-'lo
IJ"fr+'Jo /
on p. 197, 'vhen dislocations and
~concentrated forces and couplcs
9
E
are to be includcd.
k--r"h+--.x
1
9
64. Hyperbolic Boundarles.
I
Notches. It "'as sho>vn in .i\.rt. 60
'7"9o
'l:ff-IJo
that the curves '11 = constant in
elliptic coordinates are hyperbolas,
and in Art. 62 that t.he range of"
may be taken as O to 211", that of ~
Fra. 130.
being O to oo.
Let 'l1o be thc constant valuc of '11 along the hypcrbolic are B.4. of Fig.
130. It ,vill be bet\vecn O and 1f /2, f'ince bolh x a.nd y are positive
along BA. Along the other hrJf of t.his branch of the hyperbola, BC,

1 1 1 1

,.,.,.----

--- '

,,

---

' ,_

K. '\Yolf, Z. lech. Physik, 1922, p. 1130.


'H. Neubcr, lngenieur-Archiv, vol. 5, p. 242, 1934. This solution and several
others relating tu cllipses and hyperbolas are givcn in Neuber's book "Kerbspannungslehrc," Bcrlin, 1\J37.
i P. S. Symonds, J. Appl:d ,ifecho.nics (Tro.ns. A.S.,1!.E.), vol.13,p. A-183, 1946.
A solution in fi.nite form is givcn by A. E. Oreen, ibid., vol. 14, p. A-246, 1947.
4 N. I. l\1uschcli8vili, Zeit. o.ngew. Jfalh. 2l<Iech., vol. 13, p. 264, 1(.133; L. H.
l)onnell, "Theodore von Krmn Annivcrsary volume," p. 2(.13, Pasadena, 1941.
E. G. Coker and I,. )i. G. Filon, "Pboto-elasticity," pp. 12.1, 535, Carnbridge
l~niversity Prcss, 1931; A. Timpe, Math. Z., vol. 17, p. 189, 1923.
1

20;)

PROBLEJ.!S l1V CURV!Lfll/EAR COOllDf,VATES

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

204

0,

Y,(z) = -jA.i 1,

'

x(z)

-t.4i 1 - Bci sinh 1

1vhcre A and B are real constants, und z


f'(') -- - 2c sinh
iA I'

X' (z)

e cosh \.

21 Ai. 1 -

(' A
2

These give

+ B ) coth 1
i

E~uation
\'<Ili

(103) of Art. 59 shcnvs that the hypcrbolic boundary 11


be free from force proyidcd the function

f('J +'Vi(') +

(a)

(b)
= 110

kl

x'(')

is constant along it, or equivalently if the conjugatc of this function is


con1>tant. 1'hc conjugate is, from I~qs. (a) and (h),

A 11-zlA.coshf
isinh.7- ('2-4+B) icotht
()n t.hc hyperbola 7J
expression becomcs

'IJo -

= '11"

\Ye have f

1-

2i11

'

t.4. sin 27/o - (t<t cos 2'17

(d)

and \\-"ith this the

+ -}.4. + B)i coth 1

~vhich i1> a constant if the quantity in parentheses is made to vanish.

Thu::1
B

-A

co;; 2 'lo

(e)

'fo find thc rcsultant force t.ransmittcd 11e may apply Eq. (103) of
\rt. 59 to thn narro'v secLion EOB, Fig. 130, more prc('iscly to the
Io,ver part of t.he limiting ellipse ~ = O bet\veen thc hyperbolas =
and _
.
.
. _
7J
'17l
7J - 11" - 1Jo 0 n t 1us elhpse !; becomes i7J, 1 becomes -i7/, and \te
have from Eq. (103), (e) and (d)

+ R) cot '17]~.:;;:-~

F~ - i"Fu = i"[A11 - (A
= i[A(:ir - 2'170

+ 2 cot 7Jo) + 2B cot 7Jo]

'ThIs pro bl ()til (also the case of shear loadin") \Yll.S solvcd b~c A A G 'ffitb
"J.1"11,
TechRA
ept. rronau( Research Comm. (Great Britain) 1027-1928 vol II
668
andH:-;;bz
"h
,
,.,p.,
h - eu er, . o.ngew. 1rial . Mech., vol. 13 p. 439 1933 or "Kcrba
,e re," p. ;)5, Berlin, IV38.
'
,
'
pannungs-

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

206

PROBLEMS IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES

Since A and B were taken as real, F,. is zero and, using Eq. (e)

Fu

-A(11" - 211 0

+ sin 21'1o)

which determines A 'vhen the total tension Fv is assigned. The stress


and displacement components are easily found from Eqs. (109), (110),
( 111). The first gives
4A
cosh I; sin 11
u~+u~=
cosh 21; - cos 217

- -e-

The value of 11 1 along the hyperbolic boundary is found by setting


11 = 110 in this expression. It has a maximum, -2A/c sin 1)0, at the
waist ,vhcre I; = O. Ncuber 1 has exprcssed this as a function of the
radius of curvature of thc hyperbola at the "''aist. He has solved, by
anothcr mcthod, the problems of bcnding and shear of the plate as well
as tension.
66. Bipolar Coordinates. Problems involving two nonconcentric
circular boundaries, including thc spccial case of a circular hole in a
semi-infinite plate, usually require the use of thc bipolar coordinates t,
11, defined by
(a)
z = ia coth -!r
r = t i11

207

It may be seen from Fig. 131 that 61 - 62 is the angle between the two
l~nes joinin~ the "poles" -ia, ia to the typical point z, when this point
hes to the nght of the y-axis, and is m.inus this angle when the point lies
to the left. It follo\\'S that a curve 1/ = constant is an are of a circle
passing through the poles. Several such circles are drawn in Fig. 131.
From Eqs. (e) it is clear that a curve ~ = constant will be a curve for
,~hich r1/r2 = constant. Such a curve is also a circle. It surrounds
the pole ia if r1/r2 exceeds unity, t.hat is, if tis positive. It surrounds
the other pole -ia if ~is negative. Several such circles are drawn in

Replacing coth ir by (eit


e-!t)/(etr - e-Ir) and solving the first
equation for et, it is easily shown that this is equivalent to

r=

z +ia
log--.

(b)

z - ia

The quantity z
ia is represented by the line joining the point -ia to
the point z in the xy-plane, in the sense that its projections on the axes
give the real and imaginary parts. The sarne quantity may be represented by r 1e11 ,vhere r 1 is the length of the linc, and 01 the angle it
makes ,vith the x-axis (Fig. 131). Similarly z - ia is the line joining
the point ia to the point z, and may be represented by r28' 9 (Fig. 131).
Then Eq. (b) becomes

~ + i 11

= log

(~ eiee-'')

= log

~ + i(01 -

r,

= log-,

"

Fig. 131. They form a family of coaxal circles with the two poles as
limiting points.
The coordinate '1 changes from 1r to -'Ir on crossing the segmcnt of the
y-axis joining ~he poles, its range for the ''rhole plane being -'Ir to 'Ir.
Stresses and d1splaccments -.,vill be continuous across this segment jf
they are r~presented by periodic functions of 11 \vith period 2'1r.
Separat1on of real and imaginary parts in Eq. (a) leads t 0 t
X=

92)

a sin 11
'
cosh ~
cos 1)

a sinh ~
cosh ~
C08 '1

(d)

Differentiation of Eq. (a) yields

so that
~

Fio. 131.

1 .
h 2_.\
1
--iacosec
2
2

(,)

1 Loc. cit.
For a cornparison of Neubcr's rcsults v;ith photoelastic and fatigue
teats of notched platcs and grooved shafts sce R. E. Peterson and A. M. Wahl,
J. Applied Mechanics, vol. 3, p. 15, 193fi, or S. Timoahenko, "Strength of MaterialB," 2d ed., vol. 2, p. 340. Sec also M. "'.\f. }'rocht, "Photoelasticity ," voL 2.

and
2 ia

_ dz/dt
- dZ/df

'nh211
- .i cosech2 - .i
2
2

s1

'Soo the deriva.tion of Eq. (e) in Art. 54.

(<)

(!)

'l'HEORY OF ELASTICITY

PROBLE.lJS IN CURVILIJ.IEAR COORDINATES

66. Solutions in Bipolar Coordinates. W e no'v consider the problcm


of a circular disk with an eccentric hole, subject to pressure Po round
the outsi<le, and pressure p1 round the hole. 1 The stress componcntH
obtained wi11 also be valid for a circular thick-walled tube with eccentric bore.
Let the externai boundary be that circle of the family J; = constant
for which !; = !;0 , and let the hole be the circle J; = !; 1 Two such circles are dra\Vll in heavy tines in Fig. 131. It follows from the expression for y in Eqs. (d) of Art. 65 that these circles have radii a cosech /;o,
a cosech !; 1, and that their ccntcrs are at the distances a coth !;0 , a coth
l;1 from the origin. Thus a, !; 0 , and /; 1 can be dctermined if the radii
nnd distance het,veen centers are givcn.
ln going counterclock\vise once round any circle t = constant, Rtarting just to the left of the y-axis in Fig. 131, the coordinate 1/ ranges
from -11" to 11"- Thus the functions \Vhich are to give thc stress and
displacement components must have the sarne values at 1J = 1r as thcy
have at 1/ = -11". This is cnsured if thcy are pcriodic functions of 1/ of
period 211". It is therefore appropriate to take the complex potentials
!f(z) and x(z) in the forms

This may be expresscd in bipolar coordinates by mcans of Eqs (d) of


Art. 65, the result being

208

cosh n,\,

v.ith n an integcr, sincc these are in fact periodic functions of 1/ of


period 2:ir. So also are their derivatives \Vith respect to z, since d,\/dz
has thc sarne propcrty [Eq. (e), .\.rt. 65].
Jf such functions are i:atroduced into Eqs. (103), (104), applied to
any circle t = constant in the material, the corresponding force and
couple 'vill be zero, in virtue of the periodicity. This must hold for
the complete solution, for equilibrium of the plate 'vithin the circle.
We shall requirc also thc function x(z) = aD,\, D being a constant.
Considering this in Eqs. (103), (104) as above, we find that the momcnt
of Eq. (104) v.'ill be zero only if D is real. We therefore take it to be so.
Considering the displacernent equation (99) we find that this function,
as \vell as the functions (a) used as either !f(z) or x(z), will give displacements free from discontinuity.
The state of uniform all-round tcnsion or compression, which vrill be
part of the solution, is obtained from the complex potential ,Y(z) = Az
\vith A real. The corresponding real stress function is, from Eq. (97),
=

A(x2

+ y2)

'The original soluton, in terms of the real stress function, is dueto G. B. Jeffery,
1'rans. Roy. Soe. (Lu11don), series ./\., vol. 221, p. 265, 1921.

cosh~+cos1/

cosh

(b)

cos 11

(;onsidering functions of the form (a) ""'ith n = 1 '\Ve ob


th

th t
serve . at
s1nrc ~ s ress 1str1but1on in thc prcscnt problem is symmetrical about
:~e y-ax1s, we must choose them so that the corresponding stress func..1ons have the sarne symmetry. Thus vle may take

a . .

'

f(z) = iB cosh .\,

x(z) = B' sinh

.1

(e)

\\'ith B, B' real, and

r.

f(z) = iC sinh
x(z) = C' cosh .1
1vith C, C' real.
'fhe real stress function corresponding to (e) is, from Eq. (97),
11inh t co;;h t cos 1/ - sinh t sin2 1/
cosh t - cos 11
B' r;inh t cosh t cos
cosh ~

aH

(a)

sinh n.\

q, = Re(zAz) = Azz

''"

20!)

(d)

sinh t co;; 2
co;; 1/

1/ -

1/

~fc 1re c~oose B' = aB thc tcrms in sin2 11 , cos2 1/ in the numcrators
Co~e 1ndependent of 7/, and thc complete numerator depends on 1/
~~ly 1~ t~c term in cos 1/, just as. does the function (b). The sarne
thing IS t1~e o_f the complcx potcnt1als (d), if v.cc choosc C' = aC.
U8 obta1n s1mpler, more reRtrict.ed functions v.hich turn out to be
ad!Jquatc for the present problem.
'faking thereforc

'''e

!f(z) = iR cosh .\,

x(z) = aB sinh .1

(e)

\\"C fi d b
co
n
Y_means of Eqs. (109), (110) and (a), (f) of Art. 65, that the
rresponding stress componenhi are given by

a(u- _
~

a(u-r; .+ u-~) = 2R(~ sinh t cos

1/ -

sinh 2 t cos 2'11)

u-~ + Ztr<~! = -2B[s1nh 2t - 2 sinh 2t cosh t cos 11


+ sinh 2t cos 21/ - i(2 cosh 2~ cosh t sin 11

s1 "]

m1 arly the functions

f(z)

iC sinh .\,

x(z)

cosh 2t sin 211)]

aC co1:1h

.1

(fJ
(g)
(h)

THEORY OF ELASTJCITY

210
yield

a(ui: +O'~) = -2C(l - 2 cosh ~ cos 1/


a(u~-u;+2iTi:~) =

PROBLEMS 11\' CURVILlfoiEAR COORDlll'ATP.'15

and therefore

+ cosh 2~ cos 21))

2C[- cosh 2~
2 cosh 2~ cosh ~ COSf/
- cosh 2~ cos 21}
i(2 sinh 2~ cosh !'; sin 1J
- sinh 2~ sin 271)]
The stress components arising from

(J)

are given by
ui:+u~=O

D[sinh

2~

(l)

The 1:1tate of uniform all-round tension given by


(m)

,P(z) = Az

yields

.,., + u~ =
ui:

4A,
u~ =

(n)

2.4,

The solution of our problem can be obtaincd by superposition of the


states of stress rcpresentcd by the complex potentials (e), (h), (k), and
(m). Collecting thc terms rcpresenting T<~ i~ Eqs. (g), (j), and (l)_vve
find that thc vanishing of ri;~ on the boundar1es ~ = ~' ~ = ~' requ1res

D - 2R cosh
JJ - 2B cosh

2~
2~1

These with Eqs. (p) complete the determination of the complex potentiali:!. When there is interna} pressurc Pt only (p0 = O) the peripheral
;;tress at the bole is found to be
((T~)<-b = -pi+ 2pi(sinh 2 ~1

- '2 sinh ~ cos 1/


- i(2 cosh ~ sin 1/ - sin 211)]

- 2C sinh
- 2C sinh

2~. =
2~1 =

O
O

(a)

Solving these for B and C in terms of D we have


2C = -D sinh (ti+ to)
cosh (~i
t.)

(p

2A

+ Da sinh t. tanh (ti 2

2A - D sinh 2 ti tanh
a

(~1

t.)
t.)

-po
-pi

(~i

- t.)

+ cos 11]

,\n expression for the maximum valuc of this has already been given
on page 60.
A general series form of stress function in bipolar coordinates \Vas
givcn by G. B. Jeffery. 2 Its equivalent complcx potentials are easily
found, and involve the functions considered here together \vith the
bipolar analogues of the simple functions quoted in the Problems on
page 197, when dislocations and concentrated forces are included. It
has been applied to the problems of a semi-infinitc plate \vith a concentrated force at any point, 3 a semi-infinite region -..vith a circular bole,
under tcnsion parallel to the straight edge or plane boundary,4 and
undcr its o'\\-n "'eight, 5 and to the infinite plate with two holes,6 ora bole
formed b:r tvo intersecting circles. 7
Soiutions have been given for the circular disk subject to concentrated forces at any point, 8 to its own \veight when suspended at a
point, 9 or in rotation about an eccentric axis, 10 with and "'ithout 1 i the
use of bipolar coordinates, and for the eiTect of a circular hole in a semiinfinite plate with a concentrated force on the straight edge.12
1

An exhaustive discussion of the maximum value is given by Cokcr and Filon,

loc. Cil,

Loc. cit.

E. ~felan, Z. angew. ,ilfath.ilfech., vol. 5, p. 314, 1925.


'Sce p. 82.
'R. D. ~Iindlin, Proc. A.S.C.E., p. Gl9, 1939.
T. Pschl, Z. angrno. Math. Jlech., voL 1, p. 174, 1921, and vol. 2, p. 187, 1922.
Also C. \Vcber, ibid., vol. 2, p. 267, 1922; E. 'Veinel, ibid., voL 17, p. 276, 1937;
Chih BingLing, J. Applied.Phys., vol.19, p. 77, 1948.
7
Chih Bing Ling, ibid., p. 405, 1948.
8
R. D. ~:lindlin, J. Applied ,\.fechanics (Trans. A.S.M.E.), voL 4, p. A-115, 1937.
R. D. Mindlin, J. Applied Physics, vol. 9, p. 714, 1938.
'"R. D. Mindlin, Phil. JJag., series 7, vol. 26, p. 713, 1938.
11
B. Sen, Buli. Cale ui/a Jf alh. Soe., vol. 36, pp. 58 nnd 83, 1944.
u A. Barjansky, Quart. Applied ,lfath., vol. 2, p. 16, 1944.
3

'l'he normal stress 0-1; can be found by subtracting thc real part of Eq. (g)
from Eq. (f) and similarly for the othcr pairs. On the boundary t = t.
it is to take the valuc - p., and on the boundary t = ti the value - pi.
Using the values of B and C given by Eqs. (p) these conditions lead to
the two equations

+ sinh 2 t.)- 1(cosh ti


- cos lJ)[sinh ti coth

2B =D cosh (ti+ to),


cosh (t1 - to)

+
+
+

1 p,, sinh 2 ti
pi sinh 2 t,,
sinh 2 ~i
sinh 2 ~.
(p. - p1) coth (~1 - t.)
-a sinh 2 ti
sinh 2 ~.

- 2

(k)

x(z) = aDt

211

'l'HEORY OF ELAS1'ICITY

212

Other Curvilinear Coordinates.


z

yielding
x
y

= (e<
= (e<

er

The cquation

+ abe-t + ac e- i
3

+ abe-<) cos 7J + ac e-< cos 317


3

- abc-<) sin

71 -

ac c- 3< sin 311

"''here a, b, e are constants, gives a family of cui:ves ~ ~ constant '"h~ch


can be made to include various oval shapcs, 1nclud1ng a square with
rounded corners. The effect of a bole of such shape in a plat: under
t.ension has becn evaluated (b~y means of the real stress funct10.n) by
M. Greenspan.1 B~y means of a generalization of these .coord1nates
A. E. Green2 has obtained solutions for a triangular bole w1~h roundcd
comers, and, by means of another coordinate transformat1on, for an
exactly rectangular bole. ln the latter case thc perfcctly sharp corners
introducc infinite stress conccntration.
The curvilinear coordinatcs given by

+ ia 1cii + ia2e'~r + + ia,.c'"f


to
a bcing real constants ' have been applicd
a ... ,,.
a1,.,
. by C. Weberl f
z = ~

the semi-infinite plate -..vith a serrated boundary, 3 as 1n the cxamp e o


evenly spaced semicircular notchcs \vhich is -..vorke~ out. "\\rhen the
distance betwecn notch ccnters is t'vice the notch d1amcter, thc s~ress
concentration, for tension, is found to be 2.13. Thc value for a s1ngle
notch is 3.07 (see page 89).
A method for determining thc complex potcntials from the boundary
conditions, '\\>ithout the neccssity of guessing their form in advance, has
been dcvelopcd by N. 1Iuscheli!lvili. ~
4

Quart. Applied J[ath., vol. 2, p. 60, 101-l.

See a.lso 'il, !llorkovin, ibid., p. 350,

1945.
Proc. R01J. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 184, p. 231, 1945.
e. '\\'eber, angew. ,\.fath. i'[ech., vol. 22, p. 29, 1942.
Math. 1 1nn., vol..107, pp. 282-312, 1932. Also Z. angew. ,\.falh. ~ech., vol.13,
264 1933 An account of this mP-thod is given by I. S. Sokolnikofi, Lectures
~~ th~ 'fhco~y of Elasticity, Bro\Vn Univcrsity, 194~ (mimeographed notes).
~ It is used by !-.Iorkovin (sec footnote 1). !\Iost of the work of ~- 1. !\Iu~che~~
iilvili and his associates is in Ilussian. His book "Singular Integra.! Equat1?~ 8
(2d ed.), whieb contains solutions of severa\ two-dimensional probl1:1ns of clast1city,
in pa.rticular 1nixed boundury valne problcms, has becn translated by the Aeronautical Research Laboratories, Dept. of Supply and Dcvelopme~t, Co_mmonwealth of Australia (Translation No. 12, 1949). Another tr_anslatio~ ed1ted by
J. R. 11. Radok voas published hy P. Xoordhoff, N.V.,_ Groningen, Netherlands,
1953. :\IuscheliShvili gives his mcthods in ''Some Bas1c Problems of the :\athema.tical Theory of F.lasticity," 3d ed., :\{o~co", l\}19, translated by J. R. !\L Radok,
ublished by P. Xoordhoff, Groningt:n, :-.'ctherlands, 1\)53. Results of th~ ty~
!otcd under footnotes 1 and 2 were obtained eo.rlier by Russio.n authors c1ted U1

z.

the later book.

CHAPTER 8

ANALYSIS OF STRESS AND STRAIN 1N THREE DIMENSIONS


67. Specifi.cation of Stress at a Point. Our previous discussions
wcre limited to t"'o-dimensional problems. Let us consider now the
general case of stress distribution in thrce dimensions. It was sho,vn
(sce Art. 4) that the stresses acting on the six sides of a cubic element
can be described by six components of stress, namely the three normal
stresses <l,,, <l 11 , <l, and the three shearing stresses Tey = Tyr, r,,, = r,,,,
ry = r, 11 . If these components of stress at any point are known, the
stress acting on any inclined plane through this point can be calculated
from the equations of statics. Let
z
O be a point of the stressed body,
e
and suppose the stresses are known
N
1
for the coordinatc planes xy, xz, yz
1
(Fig. 132). To get the stress for
1
any inclined plane through O, we
r.o:.>;1.!Y._,, ....
take a plane BCD parallel to it at
uy
_"[ .... 1
il"".=-

,,
0

a small distance from O, so that


L~~<;z;1~,:"'q-:'.'~'>~>,,<:-:;..:-;.=-~-y
this latter plane together with the
_,..-Ty~----<
coordinate planes cuts out from
B _,.
X
the body a very small tetrahedron
OiBCDO. Since the stresses vary
F1a. t::i2.
continuously over the volume of the body, the stress acting on the plane
BCD will approach the stress on the parallel plane through O as the
element is made infinitesimal.
In considering the conditions of equilibrium of the elemental
tetrahedron the body forces can be neglcctcd (see page 4). Also as
the element is very small we can neglect the variation of the stresses
over the sides and assume that the stresses are uniformly distributed.
The forces acting on the tetrahcdron can thercforc be detcrmincd by
multiplying the stress components by the areas of the faces. If A
denotes the area of the face BCD of the tetrahedron, then the areas of
the three other faces are obtained by projecting A on the three coordinate planes. If N is the normal to the plane BCD, and we ''1rite
cos (Nx) = l,

cos (Ny) = m,
213

cos (Nz) = n

(a)

i:

THEORY

214

()F

ELASTIC/TY

ANALYSJS OF S1'RESS Al'VD STRAIN

the areas of the three othcr faces of the tetrahedron are

Am,

Al,

Substituting

An

.r,. =

If ..,.,.e denote by X, Y, the three components of stress, parallel to the


coordinate axes, acting on the inclined face BCD, then the co_m~onent
f force acting on the face BCD in the ilirection of the x-ax1s is AX.
~so the components of forces in the x-direction acting on the three
other faces of the tetrahedron are -Ar,,, -Amrxy, -A:ir:u. The
corresponding equation of cquilibrium of the tetrahedron is
AX - Alu,, - AmT"ll - Anr,,, =O

In the sarne manner t\vo other equations of equilibrium a~e obtained


by projccting the forces on the y- and z-axes. Aftcr cancehng th~ factor .1, these equations of equilibrium of thc tetrahedron can be \\11tten
X

= ,,,.,,[

u,,l

+ -rcym + r.,,n
+ .r11m + ,,,,11n

T,,.l

1' 11

,m

(112)

+ u.n

Thus the components of stress on any plane, defined by the ~irection


cosines l m n can easily be calculatcd from Eqs. (112), prov1ded the
six com~on~nt~ of stress .r,,, u 11 , u,, ,,,.,,, 1'11,, ,,,'" at thc point O are known.
68. Principal Stresses. Let us consider now the normal compo~ent
of stress u,, acting on the plane BCD (Fig. 132). Using the notat1ons
(a) for the direction cosines we find

u,. = Xl

+ Ym + Zn

or substituting t.he values of X, Y, Z from Eqs. (112),

'

.r,. = .r,]i

+ u,,m2 + u,n2 + 2r ,mn + 2r~,ln + 2r.,,lm


11

The coordinates of the end of this


=

mr,

nr

. (<)

(d)

(114)

As the plane BCD rotates about the point O, the end of the vcctor r
always lics on the surlace of the second degree given by Eq. (114).
This surlace is complctely defined by the stress condition at thc point
O, and, if the directions of the eoordinate axes x, y, z are changed, the
::;urlace -..vil\ remain entirely unchanged and only the components of
::;tress u,,, u,,, u,, ru,, r,,,, r.,,, and hcnce the coefficients in Eq. (114), will
alter.
It is '\\"ell knovrn that in the case of a surlace of the second dcgree,
snch as given by Eq. (114), it is al\vays possible to find for the axes x, y,
z 1>uch directions that the terms in this cquation containing the products
of coordinatcs vanish. This means that \Ve can always find thrce perpendicular planes for \\-"hich r11,, r,~, r.,, vanish, i.e., the resultant ::;tresses
are perpendicular to the planes on '\\'hich they act. We call these
stresses the principal stresses at the point, their directions the principal
axes, and thc planes on 'vhich they act principal planes. It can be
i:ieen that the stress at a point is completely defined if the directions of
the principal axes and the magnitudes of the three principal stresses are
given.
69. Stress Ellipsoid and Stress-director Surface. If the coordinate
axes x, y, z are taken in the directions of the principal axes, calr:ulation
of the stress on any inclined plane becomes very sim pie. Thc shearing
stresses r 11,, 1',:c, r.,, are zero in this case, and Eqs. (112) become
..Y

.r,J,

= .r,,m,

= (1',n

(115)

Putting the values of l, m, n from these equations into the 'vell-known


relation l2 + m 2 + n2 = 1, -..ve find

x2
+ <ri/
y2 + z2 =
q~2
(1',t

(116)

The plus-or-minus sign in Eq. (d) applies according as"~ is terurlle or compres~
eive, and correepondingly in Eq. (114). '\\'hcn ali three principal stre8.'les have
the sarne sign, only one of the alternative signs is needed, and the ~urface is an
ellipsoid. When the principal streeses are not all of the sarne sign, both signs llJ'e
Deeded and the surface, now represented by both Eqs. (114), consists of a hyperboioid of two sheets, together with a hyperboloid of one sheet, with a <:ommon.
aaymptotic cone,
1

(b)

!k'

from (b), and the values of l, m, n from (e) in Eq. (113), we find 1

(113)

The variation of .rn v.'ith the direct.ion of the normal N can be representcd geometrically as follo\vs. Let. us put in the direction of N a
vector whose }cngth, r, is invcrsel3r proportional to the square root of
the absolute value of the stress u,,, i.e.,

in vrhich k is a constant factor.


vector will be
y
X= [r,

215

216

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

ANALYSIS OF STRESS A/\'D S1'RAIJ.'

This means that, if for each inclined plane through a point O the stress
is represcnted by a vector from O "\\'i.th the components X, Y, Z, the
ends of all such vectors lie on the surface of the ellipsoid given by Eq.
(116). Tbis ellipsoid is called the stress ellipsoid. !ts semiaxes give the
principal stresses at the point. From this it can be concluded that the
maximum stress at any point is the largest of the three principal
stresses at this point.
If t\VO of the three principal stresses are numerically equal the stress
ellipsoid becomes an ellipsoid of revolution. If these numerically
equal principal stresses are of the sarne sign the resultant stresses on
all planes through the axis of symmetry of the ellipsoid v.ill be equal
and perpendicular to the planes on which they act. ln this case the
stresses on any t\VO perpendicular planes through this axis can be considered as principal stresses. If all three principal stresses are equal
and of the sarne sign, the stress ellipsoid becomes a sphere and any
three perpendicular directions can be taken as principal axes. When
one of the principal stresses is zero, the stress ellipsoid reduces to the
area of an ellipse and the vectors representing the stresses on all the
planes through the point lie in the sarne plane. This condition of
stress is called plane stress and has already been discussed in previous
sections. "\Vhen t'vo principal stresses are zero \Ve have the cases of
sirnple tension or cornpression.
Each radius vector of the stress ellipsoid represents, to a certain scale, the stress
on one of thc planes through the center of the cllipsoid. To find this plane we use,
togethcr with the stress ellipsoid (116), the stress direcWr surface defincd by the
equation
x1
y~
it
(117)
-+-+-=1
CT~

cr,

U;

The stress represented by a radius vector of the stress ellipsoid acts on the plane
parallel to the tangent plane to the stress-director surface at the point of its intersection with the radius vector. This can be shown as follows. The equation of
the tangent plane to the stress-director surface (117) at any point Xo, yo, Zo is
~+YY+ZZo=l

"

u,,

u,

(a)

Denoting by h the length of the perpendicular from the origin of coordinates to the
above tangent plane, and by l, m, n the dircction cosines of this perpendicular,
the equation of this tangent plane can be -..vrittrn in the form

lx+my+nz=h

(b)

Com paring (a) and (b) we find


"~ =

x,h

T'

217

Substituting these valucs in Eqs. (115) we find


X= zoh,

y = yoh,

zoh

i.e., the components of stress on thc plane with direction cosines l m


t'
lt th
___,.
' ,narepropor 1ona o e coo.1u1nates Xo, Yo, z 0 Hcnce the vector representing thc stress
gocs through the po1nt xo, y 0, zo, as \VaB stated above.'

70. Determination of the Principal Stresses. If the stress comP?nen.ts for thrce coordinate planes are kno\vn, ,ve can determine the
d1rect1ons and m~gn.itudes of the principal stresses by using the propert! that the principal stresses are perpendicular to the planes on
'vh1ch thcy act. ~et l, m, n be the direction cosincs of a principal plane
and S the magnitude of the principal stress acting on this plane
Then the components of this stress are:
.
X~

Sl,

= ~'\m,

Sn

Substituting in Eqs. (112) Vi'e find


(S -1'rYl

u,)l -

+ (S

-r,,,l -

1'.rvm -

1',,,n =

- u 11 )m - 1'11 ,n =O

r 11 ,m

+ (S -

u,)n =

(a)

These are three homogeneous linear equations in l m n Th


11

1
diff
' '
eym
g1ve ~o ut~ons
erent from zero only if the determinant of these
equat1on~ is zero. Calculating this determinant and putting it equal
to zero g1ves us the follo"'ing cubic equation in S:

3
-

(u~

+ u,, + u,)S + (u~ull + UyU, + U;rfY


2

(U#:vfT,

+ 2ry,T,,1'Xll -

U,1'11 ,

T 2 Y

u,,r,,, 2 -

<n

u,1'"112)

2\S

-1'Xll/

=O

1'he three roots of ~his .equation give the values of the three principal
stres1>es .. By subst1tut1ng each of these stresses in Eqs. (a) and using
2
the. relat1on l + m 2
n 2 = 1, we can find thrce sets of direction
cos1nes for the three principal planes.

ln~!

may be notcd t~at ~q. {118) for determining the principal strCJ!ses must he
pendcnt oi thc d1rect1ons of the coordinates x y z h~noe the f to
thc~i
th'

' "
ac rs 1n parends. in is equation should remain constant for any change of directions of
coor inates. Hencc the coeflicienta of Eq. (118)
(a) cr, +u, +u,

..

..

+ + "" - ,.._,i
. - .- ' - -, '
+
- u,.-,.2 - cr"r,. - u..-,,

(b) """
u,,u,
(e) cr.cr,,u.
2.-,,.-~,.-,,

1
Another method of r
t
h
.
developed by O M h ~f~es~n ~ng t e stress ata po1nt, by using circle~, has bccn
A. F"
.. r,
ec I11Sche JV1eschn.nik," 2d ed., p. 192, 1914. See also
opp1 and L. Foppl, "Drang und Z\';an "
l 1
d
g, vo 'p. 9, an H. r-.1. Viestergaard
Z. angew M th Jl,f h
1
4
5
made i ~r : ec "". , .P 20, 1924. Applications of hohr's circles we~
n 1scusa1ng two-d1mens1onal problems (scc Art. 9).
T

(,)

(118)

218

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

ANALYSIS OF-STRESS AND STRAli\'

do not vary with changing directions of the ooordinates. This means that the
sum u~ + <r~ + "" of the three normal components of stress at a point in three
perpendicular directions remains constant and is equal to the sum of the principal
stresses at thi.s point.

71. Determination of the Maximum Shearing Stress. Let x, y, z


be the principal axcs so that t:r~, u11 , d, are principal stresses, and let l, m,
n be the direction ensines for a given plane. Then, from Eqs. (115),
the square of thC' total stress on this plane is

'fhe square of the normal component of thc stresR on the sarne plane is,
from Eq. (113),
(a)
Then the square of the shearing stress on thc sarne plane must be

DIRECTION Cos!NEB FOR

l -

m-

n-

o
-1
-o

"

219

N EB OJ;' Tma%. AYD Tm;.

v1

-v1

v1
o

v1

VI

VI

The fi~st .t~ree columns give the directions of t-he planes of coordinates, co1nc1d1ng, as was assumed originally, with the principal planes
F~r.these planes the shearing stress is zero, i.e., expression (b) is~
~ 1 ~~mu~. . The three remaining columns give planes through each
. al e principal
the angles bet"een the t wo other pr1n.
S b axes
bisecting

c1p ax_es.
u st1tut1ng the direction cosines of thesc three planes into
ehxpresshion (b) we find the follo"\\ing values of the shearing stresses on
t ese t ree planes:
r

k(u11

u,),

r =-+
)'
T i
q.,( -q,

7 =

y'(q_,

q 11 )

(119)

!his sho"s that the maximum shearing stress acts on the plane bisectWe shall now eliminate one of the direction cosines, say n, from this
equation by using the relation
li+ mz

+ n2

and then determine l and m so :i.s to make 1" a maximum. After substituting n 2 = 1 - 12 - m 2 in expression (b), calculating its dcrivatives
with respect to l and m, and equating these dcrivativcs to zero, \Ve
obtain the following equations for determining the direction cosines of
the planes for which ris a maximum or minimum:
l[(u,, - u,)l 2
m[(u,, - u,)l 2

+ (u

11 -

+ (u

1 -

q,)m 2
u,)m 2

j-(ux - u,)] =O
i(u11 - u,)] =O

(e)

Onesolutionoftheseequationsisobtainedbyputtingl = m =O. We
can alBo obtain solutions different from zero. Taking, for instance,
l = O, we find from the second of Eqs. (e) that m = VI; and taking
m = O, we find from the first of Eqs. (e) that l = ..y}. There are in
general no solutions of Eqs. (e) in which l and m are both different from
zero, for in this case the expressions in brackets cannot both vanish.
Repeating the above calculations by eliminating from expression (b)
m and then l, \ve finally arrive at the following table of direction cosines
making 1" a maximum or minimum:

~ng the angle between the largest and the smallest principal stresses and

is equa1 to half the difference betwcen these t"' principal

stress~~.

If the x-, y-, z-a.xes in Fig 132


t th d.

if OB = OC = OD so that th
represen
e rrect1ons of principal stress, and
direction cosines l ' - m = n ~ ~ormal N to thc slant face of t~c tetrahcdron has
Eq. (a), or (113), as
/v'3, t-he normal stress on th1s face is given by
(d)

This is called thc "mean stress."

The shear stress on thc face is given hy Rq. (b) as

TI = j-(,,-,1 _ "'

+ .r,')

_ j-(.r,

+ " + ,,-,)!

+ (o,

- .r,)

+ (o-,

_ ,,-,)1]

+ (<ru

_ <tn)'

+ (<r,

- <ro)I)

This can also be written


T!

= j-[(u,, -

.r,)

and also, by using (d), as


TI = j-[(.r, _

<tn)J

This shear stres.s is callcd the " t h d 1


it act.s is one face of a. regular ~e: ~ ~a she~ stress;" beca use the face on v.hich
frequently in the theory of plastici:y.e ron w1th verbces on thc axes. lt occurs

72. Homogeneous Def


ti
tions, such as o
. o~ -? We consider only small deformaments of the pa~~c~:s ~f :n:~~eerinJ ~trud ctu.res. The small displaceorme 0 Y \\'lll usually be resolved into

il,,

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

ANALYSIS OF STRESS AND STRAI!of

components u, v, w parallel to the coordinate axes x, y, z, respectiv:e!Y


It will be assumed that these components are yery small quant1t1es
varying continuously over the volume of the bo~y. .
Consider, as an example, simple tension of a pr1smat1cal bar ~edat
the upper end (Fig. 133). Let e be the unit elongation of the bar in the
x-direction and ve the unit lateral contraction. Then the components
of displacement of a point with coordinates x, y, z are

simple tension.. Planes and straight lincs remain plane and straight
after deformat1on. Parallel planes and parallel straight lincs remain
parallel after deformation. A sphere becomes after deformation an
cllipsoid. Thls kind of deformation is called ~mogeneous defvrmaion.
I~ '\\il~ be.shown later that in this case the deformation in any given
d1rect1on is the sarne at ali points of the deformed body. Thus two
geometrically similar and similarly oriented elements of a body remain
gcometrically similar after distortion.
ln more general cases the deformation varies over the volume of a
deformed body. For instance, when a beam is bent, the elongations
and contractions of longitudinal fibers depend on thcir distances frorn
the neutral surface; thc shearing strain in elements of a twisted circular
shaft is proportional to their distances
z
from the axis of the shaft. ln such
cases of nonhomogeneous deformation
an analysis of the strain in the
o,
neighborhood of a point is necessary.
73. Strain at a Point. ln discllilsing strain in the neighborhood of a
point O of a deformed body (Fig. x
134), let llil consider a small linear
Fin. 134.
element 001 of length r, ""ith the direction cosines l, m, n. The small
projections of this element on the coordinate axes are

220

U =EX,

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1

= -VEZ

Denoting by x', y', z' the coordinates of the point


ater deformation,
x' = x + u = x(l +E),
y' = y +V = y(l - ve),
z' = z
w = z(l - ve)
(a)

If '\VC consider a plane in the bar before deformation


such as that givcn by thc equation

(b)

ax+by+cz+d=O

the points of this plane \Vill still be in a plane after


deforrnation. The equation of this new plane is
obtained by substituting in Eq. (b) the values of x, y, z from Eq. (~).
It can easily be proved in this manner that parallel planes rema1n
parallcl after deformation and parallel lines remain parallel.
If '"e considera spherical surface in the bar before deformation such
as given by the equation
(e)
x2+y2+z2=r2
FlG. 133.

this sphere becomes an ellipsoid aftcr deformation, the equation of


v:hich can be found by substituting in Eq. (e) the expressions for x, y,
z obtained frorn Eqs. (a). This gives
x'2
r 2 (1
e)2

y'2
z'2
r2(1 - ve) 2 + r 2 (1 - ve) 2

(d)

Thus a sphere of radius r defonns into an ellipsoid with semiaxes


r(l
e), r(l - ve), r(l - ve).
The simple extension, and lateral contraction, considered above,
represent only a particular case of a more general type of deformation
in which the components of displacement, u, v, w, are linear functions
of the coordinates. Proceeding as before, it can be shown that this
type of deformation has all the properties found above for the CHise of

lix = rl,

8y = rm,

liz = rn

221

(a)

Thcy represent the coordinates of the point 0 1 with respect to the


x-, y-'. z-axes through O as an origin. If u, v, w are the components of
the dtsplac:men: of the point O during deformation of the body, the
correspond1ng d1splacements of the neighboring point 0 1 can be represented as follows:
Ui =

vX

av

av

+ X 8x + y

av

+ Z 8z
aw
aw
aw
W + ih: 8x + 'y 8y + 7fZ 8z

Vi = V
W1 =

au
+ .au
, - - 8x + -au
8y + - 8z
y
Z
8y

(b)

!!r~ ~ed ~ere that the quantities Bx, 8y, 8z are small, and hence the

8
'\Ytt~ h1gher po'\\ers and products of these quantties can be
1
::~ ected. in (b) as small quantities of higher order. The coordinates
he po1nt 01 become, after deformation

'

222

A1VALYSIS OF STRESS Ail/D STRAJN

THEORY OF ELASTTCITY

au

au

au

av

av

av

aw

aw

aw

notations

b+u,-u-b+MM+~+.

uw
az

+~--+k+~+.

(e)

liz+wi-w= z+ axx+ (}ylly+ az z

+ u)i =

(ax + :~ x + :; y + ~~ z)
+ (liy

+:

+ :; liy + :~ z)

au+&ay ax -

+ (lJz + ~~ lix + ~~ IJy + ~~ lJz)

or, dividing by r 2 and using Eqs. (a),

+ t)2

= [

l(1

1n, =

+(z~~+m~~+n(1+~~)]

= l~

(d)

2 aw
au
ao
X + m ()y + n ()z + lm
2

(" + ') + (" + aw)


+ mn(' + aw)
iJy

[n

()z

:: . . . (:;

+ :;;), ...

+ E,,m + E,n2 + -y"'lllm + -y,,.ln + -y,,.mn


2

are

known.

y+111-11

r(l

+ ) =

1 -

011

l x

'")
u
++ m+ na
Z
yz

+m(1

'')
''
+ Oy
+ n ;}Z

(j)

iJw)

Taking another element r' through the sarne point with direction cosines l' m' n'
the magn1tudes
.
' ,
of thcse cosincs, after deformation, are given by equations' analogous to (J). The cosine of the angle between thc two elements after deformation is
cos (rr') = li/,'

(120)

Using. the

+ m mi' + n
1

n 1'

Considring thc t:'longations and ' in these two directions as s1nall quantitie~
and using Eqs. lj), we find
cos (rr') "" (ll'

Hence the elongation of an element r can be calculated provided the


expressions

z+w 1 -w
Ow
w
(
n,= r(l+)
=lax+may+n l-+az

Remembering that E and the derivatives u/ax . .. w/az are small


quantities -..vhose squares and products can be neglected, and using
i2
m2
n2 = 1, Eq. (d) becomes

= EJ

l - ilz+u,-u
(l + )
T

(1 + !~) + n !~]

7 "'

ln investigating 1:1train around a point O it is necessary sometimes to knov the


change in the anglc between two linear elcments through the point. Using Eqs.
(e) an<l (a) and considcring ~as a s1nall quantity, the direction cosines of the ele1nent r (Fig. 134), aftcr deformation, are

+ ~i) + m :; + n 3;;]
+ [z :; + m

"Y"'ll,

E,

(121)
The physical meaning of such quantities as E% , 1'~
. has
already been discussed (sce Art. 5), and it '\Vas shown that E%, E,,, E, are
unit elongations in the x-, y-, z-directions and "Y"'ll, 'Yn, 'Y,,, the three unit
t1hcar strains related to the sarne directions. We now see that the
elongation of any linear element through a point O can be calculated
from :Eq. (121), provided '\le kno\v the six strain components.
ln the particular case of homogeneous deformation the components
u, v, w of displaccment are linear functions of the coordinates, and from
Eqs. (e) the components of strain are confltant over the volume of the
body, i.e., in this case each element of the body undergoes the sarne
strain.
E

(1

av aw
az+ay=

Eq. (120) can be presented in the form

It v..-ill be noticed that these coordinates are linear functions of the


initial coordinates lix, liy, z; hence the deformation in a very small
element of a body at a point O can be considered as homogeneous
(Arl. 72).
Let us consider the elongation of the element r, dueto this deformation. The square of the length of this element after dcformation is
equal to the sum of the squares of the coordinates (e). Hence, if tis
the unit elongation of the element, we find
(r

223

+ nnn' + nn')(l
+ "l'u(mn'

- ' - ')

+ m'n)

+ 2(.ll' + umm' + ~.nn')

+ ,,~,(nl' + n'l) + "l'~u(lm' + l'm)

lf the directions of r and r' are perpendicular to each othcr, then


ll' +mm'+ nn' =O

imd Eq. (122) gives the shearing strain between these directione.

(122)

224

ANALYSIS OF STRESS AND STRAIN

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

74. Principal Axes of Strain. From Eq. (121) a geometrical interpretation of the variation of strain ata point can be obtained. For this
purpose let us put in the direction of each linear element such as r
(Fig. 134) a radius vector of the length

-k-

(a)

vi;\

Then, proceeding as explained in Art. 68, it can be shovrn that the ends
of all these radii are on the surface given by the equation
(123)

'.fhe shape and orientation of this surface is completely determined by


the state of strain at the point and is independent of the directions of
coordinates. Jt is always possible to take such directions of orthogonal
coordinates that the terrns with products of coordinates in Eq. (123)
disappear, i.e., the shearing strains for such directions become ze_ro.
These directions are called principal axes of strain, correspond1ng
planes the pincipal planes oj strain, and the corresponding strains the
principal strains. From the above discussion it is evident that the
principal axes of strain remain perpendicular to each other after deformation anda rectangular parallelepiped with the sides parallel to the
princip~l planes remains a rectangular parallelepiped after deformation. ln general it will have undergone a small rotation.
.,, If the x-, y-, and z-axes are principal axes of strain, then Eq. (123)
becomes
k2 = Ep.t; 2 + E~y2 E,Z2

+ E, remains constant when the system of coordinates is rotated.


Th!s sum has, as we know, a simple physical meaning; it representa the
un1t volume expansion due to the strain at a point.
75. Rotation. ln general during the deformation of a body any
element is changed in shape, translated and rotated. On acco~nt of
the shear strain the edges do not rotatc by equal amounts and it is
necessary to consider ho'v the rotation of the ""hole elem:nt can be
~pecified. Any rectangular element could have been brought into its
tina.! f?rm, position, and orientation in the follo\ving three steps,
heg:tnn1ng \VIt.h the element in the undeformed body:
1. The strains E,,, Ei;, E,,, 'YZll, -y11,, 'Y,,, are applied to the element and the
clement is so oriented that the directions of principal strain have not
rotated.
2. 'fhe element. is translated until its center occupies its final
position.
3. The element is rot.at.ed into its final orientation.
'fhe rotat.ion in st.cp 3 is evidently the rotation of the directions of
principal strain, and is ~herefore independent of our choice of x-, y-,
z-axes. It must be poss1ble to cvaluate it \Vhen t.he displacements u v
w are given. On the other hand it is clearly independent of the str~i~
components.
Since the translation of t.he element is of no interest to us here w.e
may consider the displacement of a point 0 1, as in Art. 73 and Fig. 34,
relative to the point O, the cent.er of the element. This rela.tive displacement is given by Eqs. (b) of Art. 73 as
E,, ' . Ei;

U1 -

ln this case the elongation of any linear element with the direction
eosines l, m, n becomes, from Eq. (121),

V1 -

(124)

and the shcaring strain corresponding to two perpendicular directions r


and r' becomes, from Eq. 122,
'Yrr'

= 2(E,Jl'

+ Ei;mm' + E,nn')

W1 -

au X + -au fiy + -au Z


ax
ay
z
av
av
av
- fix + - fiy + - fiz

U = -

v =
W

x
w
= fix
ax

y
aw
fiy
y

+-

az
aw
z
az

(a)

+-

Introdncing the notation (e) of Art. 73 for the strain components and
also thc notation 1
'

(125)

It can thus be seen that the strain ata point is completely determine~
if vte kno\V the directions of the principal axcs of strain and the magn1tudes of the principal cxtensions. The determination of t~e principal
axes of strain and the principal extensions can be done in the. sarne
manner as explained in Art. 70. It can also be shown that the sum

225

21

(w ") =W:.,
y-az

21

(" ") =w,


ax-y

(126)

.
A glancc at Fig. 6 will show that av/ax and -au/ay, occurring in the expreaaion
rotations

clcmenta O' A' O' B' from their


. . for w,, are th e e Jock wIBc
of the line
origina.! pos1"f1ons OA , OB . Thus ''" 1s
the average of thcse rotations
'
and "
h ave
lhe yz- and :i:z-planes.
"-- sign1
-6 cance 1n
,
~,
a s1mi.uu

226

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

ANALYSIS OF STRESS AND STRAilil

we can write Eqs. (a) in the form


U1 -

W1 -

+ hey y + hn 8z + tv 6y + h .., z hzo lix + f7.,, 5y + ~. z -

U = f,. X

Vi - V =
W =

hzv x

w, 8y
w., o5z
w,, 8x

+ w., z
+ w, X
+ w., liy

(b)

which express the relativedisplacement in t'vo parts, one depending only


on the strain components, the other depending only on the quantitites

w,,, w,, "'

We can no\v show that w,,, w11 , w, are in fact the components of the
rotation 3. Consider the surface given by Eq. (123). The square of
the radius in any direction is inversely proportional to the unit elongation of a linear element in that direction. Equation (123) is of the
form
F(x,y,z) = constant
(e)
If we consider a neighboring point x
face, we bave the relation

+ dx, y + dy, z + dz on the sur(d)

The shit dx, dy, dz is in a direction whose direction cosines are proportional to dx, dy, dz. The three quantities iJF/ax, aF/ay, aF/az also
specify a direction, since we can take direction cosines proportional to
them. The left-hand side of Eq. (d) is then proportional to the cosine
of the angle between these t\\o dircctions. Since it vanishes, the two
directions are at right angles, and since dx, dy, dz representa direction
in the tangent plane to the surface at the point x, y, z, the direction
represented by iJF / ax, iJF / iJy, iJF / az is normal to the surface given by
Eq. (e).
Now F(x,y,z) is in our case the function on thc right-hand side of Eq.
(123). Thu

aF
i)x

aF

= 2EzX

+ 'Yri1Y + 'Y.Z

+ 2~y + 'Y11.Z
aF
i)z = 'Y~ + 'Y11Y + 2E.Z

iJy = 'Y~

()

The surface given by Eq. (123) being drawn with the point O (Fig.
134) as center, we may identify llx, lly, llz in Eqs. (b) with x, y, z in Eqs,

(e).

227

. W e consi~er now the special case when "'" "'11 wz are zero. Then the
r1ght.hand s1des of Eqs. (e) are the sarne as the right-hand sides of E
.
qs.
(b) but for a factor 2. Consequently th d 1
.
e isp acement g1ven by Eqs
(b) is
normal to the surface givcn by Eq ( 123) C
.d .
h
.
O (F. 13 )
.

ons1 er1ng t e point


i
~g. 4 as a po1nt on the surface, this means that the dis laceme
of 011s nor~al to thi:' surface at 01. Hence if 001 is one of th: princip~~
axes of stra1n, t~at. IS, one of the principal axes of the surface, the displaccment of 0_1 is in the direction of 001, and therefore 001 does not
rotatc. The d1splacement in question will correspond to st 1
ln arder. to complete the displacement we must restore t? Eq.s (b)
the terms 1n
w w11
E u t th ese t erros correspond to a small rigid

~.
: "'
body rotat1on having components "'
b t h
C
"' Wy, W, a OU t e X- y- z-axes
onsequently t.hcse quantities, given by (126) exprnes th ' t' ,.
f.
step3 tht" th

'
eroa1ono
a IS, e ro~at.1on of the principal axes of strain at the point
O. They are callcd s1mply the components of rotation.
Problem
1. '\\'hat is thc equation of the type j(x y )
which hecomes 11. sphere ;,,
y'' z' _'.. ~~
of .-\rt. i2? What kind of surface ifi it?

;t"0't:fet hhomogoneous
e snrfMe with centcr at O
deformation

GElo/ERAL

THEORE~fS

229

The two other equations of equilibrium are obtained in the sarne manner. After dividing by ()x y z and proceeding to the limit by shrinking the element do,,.,n to the point x, y, z, 've find

+ rn + r,,, +X
ay
az
iJU~ + iJTX11 + iJT~z + y
y
x
z
iJr;, + iJT,,~ + iJTyz + z

r;,,
ax

CHAPTER 9
GENERAL THEOREMS
76. Differential Equations of Equilibrium. ln t~e discussion of
Art. 67 ,ve considered the stress ata point of an elast1c bod?': Let us

consider now the variation of the stress as we chan~~ th_e pos1t1on of the
t
For this purpose the conditions of equ1hbr1um of a small
;;~:a~gular parallelepiped with the sides 8x, y, fiz (~ig. 135) ~ust be
studied. The componcnts of stresses acting on the s1des of this small
element and their positive directions are indicated in the figure. Here
we take into account the small
z
changcs of the components of

2!_::'.:~~~~~~~::i

'

stress due to the small increases


Ox y 8z of the coordinates.
'
'
1(Z".xz'1
..,,..,,
I
Thus designating the mid-points
-n'\' ; ; ; - ,1, 1 /-,3 -.-(0"..,3
"'
of the sides of t he e1emen t bY
4
Z.
!r.r~~~~- ~,..h
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 as in Fig. 135, we
,.,.;.:::,,
Y
distinguish between the value
,,"'
--d(
of u,, at point 1, and its value at
y
point 2, 'vriting these (u".)1 and
135
1'1"

(u,,) 2 respectively. The symbol


u,, itself denotes, of course, the value of this stress component at t~e point
z In calculating the forces acting on the element "'e con&der the
x, y, .
ui . 1 . th t
sides as very small, and the force is obtained by m t1p y1ng e s ress
at the centroid of a side by the area of this side.
.
It should be noted that the body force acting on t~e el~ment~ which
was neglected as a small quantity of higher order m d1scuss1ng. the
equilibrium of a tctrahedron (Fig. 132), must now be taken into
account, because it is of the sarne order of magnitude as the tei:ms ~ue
to variations of the stress components, which "'e are now co~tdenng.
If "'"e let X y z denote the components of this force per un1t volume
f the elem~nt' then the equation of equilibrium obtained by summing
o
'
d
. .
all the forces acting on the element in the x- irect1on is

S1!

1 r;.,.

r~Js

)'i'h

az

=O
=

(127)

Equations (127) must bc:;;atisficd at ali points throughout the volume


of t.hc body. The stresses vary OYer thc volume of the body, and lvhen
'\'e arrive at the surlace they must be such as to be in equilibrium "'iLh
the external forces on the surlace of the body. These conditions of
equilibrium at the surlace can be obtaincd from Eqs. (112). Taking
a tetrahedron OBCD (Fig. 132), so that the side BCD coincides ,vith
thc surlace of the body, and denoting by X, Y, Z thc componentsofthe
surlace forces per unit area at this point, Eqs. (112) become

+ Txym + r""n
+ +
r;,n + T,,,/, + Tu,m

X
y

u,,l

Uym

Ty,n

TX)Jl

(128)

in ,vhich l, m, n are thc direction cosines of the externai normal to the


surface of the body at the point under consideration.
If the problem is to determine the st.ate of stress in a bod_y submit.tcd
to the action of given forces it is necessary to solve Eqs. (127), and the
solution must be such as to satisfy the boundary conditions (128).
These equations, containing six components of stress, u,,, . , Ty,, are
not sufficient for the detcrmination of these components. The problem
is a stat.ically indeterminate one, and in order to obtain the solution \Ve
must proceed as in the case of t"-o-dimensional problems, i.e., the
elastic deformations of the body must also be considered.
77. Conditions of Compatibility. It should be noted that the six
components of strain at each point are completely determincd by the
three functions u, v, w, representing thc components of displacement.
fience the components of strain c:annot. be taken arbitrarily as functions of x, y, z but are subject to relations ''"hich follow from Eqs. (2)
(see page 6).
Thus, from Eqs. (2),
'v
= ax 2 ay'

a2"Y,,,,,
x y

l,.,

THEORY OF ELASTIGITY

230

GENERAL l'HEOREMS

Substituting these expressions in (e), we obtain

from which
(a)

Two more relations of the sarne kind can be obtained by cyclical interchange of the letters x, y, z.
Calculating the derivatives
)2E~

iJ'Yu =

ay

(1

+ v) (a2:: + :2~)
- '(!2?z + a20)
Y
iJy

ax ay az'
a'lu + ~.

ih,,,

ay az

ay=

ax ay

(j2~

az2

ax 2

iJ2E,

az

iJx2

ax ay

ay2

a E, + a
2

= a2'Y:w'
=

2
E,,

z2

iJ2')'yz 1

ay az
=

+ v) y
a2r,,,
z

(d)

iJq,
r=
-az-ax-z

a 'Y,
ax az

2
E, =

ay az

~ ( - iJ'Yll + 'Yzz + iJ'Y:<!!)


ax
ax
ay
az

2 -iJ2E11 = !!.__ ('Yll -

ax az
2E,

2 ax

ay

ay

ax

')'.v;

ay

+ ')'cy)
az

az ax

ay

a2E,, + a2t,
az
ay

+ v)o-

"(,,.

11 -

+ v)q, 2(1 + v}r z

E,= -p[(l

r,,,

u, _ 2u11

iJz 2

iJy az

i)
ax

iJy 2

(r,,
Tz

0 20".,

iJy i)z

ax2

iJ 2u11
y2

2u,

+ r""')
ay

iJZ

az -

Y
iJy

ax

ay -

az

Substituting this in Eq. (d) and using to simplify the writing, the
symbol
'

a2

a2

0
v2=-+-+ax2
ay 2
az2
'\ove find

(1

') _,(ve _')

+ ,) (ve - v. _iJx

x 2

(l

az) (')

+ )(X_
aY
_ az
ax
ay

;wo analogous .e~~atio!ls can be obtained fro1n thc t\VO other condi1ons ~f compat1b1hty of the type (e).
Adding together all thrce equations of the type (e) \Ve find

116]
(1 -

11

1 Proofs that these six equations are sufficient to ensure the existence of a displacement corrcsponding to a given set of functions ~,, . . . , 1'~ 11 , may be
found in .~. E. H. Lovc, "Mathematical Theory of Elasticity," 4th ed., p. 49, and
1. S. Sokolnikoff, ":\lathe1nat.ical Theory of Elasticity," p. 24, 1946.
'

+ ax _ aY az

i)z2

~
ve]

ax-

or, by using the first of Eqs. (127),

az

From Eqs. (3) and (4), using the notation (7), we find
~ = E[(l

ay az

2 -

(129)

(')'11, + 1'.1-y,, _ "frJJ)

.!!._

ay

Different~ating the first of these equations with respect to z and the


sccond w1th respect to y, and adding them togethcr, V.'e find

2
2 iJ r,,,

These diffcrential relations 1 are called the conditions oj campatibility.


By using Hooke's la'\'\' [Eqs. (3)] conditions (129) can be transformed
into relations between the components of stress. Take, for instance,
the condition
2

'Yv =

ar'"'

ih,,,
i)q!I
-~---

2E~ = !!.__ ( - 'Y'll + "fr + ')'r11)


(b)
2 ay
az
ax
ax
y
iJz
Two more relations of the kind (b) can be obtained by interchange of
the letters x, y, z. We thus arrive at the following six differential relations betwcen the components of strain, ,vhich must be satisfied by
virtue of Eqs. (2):
ay 2

2(1

~he right si?~ o~ this equation can be transformed by using the equations of equ1hbr1um (127). From these equations we find

we find that

+ a2E"

Q3U

ay az

a2E~

231

,)v'B ~

-(l

Substt
this expression for
1 uting
Vtu.,

+ ,)
v2e in

(x + aY + az)
ax

()z

Eq. (e),

+ _1_ a e2 _ _ -'-(x + av + az)- 2 ax


I+11ax 1 - v x
ay
az
ax
2

(fl

1
233

GENERAL THEOREMS

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

232

We can obtain three equations of this kind, corresp~n~ing to the fir~t


In the sarne manner the rema1n1ng thrce cond1th ree of E qs. (12")
"
'd
tions (129) can be transformed into equations of thc follow1ng k1n :
(g)

Jf thcre are no body forces or if the body forces are constant, Eqs. (f)

The second derivatives for the two othcr components of displacement v


and w can be obtained by cyclical interchange in Eqs. (a) of the letters
x, y, z.
Now u, v, w can be obtaincd by double integration of these second
derivatives. The introduction of arbitrary constants of integration
,\ill result in adding to the valucs of u, v, w linear functions in x, y, z, as
itisevidentthatsuc:hfunctions can be addcd to u, v, w 'vithout affecting
such equations as (a). To havc the strain components (2) unchanged
by such an addition, the additional linear functions must have the form

and (g) beco me

(1

'e
+ v)V2cr~ + JX2-

O,

(1

(1

+ v)V 21T11 + a'e


Jy2

0,

(1

(1

+ v)V cr, + 'e


Jz

=O,

u'=a+by-cz
v'=d-bx+ez
w'=f+cx-ey

'8
+ ,)V r + -ay az ~ O
2

'li

'8 = o
+ ,)v2.,.~ + __
ax az
'8
(1 + v)V z-v + -ax ay ~ O

(130)

2T

We sec that in addition to the equations of cquilibrium (127) and thc


boundary conditions (128) the stress componcnts in an isotropic bo~y
must satisfy the six conditions of compatibility (f) and (g) or.the s1x
conditions (130). This system of equations is generally suffic1ent for
determining the stress components '\vithout ambiguity (see ".'--rt. _82).
The conditions of compatibility coniain only second denvat1ves of
thc stress components. IIence, if the cxternal forces are such th~t- the
equations of cquilibrium (127) together '\\'ith the bounda17 condit1ons
(128) can be satisfied by taking the stre~s components et~her as constants or as linear functions of the coord1nates, the equat1ons of compatibility are satisfied identically and this stress system is the c~rrect
solution of thc problem. Several examples of such problems will bc
considercd in Chap. 10.
78. Determination of Displacements. When thc components ?f
stress are found from the previous equations, the components of stra1n
can be calculated by using IIooke's la"- [Eqs. (3) and (6)]. Then ~qs.
(2) are used for the determination of the displacemcnts ~ v, w. D1~er
entiating Eqs. (2) \Vith respect to x, y, z wc can o_bta1n 18 equat~ons
containing 18 second derivativcs of u, v, w, from '\'h1ch ~ll these der1vatives can bc determined. For u, for instance, we obta1n
i.1 2u

i.IE~

i.lx 2

i.lx'

i.!2u

i.IE,,,

i.lx i.ly

i.ly'

(b)

This means that tho displacements are not entirely determincd hy the
stresses and sLrains. On the displacements found from the diffcrcntial
Eqs. (127), (128), (130) a <lisplaccment like that of a rigid body can be
Ruperposcd. The constants a, d, f in Eqs. (b) representa translatory
1notion of the body, and the constants b, e, e are the three rotations of
t.he rigid body around the coordinate axes. \Vhcn there are sufficient
constraints to prevent motion as a rigid body, the six constants in Eqs.
(/J) can easily be calculatcd soas to satisfy the conditions of constraint.
Rcveral examples of such calculations "-'ili be shown !ater.
79. Equations of Equilibrium. in Terras of Displacements. One
method of solution of the problems of elasticity is to elimina te the stress
components from Eqs. (127) and (128) by using Hooke's law, and to
express the strain components in terms of displacements by using Eqs.
(2). ln this manner
arrive at three cquations of equilibrium containing only the three unkno,vn functions u, v, w. Substituting in the
first of Eqs. (127) from (11)

'"

u,,, = }.e

+ 2G u
i.lx

(a)

and from (6}


(b)

We

find
(X+ G) i.le

i.lx

2
+ G (i.1ax2
u +

i.1 u

ay2

2
+ i.lz2
u) +X

=O

The two other equations can be transformed in the sarne manner.

234

'

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Then, using the symbol vi (see page 231), the equations of equilibrium
(127) become
(X+ G) e + GV 2 u +X= O

GENERAL THEOREMS

80. General Solution for the Displacements. I t is easily verified


by substitution that the differential equations (132) of equilibrium in
tcrms of displaccment are satisfied byl

ox

(X+G)e+av 2v+Y=O

ay

</>1 - (</>o+ + +

(131)

X</>1

a x

'

+ X</>1 + Yc/>2 + z<J>a)

c/>a - a iJz (cf>o

\Vhere 4a = 1/(1 - v) and the four functions q, 0, c/>1, q, 2, <fia are harmonic, i.e.,

(X+G) +GV2u =0

ax

Differentiating these equations, the first \vith respect to x, t~e second


with respect to y, and the third \vith respcct to z, and add1ng them
together, we find
the volume expansion e satisfies the differential equation
i.c.,
(133)

'fhe sarne conclusion holds also \vhcn body forces are constant throughout the volume of the body.
Substituting froro such equationi,; as (a) and (b) into the houndary
conditions (128) we find

+a(::l+ ::m + n)

V 2c/>o =

(132)

'

+:;m +

z<fia)

+ Xc/>1 + Y</>2 + Zcf>3)

and, when there are no body forces,

X= Ael+G(::z
!~n)
:~
.. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Y</>2

V = <fi2 - a iJy ( c/>o

(X+G)e+GV 2w+Z=O

(>+G)' +GV'v ~o
Y
(X+G)e+GV 2w=O

235

(134)

Equations (131) together with the boundary conditions (134) define


completely the three functions u, v, w. From these the components of
strain are obtained from Eqs. (2) and the components of stress fro~
Eqs. (9) and (6). Applications of these equations will be shown m
Chap. 15.

o,

v2q,1

o,

V2<1>2 =

o,

lt can be sho,vn that this solution is general, and that any one of the
four functions may be dropped 'vithout loss of generality.
This form of solution has been adapted to curvilinear coordinates by
Neuber, and applied by him in the solution of problems of solids of
revolution 2 gencrated by hyperbolas (the hyperbolic groovc on a
cylinder) and cllipses (cavity in the form of an ellipsoid of rcvolution)
transmitting tension, bending, torsion, or shear force transverse to the
axis with accompanying bcnding.
81. The Principie of Superposition. The solution of a problem of a
given elastic solid v.ith given surface and body forces requires us to
dLtermine stress components, or displacements, \Vhich satisfy the
d1fferential equations and the boundary conditions. If we choose to
v.ork v.-ith stress components 've have to satisfy: (a) the equations of
equilibrium (127); (b) the compatibility conditions (129); (e) the
boundary conditions (128). Let u,, . . . , -rxv . . . , be the stress components so determined, and duc to surface forces X, Y, Z, and body
forces X, Y, Z.
Let u,/ . . . , r"'71' be thc stress components in the sarne elastic
solid dueto surfacc forces X', :f', Z' and body forces X', Y', Z'. Thcn
1

This solution was given indcpendently by P. F. Papkovitch, Compt. rend.,


vol. 195, pp. 513 and 754, 1932, and by H. Keuber, Z. angew. Jl,fath. Mech., vol. 14,
p. 203, 1934. Other general solutions wcre given by B. Galerkin, Compt. rend.,
voI. 190, p. 1047, 1930, and by Boussinesq and Kelvin-see Todhunter and Pear110n, "Hist-Ory of Ela.sticity," vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 268. Sce also R. D. Mindlin, Bull.
Am. Math. Soe., 1936, p. 373.
1
H. Neuber, "Kerbspannungslehre." This book also contains solutions of
two-Qimensional problems. See Chap. 7 above.

236

TIIEORl' OF ELASTICITY

GENERAL THEOREMS

the stress components u,,


u/, . . . , T:11 +
, v.rill represent
the stress dueto the surface forces X
X', ... , and the body forces
X+ X', . . . . 'fhis holds bccause all the differential equations and
boundary conditions are linear. Thus adding the first of Eqs. (127) to
the corresponding equation
iJu/

ax

1
Tri1 ,

+ T,,.,/ + iJT,,.' +X'


ay

'

231

Then for the first solution \Ye have such equatioIIB as

au,,

ax

ay

~o

+ iJr""' +ar=' +X
=

rr:/l

az

=O

+ r""'m + r,,,'n

and also the conditions of compatibility.


For the second solution \Ve have
and similarly from the first of (128) and its counterpart
addition

"\\'8

have by

The compatibility conditions can be comhined in the sarne manner.


The complete set of cquations sho,vs that "~
u/, . . . , Tcy
Tzu'
. . . , satisfy all the equations and conditions determining the stress
duc to forces X+ X', . . , X+ X', . . . . This is the principle of
superpottition.
.
ln dcriving our cquations of cquilibrium (127) and boundary condttions (128) v;e madc no distinction bet,veen the position and forn;i of
the element bcfore loading, and its position and form after loadtng.
As a consequence our equations, and the conclusions dra\vn from them,
are valid only so Iong as the small displacements in the deformation do
not affcct substantially the action of the external forces. There are
cases ho\vcver, in \Vhich the deformation must be takcn into account.
The~ the justification of the principle of superposition given above
fails. Thc beam under simultaneous thrust and lateral load affords an
cxample of this kind, and many others arise in considering the elastic
stability of thin-\~alled structurcs.
82. Uniqueness of Solution. We consider no\Y \Vhether our equations can have more than one solution corresponding to given surface
and body forces.
. . reprcsent a solut.ion for loads X ... 1
Let "~' . . . , T""
1
.. , rx/' . . . represent a second solution for
X .. , and let 11,/
the same loads X . . 'X ..

and also the conditions of compatibility .


By subtraction \Ve find that the stress distribution given by the
diffcrcnces rr,/ - rrx'', . . . , T:ri1' - r,,/', satisfics the equations
iJ(rr/ - rr,/

1
)

ax

+ ?~r""'

(rr,/ - rrx")l

- rxv")

~o

ay

+ (rxu

Txy

11

)m

+ (r,.,'

- r,,,'')n

in \vhich all externai forces vanish. The conditions of compatibility


(129) \Vill also be satisficd by the corresponding strain componcnts
E,/ -

11
E,, ,

> '"f:o11' -

"/xy", . . . .

Thus this stress distribution is one \vhich corresponds to zero surface


and body forces. The \York done by thcse forces during loading i.>:
zero, and.it follo\vs that fffV 0 dx dy dz vanishes. But, as Eq. (85)
sho..,s, Vo is positive for all states of strain, and therefore the integral
can vanish only if V 0 vanishes at all points of the body. This requires
that each of the strain components t "'' - Er " , > "'1>:11' ~ ,.,.1>:11" 1
should be zero. The two states of strain t/ . . , "1>:11' , and

238

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

E/ 1 .. , 'Y:rv"
, and consequently the t\vO states oi stl'eSS
u/ . . . , r""' . . , and u:r" . . . , r:rv" . . , are thercfore identical.
'Ihat is, the equations can yicld only one solution corresponding to
given loads.1
The proof of uniqueness of solution was bascd on the assumption
that the strain energy, and hence stresses, in a body disappear when it
is freed of external forces. Howevcr there are cases \Vhen initial
stresses may exist in a body \Vhile externai forces are absent. An
example of this kind ,~as encountered in studying the circular ring (see
ltrt. 39). lf a portion of the ring between two adjacent cross sections

is cut out, and the ends of the ring are joincd again by welding or other
mcans, a ring with initial stresses is obtained. 2 Severa! examples of
this kind wcre discusscd in considering two-dimensional problems.
We can also have initial stresses in a simply connectcd body dueto
some nonelastic deformations during the process of forroing the body.
\Ve may have, for instance, considerablc initial stresses in large forgings
due to nonuniform cooling and also in rolled metallic bars due to the
plastic flow produced by cold v:ork. For determining these initial
stresses the equations of elasticity are not sufficient, and additional
information regarding the process of forming thc body is necessary.
It should be notcd that in all cases in which thc principlc of superposition can be used the deformations and stresses produced by externai
forces are not affected by initial stresses and can be calculated in
exactly the sarne manner as if there wcre no initial stresses. Then the
total stresses are obtained by superposing the stresses produced by
externa} forces on the initial stresses. ln cases when the principle of
supcrposition is not applicable, the stresses produced by external loads
cannot be detcrmined -..vithout knowing the initial stresses. We cannot, for instance, calculate bending stresses produccd by lateral loads
in a thin bar, if the bar has an initial axial tension or compression,
-..vithout kno"ving the magnitude of this initial stress.
1 This thcorem is dueto G. Kirchhoff.
See his Vorle:rungen ber Math. Phys.,
Mechanik.
The ring represents the simplest example of multiply-connected bodies. ln
the case of such bodies general equations of clasticity, cxpressed in terms of stress
components, are not sufficicnt for determining stresses, and to get a complete
solution an additional invcstigation of displacementa :is necessary. The :6rst
investigations of this kind were made by J. H. Michell, Proc. London Math. Soe.,
vol. 31, p. 103, 1899. See also L. N. G. Filon, Brit. Assoe. Advancement Sei. Rept.,
1921, p. 305, and V. Volterra, Sur l'quilibre des corps lastiques multiplement
connexs, Ann. cole norm., Paris, series 3, vol. 24, pp. 401-517, 1007. Furtber
references on initial stresses are given in the papcr by P. Nemnyi, Z. angfl'W. Mat/i.
Mech., vol. 11, p. 59, 1931.

GENERAL THEOREMS

239

83. The Reciproca! Theorem. Limiting ourselves to the t\.vodimensional case let us consider the plate under two different loading
conditions, and denote by X,, Y 1, X 1, and Y1 the components of the
boundary
and the volume forces in the first case' and by X 2, Y2, X 2,

and Y2 1n the second case. For the displacements, thc strain componcnts, and stress components in the two cases we use the notation
,,,,,,d,,,,,,
Ui, Vi, Ez, E~, 'Yr'll, u,,, <ry, TZ!I an U2, V2, E,,'~' 'Yr'll'' <rx', u.,/', r"JOll"
Lct us cons1der no'" the \'\rork which "'ould be produced by the forces
of the first state of stress on the corresponding displacements of the
second state. This V.'ork V.'ill be

JX1u2ds

+ JY1t2ds + JJX1u

dxdy

+ JJY 1v

dxdy

(a)

v.here the first t\\'O integrals are cxtcnded around the entire boundary
of the plate and the second t'" ovcr the entire area of the plate. Substitutingfor X1 its expression from Eqs. (20), page 23, we can represcnt the first term on the right~hand side of Eq. (a) as follows:

JX1u2ds

fl-<r,/u2ds

+ Jmrr'll'u

ds

(b)

Proceeding now as explained on page 164 ,vo get

lux'u2 ds

mr"J011'u2 ds

f f ;;'
f f ;;'
U2

dx dy

U2

dx dy

Jf ~:2
+ Jf ~;2 r~'

u,/ dx dy

dx dy

s_ubstituting this in (b) V.'e find that the first and thc third t.erms of (a}
gi:ve us

JX,u,a, + JJ

X,u,Jxdy

~ JJ (~;' + ;;' + x,)u,dxdy


2
+ f f (~~ u,,'+~;2 riv')dxdy (e)

Similarly the second and the fourth tcrms give

Y1v2ds

+JJY1v2dxdy

f f (;;'+a;;'+
+ f f (:~ + ::
2

<ry

y 1)v 2 dxdy

rxu') dx dy

(d)

Obser-v-ing now that the first terms on the right-hand side of equations
(
e) and (d) va.nish in virtue of equilibrium equations (18), and sub-

240

JJ (~,/'u,,' + ~11({1 1 +
E1

ff

1r.T,;" ""'+ r111"U11 '

241

and the elongation of the bar, produced by two forces P in Fig. 1300, is

stituting in Eq. (a), \\'e obtain

GENERAL THEOREMS

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

= vPh

AE

'Yrr1"r,,/) dx dy
-

l!lly

" '
rf.,

vu,,''u,,'

Exactly the sarne result is obtained if v.'e calculate the -~vork donc by
the forces of the second statc of stress on the displacements of the first
state. Thus '\'\'e can conclude, comparing t\vo states of stress of an
elastic body, that thc \Vork done by the forces of the first state on the
corresponding displaccncnts of the second is equal to the \Vork done by
the forces of the second state on the corrcsponding displacements of
t.he first. This represcnts the reciproca! theorem. It can be easily
extendcd also to bodies in motion or in
vibration. It is only necessary to add
(ai the inertia forces to the external loads.
1'he reciprocal theorem finds an important
application in the theory of structures in
Q~!b} the construction of influence lines. It also
-thas useful applications in thc theory of
Fio. 136.
elasticity.
Take as a simple example thc case of a prismatical bar compressed
by two equal and opposite forces' P, Fig. 136a. The problcm of finding the stresses produced by these forces is a complicated one; but
assume that "\Ve are interested not in the stresses but in the total
elongation of the bar. This qucstion can be answered at once by
using the theorem. For this purposc \Ve consider in addition to the
given stress condition represented in Fig. 136a the simple central
tension of thc bar shuwn in Fig. 136b. For this second case we find

and is independent of the shape of the cross section.


As a second example let us calculatc the rcduction ~ in volume of an
clastic body produced by t'.VO cqual and opposite forces P, Fig. 137a.
As a sccond case of stress \VC take
the sarne body submitted to the
action of uniformly distributed presp
surc p. ln this latter case "\Ve \Vill
have at each point of the body a
uniform compression in all directions
of thc magnitude (1 - 2v)p/E [sec
fb)
Eq. (8), page 9J and the distance
Fro. 137.
l between the points of application
A and R V>'ill be diminished by thc amount (l - 2v)pl/E. The
reciproca} theorem applied to the t'" stress conditionsl of Fig. 137
vll then give

p. (1 -;>)pl ~ ~p
and the reduction in the volume of the body is therefore
~ ~

Pl(l - 2,)

Qh

84. ApproJCimate Character of the Plane Stress Solutions. It was pointed out
on pagc 25 that th.i set of cquations wc found sufficient for plane stress problems
undcr the assumptions madc (,,., = T,, = T"' = O,""'""'.-," independent of z) did
~ot cnsure satisfaction of ali the conditions of compatibility. Thcse assumptions
lmply that '" u, , 1'~ are independent of z, and that 1 .,, '"'are zero. The :first of
the conditions of compatibility (129) '\ovas included in the plane stress theory, as
Eq. (?1). It is easily verified that the other tive are satisfied only if., is a linear
func~1on of x and y, v..J1ich is the exception ratbcr tban the rule in the plane stress
soluttons obtained in Chaps. 3 to 7. Evidently thcse solutioru; cannot be exact,
but We shall now see that tbey are closc approximations for thin plates.
Let us seek exact solutions of the thrcc-din1ensional cquations for which2

We may suppose that the forces are distributed over a small area. to avoid
singularities. Idcally conccntrated forces in two-dimen~ion_al problema usUtLlly
result in infinite displaeement, indieating that the actual d1splacement. dependa
on the distributio11

F?r. other applications of this kind see .\..E. H. Lovc, "l\Iathcmatical Theory of
El ast1c1ty," 4th ed., pp. 174-176, 1927.
T A. Ciebsch, "Elasticitii.t," Art. 39. See also ..\..E. li. Love, "l\lathPmatical
heory of Elasticity," 4th ed., p. 145, 1927.

the lateral contraction, cqual to ,


tional area of the bar.
equation

= v

11" vrhere A is the cross-sec-

Then thc reciproca! theorem gives us the

p. "AE = Q
1

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

242

taking body force as zero. Sueh Holutions must satiRfy the equations of equilibrium
(127) a.nd thc compstibility eondit.ions (130).
Sinoe ,,,, .,.~,,'are zero, the third, fourth, :uul fifth of Eqs. (130) (reading by
columns) give

'-az ()
az - o'
which rnean that
respect to z,

-o

-~- ('.1~)
az

iJy

oo/az is a const!i.nt.

a_ (~') - o
ax az

'

\Yriting this k, 've l1ave, by int.egration with


(")

S=kz+eo

\1here fio i~ so far an arbitrary function of x and y.


The tloird of Bqs. (127) is identieally satisfied, and the first two reduee to the
two-dimC'nsionul forms
c)q,

" = '
iJxs'

'

"

iJl<f>
ax iJy

Similarly the second

' (''
ax
az +1+' .. 0 ) =O,

but <f> is now a function of x, y, and z.


Returning to Eqs. (130) 've observe that by addition of the three equations on
the left, recalling tha.t 0 = uz + "" + u,, we have

ve =o

()

=O

(d)

and thereore, from (a)


V1'00

vohere

il'o;b

V1 2o;b = kz

+ 0o

(e)

where o, is a function of x and y satisfying Eq. (d).


the first of Eqs. (130) becomes

+ v)v '4>
+ ae.
ay
ax

But
=

,, (

Integrating this equation twice with

+A +Bx +Cy +<t> 1z +<bo

(i)

whcre A, B, C are functions of z obtained by repeated integration of a, b, e, and


q,1 , q, 0 are functions of x and y, a.s yet arbitrary.
li we evaluate u., u~, Tz" from (i) by means of the formulas (b), the terms
A

+Bx+Cy

make no difference. We may therefore set A, B, and C equal to zero, corresponding to taking a, b, e, zero in (h).
lf we rei;trict ourselve.s to problems iu which the stress distribution is symmetrical
about thc midd\e plane of tho platc, z = O, the term \{> 1z must ali:!O be zero. So
also must k in Eq. (a).
Then (i) reduces to
4> = <!>o - -1 -' - e,zt
2 l
~

(J)

However \b and 0 0 are related hy (e) in v.hich we can now take k


substituting (j) in (e) and using (d), vre have

=o

O.

(k)

(j)

') ay
' (60 + '')
az

ay "'4> + az

(h)

=a+bx+cy

Using (a) and thc first of (b),

where Eq. (e) has been used in the last step. .-\lso, on aecount of (d), vre can replace
/iY.c' in Ul by -ae0 /ay. Then Ul becomes

Q 20 0

ae,
' (e, + ')
(1 + v) ay
z' ---

"

~,.1

..

+ 1 +.,0 0

-21 1 +' "0,z'

Also, since u, is zero, and us and ""are given by the first t11.'o of Eqs. (b), we can
'vrite V1'4> = 0, and thercfore, using (a)

(1

' (' +1 +' .. 0 ) = 0

ax ay az

Thesc, with (g), show that all three second derivatives with respect to :t and y of
the function (of x, y, and z) in brackets vanish. Thus this function 1nust be linear
in x and y, and V.'e can v.rite

\b =
(b)

This equation may be used in plaee of the :first of (130).


and Jast can be rcplaccd by

where a, b, ande are arbitrary functions-of z.


respeet to z, V.'e find

which are satisfied, as before, by


= _,

'

(g)

z'

+ -ay- o ,
ax

'1s

('

' az +1+ .. 0 =O
ay

(JT,y

243

GENERAL THEOREMS

and therefore, from (d),


(1)

The remaining equations of (130) are satisficd on account of Eq. (a) and the
vanishin.g of "" Tn, Tv
~Ve can now obtain a stress distribution by choosing a functi.on \bo of z and y
wh1ch satisfios Eq. (!), fiuding 0 0 from Eq. (k), and \b from Eq. (j). Thc strc.'IBes
are then found bythe formulas (b). Each will consist of two parts, the first dcrived
from \bo in Eq. (j), the seeond from the term -

~ 1 ~.,

e,z.

ln view of Eq. (1),

the first part is exactly like the plane stress components detennined in Chaps. 3 to

1,I

244

'l'HEORY OF l!.'LASTICITY

7. The second part, being proportional to z, may be made as email as we plea.ee


compared with the first by restricting ourselves to plates which are sufficiently
thin. Hence the conclusk'!l. that our solutions in Chaps. 3 to 7, which do not
satisfy ali the compatibility conditioilll, are nevertheless good approximations for
thin plates.
The "exact" solutions, represented by stress functions oi the form (j), will
requfre that the stresses at thc boundary, as cLscwhere, havc a parabolic variation
ovcr the thickness. However any change from this distribution, so iong as it
does not alter the intensity of force per unit length of boundary curve, will only
alter the stress in the immediate neighborhood of tbe edge, by Saint-Venant's
principie (page 33). The type of solution considcrcd abovc will alwaya represent
the actual stress, and the components "'''Tu, T,, will in fact bc llero, cxccpt close
to the edges.
Problems
1. Show that
=
=

'Y

k(y'
=

+ z'),

l'

'Y

k'xyz

where k, k' are small constants, is nota possible state of strain.


2. A solid is heated nonuniformly to temperature T, a function of x, y, and z.
If it is snpposed that each element has unrcstraincd thcrinal cxpansion, the strain
components v;ill be

=.=.=aT,

1'zu = 1' = 1' =

where a is thc const:i.nt cocfficient of thcrmal cxpansion.


Prove that this can only occur when Tis a linear function of x, y, and z. (The
stress and consequent further strain arising 'vhen Tis not linear are discussed in
Chap. 14.)
3. A disk or cylinder of the shape shown in Fig. 137a is compressed by forces
P at C and D, along CD, causing extension of AB. lt is then compressed by forces
P along AB (Fig. 137a) causing extension of CD. Show that these extensions are
equal.
4. ln the general solution of Art. 80 vhat choice of the functions <J>o, <J> 1, <J>,, <J>, will
give the general solution for plane ~train (w =O)?

CHAPTER 10
ELEMENTARY PROBLEMS OF ELASTICITY
IN THREE DIMENSIONS
85. Uniform Stress. ln discussing the equations of equilibrium
(127) and thc boundary conditions (128), it \Vas stated that the true
solution of a problem must satisfy not only Eqs. (127) and (128) but
also the compatibility conditions (sec Art. 77). These latter conditions contain, if no body forces are acting, or if the hody forces are
constant, only second derivatives of the stress components. lf, therefore, Eqs. (127) and conditions (128)
can be satisfied by taking the stress
components cither as constants oras
linear functions of the coordinates,
Fru. 138.
the compatibility conditions are sat-..
isfied identically and these stresses are the correct solution of the
problem.
AB a very simple example we may take tension of a prismatical bar
in the axial direetion (Fig. 138). Body forces are neglected. The
equations of equilibrium are satisfied by taking
u,, = eonstant,

(a)

It is evident that boundary conditions (128) for the lateral surface


of the bar, \vhich is free of externa} forces, are satisfied, bflcause all
stress components, except cr"', are zero. The boundary conditions for
the ends reduce to
u,

=X

(b)

i.e., we have a uniform distribution of tensile stresses over cross sections of a prismatical bar if the tensile stresses are uniformly distributed
over the ends. ln this case solution (a) satisfies Eqs. (127) and (128)
and is the correct solution of the problem because the compatibility
conditions (130) are identically satisfied.
lf the tensile stresses are not uniformly distributed over the ends,
solution (a) is no longer the eorrect solution beeause it does not satisfy
the boundary conditions at the ends. Thc true solution becomes more
complicated because the stresses on a cross section are no longer uni245

246

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

PROBLEMS OF ELASTICITY IN THREE DIMENSIONS

formly distributed. Examples of such nonuniform distribution


occurred in the discussion of tv;o-dimensional problcms (see pages 51
and 167).
As a second example consider the case of a uniform hydrostatic compression with no body forces. The equations of equilibrium (127) are
satisfied by taking

The displacements u, v, w can now be found by integrating Eqs. (e),


(d), and (e). Integration of Eq. (e) gives

fl~

Uu

= <r, =

-p,

T"11

Tn

71/Z

(e)

= Q

The ellipsoid of stress in thls case is a sphere. Any three perpendicular


directions can be considcred as principal directions, and the stress on
any plane is a normal compressive stress equal top. The surface conditions (128) will evidently be satisficd if the pressure p is uniformly
distributed over the surface of the body.
z
86. Stretching of a Prismatical Bar by Its Own
Weight. lf p(l is the v.'eight per unit volume of the
bar (Fig. 139), the body forces are

X= Y =O,
l

_____ _,

(a)

-pg

The differential equations of equilibrium (127) are


satisfied by putting

;y

u~ = CT11 = Tr11 = T11 = r,,,, =

(b)

}'10. 139.

i.e., by assuming that on each cross section we have a


uniform tension produced by the \\eight of the lo\\er portion of the bar.
It can easily be seen that the boundary conditions (128) at the lateral
surface, ,vhich is free from forces, are satisfied. The boundary conditions give zero stresses for the lo'\\er end of the bar, and, for the upper
end, the uniformly distributed tensile stress u. = pgl, in which l is the
length of the bar.
The compatibility equations (130) are also satisfied by the solution
(b), hcnce it is the correct solution of the problem for a uniform distribution of forces at the top. lt coincides with the solution which is
usually given in elementary books on the strength of materials.
Let us consider now the displacements (see Art. 78). From Hooke's
law, using Eqs. (3) and (6), we find
aw

(J,

pgz

(e)

f,=az=E=E
E,,

Eu

au

ax

ilv

= iJy =

pgz

-v E

au
av
au
aw
av
aw
~-~-Tu--+---+---+--o
ayaxazaxazay

(d)

(<)

w= pg''
2E+wo

(f)

\\here Wo is a function of x and y, to be determined later.


(f) in the second and third of Eqs. (e), \Ve find

ilw+u=O

ax

az

from "'hich

aw,

ax

+ iluo =
ax

Remembering that
satisfied only if

Uo

11

and

ax

and y only.

_ z il wo

ay

pgz1

ay 2

Substituting expres-

+ v

ay

pgz

-vE

(h)

do not depend on z, Eqs. (h) can be

Vo

duo = ilv 0 =

(g)

'

in which Uo and Vo are functions of


sions (g) into Eqs. (d), we find

-zil Wo

Substituting

'

u=-z-+u,

ax

247

(k)

'

Substituting expressions (g) for u and v into the first of Eqs. (e), we find

_ 2z d W~
ax y
2

and, since

Uo

and

Vo

+ Uo + Vo
ay

ilx

do not depend on z, \Ve must have


il

2
Wu

iJx ay

(l)

'

From Eqs. (k) and (l) general expressions can now be written for the
fu~ctions uo, vo, Wo. It is easy to sho\v that ali these equations are
sat1sfied by
Uo={)y+r,1

Vo=-{)x+,.. 1
'pg
Wo = 2E (x2 + y2)

+ ax + (3y + 'Y

249

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

PROBLEMS OF ELASTICI1'Y /!1 THREE DIMENSIONS

in which a, {3, ")',, Ili, 'Y1 are arbitrary constants. Now, from Eqs. (f)
and (g), the general expressions for the displacements are

parallel to the z-axis before deformation become inclined to this axis


after deformation, and the form of the bar after deformation is as indicated in Fig. 139 by dotted lines. Cross sections of the bar perpendicular to the z-axis after deformation are curved to the surface of a
paraboloid. Points on the cross section z = e, for instance, after
deformation will be on the surface

248

(m)
w = pgz2

2E

+ !:.EfJ.
(x2 + y2) + ax + /3Y + 'Y
2E

'fhe six arbitrary constants must bc detcrmined from the conditions at


the support. The support must be snch as to prevent any movement of
the bar as a rigid body. To prevent a translatory motion of the bar, let
us fix the ccntroid A of the upper end of the bar so that u = v = w = O
for x = y = O and z = l. To eliminate rotation of the bar about axes
through the point A, parallel to the x- and y-axcs, let us fix an element
of the z-axis at A. Then au/az = i!v/i!z =O at that point. The possibility of rotation about the z-axis is eliminated by fixing an elemental area through A, parallel to the zx-plane. Then v/iJx =O at
the point A. Using Eqs. (m) the above six conditions at the point A
beco me

-al

+ 1 =

O,

-fjl

O,

a=

+ 'Yl =o,

{3

=o,

pgl2+-y=0

2E
i;

=o

+w

= e

'l'his surface is perpendicular to ali longitudinal fibers of the bar, these


being inclined to the z-axis aJter deformation, so that thcre is no shearing strain ')'ey or 'Y:u
87. Twist of Circular Shafts of Constant Cross Section. 1'he elcmentary theory of twist of circular shafts states that the shearing stress
T at any point of the cross scction (Fig. 140) is
A
perpendicular to the radius r and proportional to the.
,--$--,-.x
length r and to the angle of t\vist fl per unit lcngth of
the shaft:
(a)
T = Ger
where G is the modulus of rigidity. Resolving this
stress into t'" components parallel to the x- and
y-axes, v.e find
X

T 11 ,

= G8T ~ = Gflx

T:u

'

Hence
51

=o,

'Y1 =

O,

pgl2

- 2E

and the final expressions for the displacements are

---p;

vpgyz

E:
U!

' + vpg (x2 + y2)

= pgz~

2E

2E

It may beseen thatpoints on the z-axis have only vertical displacements


w=-pg(z2-z2)

2E

Other points of the bar, on account of lateral contraction, have not


only vertical but also horizontal displacements. Lines which were

(b)

-Ger ~ = -GfJy

The elementary theory also assumes that


tTx

vpgxz

VP{j
+ pgc
2E + 2E (x2 + y2)

tT11

<l,

TZJI

We can sho,v that this elementary 80lution is the exact solution


under certain conditions. Since the stress components are a.II either
linear functions of thc coordinates or zero, the equations of compatibility (130) are satisfied, and it is only necessary to con1:iidcr thc cquations of equilibrium (127) and the boundary eonditions (128). Substituting the abovc cxpressions for stress components into Eqs. (127 J
\Ve find that thcse equations are satisfied, provided there are no body
forces. The lateral surface of thc shaft is frec from forces, and the
boundary conditions (128), rcmcmbcring that for the cylindrical surface cos (Nz) = n =O, reducc to
=

Trz COS

(Nx)

+T

11 , COS

(Ny)

(e)

250

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

PROBLEMS OF ELASTICITY IN TIIREE

For the case of a circular cylinder we have also

cos (Nx)

_,

'

cos (Ny)

Dl~!E!-.'SIO!-S

251

cross section and the xz-plane in the principal plane of bending, the
strells components given by the usual elementary theory of bending are
(d)

= '}!_

'

Ex

rr. =

Substituting these and expressions (b) for the stress componcnts into
Eq. (e) it is cvident that this cquation is satisfied. It is also evident
that for cross sections other than circular, for \Vhich Eqs. (d) do not
hold, thc stress components (b) do not satisfy the boundary condition
(e), and therefore solution (a) cannot be applied. 'l'hcse more complicated problems of t\vist -..vill be considered !ater (see Chap. 11).
Considering DO\\' thc boundary conditions for the ends of the shaft,
we see that the surface shearing forces must be distributed in exactly
the sarne manner as the stresses T,,. and 7~, over any intcrmediate cross
section of the shaft. Only for this case is the stress distribution given

(a)

R'

in which R is the radius of curvature of the bar after bending. Substituting expressions (a) for the stress components in the equations of
equilibrium (127), it is found that these equations are satisfied if there
are no body forces. The boundary conditions (128) for the lateral
sutface of the bar, which is free from externa} forces, are also satisfied.
The boundary conditions (128) at the ends require that the surface
forces must be distributed over the cnds in the sarne manner as the
stresses Only under this condition do the stresses (a) represent the
exact solution of the problem. The bending moment M is given by
the equation

.~I- __-.-_F--3"! f-~-1~


y

j>---c ---i.

l-it.--1

(a}

(61

in \Vhich lv is the moment of inertia of the cross section of the beam


with respect to the neutral axis parallel to the y-axis. From this equation \Ve find

Fio. 141.

by Eqs. (b) an exact solution of the problem. But the practical


application of the solution is not limited to such cases. From SaintVenant's principie it can be concluded that in a long t"''isted bar, ata
sufficient distance from the ends, the stresses depend only on the magnitude of the torque Jf, and are practically independent of the manner in
\Vhich the forces are distributcd over the ends.
The displacements for this case ean be found in the sarne manner as
1n the previous article. Assuming the sarne condition of constraint at
t.he point A as in the previous problem "'e find

-Oyz,

v = ()xz,

\vhich is a 'vell-known formula of the elementary theory of bending.


Let us consider no,~ the displacements for the case of pure bending.
Using Hooke's law and Eqs. (2) we find, from solution (a),

aw

fz=az=R

(e)
(d)

w=O

This means that the assumption that cross sections remain plane and
radii remain straight, "'hich is usually made in the elementary derivation of the theory of t\~ist, is correct.
88. Pure Bending of Prismatical Bars. Considera prismatical bar
bent in one of its principal planes by two equal and opposite couples M
(Fig. 141). Taking the origin of the coordinates at the centroid f the

(b)

By using these diffcrential cquations, and taking into consideration


the fastening conditions of the bar, the displacements can be obtained
in the sarne manner as in Art. 86.
From Eq. (b) we find

"

w=R+wo

252

PROBLE~fS

THEORY OF ELASTIC/TY

in "\Vhich Wo is a function of x and y only.

Thc second and third of

Eqs. (d) give

au

'

from which

z2
-2R-

Wo

-R-Tx'
2

awo

7ix+uo,

-z Pw 0

ax

+ auo =

vx,

ax

These equations must be sat.isfied for any value of z, hence


2
Wo =

ilx2

J2wo =O
y'

(f)

'l'hcse conditions are satisfied by taking all the arbitrary constants


equal to zero. Then
=

2R [z2

z2

'x'

ZR

+ f1(y),

2z J wo _ df1(Y) _ f2(x)

axay

+ vy

ax

Noting that only the first term in this equation depends on


clude that it is necessary to havc
2
Wo

ax ay

z, we con-

(h)

Mz2
2EI'/I

This is the sarne deflection curve as is given by the elementary theory


of bending.
Let us consider now any cross section z = e, a distancc e from the
left cnd of the bar. After dcformation, the points of this cross section
will be in the plane

"

z=c+w=c+R

the elcmentary theory. To examine thc deformation of the cross scction in its plane, consider the sides y = b (Fig. 141b). After bcnding
we have

wo=mx+ny+p
f,(y)

;;'!; + ay + ~

f2(x) = -ax

+ f3

in \vhich m, n, p, li!, (3, y are arbitrary constants.


the displacemcnts now become

The expressions for

z2
vx2
vy2
-2R-mz-2R+2R+a?J+Y
ny
-nz - R - ax + /3

"

v=w=O

i.e., in pure bending the cross section remains plane as is assumed in

'

These equations and Rqs. (f) require that

2R

(g)

Now substituting (e) and (g) into the first of Eqs. (d), 've find

- y2)],

U=--~---,

U=

+ v(x2

'fo get the deflection curve of the a.xis of the bar \Ve substitute in the
above Eqs. (h) x = y = O. Then

und by intcgration
Uo =

u_av_av_
z-az-ax- 0

u=v=w=O,

253

The arbitrary constants are determined from the condition.s of


fastening. Assuming that the point A, the centroid of the left end of
the bar, together \\ith an element of the z-axis and an element of the
xz-plane, are fixed, we have for x = y = z = O

(')

Hcre u 0 and v0 denote unkno\vn functions of x and y, which 'vill be


determincd !ater. Rub:;;tituting expressions (e) in Eqs. (e),

OF ELASTICITY IN THREE DIMEl\f810A'S

w= R+mx+ny+p

The sides become inclined as sho\vn in the figure by dotted lines.


The other two sides of the cross section x = a are represented
after bending by the equations
X

= a+ u = a -

1
R [c2
2

+ v(a2

- y2)]

They are therefore bent to parabolic curves, V>'hich can be replaced


with sufficient accuracy by an are of a circle of radius R/v, when the

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

PROBLEMS OF ELAST!CITY IN THREE DIME1\'SJO,\'S

deformation is small. ln considering the upper or lower sides of the


bar it is evident that "\.Vhile the curvature of these sides after bending is
convex down in thc lengthv;rise dircction, the curvature in the crossv,ise
direction is convex up\vard. Contour lines for this anticlastic surlace
will be as sho"\\'Il in Fig. 142a. By taking x and u constant in the first
of Eqs. (h) we find that the equation for the
contour lines is
z2 - vy2 = constant

paths of the two rays is equal to an uneven number of half wave


lengths of the light. The picture shov.n in Fig. 142b, rcpresenting the
hyperbolic contour lines, V.'as obtained hy this means.
89. Pure Bending of Plates. The result of the previous article
can be applied in discussing the bending of plates of uniform thickness.
If stresses 11% = Ez/R are distributed over thc edges of the plate parallel
to the y-axis (Fig. 143), the surfacc of the plate v.ill hecome 1 an
A-,~:::=-==~==-=-=====-=-~11-x
_;,,.,.. 1
"''-;7
anticlastic surface, thc curvature
of >vhich in planes parallel to the
xz-plane is 1 / R and in the perpendicular direction is - v/ R.
FIG. 143.
If h denotes the thickness of thc
platc, .L1f1 the bending moment per unit length on the edges parallel to
the y-axis and

254

They are therefore hyperbolas with the asymptotes


z2-vy2=0

FIG. 142a.

From this equation the angle a (Fig. 142a) is


found from
1
2
tan a=-

'

This equation has been used for detcrmining Poisson's ratio 11. 1 If the
upper surfacc of the beam is polished and a glass plate put over it,
there will be, after bending, an air gap of variable thickness between
the glass plate and the curved surface of the beam. This variable
thickness can be measured optically. A beam of monochromatic

the moment of inertia per unit length, the relation between


from the previous article, is
1

II

_\ _____ _
FIG. 142b.

light, say yello"-' sodium light, perpendicular to the glass plate, will be
reflected partially by the plate and partially by the surface of the beam.
The two refleeted rays of light interfere ,vith each other at points where
the thickness of the air gap is such that the difference between the
1 A. Cornu, Compt. rend., vol. 69, p. 333, 1869.
See also R. Straubel, Wied.
Ann., vol. 68, p. 369, 1899.

Mi
Elu

I2M1
=

Eh

.Af 1

255

and R,

(a)

When V.'e have bending momcnts in t"-'O perpendicular directions


(Fig. 144), the curvatures of the deftection surface may be obtained by
superposition. Let 1/R 1 and
X
l/R2 be the curvatures of the
deflection surface in planes
parallel to the coordinate planes
zx and zy, respectively; and lct
frf 1 and M 2 be the bending
z
moments per unit length on the
FIG. 144.
edgcs parallel to the y- and xaxes, respcctivcly. Then, using Eq. (a) and applying the principie of
superposition, we find
1
12
Ri= Ehs (M1 - vM2)
1

12

Ri= Eh (.A.-12 - vM 1)
1

(b)

It is assumed that dellectioirn are small in comparison with the thickness of the
plate.

257

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

PROBLEMS OF ELASTICITY IN THREE DIMEA'SfO,\'S

The moments are considered poRitive if they produce a deflection of the


plate which is convex do\\'Il. Solving Eqs. (b) for M 1 and M 2, we find

The formulas (136) are used in the theory of plates when the bending
moments are not uniform, and are accompanied by shear forces and
surface pressures. For these circumstances they can be deduced from
the general equations of Chap. 9 as approximations valid when the
plate is thin. The elementary theory of bending of bars can bc related
to the general equations in a similar manner. 1

256

M,

Eh'
( 1
12(1 - v 2) R1

Eh'
M 2 = 12(1 -

For small deflections

\Ve

v 2)

1+ 1)

R2

R,

(o)

v R1

can use thc approximations

'w
- ay2

'w

1)
+ v R2

- ax 2 '

R,

'l'hen, ""'riting
(135)
v.e find

=-D(::~+ v!~)
M2 = -D(:~~+ v ::~)
M1

(136)

The constant D is callcd the jlexural rigidity of a plate. ln the particular case when thc plate is bent to a cylindrical surface vrith generators
parallel to the y-axis we have a2w/ay 2 =O, and, from Eqs. (136),

M,
(137)

For the particular case in which M1 = M2 = M, we have


1

R,

R,

'l'he plate is bent to a sphcrical surface and the relation between the
curvature and the bending moment is, from Eq. (e),
Eh'
M ~ 12(1 - v)

D(l + ,)
=--li-

We shall have use for thcse rcsults later.

(138)

J. N. Goodicr, Tran8. Roy. Soe. Can., 3d ser., sec. III, vol. 32, p. 65, 1938.

259

TORSION

CHAPTER 11
TORSION
90. Torsion of Prismatical Bars. It has already been shown
(Art. 87) that the exact solution of the torsional problem for a circular
shaft is obtained if "'e assume that the cross sections of the bar remain
plane and rotate 'vithout any distortion during t\'.'ist. This theory,
developed by Coulomb,1 was applied latcr by Navier 2 to prismatical
bars of noncircular cross scctions. Making the above assumption he
arrived at the erroneous conclusions that, for a given torque, the angle
of tvrist of bars is inversely proportional to the centroidal polar moment
of inertia of the cross section, and that the maximum shearing stress
occurs at the points most remate from the centroid of the cross section.
It is easy to see that the above assumption is in contradiction with the boundary conditions. Take,
for instance, a bar of rectangular cross section
(Fig. 145). From Navicr's assumption it follows
that at any point A on the boundary the shearing
stress should act in the direction perpendicular to
FIG. 145.
the radius 0.4.. Resolving this stress into two components T~ and -r~,, it is evident that thcrc should be a complementary
shearing stress, equal to T 11 ,, on thc clement of the lateral surface of the
bar at the point A (see page 4), \Vhich is in contradiction \Vith the
assumption that the lateral surface of the bar is free from external
forccR, the twist being produccd by couples applied at the ends. A
simple experiment >vith a rectangular bar, represented in Fig. 146,
sho>\'S that the cross sections of the bar do not remain plane during
torsion, and that the distortions of rectangular elements on the surface
of the bar are greatest at the middles of the sides, i.e., at the points
which are nearest to the axis of the bar.

The correct solution of the problem of torsion of prismatical bars by


couples applied at thc ends was given by Saint-Venant. 1
He used the so-callcd semi-inverse method. That is, at the start he
made ccrtain assumptions as to the deformation of the twisted bar and
showed that \Vith these assumptions he could
satisfy the equations of cquilibrium (127) and the
boundary conditions (128). Then from the uniqueness of solutions of the elasticity equations
(Art. 82) it follows that the assumptions made at
thc start are correct and the solution obtained is
thc exact solution of thc torsion problem.
Consider a prismatical bar of any cross section
t>visted by couples applied at the ends, Fig. 147.
Guided by the solution for a circular shaft (page
249), Saint-Venant assumes that the deformation
of the twisted shaft consists (a) of rotations of cross
sections of the shaft as in thc case of a circular shaft
and (b) of warping of the cross sections ,,,.hich
F1G. 146.
is the sarne for ali cross sections. Taking the origin of coordinatcs in
an end cross section (Fig. 147) we find that the displacements corresponding to rotation of cross sections are

,.,

-8zy,

= 8z:x

(a)

where 8z is the angle of rotation of the cross section


at a distance z from the origin.
The warping of cross sections is defined by a
function

e;;(x,y)

(b)

F1G. 147.

With the assumed displacements (a) and (b) we


calculate the components of strain from Eqs. (2), which give
E:

= Eu = E, = 'Yt11 =

i!w
7 -_ iJ:x

iJw
'Yu=oy

"Histoire de l'acadmie," 1784, pp. 229-269, Paris, 1787.


1 Navier, "Rsum des leons sur l'applieation de la mcanique,'' 3d ed., Paris,
1864, edited by Saint-Venant.
These conclusions are correct for a thin elastie layer, corresponding to a alice
of the bar between two eross sections, attached to rigid pia.te~. See J, N, Qoodi.er,
J, Appli~d Phyil., vol. 13, p. 167, 1942.

Y'

("' )
+az=IJ ("'
iJy+x)
i!u
+ iJz

= 8 iJx - Y

(e)

i!c

M tm. savants trangers, vol. 14, 1855. See also Saint-Venant's note to Navier's
book, loc. cil., and 1. Todhunter and K. Pearson, "History of the Theory of
Elaaticity," vol. 2.

The corresponding components of stress, from Eqs. (3) and (6), are
do;

CTu

fz

T"ll

and Eq. (e) bccomcs

)dy -("'ay +x)dx ~O

( ay,
ax y ds

=ao(:~ - y)
Tuz = G8 (~: + x)

r::

(d)

It can be seen that with the assumptions (a) and (b) regarding the
deformation, thcrc \Vill be no normal stresses acting bet\\een the
longitudinal fibcrs of the shaft or in the longitudinal direction of those
fibers. There also ,,,jll be no distortion in the planes of cross sections,
since E,,, Eu, 1'Xll vanish. V!i'c have at each point pure shear, defined by
the components Txz anel Tuz The function >Jt(x,y), defining warping of
cross section, must now be determined in such a way that equations of equilibrium (127) will be
O,__ _ _ __,__,x satisfied. Substituting
expres~iions (d)

in these equations and

neglecting body forces we find


that the function Y, must satisfy
the equation

"' + "' ~ o
ax2

iJy2

(139)

Consider nowthe boundary conditions (128). For the lateral surface of the bar, which is free from externai forces and has normais perpendicular to the z-axis, \Ve have X = Y = Z = Oand cos (N z) = n = O.
The first two of Eqs. (128) are identically satisfied and the third gives
()

which means that the resultant shearing stress at the boundary is


directed along the tangent to the boundary, Fig. 148. It \Vas shown
before (see page 258) that this condition must be satisficd if the lateral
surfacc of the bar is free from externai forces.
Considering an infinitesimal element abc at the boundary and assuming that s is increasing in the direction from e to a, we have

d'

dx

cos (Ny) = - ds

(140)

ds

1'hus each problcm of torsion is reduced to the problcm of finding a


function Y, satisfying Eq. (139) and thc boundary condition (140).
An alternativc procedure, which has the advantagc of leading to a
simpl('r boundary condition, is as follows. In view of the vanishing
of ff,,, ffy, ff,, Tri1 [Eqs. (d)], the equations of equilibrium (127) reduce to
iJT:, =

'

Ty, =

'

iJrn

ax

'

+ iJTy,
ay

=O

The first two are alrcady satisfied sincc r'"" and r 11., as given by Eqs. (d),
are independent of z. The third means that we can express r,.. and
Ty, as
T,..

"'ay

"'ax

=-1

(141)

v;here 4> is a function of x and y, callcd the stressfunction. 1


From Eqs. (141) and (d) \Ve havc

'ay ~ ' ("'ax - )

-~ao("'+x)
ax
iJy

(f)

Eliminating Y, by differentiating the first with respect to y, the second


with respect to x, and subtracting from the first, we find that the stress
function must satisfy the differential equation

Fio. 148.

l = cos (Nx) = dy,

261

TORSION

THEORY OF ELASTICITF

260

o2q,
a2q,
ax2+ay2=F

(142)

/<' = -2G8

(143)

where
The boundary condition (e) becomes, introducing Eqs. (141),
aq, dy

+ aq, dx

dy ds

ax ds

dq, =

ds

(144)

This shows that the stress function <fi must be constant along the
h.oundary of the cross scction. ln the case of singly connected boundanes, e.g., for solid bars, this constant can be chosen arbitrarily, and in
the following discussion we shall take it equal to zero. Thus the determination of the stress distribution over a cross scction of a twisted bar
1

It was introduced by L. Prandtl.

See Ph'IJrik. Z., vol. 4, 1903,

262

THEORY OF ELASTIClTY

TORSION

consists in finding the function cf> which satisfies Eq. (142) and is zero
at the boundary. Several applications of this general theory to particular shapes of cross sections will be shown later.
Let us consider now the conditions at the ends of the twisted bar.
The normals to the end cross sections are parallel to the z-axis. Hence
l = m = O, n = 1 and Eqs. (128) become

X=

(g)

Txz,

in which the + sign should be taken for the end of the bar for which
the external normal has the direction of the positive z-axis, as for the
lower end of the bar in Fig. 147. We see that over the ends the shearing forces are distributed in the sarne manner as the shearing stresses
over the cross sections of the bar. It is easy to prove that these forces
give us a torque. Substituting in Eqs. (g) from (141) and observing
that cf> at the boundary is zero, we find

263

forces, and sets up at the ends the torque given by Eq. (145). The
compatibility conditions (130) need not be considered since the stress
has been derived from the displacements (a) and (b). Thus all the
equations of elasticity are satisfied and the solution obtained in this
manner is the exact solution of the torsion problem.
It was pointed out that the solution requires that the forces at the
ends of the bar should be distributed in a definite manner. But the
practical application of the solution is not limited to such cases. From
Saint-Venant's principle it follows that in a long twisted bar, ata sufficient distance from the ends, the stresses depend only on the magnitude
of the torque Mt and are practically
independent of the manner in which the
tractions are distributed over the ends.
91. Bars with Elliptical Cross Section.
Let the boundary of the cross section
(Fig. 149) be given by the equation
x2
y2
a2
b2 - 1 = O
(a)

FIG. 149.
Then Eq. (142) and the boundary condition (144) are satisfied by taking the stress function in the form

Thus the resultant of the forces distributed over the ends of the bar is
zero, and these forces represent a couple the magnitude of which is
M1 =

ff

(Yx - Xy) dxdy = -

f f ~:xdxdy

-JJ~:

Integrating this by parts, and observing that cf>


we find
Mt = 2ff ct>dxdy

+ b2y2 -

x2
e/>= m ( a2
in which m is a constant.

(b)

Substituting (b) into Eq. (142), we find


a2b2
m = 2(a2 + b2) F

Hence
y dx dy

(h)

e/> - 2(a2

= O at the boundary,
(145)

bF

+ b2)

(x +
2

a2

y2

(e)

b2 - 1

The magnitude of the constant F will now be determined from Eq.


(145). Substituting in this equation from (e), we find

~t = a~ ! ~ 2
2 2

each of the integrals in the last member of Eqs. (h) contributing one
half of this torque. Thus we find that half the torque is due to the
stress component Txz and the other half to Tyz
We see that by assuming the displacements (a) and (b), and determining the stress components T.,., Tyz from Eqs. (141), (142), and (144),
we obtain a stress distribution which satisfies the equations of equilibrium (127), leaves the lateral surface of the bar free from externa!

2 2

Smce

!! ~2d
~

( :2

ff

x dxdy

dy = I 'V= 7rba
4'

+:

ff

y dxdy -

ff

dxdy)

(d)

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

265

TORSION

in which

we find, from (d),

A = 7rab,
from which
(e)

F=
Then, from (e),

(f)

Substituting in Eqs. (141), the stress components are


7

"''

2M1Y
= - 7rab 3 '

(146)

The ratio of the stress components is proportional to the ratio y/x and
hence is constant along any radius such as OA (Fig. 149). This means
that the resultant shearing stress along any radius OA has a constant
direction which evidently coincides with the direction of the tangent to
the boundary at the point A. Along the vertical axis OB the stress
component 'Tyz is zero, and the resultant stress is equal to T.,., Along
the horizontal axis OD the resultant shearing stress is equal to Tyz It
is evident that the maximum stress is at the boundary, and it can
easily be proved that this maximum occurs at the ends of the minor
axis of the ellipse. Substituting y = b in the first of Eqs. (146), we
find that the absolute value of this maximum is

are the area and centroidal moment of inertia of the cross section.
Having the stress components (146) we can easily obtain the displacements. The components u and vare given by Eqs. (a) of Art. 90.
The displacement w is found from
Eqs. (d) and (b) of Art. 90. Substituting from Eqs. (146) and
(148) and integrating, we find
x

= M 1 (b2 - a2)xy (150)


7ra 3b3G

-L-

This shows that the contour lines


lrque
Frn. 150.
for the warped cross section are
hyperbolas having the principal axes of the ellipse as asymptotes
(Fig. 150).
92. Other Elementary Solutions. ln studying the torsional problem, SaintVenant discussed several solutions of Eq. (142) in the form of polynomials. To
solve the problem let us represent the stress function in the form

+ F4 (x2 + y2)

q, = </>1

(a)

Then, from Eq. (142),

a2 <1>1
ax2

a2<1>1

+ a:J1

(b)

=O

and along the boundary, from Eq. (144),


'T max.

2Mi
= 7rab2

(147)
</>1

For a = b this formula coincides with the well-known formula for a


circular cross section.
Substituting (e) in Eq. (143) we find the expression for the angle of
twist
a2 + b2
(148)
8 = Mt . 7ra 3b3G
The factor by which we divide torque to obtain the twist per unit
length is called the torsional rigidity. Denoting it by C, its value for
the elliptic cross section, from (148), is
(149)

~Ili,;
1

'

+ F4 (x + y
2

constant

(e)

Thus the torsional problem is reduced to obtaining solutions of Eq. (b) satisfying
the boundary condition (e). To get solutions in the form of polynomials we take
the function of the complex variable
(x

+ iy)n

(d)

The real and the imaginary parts of this expression are each solutions of Eq. (b)
(see page 182). Taking, for instance, n = 2 we obtain the solutions x2 - y2 and
2xy. With n = 3 we obtain solutions x - 3xy2 and 3x2y - y. With n = 4,
we arrive at solutions in the form of homogeneous functions of the fourth degree,
and so on. Combining such solutions we can obtain various solutions in the form
of polynomials.
Taking, for instance,

q,

= F
4- (x2

+ y2) + </>1

= F
-

[12 (x2 + y2) - 2a-1


-

(x -

3xy2)

+ b]

(e)

TORSION

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

266

l ton of Eq (142) in the form of a polynomial


of the
degree
weobtamasou1
.
third

l
with constants a and b which will be adjusted later. Th1s p_o~ynomial is~ so _ut10n
of the torsional problem if it satisfies the boundary cond1t1~n (144), i.e., if the
boundary of the cross section of the bar is given by the equation

(x2

y2) - _!_ (x - 3xy2)

2a

+b =

(f)

By changing the constant b in this equation, we obtain various shapes of the cross

l
section.
.
Taking b = - /1 a we arrive at the solution for the eqmlatera1tnang e.
tion (f) in this case can be presented in the forro
(x - y13 y - ja)(x

+ V3 y

qua-

267

By changing a, Saint-Venant obtained the family of cross sections shown in Fig.


I52a. Combining solutions in the form of polynomials of the fourth and eighth
degrees, Saint-Venant arrived at the cross section shown in Fig. 152b.

On the basis of his investigations, Saint-Venant drew certain general


conclusions of practical interest. He showed that, in the case of singly
connected boundaries and for a given cross-sectional area, the torsional
rigidity increases, if the polar moment of inertia of the cross section
decreases. Thus for a given amount of material the circular shaft
gives the largest torsional rigidity. Similar conclusions can be drawn
regarding the maximum shearing stress. For a given torque and cross-

- ja)(x +ia) =O

which is the product of the three equations of the sides of the triangle shown in
Fig. 151. Observing that F = -2GIJ and substituting

q,

= -GIJ

(x 2

+ y 2)

ia (x 3

3xy 2 )

2
1a ]

(g)

into Eqs. (141), we obtain the stress components


Txz
and Tu Along the x-axis, Txz = O, from
symmetry, and we find, from (g),

a
3

Frn. 151.

(b)

= 3GIJ (2ax _ x 2)

2a

yz

(h)

GIJa

(k)

=2

At the corners of the triangle the shearing stress is zero (see Fig. 151).
Substituting (g) into Eq. (145), we find
G1Ja 4

Mt = - - 15 v3

3
IJGlp
5

(l)

= -

Taking a solution of Eq. (142) in the form of a polynomial of th~ fourth degree
containing only even powers of x and y, we obtain the stress funct10n
</>

= -GIJ

[~ (x + y)

~ (x4

_ 6zy

+ y4) + ~ (a

- 1)

The boundary condition (144) is satisfied if the boundary of the cross section is
given by the equation

x'

;l

!.li.
IH.

+ y'

- a(x' - 6x y

2 2

+y +a 4

1 = O

Frn. 152.

The largest stress is found at the middle of the sides of the triangle, where, from (h),
T'max.

/J \ '

sectional area the maximum stress is the smallest for the cross section
with the smallest polar moment of inertia.
Comparing various cross sections with singly connected boundaries,
Saint-Venant found that the torsional rigidity can be calculated approximately by using Eq. (149), i.e., by replacing the given shaft by the
shaft of an elliptic cross section having the sarne cross-sectional area
and the sarne polar moment of inertia as the given shaft has.
The maximum stress in all cases discussed by Saint-Venant was
obtained at the boundary at the points which are the nearest to the
centroid of the cross section. A more detailed investigation of this
question by Filon 1 showed that there are cases where the points of
maximum stress, although always at the boundary, are not the nearest
points to the centroid of the cross section.
1

L. N. G. Filon, Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 193, 1900.


Paper by G. Polya, Z. angew. Math. Mech., vol. 10, p. 353, 1930.

See also the

268

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TORSION

Taking n = 1 and n = -1 in expression (d), and using polar coordinates r and y,,
we obtain the following solutions of Eq. (b):

bar, subjected to a uniform tension at the edges anda uniform lateral


pressure. li q is the pressure per unit area of the membrane and S is
the uniform tension per unit length of its boundary, the tensile forces
acting on the sides ad and bc of an infinitesimal element abcd (Fig. 154)
give, in the case of small deflections of the membrane, a resultant in the
upward direction -S(a 2z/ax 2 ) dx dy. ln the sarne manner the tensile

q, 1 = r cos Y,,

"'' =-;;. cos"'

Then the stress function (a) can be taken in the form

F
4

q, = - (x 2

y 2)

in which a and b are constants.

Fa
r cos if;
2

+ Fb
- 2 a-r cos if;

(r 2

FIG. 153.

(m)

- - b2

It will satisfy the boundary condition (144) if


at the boundary of the cross section we have
<P = O, or, from (m),
r - b2

F
4

269

2a(r 2

b2 )

1 -

cos"'

b2 ) - r -

~os"')

=O

(n)

(o)

which represents the equation of the boundary


of the cross section shown in Fig. 153. 1 By
taking
r 2 - b2 =O

we obtain a circle of radius b with the center at the origin; and by taking
Frn. 154.

1 _2acosif;=O
r

we have a circle of radius a touching the y-axis at the origin.


shearing stress is at the point A and is

The maximum

forces acting on the other two sides of the element give the resultant
-S(J 2z/Jy 2 ) dx dy and the equation of equilibrium of the element is
q dx dy

Tmax.

= G0(2a - b)

(p)

When b is very small in comparison with a, i.e., when we have a semicircular


longitudinal groove of very small radius, the stress at the bottom of the groove is
twice as great as the maximum stress in the circular shaft of radius a without the
groove.

93. Membrane Analogy. ln the solution of torsional problems the


membrane analogy, introduced by L. Prandtl, 2 has proved very valuable. Imagine a homogeneous membrane (Fig. 154) supported at the
edges, with the sarne outline as that of the cross section of the twisted
1

This problem was discussed by C. Weber, Forschungsarbeiten, No. 249, 1921.


Physik. Z., vol. 4, 1903. See also Anthes, Dinglers polytech. J., p. 342, 1906.
Further development of the analogy and applications in various cases are given
in the papers by A. A. Griffith and G. I. Taylor, Tech. Rept. Adv. Comm. Aercr
nautics, vol. 3, pp. 910 and 938, 1917-1913.
2

a2z

a2z

+ S :>?.
dx dy + S vX
Jy

dx dy

from which
(151)
At the boundary the deflection of the membrane is zero. Comparing
Eq. (151) and the boundary condition for the deflections z of the membrane with Eq. (142) and the boundary condition (144) (see page 261)
~or the stress function </>, we conclude that these two problems are
identical. Hence from the deflections of the membrane we can obtain
values of </> by replacing the quantity -(q/S) of Eq. (151) with the
quantity F = -2GO of Eq. (142).
Having the deflection surface of the membrane represented by cont~ur .line~ (~ig. 15~), several important conclusions regarding stress
distnbut10n m tors10n can be obtained. Consider any point B on the

271

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TORSION

membrane. The deflection of the membrane along the contour line


through this point is constant, and we have

From Eq. (145) it can be concluded that double the volume bounded
by the deflected membrane and the xy-plane (Fig. 155) represents the
torque, provided q/S is replaced by 2G8.

270

az = O
as

The corresponding equation for the stress function


ac? =
as

(e?
dy + ac? dx)
ay ds
iJx ds

Txz

dy ds

Tyz

e? is

dx = O
ds

This expresses that the projection of the resultant shearing stress at a


point B on the normal N to the contour line is zero and therefore we
may conclude that the shearing stress
x
at a point B in the twisted bar is
in the direction of the tangent to the
contour line through this point. The
1
z
1
curves drawn in the cross section of
1
1
a twisted bar, in such a manner that
the resultant shearing stress at any
~--+-++7'-l~X point of the curve is in the direction
of the tangent to the curve, are called
lines of shearing stress. Thus the
N
contour lines of the membrane are the
Y
lines of shearing stress for the cross
Frn. 155.
section of the twisted bar.
The magnitude of the resultant stress r at B (Fig. 155) is obtained
by projecting on the tangent the stress components Txz and Tyz Then

s~

Tyz COS

(Nx) -

Txz COS

<P
= _,
ay

Let us consider now the equilibrium condition of the portion mn of


the membrane bounded by a contour line (Fig. 155). The slope of the
membrane along this line is proportional at each point to the shearing
stress r and equal to r q/S l/2G8. Then denoting by A the horizontal projection of the portion mn of the membrane, the equation of equilibrium of this portion is

f s(r~ 2~8)ds

(Ny)

Substituting
Txz

It may be observed that the form of the rnernbrane, and therefore the stress
distribution, is the sarne no rnatter what point in the cross section is taken for
origin in the torsion problern. This point, of course, represents the axis of rotation
of the cross sections. It is at first sight surprising that the cross sections can
rotate about a different (parallel) axis when still subjected to the sarne torque.
The difference, however, is merely a matter of rigid body rotation. Consider,
for instance, a circular cylinder twisted by rotations about the central axis. A
generator on the surface becomes inclined to its original direction, but can be
brought back by a rigid body rotation of the whole cylinder about a diarneter.
The final positions of the cross sections then correspond to torsional rotations
about this generator as a fixed axis. The cross sections remain plane but become
inclined to their original planes in virtue of the rigid body rotation of the cylinder.
ln an arbitrary section there will be warping, and with a given choice of axis the
inclination of a given elernent of area in the end section is definite, aw/ax and aw/ay
being given by Eqs. (d) and (b) of Art. 90. Such an elernent can be brought back
to its original orientation by a rigid body rotation about an axis in the end section.
This rotation will change the axis of the torsional rotations to a parallel axis. Thus
a definite axis or center of torsional rotation, or center of torsion, can be identified
provided the final orientation of an elernent of area in the end section is specifiedas for instance if the elernent is completely fixed.

or
Tyz

__
<P,
ax

cos (Nx)

dx
dn

=-1

cos (Ny)

= dy
dn

we obtain
r

= _

(e?
dx + ac? dy)
ax dn
ay dn

= _ ddnc/J

Thus the magnitude of the shearing stress at B is given by the :naximum slope of the membrane at this point. It is only nece~s~ry m the
expression for the slope to replace q/ S by 2G8.. From th1s it can be
concluded that the maximum shear acts at the pomts where the contour
lines are closest to each other.

= qA

frds = 2G8A

(152)

From this the average value of the shearing stress along a contour line
can be obtained.
By taking q = O, i.e., considering a membrane without lateral load.
we arrive at the equation
(153)

which coincides with Eq. (b) of the previous article for the function c/J 1
Taking the ordinates of the membrane at the boundary so that
z

+ 4F (x 2 + y 2)

= constant

(154)

272

273

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TORSION

the boundary condition (e) of the previous article is also satisfied.


Thus we can obtain the function cJ> 1 from the deflection surface of an
unloaded membrane, provided the ordinates of the membrane surface
have definite values at the boundary. It will be shown later that both
loaded and unloaded membranes can be used for determining stress
distributions in twisted bars by experiment.
The membrane analogy is useful, not only when the bar is twisted
within the elastic limit, but also when the material yields in certain
portions of the cross section. 1 Assuming that the shearing stress
remains constant during yielding, the stress distribution in the elastic
zone of the cross section is represented by the membrane as before, but
in the plastic zone the stress will be given by a surface having a constant

deflection of the membrane from the elementary formula for the


parabolic deflection curve of a uniformly loaded string 1 (Fig. 156b),
qc2

(a)

= 8S

From the known properties of parabolic curves, the maximum slope,


which occurs in the middle portions of the long sides of the rectangle, is
equal to
(b)

The volume bounded by the deflected membrane and the xy-plane,


calculated as for a parabolic cylinder, is
qbc 3
128

2
3

V= -cob = S

~...__~=:__..=..!. 2

(b)

FIG. 156.

maximum slope corresponding to the yield stress. Imagine such a surface constructed as a roof on the cross section of the bar and the membrane stretched and loaded as explained before. On increasing the
pressure we arrive at the condition when the membrane begins to touch
the roof. This corresponds to the beginning of plastic flow in the
twisted bar. As the pressure is increased, certain portions of the membrane come into contact with the roof. These portions of contact give
us the regions of plastic flow in the twisted bar. Interesting experiments illustrating this theory were made by A. Ndai. 2
94. Torsion of a Bar of Narrow Rectangular Cross Section. ln the
case of a narrow rectangular cross section the membrane analogy gives
a very simple solution of the torsional problem. N eglecting the effect
of the short sides of the rectangle and assuming that the surface of the
slightly deflected membrane is cylindrical (Fig. 156), we obtain the
1
This was indicated by L. Prandtl; see A. Ndai, Z. angew. Math. Mech., vol. 3,
p. 442, 1923. See also E. Trefftz, ibid., vol. 5, p. 64, 1925.
2 See Trans. A.S.M.E., Applied Mechanics Division, 1930.
See also A. Ndai,
"Theory of Flow and Fracture of Solids," 1950, Chaps. 35 and 36.

(e)

Now using the membrane analogy and substituting 2G8 for q/S in (b)
and (e), we find
'Tma.x. = cGO,
(d)
from which
Mt
8
(155)
= ibc 3G
Mt
(156)
'Tmax. = -/rbc2
From the parabolic deflection curve (Fig. 156b)

z=

42 (~ c
4

x2)

and the slope of the membrane at any point is

dz
dx=

8ox

-7= -Sx

The corresponding stress in the twisted bar is


'Tyz

= 2G8x

The stress distribution follows a linear law as shown in Fig. 156a.


Calculating the magnitude of the torque corresponding to this stress
distribution we find
'Tmax.
2
b
1b
-4
e. 3 e. = 6 e2'Tmox.

See S. Timoshenko and D. H. Young, "Engineering Mechanics," p. 35.

274

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TORSION

This is only one half of the total torque given by Eq. (156). The second half is given by the stress components Txz, which were entirely
neglected when we assumed that the surface of the defl.ected membrane
is cylindrical. Although these stresses have an appreciable magnitude
only near the short sides of the rectangle and their maximum values are
smaller than Tmax. as calculated above, they
act at a greater distance from the axis of the
bar and their moment represents the second
half of the torque Mt. 1
It is interesting to note that the Tmax. given
by the first of Eqs. (d) is twice as great as in
the case of a circular shaft with diameter equal
to e and subjected to the sarne twist 8. This
can be explained if we consider the warping of
the cross sections. The sides of cross sections
such as nn 1 (Fig. 157) remain normal to the
longitudinal fibers of the bar at the corners,
as is shown at the points n and n 1. The
{aJ
(b)
total
shear of an element such as abcd conFrG. 157.
sists of two parts: the part 'Y1 dueto rotation
of the cross section about the axis of the bar and equal to the shear in
the circular bar of diameter e; and the part 'Y 2 due to warping of the
cross section. ln the case of a narrow rectangular cross section
'Y 2 = ')' 1, and the resultant shear is twice as great as in the case of a
circular cross section of the diameter e.
Equations (155) and (156), obtained above for a narrow rectangle,
can also be used in the cases of thinwalled bars of such cross sections as
shown in Fig. 158 by setting b equal to
the developed length of the cross section.
This follows from the fact that, if the
thickness e of a slotted tube (Fig. 158a)
is small in comparison with the diam(a)
()
eter, the maximum slope of the memFIG. 158.
brane and the volume bounded by the
membrane will be nearly the sarne as for a narrow rectangular cross
section of the width e and of the sarne length as the circumference of
the middle surface of the tube. An analogous conclusion can be made
also for a channel (Fig. 158b). It should be noted that in this latter

case a considerable stress concentration takes place at the reentrant


corners, depending on the magnitude of the radius r of the fillets, and
Eq. (156) cannot be applied at these points. A more detailed discussion of this subject will be given in Art. 98.
96. Torsion of Rectangular Bars. Using the membrane analogy,
the problem reduces to finding the defl.ections of a uniformly loaded
rectangular membrane as shown in Fig. 159. These deflections must
satisfy the Eq. (151)

1 This question was cleared up by Lord Kelvin; see Kelvin and Tait, "Natural
Philosophy," vol. 2, p. 267.

275

(a)
and be zero at the boundary.
The condition of symmetry with respect to the y-axis and the
boundary conditions at the sides x = a of the
a
rectangle are satisfied by taking z in the form of a
series,
Z=

~
L.

mrx y

b
n COS

2(L

(b)

_J_

n=l,3,5,...

in which b1, b3, . . . are constant coeffi.cients l_._____.


and Y1, Y3, . . . are functions of y only. Suby
stituting (b) in Eq. (a), and observing that the
Frn. 159.
right side of this equation can be presented in the form of a series,1

\:"

q 4
n-l
n11"X
S n11" ( -1) 2 cos -2-a

f...

(e)

n=l,3,5, ...

we arrive at the following equation for determining Yn:


2 2
4
n-1
y11_n11"Y=
q
(
-2
n
4a 2 n
-Sn11"bn -l)

(d)

from which

Yn =A sinh n211"Y
a

+B

cosh n211"Y
a

+ Sl6qa2

n~~n

(-l)n;1

()
e

From the condition of symmetry of the defl.ection surface of the


membrane with respect to the x-axis, it follows that the constant of
integration A must be zero. The constant B is determined from the
1

B. O. Peirce, "A Short Table of Integrals," p. 95, 1910.

277

TORSION

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

276

condition that the defiections of the membrane are zero for y = b,


i.e., (Yn)u=b =O, which gives

y = 16qa2 (-l)n; [l _ cosh (n7ry/2a)]


"
Sn 37r 3 b,.
cosh (n7rb/2a)
1

very narrow rectangle, b/a becomes a large number, so that the sum of
the infinite series in (157) can be neglected, and we find
=

Tmax.

(f)

and the general expression for the defiection surface of the membrane,
from (b), becomes
.,
1
16qa2
~
_!__ (-l)n; [l _ cosh (n7ry/2a)] cos n7rX
z = S7r
~
n3
cosh (n7rb/2a)
2a

2G8a

This coincides with the first of the Eqs. (d) of the previous article.
ln the case of a square cross section, a = b; and we find, from Eq.
(157),
1
2GOa { 1 - : 2 [ cosh (7r/2) + 9 cosh\37r/2) + ]}
Tmax. =
=

2G8a [ 1 - -82 ( -17r 2.509

+9

1
X 55.67

.)]

= 1.351G8a (158)

n= 1,3,5, ...

Replacing q/ S by 2G8, we obtain for the stress function


.,
1
q, = _32_G_8_a2
~ _!_ (-l)n; [l _ cosh (n7ry/2a)] cos n7rx
3
7ra
n
cosh (n7rb/2a)
2a

ln general we obtain
Tmax.

(g)

in which k is a numencal factor depending on the ratio b/a.


values of this factor are given in the table below.

n=l,3, , .

yz

cp

16G8a

1r2

=--=--

_!_(-l)n;
n2

1
[

1 _cosh (n7ry/2a)]sinn7rx (h)


cosh (n7rb/2a)
2a

n= 1,3,5, ...

Assuming that b > a, the maximum shearing stress, corresponding to


the maximum slope of the membrane, is at the middle points of the
long sides x = a of the rectangle. Substituting x = a, y = O in (h),
we find
.,
16G8a
1
Tmax. =~
[
- cosh

n= 1,3,5, ...

~2

(~7rb/2a)]

ba

-b
a

ki

k2

1.0
1.2
1.5
2.0
2.5

0.675
0.759
0.848
0.930
0.968

0.1406
0.166
0.196
0.229
0.249

0.208
0.219
0.231
0.246
0.258

3
4
5
10

ki

0.985
0.997
0.999
1.000
1.000

00

Mi=2

f~af~b cpdxdy=64~:2f~af~b{

~3(-l)n;l

n=l,3,5, ..

7r

2:

.,

n=l,3,5, ...

n 2 cosh

~n7rb/2a)

n=l,3,5, .
1

I
1

+ 3 4 + 54 + . . .

7r4

= 96

B O P errce,

" A Short Table of Integrals," p. 90, 1910.

n4

n=l,3,5, .

7r6

or, observing that

64G8(2a)4
(157)

The infinite series on the right side, for b > a, converges very rapidly
and there is no difficulty in calculating Tmax. with sufficient accuracy for
any particular value of the ratio b/a. For instance, in the case of a

l _ cosh (n7ry/2a)] c s n7rx} d d _ 32G8(2a)3(2b)


0
cosh (n7rb/2a)
2a
x Y 7r4

.,

16G8a
= 2G8a - - -2 -

0.267
0.282
0.291
0.312
0.333

Let us calculate now the torque M 1 as a function of the twist o.


Using Eq. (145) for this purpose, we find

we have

k2

0.263
. 0.281
0.291
0.312
0.333

or, observing that

Tmax.

Severa!

TABLE OF CONSTANTS FOR TORSION OF A RECTANGULAR BAR

The stress components are now obtained from Eqs. (141) by differentiation. For instance,

(159)

= k2G8a

_!_5 tanh n7rb


n

2a

we have

The ~unction. <P1 ~ust satisfy Laplace's eque.tion (see Art. 92).
of th1s equat10n m the form of the series

"'
'\"''

M1 =

3 G0(2a)

(2b)

1 -

7192 ba

_!_ tanh n7rb)

(160)
q,,

= GIJ

n=l,3,5, ..

[r coscos a2..Y +
2

q, =

~IJ [-r (l

= 0.1406G0(2a)

96. Additional Results. By using infinite series


as in the previous article, the torsional problem can be
FIG. 160.
solved for several other shapes of cross sections.
ln the case of a sector of a circle 1 (Fig. 160) the boundaries are given by "1 = a/2,
r = O, r = a. We take a stress function in the form

</> = </>1

+4

+ y)

G1Jr 2
= <1>1 -

This problem was discussed by Saint-Venant, Compt. rend., vol. 87, pp. 849
e.nd 893, 1878. See also A. G. Greenhill, Messenger of Math., vol. 9, p. 35, 1879.
Another method of solution by using Bessel's function was given by A. Dinnik,
Bull. Don Polytech. Inst., Novotcherkassk, vol. 1, p. 309. See also A. Fppl and
L. Fppl, "Dre.ng und Zwang," p. 96, 1928.
1

(1.'.)~
n7r1/IJ
a
cos ~

This expression is zero at the boundaries:

To make it vanish also along the circular boundary r = a, we must put

A,. cos

n1rf

l _ cos 2..Y
cos

Ol

Ol

n = 1,3,5, ...

(163)

where k 2 is a numerical factor the values of


which can be taken from the table on page 277.

(x 2

~
L,.

+ az

from which we obtain, in the usual way,

in which k1 is a numerical factor depending on the magnitude of the


ratio b/a. Several values of this factor are given in the table on
page 277.
Substituting the value of (J from Eq. (163) into Eq. (159), we obtain
the maximum shearing stress as a function of
the torque in the form
(164)

_ cos
2..Y)
cos a

"

ln general the torque can be represented by the equation

Mi = kiG0(2a) 3 (2b)

(r)'.;;: cos n7Mf;]


-a

A,. -a

n=l,3,5, ...

(162)

Taking a solution

we arrive at the stress function

ln the case of a square, a = b; and (160) gives

Mt

l"

n=l,3,5, ..

The series on the right side converges very rapidly, and M 1 can easily
be evaluated for any value of the ratio a/b. ln the case of a narrow
rectangle we can take
n7rb
1
t anh 2a
Then
(161)
M = G0(2a) 3 (2b) (1 - 0.630
1

279

TORSION

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

278

16a

A,.=

n+l
2

(-l)

1
2a) (

n n+-;

2a)

n--;-

The stress function is therefore

q,

GIJ
2

[-r (l _

21/;) + 16aa
7rs

cos
cos a

"'

l:

n=l,3,5, ..

Eq. (145), we find M, = 2f f <t>r dif; dr = kGao, in which k is a


dependmg on the angle a of the sector. Several values of k calculated by
Samt-Venant, are given below.
'

~ubstituting i~to
a~tor

a=

1r

1r

1r

27r

k=
k, =
k. =

0.0181

0.0349
0.452
0.490

0.0825

11'

37r

57r

27r

------ ---

......
......

. .....
. .....

0.148
0.622
0.652

0.296
0.719
0.849

0.572 1 0.672 1

.....
. ....

. ....
. ....

0.878

......
. .....

'These figures have been corrected b M A'


S G
lnequalities in Mathematical Phyics" P y261. p1~seut. Uee . . P?lya and G. Szeg, "lsoperimetric
Th' fi
.

rmce on mvers1ty Press, 1951.
lB gure has been corrected by Dinnik, Zoe. cit.

280

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TORSION

The maximum shearing stresses along the circular and along the radial boundaries
are given by the formulas k 1Ga8 and k.Ga8, respectively. Several values of ki
and k2 are given in the table on page 279.
The solution for a curvilinear rectangle bounded by two concentric circular ares
and two radii can be obtained in the sarne manner. 1
ln the case of an isosceles right-angled triangle 2 the angle of twist is given by the
equation

lar case to the determination of the stress function satisfying the differential equation (142) and the boundary condition (144). ln deriving
an approximate solution of the problem it is useful, instead of working
with the differential equation, to determine the stress function from the
minimum condition of a certain integral, 1 which can be obtained from
consideration of the strain energy of the twisted bar. The strain
energy of the twisted bar per unit length, from (88), is

M,

8 = 38.3'

in which a is the length of the equal sides of the triangle. The maximum shearing
stress is at the middle of the hypotenuse and is equal to

M,

Tmax.

v =

2~ JJ<rx.

+ Ty, 2) ax ay

281

2~ JJ[(::)2 + (::)2] ax ay

lf we give to the stress function q, any small variation <f>, vanishing at


the boundary, 2 the variation of the strain energy is

= 18.02 O,i

By introducing curvilinear coordinates several other cross sections have been


investigated. Taking elliptic coordinates (see page 193) and using conjugate
functions ~ and 'h determined by the equation

+ iy

e cosh

(~

+ iri)

we arrive at cross sections bounded by confocal ellipses and hyperbolas. 3


using the equation

and the variation of the torque is, from Eq. (145),


By

we obtain cross sections bounded by orthogonal parabolas.


Solutions have been found for many other sections,6 solid and hollow, including
polygons, angles, cardioids, lemniscates, 6 and circles with one or several eccentric
holes.7 When the section can be conformally mapped into the unit circle a solution can always be written down in terms of a complex integral. 8

97. Solution of Torsional Problems by Energy Method. 9 We have


seen that the solution of torsional problems is reduced in each particuSaint-Venant, Zoe. cit. See also A. E. H. Love, "Theory of Elasticity,'' 4th ed.
p. 319, 1927.
2 B. G. Galerkin, Bull. acad. des sei. de Russ., p. 111, 1919; G. Kolosoff, Compt.
rend., vol. 178, p. 2057, 1924.
8 A. G. Greenhill, Quart. J. Math., vol. 16, 1879.
See also L. N. G. Filon, Trans.
Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 193, 1900.
E. W. Anderson and D. L. Holl, Iowa State Coll. J. Sei., vol. 3, p. 231, 1929.
6 A compilation is given by T. J. Higgins, Am. J. Phys., vol. 10, p. 248, 1942.
6 References to papers giving exact solutions for such sections, too numerous to
include here, may be found by consulting Applied Mechanics Reviews, Science
Abstracts A, Mathematieal Reviews, and Zentralblatt fr Meehanik. Most of the
references on p. 331 refer to or include the corresponding torsion problem.
7 See C. B. Ling, Quart. Applied Math., vol. 5, p. 168, 1947.
8 Due to N. I. Muschelisvili.
See I. S. Sokolnikoff, "Mathematical Theory of
Elasticity,'' Chap. 4, 1946.
9 For a survey, with references, of this and other approxi!llate Il'leth<;>ds 11ee T; J.
Hi~gins, J. Applied Phys., vol. 14, p. 469 1 1943,
.
1

2ff q, dx dy
Then by reasoning analogous to that used in developing equation (91)
on page 164, we conclude that

2~
or

ff [(::r + (::rJ
ff
f f g[(::r + (::YJ - 2aoq;}
ax ay = 20

q, dx ay

dxdy =

Thus the true expression for the stress function q, is that which makes
zero the variation of the integral

ff g[(::r + (::YJ -

2aoq,} dx dy

(165)

.w~ come also to the sarne conclusion by using the membrane analogy and the
prmc1ple of virtual work (Art. 48). If S is the uniform tension in the membrane
the i_ricr~ase in strain energy of the membrane due to deflection is obtained b;
mult1plymg the tension S by the increase of the surface of the membrane. ln this
manner we obtain

~s JJ[ (:;)2 + (!;)2] dxdy


1

This method was proposed by W. Ritz, who used it in the solution of problems
of bending and vibration of rectangular plates. See J. reine angew. Math., vol.
135, 1908, and Ann. Physik, series 4, vol. 28, p. 737, 1909.
2
If q, is taken equal to zero at the boundary, no forces on the lateral surface
of the bar will be introduced by variation of q,.

282

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TORSION

where z is the deflection of the membrane. If we take now a virtual displacement


of the membrane from the position of equilibrium, the change in the strain energy
of the membrane due to this displacement must be equal to the work done by the
uniform load q on the virtual displacement. Thus we obtain

Take as an example the case of a rectangular cross section1 (Fig.


159). The boundary is given by the equations x = a, y = b, and
the function (x 2 - a 2)(y 2 - b2) is zero at the boundary. The series
(a) can be taken in the form

~ S

JJ[(:;)' + (::rJ ax ay = JJ

.283

(e)

q z ax ay

in which, from symmetry, m and n must be even.


Assuming that we have a square cross section and limiting ourselves
to the first term of the series (e) we take

and the determination of the deflection surface of the membrane is reduced to


finding an expression for the function z which makes the integral

e/>

= ao(x 2 - a 2) (y2 - a2)

(d)

Substituting this in (165) we find from the minimum condition that


a minimum. If we substitute in this integral 2GO for q/S, we arrive at the integral
(165) above.

M1 = 2Jf e/> dx dy = ~-jGOa 4 = 0.1388(2a)4GO


Comparing this with the correct solution (162) we see that the error in
the torque is about li per cent.
To get a closer approximation we take the three first terms in the
series (e). Then, by using the condition of symmetry, we obtain

(a)

au

=0

'

au
a2

e/>

(b)

Thus we obtain a system of linear equations from which the coefficients


a 0, a 1, a 2, . . . can be determined. By increasing the number of terms
in the series (a) we increase the accuracy of our approximate solution,
and by using infinite series we may arrive at an exact solution of the
torsional problem. 1
1 The condition of convergency of this method of solution was investigated by
Ritz, loc. cit. See also E. Trefftz, "Handbuch der Physik," vol. 6, p. 130, 1928.

= (x2 - a2)(y2 - a2)[ao

+ a1(x2 + y2)]

(e)

Substituting this in (165) and using Eqs. (b), we find

5 259 GO

8 277

a2'

5 3

35

GO

8 2 277 a4

Substituting in expression (145) for the torque, we obtain


Mi

=0 . . .
'

8 a2

The magnitude of the torque, from Eq. (145), is then

ln the approximate solution of torsional problems we replace the


above problem of variational calculus by a simple problem of finding a
minimum of a function. W e take the stress function in the form of a
series

in which cf>o, cp 1, cp 2, . . . are functions satisfying the boundary condition, i.e., vanishing at the boundary. ln choosing these functions we
should be guided by the membrane analogy and take them in a form
suitable for representing the function cp. The quantities ao, a 1, a 2,
. . . are numerical factors to be determined from the minimum condition of the integral (165). Substituting the series (a) in this integral
we obtain, after integration, a function of the second degree in a 0, a 1,
a 2, . . . , and the minimum condition of this function is

5GO

= VCi~~

+i

! f)GOa 4 = 0.1404G0(2a)4

This value is only 0.15 per cent less than the correct value.
A much larger error is found in the magnitude of the maximum stress
Substituting (e) into expressions (141) for the stress components w~
find that the error in the maximum stress is about 4 per cent, and to get
better accuracy more terms of the series (e) must be taken.
e It ~an be seen from the membrane analogy that in proceeding as
xplamed above we generally get smaller values for the torque than the
correct value. A perfectly fiexible membrane, uniformly stretched at
a

See S. Timoshenko, Bull. lnst. Ways of Gommunication, St. Petersburg, 1913


nd Proc. London Math. Soe., series 2, vol. 20, p. 389, 1921.
'

284

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

cf>

00

00

2:

2:

m11"X

n7r'Y

cos 2a cos '2b

amn

285

TORSION

tho boundary and uniformly loaded, is a system with an infinite number of degrees of freedom. Limiting ourselves to a few terms of the
series (e) is equivalent to introducing into the system certain constraints, which reduce it to a system with a few degrees of freedom only.
Such constraints can only reduce the flexibility of the system and
diminish the volume bounded by the deflected membrane. Hence the
torque, obtained from this volume, will generally be smaller than its
true value.
E. Trefftz suggested 1 another method of approximate determination
of the stress function cf>. With this method the approximate magnitude of the torque is larger than its true value. Hence by using the
Ritz and the Trefftz methods together the limits of error of the approximate solution can be established.
ln using Ritz's method we are not limited to polynomials (e). We
can take the functions cf>o, cf> 1, c/>2, of the series (a) in other forms
suitable for the representation of the stress function cf>. Taking, for
instance, trigonometric functions, and observing the conditions of
symmetry (Fig. 159), we obtain
(f)

where a = b/a. Substituting in (f) we obtain the exact solution of the


problem in the forro of an infinite trigonometric series. The torque
will then be

00

00

128G8b 2

32ab

Lt
Lt 11'4mn(m2a2 + n2) . mn11"2
m=l,3, ... n=l,3, ...

(g)

This expression is brought into coincidence with expression (160) given


before if we observe that
oo

1
m2

Lt

n=l,3,5, ..

n 2 (m 2a 2

tanh ma11" - ma11"


2
2
= 96m 2
-i(ma1r/2) 3
11' 4

+n

2
)

As another example, in the case of a narrow rectangle, when b is


very large in comparison with a (Fig. 159), we may take, as a first
approximation,
cf> = GO(a 2 - x 2)
(h)

n=l,3,5, ... m=l,3,5, ..

Substituting in (165) and performing the integration, we find that

2:
00

u = 1r~b

~
Lt

a2mn

(m2
n2)
(i2 + b2

cf> = Ge(a 2

m=l,3,5, ... n=l,3,5, ..

2:
m=l,3,5, ...

2:

n = 1,3,5, ...

amn

x 2)[1

fj=!

Equations (b) become

?r2ab
4

(m2a2 + n2)
- 2G8. mn11'2
I6ab ( -1) mtn-1 = O
b2

and we find
128G8b 2 ( -1)
11" 4mn(m 2a 2

m+n_ 1
2

+n

e-ll(b-yl]

(k)

and choose the quantity /j in such a manner as to make the integral


(165) a minimum. ln this way we find

00

-2G8

which coincides with the solution discussed before (Art. 94). To get
a better approximation satisfying the boundary condition at the short
sides of the rectangle, we may take

1 E. Trefftz, Proc. Second Intern. Congr. Applied Mech., Zrich, 1926, p. 131.
See also N. M. Basu, Phil. Mag., vol. 10, p. 886, 1930.

@_

'\}2

Dueto the exponential term in the brackets of expression (k) we obtain


a stress distribution which practically coincides with that of the solution (h) at all points a considerable distance from the short sides of the
rectangle. Near these sides the stress function (k) satisfies the
boundary condition (144). Substituting (k) into equation (145) for
the torque, we find

287

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TORSION

which is in very good agreement with Eq. (161) obtained before by


using infinite series.
A polynomial expression for the stress function, analogous to expression (e) taken above for a rectangle, can be used successfully in all
cases of cross sections bounded by a convex polygon. If

ln the particular case when m = !, p = q = 1, a = a 1, we have


y = aif;(x/b) = v'x/b[l - (x/b)J, and we obtain

286

are the equations of the sides of the polygon, the stress function can be
taken in the forro

cp

= ( a1X

+ biy + C1) (a2X + b2y + C2)

(anX

+ b,.y + Cn) "1; "1;amnXnym

and the first few terms of the series are usually sufficient to get a satisfactory accuracy.
The energy method is also useful when the boundary of the cross
section (Fig. 161) is given by two curves 1
Y

= aif; (~)

= -

Go
11 a 2'
1 + 13 b2

where

a~

Frn. 161.

+ a1if;)

Substituting into the integral (165) we find, from the equation


dl/dA =O,
GO
A
where
a=

Io1 i/;

fo

Mi = -A b(a

8=
1

+ a1) (1 if; dt
3

}o

i Such problema were discussed by L. S. Leibenson.


See his book "Variational
Methods for Solving Problema of the Theory of Elasticity," Moscow, 1943. See
also W. J. Duncan, Phil. Mag., series 7, vol. 25, p. 634, 1938.

(cJ

3Mt
(b1c1 3 + 2b2c2 3)G

(a)

LuftJahrt-forsch., vol. 20, 1944, tranlated as N.A.C.A. Tech. Mem. 1182, 1948.
A more elaborate formula, taking account of the increased stiffness resulting
fron;- the junctions of the rectangles, was developed on the basis of soap film and
tors10n tests by G. W. Trayer and H. W. March, Natl. Advisory Comm. Aeronaut.,
Rept. 334, 1930.
3
Comparison of torsional rigidities obtained in this manner with those obtained
by

t s is
g1ven

. ex?enmen
for severa! types of rolled sections and for various dimensions m the paper by A. Fppl, Sitzber. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., p. 295, Mnchen, 1921.
See also Bauingenieur, series 5, vol. 3, p. 42, 1922.
2

From Eq. (145) we find the torque

bL

is obtained with sufficient accuracy from Eq. (155) by putting,


instead of b, in this equation the developed length of the center line, 2
namely, b = 2a - e. ln the case of a channel section (Fig. 162b) a
rough approximation for the angle of twist is obtained by taking for the
fianges an average thickness c2, subdividing the cross section into the
three rectangles, and substituting in Eq. (155), b1c1 3 + 2b 2c23 instead
of bc 3, i.e., assuming that the torsional rigidity of the channel is equal
to the sum of the torsional rigidities of the three rectangles. a Then

i/; dt

G8ba 3
11 2
1 + 13 b2

Frn. 162.

(#/dt) 2 dt
1

DJ
(b)

(a)

cp = A(y - aif;)(y

= 0.0736

An approximate solution, and a comparison with tests, for sections


bounded by a circle and a chord has been given by A. W eigand. 1
Numerical methods are discussed in the Appendix.
98. Torsion of Rolled Profi.le Sections. ln investi~ating the torsion
of rolled sections such as angles, channels, and 1-beams, the formulas
derived for narrow rectangular bars (Art. 94) can be used. If the
cross section is of constant thickness, as in Fig. 162a, the angle of twist

and

The boundary conditions will be satisfied if we take for the stress


function an approximate expression

Mi

'

ll

l1u,1.

288

To calculate the stress at the boundary at points a considerable distance from the corners of the cross section we can use once more the
equation for a narrow rectangle and take
T

narrow rectangle

T1

= G8c. Using this, we obtain from (d)


dT
dr

= _

2T1

(d')

A
T1r
T=---

(b)

The sarne approximate equations can be used for an I-beam (Fig. 162c).
At reentrant corners there is a considerable stress concentration, the
magnitude of which depends on the radius of the fillets. A rough
approximation for the maximum stress at
1
these fillets can be obtained from the
1
membrane analogy. Let us consider a
1
cross
section in the forra of an angle of
1
1
constant thickness e (Fig. 163) and with
1
radius a of the fillet of the reentrant comer.
r
/
Assuming that the surface of the membrane
e _______ ....-v1'at the bisecting line 00 1 of the fillet is
L
" approximately a surface of revolution, with
FIG. 163.
axis perpendicular to the plane of the figure
at O, and using polar coordinates, the Eq. (151) of the de:flection surface
of the membrane becomes (see page 57)
1

+ !T

from which, by integration,

= e(}(]

Then, from Eq. (a), we obtain for the :flanges of the channel

289

TORSION

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

(f)

where A is a constant of integration. For the determination of this


constant, let us assume that the shearing stress becomes zero at point
01 at a distance c/2 from the
3.Sr-r--.----,.--~-boundary (Fig. 163). Then,
from (f),

A
_
a+ (c/2)

T1[a

+ (c/2)]
e

3.0 t-t--+---+---+------l

- 0
2.5

and

t---t---+---+----1-----1

"l:mux

'1

2.0 t - - - \ - - + - - - 1 - - - - - 1 - - - - 1

/,-(

dz
dr 2

+ ! dz

= _

r dr

!1
S

(e)

Remembering that the slope of the membrane dz/dr gives the shearing
stress T when q/S is replaced by 2G8, we find from (e) the following
equation for the shearing stress:

dT
1
dr+ -;:r = -2G8

(d)

The corresponding equation in the arms of the angle at a considerable


distance from the corners, where the membrane has a nearly cylindrical
surface, is
dr

dn

= -2G8

(e)

in which n is the normal to the boundary. Denoting by T 1 the stress


at the boundary we find from (e) the previously found solution for a

Substituting in (f) and taking


r =a, we find
Tmax. =

T1

(1

+ 4: )

(g)

1.0 ~-_,__--.1-_---l._

0.5

1.0

J.5

__J

2.0

For a = !e, as in the Fig. 163, we


a/e
have Tmax. = l.5T1. For a very
Frn. 164
small radius of fillet the maximum stress becomes very high. Taking,
for instance, a = O.lc we find Tmax. = 3.5T1.
More accurate and complete results can be obtained by numerical
calculations based on the method of finite differences (see Appendix).
A curve of Tmax./r1 as a function of a/e obtained by this methodI is
shown in ~ig. 164 (curve A), together with the curve representing Eq.
(g). It w1ll be seen that this simple formula gives good resultswhen
a/ e is less than 0.3.
99. The Use of Soap Films in Solving Torsion Problems. We have
~een that the membrane analogy is very useful in enabling l,lS to visualize the stress distribution over the cross section of a twisted bar.
T~ B~ J. H. Ruth, J. Appled Mechan_cs (~rans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 17, p. 388, 1950.
e nse of the curve towards the nght is required by the limiting case as the
fillet radius is increased in relation to the leg thickness. References to earlier
attempts to solve this problem including soap-film measurements are given by
I. Lyse and B. G. Johnston 1 Proc, A.S.,E. 1 19351 p. 4691 and in. the above paper.

290

THEORY OF RLASTICITY

Membranes in the form of soap films have also been used for direct
measurements of stresses. 12 The films were formed on holes cut to the
required shapes in flat plates. To make possible the direct determina
tion of stresses, it was found necessary to have in the sarne plate a circular hole to represent a circular section for comparison. Submitting

FIG. 165.

both films to the sarne pressure, we have the sarne values of q/S, 3
which correspond to the sarne values of G8 for the two bars under twist.
Hence, by measuring the slopes of the two soap films we can compare
the stresses in the bar of the given cross section with those in a circular
1 See papers by Taylor and Griffi.th, loc. cit.; also the paper by Trayer an~
March, loc. cit.
. . . .
2 A survey of this and other analogies for torsion, with references, is g1ven by
T. J. Higgins, Experimental Stress Analysis, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 17, 1945.
a It is assumed that the surface tension is the sarne in both films. This was
proved with sufficient accuracy by the tests.

'i:.

l i:'I:,

l,I

TORSION

291

shaft under the condition that they have the sarne angle of twist O per
unit length and the sarne G. The corresponding ratio of the torques is
determined by the ratio of the volumes between the soap films and the
plane of the plate.
For obtaining the contour lines of the films the apparatus shown in
Fig. 165 was used. 1 The aluminum plate with the holes is clamped
between the two halves of the cast-iron box A. The lower part of the
box, having the form of a shallow tray, is supported on leveling screws.
The mapping of contour lines is done by using the screw B passing
through a hole in a sheet of plate glass sufficiently large to cover the
box in any possible position. The lower end of the screw carries a hard
steel point whose distance from the
6rfllrfl
glass plate is adjustable by the
---;-_-_-_-_ _ 1,_s.s_. s ffl__lfrfl~~r11l~r11lr11_,,
screw. The point is made to
- .
. " /"
( ( , - -:. -=..:r:...-1-j..--;:- -"-._ 1rfl /""
approach the film by moving the
', ' 1 ,. ,....;.t-, ,, 't
or11 ,..
'-~,', ~ I j \ l I / /
glass pia te until the distortion of
"\~\'-....:,~'/"~..{.:--'
the image in the film shows that
'~~~--/~~/."
,,,/,{'
contact has occurred. The record is
\ 1 11
made on a sheet of paper attached to
/\/ 1
v,
the board E, which can swing about
1 1
a horizontal axis at the sarne height
: 1
1
1
as the steel recording point D. To
mark any position of the screw, it is
Fra. 166.
only necessary to prick a dot on the paper by swinging it down on the
recording point. After the point has been made to touch the film at a
number of places, the dots recorded on the paper are used for drawing a
contour line. By adjusting the screw B this can be repeated for as
many contour lines as may be required. When these lines have been
mapped, the volume and the corresponding torque can be obtained by
summation. The slopes and the corresponding stresses are obtained
by measuring the distances between neighboring contour lines. The
slope can be obtained optically with much more accuracy by projecting
a beam of light on to the surface of the film and measuring the angle of
~he_ reflected ray. The normal to the film is then half way between the
mc1dent and the reflected rays. A special instrument was constructed
for this purpose by Griffith and Taylor. Figure 166 represents an
e~ample of contour lines obtained for a portion of an 1-beam (wooden
~mg spar of an airplane). From the close grouping of the contour
hnes at the fillets of the reentrant corners and at the middle of the
Upper face, it follows that the shearing stresses are high at these places.
The
projecting parts of the flange are very lightly stressed. The
1
See the paper by Taylor and Griffi.th, loc. cit.

292

THEORY -OF ELASTICITY

TORSION

rnaxirnurn stress in the middle portion of the web is practically constant


along the side of the web and equal to that in a narrow rectangle for the
sarne angle of twist. The application of soap-filrn rneasurernents to
such cross sections as ellipses and rectangles, for which exact solutions
are known, shows that the rnaxirnurn stress and the torque can be
rneasured with an accuracy of 1 or 2 per cent. At the points of great
stress concentration, as in the case of fillets of very srnall radii, an
accuracy of the sarne order is not readily obtained. 1
100. Hydrodynamical Analogies. There are several analogies
between the torsional problern and the
hydrodynamical problern of the rnotion of
fluid in a tube. Lord Kelvin 2 pointed out
0.-----t--X that the function [c/> 1 see Eq. (a), Art. 92]
which is sornetirnes used in the solution of
torsional problerns is identical with the stream
function of a certain irrotational rnotion of
y
"ideal fluid" contained in a vessel of the sarne
FIG. 167.
cross section as the twisted bar.
Another analogy was indicated by J. Boussinesq. 3 He showed that
the di:fferential equation and the boundary condition for determining
the stress function e/> (see Eqs. 142 and 144, Art. 90) are identical with
those for determining velocities in a laminar motion of viscous fluid
alonga tube of the sarne cross section as the twisted bar. 4
Greenhill showed that the stress function e/> is mathematically
identical with the strearn function of a motion of ideal fluid circulating
with uniform vorticity, 5 in a tube of the sarne cross section as the
twisted bar.6 Let u and v be the components of the velocity of the
circulating fluid ata point A (Fig. 167). Then from the condition of
incompressibility of the ideal fluid we have

u+v =O
x

(a)

i See the paper by C. B. Biezeno and J. M. Rademaker, De Ingenieur, No. 52,


1931. See also papers by P. A. Cushman, Trans. A.S.M.E., 1932, H. Quest, .
Ingenieur-Archiv., vol. 4, p. 510, 1933, and J. H. Huth, Zoe. cit.
2 Kelvin and Tait, "Natural Philosophy," pt. 2, p. 242.
a J. Boussinesq, J. math. pure et appl., series 2, vol. 16, 1871.
4 This analogy was used by M. Paschoud, Compt. rend., vol. 179, p. 451, 1924.
See also Bull. tech. Suisse Rom. (Lausanne), November, 1925.

6 The analytical expression for vorticity is the sarne as for rotation "' discussed
on p. 225, provided u and v denote the components of the velocity of ~he fl~id. . .
G A. G. Greenhill, Hydromechanics, an article in the Encyclopaedia Bntanmca,
llth ed., 1910.

''l

irr
lllr!

293

The condition of uniform vorticity is

-x - -y = constant

(b)

By taking
U

= c/>
ay'

V= -

c/>

(e)

we satisfy Eq. (a), and from Eq. (b) we find

a2c1>

a2q,

ax + oy

= constant

(d)

which coincides with Eq. (142) for the stress function in torsion.
At the boundary the velocity of the cir<ulating fluid is in the direction of the tangent to the boundary and the boundary condition for the
hyd~odynamical problern is the sarne as the condition (144) for the
tors1?nal problem.. Hence the velocity distribution in the hydrodynam1cal problern is mathematically identical with
the stress distribution in torsion, and some practically important conclusions can be drawn by using
the known solutions of hydrodynamics.
As a first example we take the case of a small
circular hole in a twisted circular shaftl (Fig. 168).
The effect of this hole on the stress distribution is
similar to that of introducing a stationary solid
Fw. 168.
cy~inder of the sarne dia~eter as the hole into the stream of circulatmg
flmd ?f the hydro~y~an.nc~l mode_I. Such a cylinder greatly changes the
veloc1ty of the flmd m its immediate neighborhood. The velocities at
th~ front and rear points are reduced to zero, while those at the side
pomt~ m and n ~re doubled. A hole of this kind therefore doubles the
shearmg stress m the portion of the shaft in which it is located A
small semicircular groove on the surface parallel to the length of the
shaft (Fig. 168) has the sarne effect. The shearing stress at the bottom
of the groove, the point m, is about twice the shearing stress at the surface of the shaft far away from the groove.
Th~ s~me hydrodynamical analogy explains the e:ffect of a small hole
of elliptic cross section or of a groove of semi-elliptic cross section If
~~e 0~ the principal axes a of the small elliptical hole is in the r~dial
irect10n and the other principal axis is b, the stresses at the edge of the
hole at the ends of the a-axis are increased in the proportion ( 1
1

See J. Larmor, Phil. Mag., vol. 33, p. 76, 1892,

+ ~): 1.

294

THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TORSION

The maximum stress produced in this case thus depends upon the
magnitude of the ratio a/b. The effect of the hole on the stress is
greater when the major axis of the ellipse is in the radial direction than
when it runs circumferentially. This explains why a radial crack has
such a weakening effect on the strength of a shaft. Similar effects on
the stress distribution are produced by a semi-elliptic groove on the
surface, parallel to the axis of the shaft.
From the hydrodynamical analogy it can be concluded also that at
the projecting corners of a cross section of a twisted bar the shearing
stress becomes zero, and that at reentrant corners this stress becomes
theoretically infinitely large, i.e., even the smallest torque will produce
yielding of material or a crack at such a comer. ln the case of a
rectangular keyway, therefore, a high stress concentration takes place
at the reentrant corners at the bottom of the keyway. These high
stresses can be reduced by rounding the corners. 1
101. Torsion of Hollow Shafts. So far the discussion has been
limited to shafts whose cross sections are bounded by single curves.
Let us consider now hollow shafts whose cross sections have two or
more boundaries. The simplest problem of this kind is a hollow shaft
with an inner boundary coinciding with one of the stress lines (see page
270) of the solid shaft, having the sarne boundary as the outer boundary
of the hollow shaft.
Take, for instance, an elliptic cross section (Fig. 149). The stress
function for the solid shaft is

295

the shaft. Then, from the above conclusion regarding the direction
of the sh~arin~ st~esses, it follows that there will be no stresses acting
across th1s cylmdncal surface. W e can imagine the material bounded
by this surface removed without changing the stress distribution in the
outer portion of the shaft. Hence the stress function (a) applies to the
hollow shaft also.
For a given angle 8 of twist the stresses in the hollow shaft are the
sarne as in the corresponding solid shaft. But the torque will be
smaller ~y the amount whic~ in the case of the solid shaft is carried by
the port10n of the cross sect10n corresponding to the hole. From Eq.
(148) we see that the latter portion is in the ratio k4: 1 to the total
torque. Hence, for the hollow shaft, instead of Eq. (148), we will have

Mt a 2 b2
8 = - -4- -3- 1 - k 7ra b3G

and the stress function (a) becomes

= _
</>

M1
7rab(l - k 4 )

(x2a + 1)2y2 2

The formula for the maximum stress will be


2M1

T ma.x.

= 7rab2 1 - k4

ln the membrane analogy the middle portion of the membrane cor-

(a)

The curve
x2
(ak) 2

y2

+ (bk)

= 1

(b)

is an ellipse which is geometrically similar to the outer boundary of the


cross section. Along this ellipse the stress function (a) remains constant, and hence, for k less than unity, this ellipse is a stress line for the
solid elliptic shaft. The shearing stress at any point of this line is in
the direction of the tangent to the line. Imagine now a cylindrical .
surface generated by this stress line with its axis parallel to the axis of ,
1 The stresses at the keyway were investigated by the soap-film method.
See
the paper by A. A. Griffith and G. I. Taylor, Tech. Rept., Natl. Advisory Comm.
Aeronaut., vol. 3, p. 938, 1917-1918. The sarne problem was discussed by the'
photoelastic method. See the paper by A. G. Solakian and G. B. Karelitz, Trana.
A.S.M.E., Applied Mechanics Division, 1931.

res~onding to the hole in the shaft (Fig. 169), must be replaced b~ the
horizontal plate CD. We note that
the uniform pressure distributed
A r---a~
B x
over the portion CFD of the roem~:=t''"'.: 1 ?f1q.1~
brane is statically equivalent to the
l 1 ~ : : : : - D 11
pressure of the sarne magnitude
11
uniformly distributed over the plate
CD and the tensile forces S in the
membrane acting along the edge of
this plate are in equilibrium with the
~niform load on the plate. Hence,
m the case under consideration the
;y
same experimental soap-film method
Frn. 169.
~~;efore can be employed because the replacement of the portion
0
fi
~ the memb~a.ne .by the plate CD causes no changes in the congurat10n and eqmhbnum conditions of the remaining portion of the
membrane.

297

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TORS_-:'ON

Let us consider now the more general case when the boundaries of
the holes are no longer stress lines of the solid shaft. From the general
theory of torsion we know (see Art. 90) that the stress function must be
constant along each boundary, but these constants cannot be chosen
arbitrarily. ln discussing multiply-connected boundaries in twodimensional problems it was shown that recourse must be had to the
expressions for the displacements, and the constants of integration
should be found in such a manner as to make these expressions singlevalued. An analogous procedure is necessary in dealing with the
torsion of hollow shafts. The constant values of the stress function
along the boundaries should be determined in such a manner as to
make the displacements single-valued. A sufficient number of equations for determining these constants will then be obtained.
From Eqs. (b) and (d) of Art. 90 we have

A physical significance for Eq. (e) was discussed before [see Eq.
(152), page 271]. It indicates that in using the membrane analogy the
level of each plate, such as the plate CD (Fig. 169), must be taken so
that the vertical load on the plate is equal and opposite to the vertical
component of the resultant of the tensile forces on the plate produced
by the membrane. If the boundaries of the holes coincide with the
stress lines of the corresponding solid shaft, the above condition is
sufficient to ensure the equilibrium of the plates. ln the general case
this condition is not sufficient, and to keep the plates in equilibrium in
a horizontal position special guiding devices become necessary. This
makes the soap-film experiments for hollow shafts more complicated.

296

(e)

Let us now calculate the integral


(d)

fr ds
along each boundary.
components we find

ds =

Using (e) and resolving the total stress into its

J ~: + ~;)
J(~: + :;

= G

(Txz

Tyz

dx

ds

dy) - 8G

(y dx - x dy)

To remove this difficulty the following procedure may be adopted.1 We make a


hole in the plate (Fig. 165) corresponding to the outer boundary of the shaft.
The interior boundaries, corresponding to the holes, are mounted each on a vertical
sliding column so that their heights can be easily adjusted. Taking these heights
arbitrarily and stretching the film over the boundaries we obtain a surface which
satisfies Eq. (142) and boundary conditions (144), but the Eq. (e) above generally
will not be satisfied and the film does not represent the stress distribution in the
hollow shaft. Repeating such an experiment as many times as the number of
boundaries, each time with another adjustment of heights of the interior boundaries
and taking measurements on the film each time, we obtain sufficient data for
determining the correct values of the heights of the interior boundaries and can
finally stretch the soap film in the required manner. This can be proved as
follows: If i is the number of boundaries and 4'1, 4'2, , cf>; are the film surfaces
obtai?ed with i different adjustments of the heights of the boundaries, then a
funct1on
(f)
e/> = m1c/>1 + m2c/>2 + + m;cf>;

m.,

in which m1,
provided that

, m; are numerical factors, is also a solution of Eq. (142),

m1

+ m2 + + m;

= 1

The first integral must vanish, from the condition that the integration
is taken round a closed curve and that w is a single-valued function.
Hence,
fr ds = 8Gf(x dy - y dx)

Observing now that the shearing stress is equal to the slope of the membrane and
substituting (f) into Eqs. (e), we obtain i equations of the forro
'

The integral on the right side is equal to double the area of the hole.
Then
(e)
fr ds = 2G8A

from which the i-factors m1, m2, . , m; can be obtained as functions of O.


Then _the true stress function is obtained from (f).2 This method was applied
by Griffith and Taylor in determining stresses in a hollow circular shaft havmg a

Thus we must determine the constant values of the stress function


along the boundaries of the holes so as to satisfy Eq. (e) for each
boundary. This equation is also valid for any closed curve drawn in
the cross section, as may be seen by reexamining the proof.

f ~:

ds = 2GoA;

1
A. A. Griffith, and G. I. Taylor, Tech. Rept. Natl. Advisory Comm. Aeronaut.
Vol. 3, p. 938, 1917-1918.
'
2
Griffith and Taylor concluded from their experiments that instead of constantpressure films it is more convenient to use zero-pressure films (see p. 272) in studying
the stress distribution in hollow shafts. A detailed discussion of the calculation
of factors m1, m2, is given in their paper.

298

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TORSION

keyway in it. It was shown in this manner that the maximum stress can be considerably reduced and the strength of the shaft increased by throwing the bore in
the shaft off center.

The torque in the shaft with one or more boles is obtained using
twice the volume under the membrane and the flat plates. To see
this we calculate the torque produced by the shearing stresses distributed over an elemental ring between two adjacent stress lines, as
in Fig. 169 (now taken to represent an arbitrary hollow section).
Denoting by othe variable width of the ring and considering an element
such as that shaded in the figure, the shearing force acting on this element is To ds and its moment with respect to O is rTo ds. Then the
torque on the elemental ring is

dM 1 = f TTo ds

It is inversely proportional to the thickness of the wall and thus


greatest where the thickness of the tube is least.
To establish the relation between the stress and the torque M 1 we
apply again the membrane analogy and calculate the torque from the
volume ACDB. Then
Mt = 2Ah = 2AoT
(b)
in which A is the mean of the areas enclosed by the outer and the inner
boundaries of the cross section of the tube. From (b) we obtain a
simple formula for calculating shearing stresses,
(166)

(e)

in which the integration must be extended over the length of the ring.
Denoting by A the area bounded by the ring and observing that T is
the slope, so that To is the difference
in levei h of the two adjacent conAjoe;;:::
1
X
tour
lines, we find, from (e),
j' jC
z
dMt = 2hA
(d)

For determining the angle of twist 8, we apply Eq. (152).

fl

Dlf

~-1~~

299

ds

M1J Bds = 2G8A

= 2A

(e)

from which 1

;
1

i.e., the torque corresponding to the

elemental ring is given by twice


the volume shaded in the figure.
:Y
The total torque is given by the
Fm. 170.
sum of these volumes, i.e., twice
the volume between AB, the membrane AC and DB, and the flat plate
CD. The conclusion follows similarly for severa! holes.
102. Torsion of Thin Tubes. An approximate solution of the torsional problem for thin tubes can easily be obtained by using the membrane analogy. Let AB and CD (Fig. 170) represent the leveis of the
outer and the inner boundaries, and AC and DB be the cross section of
the membrane stretched between these boundaries. ln the case of a.
thin wall, we can neglect the variation in the slope of the membrane
across the thickness and assume that AC and BD are straight lines.
This is equivalent to the assumption that the shearing stresses are uniformly distributed over the thickness of the wall. Then denoting by
h the difference in levei of the two boundaries and by o the variable
thickness of the wall, the stress at any point, given by the slope of the
membrane, is
h
1' =

Then

(167)

_,, --

l1-'-=========::::::...J
i-1,---c----..l

ln the case of a tu be of uniform thickness


'
constant and (167) gives

o .is

fa}

(168)
(h)

;n which s is the length of the center line


of the ring section of the tube.

'

Fm. 171.

If the tu~e has reentrant comers, as in the case represented in Fig.


171, a cons1derable stress concentration may take place at these corners. The maximum stress is larger than the stress given by Eq. (166)

and depends on the radius a of the fillet of the reentrant comer (Fig.
l 71b). ln calculating this maximum stress we shall use the membrane
analogy as we did for the reentrant comers of rolled sections (Art 98)
of the membrane at the reentrant comer may be taken

.The equat10n
in the form
d 2z

dr 2
1

+ _! dz

_ _ q

r dr -

E
t"
V D qua ions (166) and (167) for thin tubular sections were obtained by R. Bredt
.I., vol. 40, p. 815, 1896.
'

301

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TORSION

Replacing q/S by 2G8 and noting that r = -dz/dr (see Fig. 170), we
find
(d)

Substituting r = a we obtain the stress at the reentrant comer. This


is plotted in Fig. 172. The other curve 1 (A in Fig. 172) was obtained by
the method of finite differences, without the assumption that the
membrane at the comer has the form of a surface of revolution. It
confirms the accuracy of Eq. (i) for small fillets-say up to a/ = i.
For larger fillets the values given by Eq. (i) are too high.
3.5
Let us consider now the case
when the cross section of a tubular
member has more than two bound3.0 1--t~-+---+---+-------l aries. Taking, for example, the
case shown in Fig. 173 and assuming that the thickness of the wall is

300

Assuming that we have a tube of a constant thickness and denoting


by ro the stress at a considerable distance from the comer calculated
from Eq. (166), we find, from (e),
2G8 = ros
A

Substituting in (d),
(e)

'Cmax

2.0 1--~~---+---+-------l

The general solution of this equation is

r =

Q + rosr
r

.....

(f)

2A

11
1 1

Assuming that the projecting angles of the cross section have fillets
with the radius a, as indicated in the figure, the constant of integration
e can be determined from the equation
ra+
}a
T dr

1.o oL__ _Jo.L.s---'-1.o=---1...L.s==-..12.o


a/<f
Frn. 172.

~~'--------li
e

C::----'----r'

.D
Frn. 173.

(g) . .

very small, the shearing stresses in each portion of the wall, from the
membrane analogy, are

which follows from the hydrodynamical analogy (Art. 100), viz.: if an


ideal fiuid circulates in a channel having the shape of the ring cross
section of the tubular member, the quantity of fiuid passing each cross
section of the channel must remain constant. Substituting expression .
(f) for r into Eq. (g), and integrating, we find that

(k)

e=

T
0

To

1 - (s/4A)(2a +)
log. (1 +/a)

in which h 1 and h 2are the levels of the inner boundaries CD and EF.2
The magnitude of the torque, determined by the volume ACDEFB

.IS

and, from Eq. (f), that


T

= ro 1 - (s/4A)(2a +) + r 0sr
r

log. (1 +/a)

For a thin-walled tube the ratios s(2a


and (h) reduces to

(l)

(h):

2A

)/A, sr/A, will be small,

'

where A1 and A 2 are areas indicated in the figure by dotted lines.


Further equations for the solution of the problem are obtained by
applying Eq. (152) to the closed curves indicated in the figure by
1

Huth, loc. cit.


lt is assumed that the plates are guided so as to remain horizontal (see p. 297).

302

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

dotied lines. Assuming that the thicknesses 1, 2, 03 are constant


and denoting by 8 1, 8 2, 8 3 the lengths of corresponding dotted curves,
we find, from Fig. 173,
T181+1"383 =
T282 -

1"383

2G8A1

= 2G8A2

(m)

+ 02a81A22 + 128a(A1 + A2) 2]


M1[a81A2 + 018a(A1 + A2)]
2
2[01a82A1 2 + 02a81A2 2 + 0128a(A1 + A2) ]
M1(1s2A1 -

02s1A2)

obtained above for rectangular bars (Art. 95). ln discussing these stresses, let us
consider first the case of a very narrow rectangle 1 and assume that the dimension
a is large in comparison with b. If cross sections are free to warp, the stresses,
from Art. 94, are
(a)
Tz = -2GOy,
Ty = 0
and the corresponding displacements, from Eqs. (a), (b), and (d) of Art. !lO, are

By using the last of the Eqs. (k) and Eqs. (l) and (m), we find the
stresses T1, T2, Ta as functions of the torque:
2[1382A1 2

303

TORSION

(n)
(o)

(p)

u = -(Jyz,

v = (Jxz,

w = -8xy

(b)

To prevent the warping of the cross sections, designated as displacement w,


normal stresses " must be distributed over the cross sections. We obtain an
approximate solution by assuming that
" is proportional to w and that it
diminishes with increase of distance z
from the middle cross section. These
assumptions are satisfied by taking

2P

(e)

ln the case of a symmetrical cross section, 81 = 82, 01 = 2, Ai = A2,


and Ta = O. ln this case the torque is taken by the outer wall of the
tube, and the web remains unstressed. 1
To get the twist for any section like that shown in Fig. 173, one
substitutes the values of the stresses in one of the Eqs. (m). Thus 8
can be obtained as a function of the torque M t
103. Torsion of a Bar in Which One Cross Section Remains Plane. ln discussing torsional problems it has always been assumed that the torque is applied by
means of shearing stresses distributed over the ends of a bar in a definite manner,
obtained from the solution of Eq. (142) and satisfying the boundary condition
(144). If the distribution of stresses at the ends is different from this, a local
irregularity instress distribution resulta and the solution of Eqs. (142) and (144)
can be applied with satisfactory accuracy only in regions at some distance from
the ends of the bar. 2
A similar irregularity occurs if a cross section of a twisted bar is prevented from
warping by some constraint. We encounter problems of this kind occasionally in
engineering. A simple example is shown in Fig. 174. From symmetry it can be
concluded that the middle cross section of the bar remains plane during torsion.
Hence the stress distribution near this cross section must be different from that
1 The small stresses corresponding to the change in slope of the membrane across
the thickness of the web are neglected in this derivation.
2 The local irregularities at the ends of a circular cylinder have been discussed
by F. Purser, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., Dublin, vol. 26, series A, p. 54, 1906.. See
also K. Wolf, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Wien, vol. 125, p. 1149, 1916, and A. Tlmpe,
Math. Annalen, vol. 71, p. 480, 1912.
a Torsion of I-beams under such conditions was discussed by S. Timoshenko,
z. Math. Physik, vol. 58, p. 361, 1910. See also C. Weber, Z. angew. Math. Mech.,
-vol. 6, p. 85, 1926.

ji I'

lllllL

in which m is a factor to be determined


later. Due to the factor e-m the stress
" diminishes with increase of z and 2P
becomes negligible within a certain
distance depending upon the magnitude
of m.
The remaining stress components must
now be chosen in such a manner as to
z
satisfy the differential equations of
FIG. 174.
equilibrium (127) and the boundary
conditions. It is easy to prove that these requirements are satisfi.ed by taking

" = "11 = o

r, 11 = -1;Em3 8e-m(a 2

r., = iEm 2 8e-m(a 2


r 11, = iEm 28e-mz(b 2

x 2)(b2 - y)
x 2 )y - 2G8y
y 2)x

(d)

For large values of z this stress distribution approaches the stresses (a) for simple
torsion. The stress component r, 11 becomes zero at the boundary x = a and
Y = b; r,. and r 11, are zero for x = a and y = b, respectively. Hence the
boundary conditions are satisfied and the lateral surface of the bar is free from
forces.
For determining the factor m, we consider the strain energy of the bar and calculatem to make this energy a minimum. By using Eq. (84) on page 148, we fi.nd
1 1._l
V = 2G
1

f f
a
-a

b [ Tzy 2
-b

+ T,, 2 + r

11,

+ Z(l 1+ v)

<T,

] dx dy dz

Substituting from (d), and noting that for a long barwe can with sufficient accuracy
put
(le-mzdz =

}o
1

&e S. Timoshenko, Proc. London M ath. Soe., series 2, vol. 20, p. 389, 1921

304

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TORSION

12
V = 1- E0 2a 3b3 { -3m + (1 + 11) [ -2 a 2b2m5 + -1 (a2 + b2)m +
-l ]} (e)
9
25
5
(1 + 11)2 a2

the z-axis and use polar coordinates r and 8 for defining the position of
an element in the plane of a cross section. The notations for stress
components in such a case are <lr, <le, <l,, r,,, Tre, Te,. The components of
displacements in the radial and tangential directions we may denote by
u and v and the component in the z-direction by w. Then, using the

we get

The minimum condition gives us the following equation for determining m:

305

which, for a narrow rectangle, reduces approximately to

m2 =

(1

(f)

+ 11)a2

Substituting this value of m in (e) and (d), we find the stress distribution for the
case when the middle cross section of the bar remains plane.
For calculating the angle of twist f, we put the potential energy (e) equal to the
work done by the torque Mt,
Mtf =V
2

from which the angle of twist is

3M,
16Glab 3

[z _ v5(1 +
6

11)

(g)

Comparing this result with Eq. (155) on page 273, we conclude that by preventing
the middle cross section from warping we increase the rigidity of the bar with
respect to torsion. The effect of the local irregularity in stress distribution on the
value of f is the sarne as the influence of a diminution of the length l by

v5<1+11)

Taking 11 = 0.30, this reduction in l becomes 0.425a. We see that the effect of
the constraint of the middle cross section on the angle of twist is small if the
dimension a is small in comparison with l.
The twist of a bar of an elliptic cross section can be discussed in an analogous
manner. 1 Of greater effect is the constraint of the middle cross section in the
case of torsion of a bar of I cross section. An approximate method for calculating
the angle of twist in this case is obtained by considering bending of the flanges
during torsion. 2

104. Torsion of Circular Shafts of Variable Diameter. Let us


consider a shaft in the form of a body of revolution twisted by couples
applied at the ends (Fig. 175). We may take the axis of the shaft as
1 A. Fppl, Sitzber. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., Math.-phys. Klasse, Mnchen, 1920,
p. 261.
2 See S. Timoshenko, Z. Math. Physik., vol. 58, p. 361, 1910; or Strength of
Materials, vol. 2, p. 2871 1941,

,j

Fw. 175.

formulas obtained previously for two-dimensional problems (Art. 28),


we find the following expressions for the strain components:
Er

'Yr8

au
ar
au av V
= -r ae + -ar - -,r

= -,

Eq

av
+ r--,
ae
au
aw
- +-,
az ar
u
r

= -

'Yrz =

aw

Ez

'Yz8

= az
=

av + aw
az r ae

(169)

Writing down the equations of equilibrium of an element (Fig. 175),


as was done before for the case of two-dimensional problems (Art. 25),

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TORSION

and assuming that there are no body forces, we arrive at the following
differential equations of equilibrium: 1

To satisfy the compatibility conditions it is necessary to consider


the fact that r,o and ro, are functions of the displacement v. From
Eqs. (a) and (d) we find

306

aur
ar

+!

arr8 + arrz + ~ = O
r ae
az
r
arrz + ! aro. + au. + Trz = o
ar
r ae
az
r
arro + ! auo + arez + 2Tr8 = O
ar
r ae
az
r

Tr8 = G'Yr8 = G
(170)

Hence, of all the stress components, only rro and ro. are different from
zero. The first two of Eqs. (170) are identically satisfied, and the
third of these equations gives
(b)

This equation can be written in the form

+ aza (r ro.) = o

(e)

aq,
r 2r r o= - -az,

T21 aq,
az

"'

(e)

_
- 0

(f)

Toz = G'Yoz = G av = Gr !__ (~)


.!_
az
az r - r2 ar

(1-

!__ 3 aq,)
ar r ar

e{>

of r
(d)

i These equations were obtained by Lam and Clapeyron; see Crelle's J., vol. 7,
1831.

+~
(1- aq,)
az r az
3

or
(g)

Let us consider now the boundary conditions for the function e{>.
From the condition that the lateral surface of the shaft is free from
externai forces we conclude that at any point A at the boundary of an
axial section (Fig. 175) the total shearing stress must be in the direction
of the tangent to the boundary and its projection on the normal N to
the boundary must be zero. Hence

dz
dr
Tro ds - T8z ds

where ds is an element of the boundary. Substituting from (d), we


find that
aq,dz + aq,dr =o
(h)
az ds
ar ds
from which we conclude that e{> is constant along the boundary of the
axial section of the shaft.
Equation (g) together with the boundary condition (h) completely
determines the stress function e{>, from which we may obtain the stresses
satisfying the equations of equilibrium, the compatibility equations,
and the condition at the lateral surface of the shaft. 1
1

It is seen that this equation is satisfied by using a stress function


and z, such that

(Var - !:'r .) = Gr !__ar (~)r = -

From these equations it follows that

ln the application of these equations to the torsional problem we use


the semi-inverse method (see page 259) and assume that u and w are
zero, i.e., that during twist the particles move only in tangential directions. This assumption differs from that for a circular shaft of constant diameter in that these tangential displacements are no longer
proportional to the distance from the axis, i.e., the radii of a cross section become curved during twist. ln the following pages it will be
shown that the solution obtained on the basis of such an assumption
satisfies all the equations of elasticity and therefore represents the true
solution of the problem.
Substituting in (169) u = w = O, and taking into account the fact
that from symmetry the displacement v does not depend on the angle
8, we find that
av
av
V
(a)
'Yr8 = - - -1
"/Oz = az
Er = E9 = E, = 'Yrz = O,
ar
r

ar (r 2rro)

307

This general solution of the problem is dueto J. H. Michell, Proc. London M ath.
S~c., vol. 31, p. 141, 1899. See also A. Fppl, Sitzber. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., Mnc en, vol. 35, pp. 249 and 504, 1905. Also the book "Kerbspannungslehre" by
H. _Ne~ber, which gives solutions for the hyperboloid of revolution, and for a
cavity m the forro of an ellipsoid of revolution by a different method. Reviews
'
of
Mecthe iiterature on the subject have ?ee_n given
b~ T. Pschl, z. angew. Math.
h., vol. 2, p. 137, 1922, and T. J. Higgms, Experimental Stress Analysis vol. 3
no. 1, p. 94, 1945.
'
'

308

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TORSION

The magnitude of the torque is obtained by taking a cross section


and calculating the moment given by the shearing stresses ro.. Then

[ 21C'r2re. dr = 27f' }o[ <P


Mt = }o
ar dr = 27f'J<PI
0

(k)

where a is the outer radius of the cross section. The torque is thus
easily obtained we know the difference between the values of the
stress function at the outer boundary and at the center of the cross
section.
ln discussing displacements during twist of the shaft let us use the
notation i/; = v/r for the angle of rotation of an elemental ring of radius
r in a cross section of the shaft. This ring can be considered as the
cross section of one of a number of thin elemental tubes into which
the shaft is subdivided. Then i/; is the angle of twist of such a tube.
From the fact that the radii of the cross section become curved, it
follows that i/; varies with r and the angles of twist of elemental tubes
are not equal for the sarne cross section of the shaft. Equations (e)
can now be written in the form

meridian, and the corresponding shearing stress in the axial section of


the shaft has the direction normal to the meridian. At the boundary
this stress is tangent to the boundary and the meridians are normal
to the boundary of the axial section. If we go from the surface
1/t = constant to an adjacent surface the rate of change of if; along the
boundary of the axial section of the shaft is dif; / ds, and in the sarne
manner as for a cylindrical shaft of circular cross section (Art. 87) we
have
di/;
r = Grds

where

dr

= rro-

ds

3 ) + ~ (r 3ai/;)
~
ar (r "'
ar
)z
)z

=O
<I>

or

or 2

+ ~ oi/! + a2i/;
r ar

oz 2

+ ro.ds

/\
I 1
( 1
I li 1

z.

+ z2)l

Frn. 176.

is constant at the boundary of the axial section and equal to cos a.


Any function of this ratio will satisfy the boundary condition (h). ln
order to satisfy also Eq. (g) we take

ar

from which

a2i/;

dz

(r2

az

Gr 3 oi/; = <P

az

(n)

is the resultant shearing stress at the boundary. It is


seen that the value of this shearing stress is easily
obtained if we find by experiment the values of dif;/ds.1
Let us consider now a particular case of a conical shaft2
(Fig. 176). ln this case the ratio

Gr ai/; = - acp

ar

309

(l)

A solution of this equation gives us the angle of twist as a function of r


and z. If we put
(m)
i/; = constant
in this solution, we obtain a surface in which all the points have the
sarne angle of twist. ln Fig. 175, AA1 represents the intersection of
such a surface with the axial section of the shaft. From symmetry it
follows that the surfaces given by Eq. (m) are surfaces of revolution
and AA 1is a meridian of the surface going through the point A. During twist these surfaces rotate about the z-axis without any distortion,
exactly in the sarne manner as the plane cross sections in the case of
circular cylindrical shafts. Hence the total strain at any point of the
meridian AA 1 is pure shearing strain in the plane perpendicular to the

= e { (r2

where e is a constant.

~ z2)t - ~ [ (r2 ~ z2)t T}

(o)

Then by differentiation we find

1 ocp
crz
rez = - - = - ~-~-,-r2 ar
(r 2 + z2 )1

(p)

The constant e is obtained from E q. (k) . Su b st"t


i u t"mg (o) m t h"is
equation we find

Mt

e=_

27r(-i - cos a

+t

cos 3 a)

~o calculate the angle of twist we use Eqs. (e), from which the expression for i/;, satisfying Eq. (l) and the boundary condition, is
e
i/; = 3G(r 2
1

+ z )f
2

(q)

Such experiments were made by R. Sonntag Z. angew. Math Mech vol 9


p. 1, 1929.
,
.
.,
. .
2

See Fppl, Zoe. cit.

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TORSION

It will be seen that the surfaces of equal angle of twist are spherical
surlaces with their center at the origin O.
The case of a shaft in the form of an ellipsoid, hyperboloid, or paraboloid of revolution can be discussed in an analogous manner. 1
The problems encountered in practice are of a more complicated
nature. The diameter of the shaft usually changes abruptly, as shown
in Fig. 177a. The first investigation of such problems was made b!
A. Fppl. C. Runge suggested a numerical method for the approx1mate solution of these problems, 2 and it was shown that considerable
stress concentration takes place at such
points as m and n, and that the magnid
tude of the maximum stress for a shaft
n a
of two different diameters d and D
(Fig. 177a) depends on the ratio of the
radius
a of the fillet to the diameter d
D
of the shaft and on the ratio d/D.
ln the case of a semicircular groove
(6)
of
very small radius a, the maximum
faJ
FIG. 177
stress at the bottom of the groove
(Fig. 177b) is twice as great as at the surface of the cylindrical shaft
without the groove.
ln discussing stress concentration at the fillets and grooves of twisted
circular shafts, an electrical analogy has proved very useful. 3 The
general equation for the flow of an electric current in a thin homogeneous plate of variable thickness is

Let us assume that the plate has the sarne boundary as the axial section of the shaft (Fig. 178), that the x- and y-axes coincide with the
z- and r-axes, and that the thickness of the plate is proportional to the
cube of the radial distance r, so that h = ar 3 Then Eq. (r) becomes

310

i_

ax

(h

if;)
x

+ i_
(h ifi)
y
y

(r)

in which h is the variable thickness of the plate and if; the potential
function.
1 See papers by E. Melan, Tech. Bltter, Prag, 1920; A. N. Dinnik, Bull. D~
Polytech. Inst., Novotcherkask, 1912; W. Arndt, Die To~sion v_on We~e1:1 m1t
achsensymmetrischen Bohrungen und Hohlrumen, D1ssertat10n, G?ttm?en,
1916; A. Timpe, Math. Annalen, 1911, p. 480. Further references are g1ven ma
review by Higgins, loc. cit.
.
2 See F. A. Willers, Z. Math. Physik, voI. 55, p. 225, 1907.
Artother approximate
method was developed by L. Fppl, Sitzber. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., Mnchen, vol. 51,
p. 61, 1921, and by R. Sonntag, Z. angew. Math. Mech., voI. 9, p. 1, 1929.
a See paper by L. S. Jacobsen, Trans. A.S.M.E., vol. 47, p. 619, 1925, and. the
survey given by T. J. Higgins, loc. cit. Discrepancies between results obtamed
from this and other methods are discussed in the latter paper. For further comparisons and strain-gauge measurements extending Fig. 179 to 2a/d = 0.50 see
A. Weigand, Luftfahrt-Forsch., vol. 20, p. 217, 1943, translated in N.A.C.A. Tech.
Mem. 1179, September, 1947.

a2y;
az 2

+ ~ ay; + a2y;
r ar

311

=o

Jr 2

This coincides with equation (l), and we conclude that the equipotential lines of the plate are determined by the sarne equation as the lines
of equal angles of twist in the case of a shaft of variable diameter.
Assuming that the ends of the plate, corresponding to the ends of the
shaft, are maintained at a certain difference of potential so that the
current flows along the z-axis, the equipotential lines are normal to the

FIG. 178.

lateral sides of the plate, i.e., we have the sarne boundary conditions as
for lines of constant angle of twist. If the differential equations and
the boundary conditions are the sarne for these two kinds of lines, the
lines are identical. Hence, by investigating the distribution of potential in the plate, valuable information regarding the stress distribution
in the twisted shaft can be obtained.
The maximum stress is at the surface of the shaft and we obtain this
stress by using Eq. (n). From this equation, by applying the electrical
analogy, it follows that the stress is proportional to the rate of drop of
potential along the edge of the plate.
Actual measurements were made on a steel model 24 in. long by 6 in.
wide at the larger end and 1 in. maximum thickness (Fig. 178). The
drop of potential along the edge mnpq of the model was investgated by
using a sensitive galvanometer, the terminals of which were connected
to two sharp needles fastened in a block at a distance 2 mm. apart.
By touching the plate with the needles the drop in potential over the
distance between the needle points was indicated by the galvanometer.
By moving the needles along the fillet it is possible to find the place of,
and measure, the maximum voltage gradient. The ratio of this
maximum to the voltage gradient ata remote point m (Fig. 178a) gives

312

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

TORSION

the magnitude of the factor of stress concentration k* in the equation

of stress concentration for any particular case can be found with sufficient accuracy.

'l'max.

= k

l6M1

Problems

1rd3

The results of such tests in one particular case are represented in Fig.
178c, in which the potential drop measured at each point is indicated
9

3.2
2.8

2.4

2.0

1.6

,\
i\' 1{l=zoo

'\

\' ~

\,,'il

r---...

!J=LSO.

/ 'f}=!.JJ
~ ~ ,q=l.20

'~

1.2

1. Show by considering the equilibrium of the whole bar that when ali stress
components vanish except T%> Tu, the loading must consist of torsional couples
only [cf. Eqs. (h), Art. 90].
2. Show that </> = A (r 2 - a 2 ) solves the torsion problem for the solid or hollow
circular shaft. Determine A in terms of GO. Using Eqs. (141) and (145) evaluate
the maximum shearing stress and the torsional rigidity in terms of M, for the solid
shaft, and verify that the results are in agreement with those given in any text
on strength of materiais.
3. Show that for the sarne twist, the elliptic section has a greater shearing
stress than the inscribed circular section (radius equal to the minor axis b of the
ellipse). Which takes the greater torque for the sarne allowable stress?
4. Use Eq. (g) of Art. 92 and Eq. (145) to evaluate the torsional rigidity of
the equilateral triangle, and thus verify Eq. (l), Art. 92.
5. Using the stress function (m) of Art. 92 expressed in rectangular coordinates,
fi.nd an expression for Tu along the middle line Ax of Fig. 153, and verify that the
greatest value along this line is the value given by
Eq. (p).
6. Evaluate the torsional rigidity of the section
shown in Fig. 153. Is it appreciably different
from that of the complete circular section when the
groove is small?
y
7. Show that the expression for the stress function </> which corresponds to the parabolic membrane of Art. 94 is

-r- ~ ~
j~=l.09-~

f'... r--o..

0.8

q,

0.4

OD4

0.08

0.12
2a

0.16

313

o.zo

0.24

* Small variations in radius r {Eq. (n)] can be neglected in this case.

-Go ( x2 -

~)

ln a narrow tapered section such as the triangle


y
shown in Fig. 180, an approximate solution can be
Frn. 180.
FIG. 181.
obtained by assuming that at any levei y the
membrane has the parabolic form appropriate to the width at that level. Prove
that for the triangular section of height b
approximately.

FIG. 179.

by the length on the normal to the edge of the plate at this point.
From this figure the factor of stress concentration is found to be 1.54.
The magnitudes of this factor obtained with various proportions of
shafts are given in Fig. 179, in which the abscissas represent the ratios
2a/d of the radius of the fillet to the radius of the smaller shaft and the
ordinates the factor of stress concentration k for various values of the
ratio D/d (see Fig. 177). By interpolating from these curves the factor

M1

f#obc. 3

8. Using the method indicated in Prob. 7, find an approximate expression for the

~rs~onal rigidity of the thin symmetrical section bounded by two parabolas shown
lll

Fig. 181, for which the width e ata depth y below the center is given by

e=

Co

(1 - ~)

9. Show that the method indicated in Prob. 7 gives for a slender elliptical
sect1on the approximate stress function
ti> = -Gob2

e::: +
a

y2 b

1)

314

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

the ellipse being that of Fig. 149 with b/a small.


Art. 91 approaches this as b/a is made small.
Derive the approximate formulas
Mt = trab'GO,

TORSION

Show that the exact solution of


2M1

Tmax,

18. At any point of an axial section of a shaft of variable diameter, line elements
ds and dn (at right angles) in the section are chosen arbitrarily as shown in Fig. 184.
The shear stress is expressed by components Ta, r,. along these. Show that

= 2GOb = trab 2

1 Jcp

for the slender elliptical section, and compare with the corresponding formulas
for the thin rectangular section of length 2a and thickness 2b.
10. Apply the method given at the end of Art. 97 to find an approximation to
the torsional rigidity of the section described in Prob. 8.
11. A section has a single hole, and the stress function cf> is determined so that it
vanishes on the outside boundary and has a constant value c/>H on the boundary of
the hole. By adapting the calculation indicated on page 262 for Eq. (145), prove
that the total torque is given by twice the volume under the cp-surface plus twice
the volume under a flat roof at height cf>H covering the hole (cf. page 298).
12. A closed thin-walled tube has a perimeter l and a uniform wall thickness li.
An open tube is made by making a fine longitudinal cut in it. Show that when the
maximum shear stress is the sarne in both
closed and open tubes,
Mtopen
Mtclosed

/li

Oopen

6A'

Oc!osed

2A
=

satisfies Eq. (g) of Art. 104 only if the constant A is

-! [cf. Eq. (o)].

Ta

=Ti Jn'

Tn

= GrJif;

Jn

and deduce the boundary condition satisfied by Y,.


Show without calculation that the function given by Eq. (q)
of Art. 104 satisfies this boundary condition for a conical
boundary of any angle.
19. Verify that Eq. (q) of Art. 104 gives correctly the function Y, corresponding to the function cf> in Eq. (o).
z
20. If the theory of Art. 104 is modified by discarding the
FIG. 184.
boundary condition cf> = constant the stress will be due to
certain "rings of shear" on the boundary, as well as end torques. Considering
the uniform circular shaft, describe the problem solved by cf> = Czr 4 where C is a
constant, for O < z < l.
21. Prove that the relative rotation of the ends of the (conical) tapered shaft
shown in Fig. 185 due to torque M1 is

and that the ratio of the torsional rigidities


is /2li2 /12A 2, A being the area of the "hole."
Evaluate these ratios for a circular tube of
FIG. l8Z.
1 in. radius, T\ in. wall thickness.
13. A thin-walled tube has the cross section shown in Fig. 182, with uniform
wall thickness li. Show that there will be no stress in the central web when the
tube is twisted.
Find formulas for (a) the shear stress in the walls, away from the corners, (b) the
unit twist o, in terms of the torque.
14. Find expressions for the shear stresses in a tube of the section shown in
Fig. 183, the wall thickness li being uniform.
15. ln discussing thin-walled closed sections, it was assumed that the shear stress
is constant across the wall thickness, corresponding to constant membrane slope across
the thickness. Show that this cannot be
strictly true for a straight part of the wall
(e.g., Fig. 171a) and that in general the correcFIG. 183.
tion to this shear stress consists of the shear
stress in a tube made "open" by longitudinal cuts (cf. Prob. 12).
16. The theory of Art. 104 includes the uniform circular shaft as a special case.
What are the corresponding forms for the functions cf> and Y,? Show that these
functions give the correct relation between torque and unit twist.
17. Prove that
z
Az3
)i
cf> = R + R,3
where
R = (r 2 + z2 ~

315

M
2tr(f - cos a

+!

1(1 b31)

cos 3 a) 3G ; -

If a and b are both made large, with b - a = l, and a is made small, the above
result should approach the relative rotation of the ends of a uniform shaft of
length Z, and radius aa, dueto torque M 1 Show that it does so.

Fm. 185.

Fm. 186.

22. Use the functions given by Eqs. (o) and (q) of Art. 104 to find, in terms of M,,
the relative rotation of the ends of the hollow conical shaft shown in Fig. 186. The
ends are spherical surfaces of radii a, b, center O.

.,,
1

317

BENDING OF PRISMATICAL BARS

CHAPTER 12
BENDING OF PRISMATICAL BARS
106. Bending of a Cantilever. ln discussing pure bending (Art. 88)
it was shown that, a prismatical bar is bent in one of its principal
planes by two equal and opposite couples applied at the ends, the
deflection occurs in the sarne plane, and of the six components of stress
only the normal stress parallel to the axis of the bar is different from
zero. This stress is proportional to the distance from the neutral axis.
Thus the exact solution coincides in this case with the elementary
theory of bending. ln discussing bending of a cantilever of narrow
rectangular cross section by a force applied at the end (Art. 20), it was

FIG. 187.

shown that in addition to normal stresses, proportional in each cross


section to the bending moment, there will act also shearing stresses
proportional to the shearing force.
Consider now a more general case of bending of a cantilever of a constant cross section of any shape by a force P applied at the end and
parallel to one of the principal axes of the cross section 1 (Fig. 187).
Take the origin of the coordinates at the centroid of the fixed end.
The z-axis coincides with the center line of the bar, and the x- and
y-axes coincide with the principal axes of the cross section. ln the
solution of the problem we apply Saint-Venant's semi-inverse method
and at the very beginning make certain assumptions regarding stresses.
We assume that normal stresses over a cross section at a distance z
from the fixed end are distributed in the sarne manner as in the case of
pure bending:
P(l - z)x
(a)
" =
I
i This problem was solved by Saint-Venant, J. mathmat. (I.tiouville), series 2,
vol. 1, 1856.
316

'

We assume also that there are shearing stresses, acting on the sarne
cross sections, which we resolve at each point into components r,,, and
Tyz
We assume that the remaining three stress components"z, " 111 r zy
are zero. It will now be shown that by using these assumptions we
arrive at a solution which satisfies all of the equations of the theory of
elasticity and which is hence the exact solution of the problem.
With these assumptions, neglecting body forces, the differential
equations of equilibrium (127) become
ih,,.
iJz
iJr,,,

Tx

=o

=O

dTy,

'
iJry, _

az

(b)

Px

(e)

Ty--7

From (b) we conclude that shearing stresses do not depend on z and are
the sarne in all cross sections of the bar.
Considering now the boundary conditions (128) and applying them
to the lateral surface of the bar, which is free from external forces we
find that the first two of these equations are identically satisfied 'and
the third one gives
T,,.l + Tyzm = 0
From Fig. 187b we see that
l

= cos

dx

(Nx) = dy

m = cos (Ny) = - ds

ds'

in which ds is an element of the bounding curve of the cross section.


Then the condition at the boundary is
T:z;z

dy
ds -

T 11z

dx
ds = O

(d)

Turning to the compatibility equations (130), we see that the first


three of these equations, containing normal stress components, and the
last equation, containing Tru, are identically satisfied. The system
(130) then reduces to the two equations

V2Tyz =

o1

~
V T

""

~-~

J(l

+ v)

(e)

Thus the solution of the problem of bending of a prismatical cantilever


ofanY cross sect10n
red uces to findmg,

for ""' and ,,11., functions of x


and ?.which satisfy the equation of equilibrium (e), the boundary
condition (d), and the compatibility equations (e).

BENDING OF PRISMATICAL BARS

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

318

106. Stress Function. ln discussing the bending problems we


shall again make use of a stress function q,(x,y). It is easy to see ~hat
the differential equations of equilibrium (b) and (e) of the previous
1trticle are satisfied by taking
aq,
Px 2
- aq,
(171)
Tyz =
Txz = y - 2[ + f(y),
x
in which q, is the stress function of x and y, and f(y) is a function of Y
only, which will be determined later from the boundary condition:
Substituting (171) in the compatibility equations (e) of the prev1ous
article, we obtain
2
a
q,
a q,)
x ox 2 + y 2 = O

(<P

(a 2q, a2q,\
ay ax 2 + ayi} = 1 +
a

vY

df
dy 2

From these equations we conclude that


0 2q,

ax 2

a2q,

Py

+ iiif = 1 + v I

df

(a)

- dy + e

where e is a constant of integration. This constant has a very simple


physical meaning. Consider the rotation of an element of area in the
plane of a cross section of the cantilever. This rotation is expressed
by the equation (see page 225)
_ v _ u
2Wz - X
y
The rate of change of this rotation in the direction of the z-axis can be
written in the following manner:

~(~-~)=~(~
~)-~(~+~)=~-~
az ax
ay
ax az + ay
ay az
ax
ax
ay
and, by using Hooke's law and expressions (171) for the stress components, we find

a ( ) - 1 (Tyz
az 2w - G ax

OTxz)
ay

= -

.!
G

1/>2

ax

+ ytf>2 + df)
dy

Substituting in Eq. (a),

2 w,) = 1
-G az C

Py

+ vT + e

319

If the x-axis is an axis of symmetry of the cross section, bending by a


force P in this axis will result in a symmetrical pattern of rotation w. of
elements of the cross section (corresponding to anticlastic curvature),
with a mean value of zero for the whole cross section. The mean value
of w,/z will then also be zero, and this requires that e in Eq. (b) be
taken as zero. If the cross section is not symmetrical we can define 1
bending without torsion by means of the zero mean value of aw,/az,
again of course requiring the zero value for e. Then Eq. (b) shows that
aw,/ z vanishes for the elements of cross sections at the centroids-that
is, these elements along the axis have zero relative rotation, and if one
is fixed the others have no rotation-about the axis. With e zero Eq.
(a) beeomes
a2q, + a2q, = _v_ Py _ df
(172)
ax2
oy 2
1+ v I
dy
Substituting (172) in the boundary condition (d) of the previous
article we find
2
aq, dy + aq, dx = aq, = [Px _ f( ) ] dy
(173)
y ds
x ds
as
21
y
ds
From this equation the values of the function q, along the boundary of
the cross section can be calculated if the function f(y) is chosen.
Equation (172), together with the boundary condition (173), determines the stress function q,.
ln the problems which will be discussed later we shall take function
f(y) in such a manner as to make the right side of Eq. (173) equal to
zero. 2 q, is then constant along the boundary. Taking this constant
equal to zero, we reduce the bending problem to the solution of the
differential equation (172) with the condition q, = O at the boundary.
This problem is analogous to that of the deflection of a membrane uniformly stretched, having the sarne boundary as the cross section of the
bent bar and loaded by a 1.Jontinuous load given by the right side of Eq.
(172). Severa! applications of this analogy will now be shown.
107. Circular Cross Section. Let the boundary of the cross section
be given by the equation
x2 + y2 = r2
(a)
1
J. N. Goodier, J. Aeronaut. Sei., vol. 11, p. 273, 1944. A different definition
Was proposed by E. Trefftz, Z. angew. Math. Mech., vol. 15, p. 220, 1935.
2
See S. Timoshenko, Bult. Inst. Engineers of Ways of Communications, St.
Petersburg, 1913. See also Proc London Math. Soe., series 2, vol. 20, p. 398, 1922.

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

BENDING OF PRISMATICAL BARS

The right side of the boundary condition (173) becomes zero if we take

The maximum shearing stress is obtained at the center (y = O), where

P (r2 _ y2)
f (y) = 21

(3 + 2v)Pr2
(r..,.)max. = 8(1 + 11)!

320

(b)

Substituting this into Eq. (172), the stress function cjJ is then determined by the equation
a2q, a2q, 1 + 2v Py
( )
x 2 + y 2 = 1 + v T
e
and the condition that q, = O at the boundary. Thus the stress function is given by the deflections of a membrane with circular boundary
of radius r, uniformly stretched and loaded by a transverse load of
intensity proportional to
1 + 2vPy

-T+vT

It is easy to see that Eq. (e) and the boundary condition are satisfied
in this case by taking
(d)
e/> = m(x2 + y2 - r2)y
where m is a constant factor. This function is zero at the boundary
(a) and satisfies Eq. (e) if we take
(1

+ 2v)P

= 8(1

v)I

Equation (d) then becomes

q,

= (1

+ 2v)P (x2 + y2 _

8(1

+ v)I

r2)y

(3 + 2v)P ( 2 _
8(1 + v)I r
(1 + 2v)Pxy
" 11 = 4(1 + v)I

'Tzz

2 _ 1 - 2v 2)
3 + 2v Y

(r

(1 + 2v)Pr 2
(-rzz)ll=r = 4(1
v)J

= r) is
(h)

It will be seen that the magnitude of the shearing stresses depends on


the magnitude of Poisson's ratio. Taking v = 0.3, (g) and (h)
beco me
p
p
(k)
(r,,,) 11=r = 1.23 A
(-r,,,)max. = 1.38 A'
where A is the cross-sectional area of the bar. The elementary beam
theory, based on the assumption that the shearing stress r,,, is uniformly distributed along the horizontal diameter of the cross section,
gives

4P

Tzz

= 3A

The error of the elementary solution for the maximum stress is thus
in this case about 4 per cent.
108. Elliptic Cross Section. The method of the previous article
can also be used in the case of an elliptic cross section. Let
x2

a2 + b2y2 -

f(y) = -

(174)

(a)

1 =O

be the boundary of the cross section.


vanish if we take

The vertical shearing-stress componen:, -r,,, is an even function of x and


y, and the horizontal component -r11, is an odd functi.on of the sarne
variables. Hence the distribution of stresses (17 4) g1ves a resultant
along the vertical diameter of the circular cross section.
Along the horizontal diameter of the cross section, x = O; and we
find, from (174),
(3 + 2v)P 2 _ 1 - 2v y2),
.,11, = O (j)
'Tzz = 8(1 + v)J
3 + 2v

(g)

The shearing stress at the ends of the horizontal diameter (y

(e)

The stress components are now obtained from Eqs. (171):

321

The right side of Eq. (173) will

~(~:y2 - a2)

(b)

Substituting into Eq. (172), we find

a2q,
ax2

a2q,

Py (2
b2 + 1

+ ay2 = T

" )

(e)

+v

This equation together with the condition q, = O at the boundary


determines the stress function q,. The boundary condition and Eq.
(e) are satisfied by taking
(1

q, = 2(1

+ v)a +
vb
2
2
2

v)(3a

P(

+ b )I

a2

+ b2 y

2)

(d)

.-------_.....,.;...;..;_..,,

1NST1TUTUl flUTEMll'C i

11!~1~;~c~~~~R~U.

322

THEORY OF ELASTJCITY

BENDING OF PRISMATJCAL BARS

When a = b, this solution coincides with solution (e) of the previous


article.
Substituting (b) and (d) in Eqs. (171), we find the stress components

109. Rectangular Cross Section. The equation for the boundary


line in the case of the rectangle shown in Fig. 188 is

T:u

T11

+
+

+
+

2(1
v)a 2 b2 P [ 2
= (1
v)(3a2
b2). 2I a
(1 + v)a 2 + vb 2 Pxy
= - (1 + v)(3a 2 + b2 ) l

x2 _
(1 - 2v)a 2 y 2]
2(1
v)a2
b2

(175)

T,,,
Tyz

b2 P [a 2 _
(1 - 2v)a 2 y 2]
b2) 21
2(1
v)a 2 b2

(Tzz)max. =

Pa

2J [

1 -

+3a2vb +
/(1 + v)]
b2

If b is very small in comparison with a, we can neglect the terms containing b2 /a 2, in which case
{Tzz)max. =

If we substitute into Eq. (173) the consta.nt Pa2 /2J for f(y), the
expression Px 2 /21 - Pa 2 /21 becomes zero along the sides x = a of
the rectangle. Along the vertical sides y = b
the derivative dy/ds is zero. Thus the right
a
side of Eq. (173) is zero along the boundary
line and we can take <P = O at the boundary. y-+--1----i b
Differential equation (172) becomes

3J = 3 A

('Tzz)max. = 1

-1

If

p
A

The stress at the ends of the horizontal diameter (y =


case is
4v P
T,,. = 1 +V A

b) for this

The stress distribution along the horizontal diameter is i~ this,case :rery


far from uniform and depends on the magnitude .of Pmsson s ratio v.
Taking v = 0.30, we find
'''

(Tzz)max. = 1.54 A'

This equation, together with the boundary


condition, determines completely the stress
function. The problem reduces to the determination of the deflections of a uniformly
Frn. 188.
stretched rectangular membrane produced
by a continuous load, the intensity of which is proportional to

4P

Pa 2

which coincides with the solution of the elementary beam theory.


b is very large in comparison with a, we obtain

(Tzz)x=o, y==b =

0.92 A

bthe
The maximum stress is about 14 per cent larger than t h at given
Y
elementary formula,

'~:li.:!

(a)

(b)

The maximum stress is at the center (y = O) and is given by equation

'

(x2 - a2)(y2 - b2) =O

For the horizontal axis of the elliptic cross section (x = O), we find
2(1 + v)a 2 +
= (1
v)(3a 2

323

Py

+ vT

The curve mnp in Fig. 188 represents the intersection of the membrane
with the yz-plane.
From Eqs. (171) we see that shearing stresses can be resolved into
the two following systems:
(1)
(2)

11
'

li

= - cp

(e)

The first system represents the parabolic stress distribution given by


the usual elementary beam theory. The second system, depending
on the function <P, represents the necessary corrections to the elementary solution. The magnitudes of these corrections are given by
the slopes of the membrane. Along the y-axis, <P/x = O, from symmetry, and the corrections to the elementary theory are vertical shearing stresses given by the slope aq,/ay. From Fig. 188, T,,," is positive
at the points m and p and negative at n. Thus, along the horizontal

324

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

BENDING OF PRISMATICAL BARS

axis of symmetry, the stress 7'zz is not uniform as in the elementary


theory but has maxima at the ends, m and p, anda minimum at the
center n.
From the condition of loading of the membrane it can be seen that cp
is an even function of x and an odd function of y. This requirement
and also the boundary condition are satisfied by taking the stress function q, in the form of the Fourier series,

From this we find the following formulas for the center of the cross section (y = O) and for the middle of the vertical sides of the rectangle:

m=oon=oo

q,

i..{

m= ao n= oo

\'
(2m + l}irx . n1f'Y
~ A2m+l,n cos
sm b
2a

\'

(d)

m=O n=l

Substituting this into Eq. (b) and applying the usual method of calculating the coefficients of a Fourier series, we arrive at the equations
A 2m+l,nr2ab [ (

d )2 + (~)2]

P8b

+ r-;a ~
"

b'

(-l)m-1

"

(2m

+ 1) [ (2m + 1)2 :;2 + n2]

The summation of these series is greatly simplified if we use the


known formulas

--vI

A2m+l,n = -

= -

-a

-b

+PT r4(2m +

y cos

(2m

+ l)n sm
. n1f'Y
-b- dx dy

2a
8b( - l)m+n-1

l)n [ (2m2d

n="'

1y + (~)2]

"(-1)" =

4 n2
n-1

Substituting in (d), we find


m="' n= "''(

cp

= -

2:

p 8b3

+ PI 7

m=O

n=l

m="'

l) m+n- 1

(2m

COS

(2m

+ l)n Slil. -nry

2a

m="' n="'

m=O

+ l)n [ (2m + 1)2 :;2 + n2 J

{- l)m+n-1

"

cos n1f'Y

(2m

(-l)m
1)[(2m
1) 2

2Pl 3
y = EJ.,.. 4

in which

n="' sin ~ sin n-irz


l
l
n 2(n 2 + k2)
n=l

2:

k2=~
EJ.,..2

ande is the distance of the load P from the left support (Fig. 112). Substituting
now e =O and Pc = M, we arrive at the following deflection curve produced by
the couple M applied at the left end
'

,
1
l:h.i

P8b
+v vT-;a
f:(
"

f{ (2m + 1) [ (2m + 1) 4~b 2 + n


"

)*

_ r 3 1 - sechi
k 2) - 32 . j(kr/2)2

~ This formula can be obtained in the following manner: Using the trigonometric
series (h) (p. 155) for the case of a tie rod loaded by the transverse force p and the
direct tensile force S, we find that

Having this stress function, the components of shearing stress can be


found from Eqs. (e).
Let us derive the corrections to the stress given by the elementary
theory along the y-axis. It may be seen from the deflection of the
membrane (Fig. 188) that along this axis the corrections have the
largest values, and therefore the maximum stress occurs at the middle
points of the sides y = b. Calculating the derivative aq,/ay and
taking x = O, we find that

- 1

325

2Ml2

y = Eh

nL:="' sm. -z
n-irz
n(n 2
n=l

+ k2)

Then

By using the membrane analogy useful approximate formulas for


calculating these shearing stresses can be derived. If a is large in comparison with b (Fig. 188) we can assume that, at points sufficiently
distant from the short sides of the rectangle, the surface of the membrane is practically cylindrical. Then Eq. (b) becomes

n= oo

- 1

3P b2
v 2A. a2

3 + 11'2

~
f1

n2

( - l)n ]
cosh n:a

[2 41: 1 ]
n= oo

(Tzz")z=O, y=h

3P b
V 2A a2

= 1+

3-

(176)

a 2 q, _

h n'll'a
n 2 cos -b

11'2

Point

X=

0, y = 0

Exact
Approximate

0.983
0.981

0.940
0.936

0.856
0.856

0.805
0.826

X=

0, y = b

Exact
Approximate

1.033
1.040

1.126
1.143

1.396
1.426

1.988
1.934

(e)

Substituting in Eqs. (e), the stresses along the y-axis are

+1+

_ 21
p [ a2

2
b )]
y - 3

(f)

It will be seen that for a narrow rectangle the correction to the elementary formula, given by the second term in the brackets, is always
small.
If b is large in comparison with a, the deflections of the membrane
at points distant from the short sides of the rectangle can be taken as a
linear function of y, and from Eq. (b) we find

a q,
v Py
ax = 1 +V T
2

</>

= 1

Py

+ v 21 (x2

(g)

a2)

Substituting in Eqs. (e), the shearing stress components are


-

Tzz -

p ( 2
+1 V . 21
a -

2)

Tyz

= - 1

+ T xy
V

At the centroid of the cross section (x = y = O),

and the deflection at the middle is


m= oo

(-1)"'

\'

V
p
= - - - (y - b2y)
1+V61

1' xz -

3p /2A given by the elementary formula. In the first lines of the table
above numerical factors are given by which the approximate value of
the shearing stress 3P /2A must be multiplied in order to obtain the
exact values of the stress. 1 The Poisson's ratio vis taken equal to onefourth in this calculation. It is seen that the elementary formula gives
very accurate values for these stresses when a/b ~ 2. For a square
cross section the error in the maximum stress obtained by the elementary formula is about 10 per cent.

2Ml 2

</>

-=
b

0 = Ef1r3

+V T

and we find

in which A = 4ab is the cross-sectional area. These series converge


rapidly and it is not difficult to calculate corrections Tzz" for any value
of the ratio a/b. These corrections must be added to the value
1

Py

dy 2 - 1

n=l

327

BENDING OF PRISMATICAL BARS

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

326

(2m

+ 1)[(2m + 1) + k
2

(a)
Tzz

Pa 2

= l +V 2['

Tyz

m=O

The sarne deflection obtained by integration of the differential equation of the


deflection curve is
Ml2

= 2EJ-ir2k2

br)

1 - sech 2

(b)

The above formula follows from comparison of (a) and (b).


.

i The figures of this table are somewhat different from those g~ven by Sa~nt
Venant. Checking of Saint-Venant's results showed that there is a numerical
error in his calculations.

ln comparison with the usual elementary solution the stress at this


point is reduced in the ratio 1/(1 + v).
To satisfy the boundary condition at the short sides of the rectangle
we take, instead of expression (g), the following expression for the stress
function:
V
Py (x 2 - a 2)[1 - e-Cb-'l/lm]
(h)
</> = - - 1 +V 21

328

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

BENDING OF PRISMATICAL BARS

in which m must be determined from the condition of minimum energy


(see Art. 97). ln this manner we find

329

given in the form (b - TJ)/2a in the last column, b - 11 being the distance of the maximum point from the comer.

= 2aVW

b
-

With this value for m, and by using Eq. (h), we can calculate with
sufficient accuracy the maximum shearing stress which occurs at the
middle of the short sides of the rectangle.
lf both sides of the rectangle are of the sarne order of magnitude we
can obtain an approximate solution for the stress distribution in a
polynomial form by taking the stress function in the form

q,

= (x2 - a2) (y2 -

b2) (my

+ ny)

(k)

Calculating the coefficients m and n from the condition of minimum


energy we find 1

(rz.).,_o,

3P/2A

(Tu.) ~-a, 11-"I


3P/2A

2a

1.000
1.39(4)
1.988
2.582
3.176
3.770
5.255
6.740
8.225
15.650

0.000
0.31(6)
0.968
1.695
2.452
3.226
5.202
7.209
9.233
19 .466

0.000
0.31(4)
0.522
0.649
0.739
0.810
0.939
1.030
1.102
1.322

2
4
6
8
10
15
20
25
50

11 -1>

b -.,

11_0. Additional ~esul~s. Let us consider a cross section the boundary of which
cons1sts of two vertical s1des y = a (Fig. 189) and two hyperbolas1
(1

+ v)x2

- vy2 = a2

(a)

It is easy to show that this makes the right side of Eq.


(173) on page 319 zero at the boundary if we take
f(y) = : ;

The shearing stresses, calculated from (k), are

Pa2
(T zz) z=0, 11=0 = 'if
2

(Tzz)x=o,

y=b

= ~~

+ ma 2b2
- 2a2b2(m

(1 ~ py2 + 1~ p)

Substituting into Eq. (172), we find


J2</>

+ nb 2)

(l)

The approximate values of the shearing stresses given on the second


lines of the table (see page 326) were calculated by using these formulas.
It will be seen that the approximate formulas (Z) give satisfactory
accuracy in this range of values of a/b.
If the width of the rectangle is large in comparison with the depth
maximum stresses much larger than the value 3P /2A of the elementary
theory are found. Moreover b/a exceeds 15 the maximum stress is
no longer the component Tzz at x =O, y = b, the mid-points of the
vertical sides. It is the horizontal component 7'11, at points x = a,
y = TJ on the top and bottom edges near the corners. V alues of
these stresses are given in the table 2 on page 329. The values of TJ are
1 See Timoshenko, loc. cit.
'E. Reissner and G. B. Thomas, J. Math. Phys., vol. 25, p. 241, 1946.

ax2

J2<f>

+ ay2

Frn. 189.

=O

This equation and the boundary condition (173) are satisfied by taking
Then the shearing-stress components, from Eq. (171), are

r.,.

= 2pl ( - z2

T11

= 0

</> =

O
.

+ _v_ y2 + ~)
l+v

l+v

At each point of the cross section the shearing stress is vertical. The maximum
of this stress is at the middle of the vertical sides of the cross section and is equal to
Ttll3x.

Pa 2

2f

The problem can also be easily solved if the boundary of the cross section is given
by the equation
1

n~

~),

(
= ( 1 a >X > -a
(b)
1
This problem was discussed by F. Grashof, "Elastizitt und Festigkeit "p 246
1878.
' .
,

For

li

Then an approximate expression for the stress function is

i, this cross-section curve has the shape shown in Fig. 190.

By taking

q,

f(y) =

Pa2 [ 1
'iI - (

by);]

a2q, _ _ 11_Py + Pa
ay2 - 1 + 11 I - 2bl 11

!-1
( 1!)
b

. equation and the boundary condition are satisfied by


Th1s
taking

Pa 2 11
:Z:.: _ 1
q, = 2(1
11)! [ y

(a

)-

b (

11 ) -+1]
v
b

(y - a)[x

FIG. 190.

Txz

= 2(1

+ 11)! (a

2 -

'

Tyz

(1~11)Ixy

= -

(e)

dx = dy

FIG. 191.

th d (Art 109) we may arrive


By using the energy me . o
.. th
s Let us consider for instance, the
t
1 t"onmmanyo ercase
'
.
b
at an app:oxima e so. u ~- 191 The vertical sides of the boundary are g1ven y
cross sectt~on sh~wn+mb a~~ the ~ther two sides are ares of the circl~.
the equa 10n Y - -
x2

+ y2

- r =O

The right side of Eq. (173) vanishes if we take

f(y) =

{z. (r -

y2)

- (2a

+ y)

+ By + )
3

+ y) tan a]

tan 2 a

P
- (2a
I

tan 2 a

Substituting from (e) and integrating, we arrive at the


equation of the boundary,
x 2) '

r 2 )(Ay

+ y) tan

l-a
X

(a)

FIG. 192.

An approximate solution may be obtained by using the energy method.


particular case when

p
(2a
21

a2q,
a2q,
-ax
- 2 = 1-+.,,-v Py
- 2 + ay
I

Tyz

+ y -

Equation (172) for determining the stress function q, then


becomes

.
( ) for stress components may be derived. The equafrom which the express10ns e b f
df
the condition that at the boundary
tion of the boundary can now e oun ~om
the direction of shearing stress coincides w1th the tangent
/
'
to the boundary. Hence
I
\

y = b(a 2

+ (2a + y) tan a][x


f(y) =

.
different way In discussing stresses in a

t the sarne result m a

.
h
W e can arnve
a
.
which is large in comparison w1th the dept ' we
rectangular beam t_he w1dthl ot~
f r the stress function [Eq. (g), Art. 109] the
used as an approximate so u ion o
expression
- - " - Py (x2 - a)
</> - 1 +V 2[

Txz

b2)(x2

The right side of Eq. (173) is zero if we take

Substituting in Eqs. (171) we find


2)

= (y -

in which the coefficients A, B, . . . are to be calculated from the condition of


minimum energy.
Solutions for many shapes of cross section have been obtained by using polar
and other curvilinear coordinates, and functions of the complex variable. These
include sections bounded by two circles, concentric 1 or nonconcentric,2 a circle
with radial slits, 3 a cardioid, 4 a limaon, 5 an elliptic limaon, two confocal ellipses, 7
an ellipse and confocal hyperbolas, 8 triangles and polygons 9 including a rectangle
with slits, 10 anda sector of a circular ring. 11
111. Nonsymmetrical Cross Sections. As a first example let us consider the
case of an isosceles triangle (Fig. 192). The boundary of the cross section is given
by the equation


(173)
h s i e q, must be constant
th left side of the boundary cond1t1on
vams e ' .. ,
e
along the boundary. Equation (172) becomes

a2q,
ax2

331

BENDING OF PRISMATICAL BARS

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

330

'

(d) '

= 1-"+V = 3~

In the
(b)

1 A solution is given in A. E. H. Love's "Mathematical Theory of Elasticity,"


4th ed. p. 335, and in I. S. Sokolnikoff's "Mathematical Theory of Elasticity,"
p. 253.
2
B. R. Seth, Proe. Irulian Acad. Sei., vol. 4, sec. A, p. 531, 1936, and vol. 5,
p. 23, 1937.
3 W. M. Shepherd, Proe. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 138, p. 607, 1932;
L. A. Wigglesworth, Proe. London Math. Soe., series 2, vol. 47, p. 20, 1940, and
Proe. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 170, p. 365, 1939.
' W. M. Shepherd, Proe. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 154, p. 500, 1936.
D. L. Holl and D. H. Rock, Z. angew. Math. Meeh., vol. 19, p. 141, 1939.
6
A. C. Stevenson, Proe. London Math. Soe., series 2, vol. 45, p. 126, 1939.
7
A. E. H. Love, "Mathematical Theory of Elasticity," 4th ed., p. 336.
8
B. G. Galerkin, Bull. I nst. Engineers of W ays of Communieation, St. Petersburg,
vol. 96, 1927. See also S. Ghosh, Bull. Calcutta Math. Soe., vol. 27, p. 7, 1935.
9
B. R. Seth, Phil. Mag., vol. 22, p. 582, 1936, and vol. 23, p. 745, 1937.
' D. F. Gunder, Physies, vol. 6, p. 38, 1935.
11
M. Seegar and K. Pearson, Proe. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 96, p. 211,

1920.

332

BENDlNG OF PRlSMATICAL BARS

an exact solution of Eq. (a) is obtained by taking for the stress function the
expresision

The caf'e shown in Fig. 194 can be treated in a similar manner. Assume, for
example, that the cross section is a parabolic segment and that the equation of
the parabola is
x 2 = A(y +a)
Then we take
p
j(y) = 21 . A(y +a)
y---+--r---1

</> =

p
61

[x

2 -

(2a

+ y)

J(y -

a)

The stress components are then obtained from Eqs. (171):


c/>

Tz

= y -

c/>

Px 2

2T

Tu = - x =

P
+ 61
(2a + y)

2 y'p
2
27 4 [-x

+ a(2a + y)]

2 v3P

(e)

27a4 x(a - y)

Along the y-axis, x = O, and the resultant shearing stress is vertical and is represented by the linear function
(Tzz)z-o

2v3P

27a 3 (2a

+ y)

The maximum value of this stress, at the middle of the vertical side of the cross
section, is
(d)

By calculating the moment with respect to the z-axis of the shearing forces given
by the stresses (e), it can be shown that in this case the resultant shearing force
passes through the centroid C of the cross section.
Let us consider next the more general case of a cross section with a horizontal
axis of symmetry (Fig. 193), the lower and upper portions of the boundary being
given by the equations
= ..p(y)
X = -..p(y)
X

for
for

>O

<O

Then the function


FrG. 193.

[x

+ ..p(y)][x -

With this assumption the stress function has to satisfy the differential equation

and be constant at the boundary. The problem is reduced to that of finding the
deflections of a uniformly stretched membrane when the intensity of the load is
given by the right-hand side of the above equation. This latter problem can
usually be solved with sufficient accuracy by using the energy method as was showa
in the case of the rectangular cross section ( page 328).

r:''

~l,

With this expression for J(y) the first factor on the righthand side of Eq. (173) vanishes along the parabolic portion of
the boundary. The factor dy/ds vanishes along the straightline
portion of the boundary. Thus we find again that the
FIG. 194.
stress function is constant along the boundary and the problem
can be treated by using the energy method.

112. Shear Center. ln discussing the cantilever problem we chose


for z-axis the centroidal axis of the bar and for x- and y-axes the principal centroidal axes of the cross section. We assumed that the force P
is parallel to the x-axis and at such a distance from the centroid that
twisting of the bar does not occur. This distance, which is of importance in practical calculations, can readily be found once the stresses
represented by Eqs. (171) are known. For this purpose we evaluate
the moment about the centroid produced by the shear stresses T:x:z and
T 11,.
This moment evidently is

M, =

Jf

(T:x:zY -

T11zX)

dx dy

(a)

Observing that the stresses distributed over the end cross section of the
beam are statically equivalent to the acting force P we conclude that
the distance d of the force P from the centroid of the cross section is
d=

..p(y)] = z2 - [..p(y)]2

vanishes along the boundary and in our expressions for stress components (171)
we can take
p
J(y) = 21 [..p(y)] 2

':

333

THEORY OF ELASTIClTY

IM.I
p

(b)

For positive M, the distance d must be taken in the direction of positive


ln the preceding discussion the assumption was made that the
force is acting parallel to the x-axis.
When the force P is parallel to the y-axis instead of the x-axis we can,
by a similar calculation, establish the position of the line of action of P
for which no rotation of centroidal elements of cross sections occurs.
The intersection point of the two lines of action of the bending forces
has an important significance. If a force, perpendicular to the axis of
the beam, is applied at that point we can resolve it into two componentfl
parallel to the x- and y-axes and on the basis of the above discussion we
conclude that it does not produce rotation of centroidal elements of
y.

.;.
I

334

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

cross sections of the beam. This point is called the shear ccntersometimes also the center of flexure, or flexural center.
If the cross section of the beam has two axes of symmetry we can
conclude at once that the shear center coincides with the centroid of
the cross section. When there is only one axis of symmetry we conclude, from symmetry, that the shear center will be on that axis.
Taking the symmetry axis for y-axis, we calculate the position of the
shear center from Eq. (b).
Let us consider, as an example, a semicircular cross section 1 as shown
in Fig. 195. To find the shearing stresses we can utilize the solution
developed for circular beams (see
page 319). In that case there are
no stresses acting on the vertical
diametral section xz. W e can
imagine the beam divided by the
xz-plane into two halves each of
which represents a semicircular
beam bent by the force P /2. The
stresses are given by Eq. (174).
FIG. 195.
Substituting into Eq. (a), integrating, and dividing M, by P /2, we find for the distance of the bending
force from the origin O the value
2M,
8 3 + 4v
e= p
= 15-ir T+v r

This defines the position of the force for which the cross-sectional element at point O, the center of the circle, does not rotate. At the sarne
time an element at the centroid of the semicircular cross section will
rotate by the amount [see Eq. (b) page 318]
w

= vP(lHI- z) O .424r

where 0.424r is the distance from the origin O to the centroid of the
semicircle. To eliminate this rotation a torque as shown in Fig. 195
must be applicd. The magnitude of this torque is found by using the
table on page 279, which gives for a semicircular cross section the angle
of twist per unit length
Mt
(} = 0.296Gr4
1 See S. Timoshenko, Bull. Inst. Engineers of Ways of Communications, St.
Petersburg, 1913. It seems that the displacement of the bending force from the
centroid of the cross section was investigated in this paper for the first time.

'

'

'
1

BENDING OF PRISMATICAL BARS

335

Then t~e condition that centroidal elements of cross sections do not


rotate gives
M1(l - z) _ vP(l - z)
0.296Gr4 EI
0.424r
and
M _ vP 0.296r4 0.424r
1
2(1 + v)I
This tor.que will be produced by shifting the bending force p /2 toward
the z-axis by the amount
= 2Mt

= Sv 0.296 0.424r

2(1

+ v)'ll"

This quantity ~ust be subtracted from the previously calculated diso of

tanc~ e to obtam t?e distance of the shear center from the center
the circle. Assummg v = 0.3, we obtain

e-

= 0.548r - 0.037r = 0.511r

ln sections as in Fig. 193 the shearing-stress components are


aq,

= ()y -

Tu

2J [x 2

aq,

if2(y)],

Tyz

Hence
M, =

f f (~:y + ~=x)dxdy- ~! f

= - -

ax

[x 2 -1/;2(y)]ydxdy

(e)

Integrating by parts and observing that cp vanishes at the bound


:r = if;(y), we obtain
ary

f f G:

ff[x 2

+ :: x) dx dy

ff

= -2
cp dx dy
= if;(y) - 21/;(y) = --ll/;(y)
= -tf yif;(y) dy

f[x2 - y;2(y)] dx
if; 2 (y)]y dx dy
I = Jfx 2 dxdy = ifif; 3 (y) dy

Substituting in (e) and dividing by p we find


d =

l~I

1- ~ f !
p

cp dx dy

+ f yif;(y) dy'
f if; 3(y) dy

. if; (y) and using the membrane analogy for finding q, we can
ai Kn owmg
wafys calculate 1 with sufficient accuracy the position of the shear cen

t er or these cross sections.

"~ E~ai:1ples of such calculations can be found in the book by L s L "b .


19;,iational Methods for Solving Problems of the Theory of Elasti~it~,"e~;::;::

336

BENDING OF PRISMATICAL BARS

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

The question of the shear center is especially important in the case


of thin-walled open sections. Its position can be easily determined for
such sections with suffi.cient accuracy by assuming that the shearing
stresses are uniformly distributed over the thickness of the wall and are
parallel to the middle surface of the wall. 1
The location of the shear center in the cross section is determined by the shape
of the section only. On the other hand the location of the center of twist (see
page 271) is dependent on the manner in which the bar is supported. By choosing
this manner of support suitably the axis of twist can be made to coincide with the
axis of shear centers. It can be shown that this occurs when the bar is so supported that the integral f f w 2 dx dy over the cross section is a minimum, 2 w being
the warping displacement of torsion (indeterminate by a linear function of x and y
before this condition is applied). ln practice the fixing will usually disturb the
stress distribution near the fixed end-as for instance when it prevents displacements in the end section completely. ln that case, if we regard the bending force
as a concentrated load at the shear center, producing zero rotation, the reciproca!
theorem (page 239) shows that a torque will produce zero deflection of the shear
center. This indicates that the center of twist will coincide with the shear center. 3
The argument is of an approximate character since the existence of a center of
twist depends on absence of deformation of cross sections in their planes, and this
will not hold in the disturbed zone near the fixed end.

113. The Solution of Bending Problems by the Soap-film Method.


The exact solutions of bending problems are known for only a few
special cases in which the cross sections have certain simple forms.
For practical purposes it is important to have means of solving the
problem for any assigned shape of the cross section. This can be
accomplished by numerical calculations based on equations of finite
differences as explained in the Appendix, or experimentally by the soapfilm method, 4 analogous to that used in solving torsional problema (see
page 289). For deriving the theory of the soap-film method we use
Eqs. (171), (172), and (173) (see Art. 106). Taking
v

f(y) = 2(1

Py2

+ v) T

1 References may be found in S. Timoshenko, "Strength of Materials," 2d ed.,


vol. 2, p. 55.
2
R. Kappus, Z. angew. Math. Mech., vol. 19, p. 347, 1939; A. Weinstein, Quart.
Applied Math., vol. 5, p. 79, 1947.
8 See R. V. Southwell, "lntroduc~n to the Theory of Elasticity," p. 29; W. J:
Duncan, D. L. Ellis, and C. Scruton, Phil. M ag., vol. 16, p. 201, 1933.
4 This method was indicated first by Vening Meinesz, De Ingenieur, p. 108,
Holland, 1911. It was developed independently by A. A. Griffith and G. I.
Taylor, Tech. Rept. Natl. Advisory Comm. Aeronaut., vol. 3,p. 950, 1917-1918. The
results given here are taken from this paper.

337

Eq. (172) for the stress function is


()2cf>
ax2

()2cf>

+ ay2

(a)

=O

This is the sarne equation as for an unloaded and uniformly stretched


membrane (see page 271). The boundary condition (173) becomes
ocf>

as

= [Px 2 _
21

Py 2] dy

2(1

v)

ds

(b)

Integrating along the boundary s we find the expression


_ P

e/> -

x 2 dy

Py

- 2- - 2 (1 + v) 3T

+ constant

(e)

from which the value of e/> for every point of the boundary can be calculated. f (x 2/2) dy vanishes when taken around the boundary, since it
rep.resents the moment of the cross section with respect to the y-axis,
wh1ch passes through the centroid of the cross section. Hence e/>,
calculated from (e), is represented along the boundary by a closed
curve.
Imagine now that the soap film is stretched over this curve. Then
the surface of the film satisfies Eq. (a) and boundary condition (e).
Hence the ordinates of the film represent the stress function cf> at all
points of the cross section to the scale used for representation of the
function cf> along the boundary [Eq. (e)].
The photograph 196a illustrates one of the methods used for construction of the boundary of the soap film. A hole is cut in a plate of
celluloid, of such a shape that after the plate is bent the projection of
the edge of the hole on the horizontal plane has the sarne shape as the
boundary of the cross section of the beam. The plate is fixed on
vertical studs and adjusted by means of nuts and washers until the
ordinates along the edge of the hole represent to a certain scale the
values of e/> given by expression (e). The photograph 196b illustrates
another method for construction of the boundary by using thin sheets
of annealed brass. 1 The small corrections of ordinates along the edge
of the hole can be secured by slight bending of the boundary.
. The analogy between the soap-film and the bending-problem equations holds rigorously only in the case of infinitely small deflections of
the memb:ane. ln experimenting it is desirable to have the total range
of the ordmates of the film not more than one-tenth of the maximum
1

See the paper by P. A. Cushman, Trans. A.S.M.E., 1932.

339

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

BENDING OF PRISMATICAL BARS

horizontal dimension. If necessary the range of the funct.ion along the


boundary can be reduced by introducing a new function c/>1, instead of
cf>, by the substitution
cf> = cf> 1 + ax + by
(d)

The reduction of the range of the function c/>1 at the boundary can
usually be effected by a proper adjustment of the constants a and b.
When the function cf> 1 is obtained from the soap film, the function cf>
is calculated from Eq. (d). Having the stress function cf>, the shearingstress components are obtained from Eqs. (171), which have now the
form
ocf>
Px 2
V
Py 2
Tzz = ay - 2I + 2(1 + v) T
(e)
ocf>

338

Tyz

FIG. 196b.

where a and b are arbitrary constants. It may be seen that the function cf> 1 also satisfies the membrane equation (a). The val~es of the
function cf> 1 along the boundary, from Eqs. (e) and (d), are g1ven by
cf>

1 -

f_
J

x dy _
v
Py - ax - by
2
2(1
v) 31

+ constant

OX

The stress components can now be easily calculated for every point of
the cross section provided we know the values of the derivatives
cf>/y and cf>/x at this point. These derivatives are given by the
slopes of the soap film in the y- and x-directions. For determining
slopes we proceed as in the case of torsional problems and first map
contour lines of the film surface. From the contour map the slopes
may be found by drawing straight lines parallel to the coordinate axes
and constructing curves representing the corresponding sections of the
soap film. The slopes found in this way must now be inserted in
expressions (e) for shear-stress components. The accuracy of this procedure can be checked by calculating the resultant of ali the shear
stresses distributed over the cross section. This resultant should be
equal to the bending force P applied at the end of the cantilever.
Experiments show that a satisfactory accuracy in determining
stresses can be attained by using the soap-film method. The results
obtained for an I-section 1 are shown in Figs. 197. From these figures
it may be seen that the usual assumptions of the elementary theory,
that the web of an I-beam takes most of the shearing force and that the
shearing stresses are constant across the thickness of the web, are fully
confirmed. The maximum shearing stress at the neutral plane is in
very good agreement with that calculated from the elementary theory.
The component r 11, is practically zero in the web and reaches a maximum at the reentrant corner. This maximum should depend on the
radius of the fillet rounding the reentrant corner. For the proportions
taken, it is only about one-half of the maximum stress r,,, at the neutral
plane. The lines of equal shearing-stress components, giving the ratio
of these components to the average shearing stress P /A, are shown in
the figures.
The stress concentration at the reentrant corner has been studied for
1
ln this case of symmetry only one-quarter of the cross section need be investigated.

BENDING OF PRISMATICAL BARS


THEORY OF ELASTICITY
340
the case of a T-beam. The radius of the reentrant corner was increased
in a series of steps, and contour lines were mapped for each case. It
was shown in this manner that the maximum stress at the corner equals
the maximum stress in the web when the radius of the fillet is about onesixteenth of the thickness of the web.

center line is built in, u and du/dz are zero when z = O and hence constants e and d in Eq. (b) are zero.
'
The cross sections of the beam do not remain plane. They become
':arped, owing to the action of shearing stresses. The angle of inclinat10n of an element of the surface of the warped cross section at the
centroid to the defl.ected center line is

:JC

:JC

341

'

l
1

Confour lines
of solilp-film

Lines of eqw.il
:;heQr stress

.1

t:yz=nf

+--

T:cz=m:.
y

-i-.

FIG. 197.

114. Displacements. When the stress components are found, the


displacements u, v, w can be calculated in the sarne manner as in the
case of pure bending (see page 250). Let us consider here the defl.ection curve of the cantilever. The curvatures of this line in the xz- and
yz-planes are given with sufficient accuracy by the values of the derivatives a2u; az2 and a2v/ az 2 for X = y = o. These quantities can be
calculated from the equations

a2u
az2 =
a2v az2 -

a'Yx

ae,

1 ar,,,

1 au.

Tz - ax = GTz - E ax =
a'Y11z

Tz -

P(l - z)

EI

(a)

ae. - o
ay -

We see that the center line of the cantilever is bent in the xz-plane in
which the load is acting, and the curvature at any point is proportional
to the bending moment at this point, as is usually assumed in the elementary theory of bending. By integration of the first of Eqs. (a), we
find

(b)

and can be calculated if the shearing stresses at the centroid are known
11~. Further Investigations of Bending. ln the foregoing article~
we d1scussed the problem of bending of a cantilever fixed at one end
and loaded by a transverseforce on the other. The solutions obtained
are the exact solutions of the bending problem, provided the externa!
forces are distributed over the terminal cross sectione in the sarne manner as the stresses u., T,,., r 11, found in the solutions. If this condition is
not fulfilled there will be local irregularities in the stress distribution
near the ends of the beam, but on the basis of Saint-Venant's principie
we can assume that at a sufficient distance from the ends, say at a distance larger than cross-sectional dimensions of the beam our solutions
are suffic!en~ly accurate. By using the sarne principie ;e may extend
the app!1cat10n of the above solutions to other cases of loading and
supportmg of beams. We may assume with sufficient accuracy that
the stresses at any cross section of a beam, at sufficient distance from
the loads, depend only on the magnitude of the bending moment and
the .s~earing force at. this cros~ section and can be calculated by superposit10n of the solut10ns obtamed before for the cantilever.
If the bending forces are inclined to the principal axes of the cross
sec~ion. of the ~eam! they can always be resolved into two components
actmg m the d1rect10n of the principal axes and bending in each of the
two principal planes can be discussed separately. The total stresses
and disp!~cements will then be obtained by using the principie of
superposit10n.
. N ~ar the points of application of externa! forces there are irregularities m stress distribution which we discussed before for the particular
c~se of. a narrow rectangular cross section (see Art. 36). Analogous
~1scuss1on for other shapes of cross section shows that these irregularit1es are of a local character. 1

where e and d are constants of integration which must be determined


from the conditions at the fixed end of the cantileyer. If the end of the

1'

~
'

'

See L. Pochhammer's, "Untersuchungen ber das Gleichgewicht des elasStabes," Kiel, 1879. See also a paper by J. Dougall, Trans. Roy. Soe.
(Edinburgh), vol. 49, p. 895, 1914.

tisc~en

342

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

The problem of bending is solved also for certain cases of distributed


load.1 It is shown that in such cases the central line of the beam
usually extends or contracts as in the case of the narrow rectangular
cross section (see Art. 21) already discussed. The curvature of the
center line in these cases is no longer proportional to the bending
moment but the necessary corrections are small and can be neglected
in practical problems. For instance, in the case of a. cir?ular beam
bent by its own weight, 2 the curvature at the fixed end 1s g1ven by the
equation
1 _ M [l _ 7

r-

EI

+ 12v + 4v
6(1 + v)

a 2]

l2

in which a is the radius of the cross section, and l the length of the
cantilever. The second term in the brackets represents the correction
to the curvature arising from the distribution of the load. It is small,
of the order of a 2 /l 2 This conclusion holds also for beams of other
shapes of cross section bent by their own weight. 3
1J. H. Michell, Quart. J. Math., vol. 32, 1901; also K. Pearson, ibid., vol. 24,
1889, and K. Pearson and L. N. G. Filon, ibid., vol. 31, 1900.
1 This problem is discussed by A. E. H. Love, "Mathematical Theory of Elasticity," 4th ed., p. 362, 1927.
.
.
.
a The case of a cantilever of an elliptical cross sect1on has been discussed by
J. M. Klitchieff, Bull. Polytech. Inst., St. Petersburg, p. 441, 1915.

CHAPTER 13
AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION
IN A SOLID OF REVOLUTION

116. General Equations. Many problems in stress analysis which


are of practical importance are concerned with a solid of revolution
deformed symmetrically with respect to the axis of revolution. The
simplest examples are the circular cylinder strained by uniform internai
or externai pressure, and the rotating circular disk (see Arts. 26 and 30).
For problems of this kind it is often convenient to use cylindrical coordinates [see Eqs. (170), page 306]. The deformation being symmetrical
with respect to the z-axis, it follows that the stress components are
independent of the angle O, and all derivatives with respect to () vanish.
The components of shearing stress -r,9 and -r9, also vanish on account of
the symmetry. Thus Eqs. (170) reduce to

au, + OTrz + <Tr - <T9 = o


r
az
r
OTrz + au. + Trz = o
r
az r

(177)

The strain components, for axially symmetric.al deformation, are, from


Eqs. (169),
Er

au
iJr'

E9

= r'

iJw

Ea ':"'

az'

'Yrz

aw
= -au
+az
iJr

(178)

It is again of advantage to introduce a stress function cp. It may be


verified by substitution that Eqs. (177) are satisfied if we take
<Tr

= -a ( V V2cp
i)z

u9 =

i.
az

(v

V 2q,

a2q,)
- -ar
2
- ! <Jq,)
r iJr

]
u. = -a [ (2 - v) V 2 cp - -<J2"'
2
az

Tn

= -a [ (1
ar

az

- v)
343

i
'

,\ ...

a2q,]
V2cp - -.

az2

(179)

345

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION


THEORY OF ELASTICITY

344

This equation holds for any value of 8, hence

provided that the stress function cf> satisfies the equation

+ ! !!_ + ~)( cf> + ! acp + azcf>)


2 = V V cf> = O
(~
ar 2 r ar az 2 ar 2 r ar
2

(180)

a2 1 a
1 a2
a2
2
ar 2 + ar+ T2 ae + az 2

(a)

which corresponds to Laplace's operator

a2
ax2

a2

a2

+ ay2 + az2

in rectangular coordinates [see Eq. (d), page 57]. It should be noted


that the stress function cf> does not depend on 8, so that the third term
in (a) gives zero when applied to cf>.
W e now transform the compatibility equations (130) (see page 232)
to cylindrical coordinates. Denoting by 8 the angle between r and the
x-axis we have [see Eq. (13)]

""' =
<T11 =

<Tr cos 8
<Tr sin 2 8

unaffected by the presence of "'


Then
v2"

"'

a- 2

( ar 2

+ <19 sin
+ <19 cos

8
8

(ur cos 8

+ <19 sin

COS

28(<1r - <19)

(e)

+--ar r

ar

Substituting (e) and (d) in the first of Eqs. (130), we obtain

T2 (ur

+ [ ( -ara2 + -r1 -ra + -za 2)


2

~
'

LI r:i

<19

ar2 =

1 ae

+1+ r
p

ar =

(e)

a2e

ax az = ar az cos

8)

U sing the symbol e for the sum of the three normal components of
stress and applying Eq. (b) on page 57, we obtain for a symmetrical
stress distribution
a 2e
a2e 2
ae sin2 8
(d)
= -cos
8
2

a2)
r( + r ar + z2 ~r

(J
-

T;;)

cos 8

Substituting in the fifth of Eqs. (130), we obtain

2
2
+ r- -ara + -r1 -aoa 2 + -aza )

a2e

V' 2Txz = V2(Trz cos O) = ( V 2Trz

a2 + r1 ra + az2
a2) (
2 o+
. 2 8)
O"r cos
<19 sm

(u, - <To)

a2e

+1+

The sarne result is obtained by considering the second of Eqs. (130), so


that Eqs. (e) take the place of the first two equations of the system
(130) for the case of a symmetrical deformation. The third equation
of (130) retains the sarne form in cylindrical coordinates.
Consider now the remaining three equations of the system (130),
containing shearing-stress components. ln the case of symmetrical
deformation only the shearing stress Trz is different from zero, and the
stress components Txz and r 11,, acting on a plane perpendicular to the
z-axis, are obtained by resolving r,, into two components parallel to the
x- and y-axes,
Tu = Trz COS O,
T11z = Trz Sin 8
We have also

(b)

= ( ar2

a2
- ar2

(u, - <1 9)

T2

Trz.

ax2

O"r -

( r 2 + r ar + z 2 " 9 + T2

v2 denotes the operation

The symbol

a2 1 a a2 )
( r2 + r ar + az2
a2 1 a a

- <19)

+1+

+ -r22 (<Tr -

u9)

aar22e] cos2

.
+ 1-+1-v -1r -]
sm
r

8= O

2
Trz -

a2e

T2 Trz + 1 + p ar az

(f)

The sarne result is obtained by considering the fourth of Eqs. (130).


The last equation of the system (130) can also be transformed to
cylindrical coordinates by substituting
Txy

j.(<Tr - <19) sin 28

ln this way we find


(1

+ v)V

1
(u, - u 9) sin 20]
2

[-

+ sin2 28 (~
- ! !!.) O =
ar 2 r ar

This equation follows at once from Eqs. (e) on subtracting one from
the other. Hence the compatibility equations (130), in the case of a
deformation symmetrical with respect to an axis are in cylindrical
'
'
coord.mates,

346

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

V2u r
V 2uo

1 ae
+1 +-11 -or = O
2

r2 (u r

- uo)

+ r-2 (ur -

O'B)

1 ll8
+--- =
1+11ror

Trz -

T2 Trz +

(g)

ae

+ 1 + 11

v2u,
V

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

oz2 =

a2e _

11 or oz -

It can be shown that all these equations are satisfied by the expressions
for the stresses given in Eqs. (179) when the stress function satisfies
Eq. (180). We see that the discussion of problems
involving stress distributions symmetrical about
an axis reduces to finding in each particular case
the solution of Eq. (180), satisfying the boundary
conditions of the problem. 1
ln some cases it is useful to have Eq. (180) in
z
polar
coordinates R and ift (Fig. 198) instead of
Frn. 198.
cylindrical coordinates r and z. This transformation can easily be accomplished by using the formulas of Art. 25.
We find

a2
a2
02
1 a
ar 2 + az 2 = oR 2 + R oR
1 J

r or = R sin"'

a2

( J .
oR Slll ift

1
( 0R 2 + R oR + R 2 ctn ift

Another way of solving these problems is to consider explicitly the


displacements. By using Eqs. (178) the stress components can be
represented as functions of the displacements u and w. Substituting
these functions in Eqs. (177) we arrive at two partia! differential
equations of the second order containing the two functions u and w.
The problem is then reduced to the solution of these two equations.
117. Solution by Polynomials. Let us consider solutions of the
Eq. (181), which are at the sarne time solutions of the equation

a q,
2

JR2

aq,

aq,

+ R JR + R2 ctn "' "' + R2

a q,
2

ay,.2 = o

(182)

A particular solution of this latter equation can be taken in the forro

(a)
in which '11n is a function of the angle Y,. only. Substituting (a) into
Eq. (182) we find for '11,. the following ordinary differential equation:
o ( sm
. Y,. 0'11
sin1 ift JY,.
oi/;")

+ n (n + 1)'11n

= O

(b)

Thisequationcan besimplified byintroducinganewvariable, x =cosi/;.


Then

+ R 2ay,. 2
cos Y,. o )
1 J
oift = R oR

+ ----n:-

ctn Y,. o

+ J[2 "'

Substituting in Eq. (180),

a2

347

Substituting in Eq. (b), we obtain


n
2 J'1' n
(1 - x 2) )2'1f
Jx 2 - x a;-

a 1 a2 )
ay,. + R 2 ay,. 2
1

a2q,

JR 2

aq,

+ R JR

aq,

a2q,)

+ R2 ctn ift Jift + R2 Jift2

+ n ( n + 1)'11,. = O

(183)

We shall solve this equation by series. 1 Assuming that


= O (181)

We shall apply severa! solutions of this equation in succeeding articles


to the investigation of particular problems involving axial symmetry.
1 This method of expressing all the stress components in terms of a single stress
function, which satisfies Eq. (180), is given in detail by A. E. H.Love, "Mathematical Theory of Elasticity," 4th ed., p. 274, 1927. Another method of expressing
the problem in terms of a stress function has been given by J. H. Michell, Proc.
London Math. Soe., vol. 31, p. 144, 1900. The relation between the stress function
of two-dimensional problems and the stress function discussed in this chapter has
been considered by C. Weber, Z. angew. Math. Mech., vol. 5, 1925.

'11 n = a1xm1

+ a2xm + aaxm +

and substituting in Eq. (183), we find


n(n + l)(a1xm1 + a2xm + aaxm + ..
-m1(m1 - l)a1xm 1- 2 + m2(m2

(e)

) = m1(m1 + l)a1xm1
+ l)a2xm - m2(m 2 - l)a 2xm,-2
+ . . . (d)

ln order that this equation may be satisfied for any value of x, there
must be the following relations between the exponents m 1, m 2, m 3,
1
This is known as Legendre's equation. A complete discussion can be found in
A. R. Forsyth, "A Treatise on Ditierential Equations," p. 155, 1903.

349

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

It follows that the series (e) is arranged in descending powers of x.

Ao, Ai, are arbitrary constants. These polynomials are also


solutions of the Eq. (181). From these solutions we can get new solutions of Eq. (181) which will no longer be solutions of Eq. (182). If
R"'iJ!,. is a solution of Eq. (182), it can be shown that R"+2'iJ!,. is a solution
of Eq. (181). Performing the operation indicated in the parentheses
of Eq. (181),

348

The magnitude of m 1 will now be determined by equating coefficients


of xm1 in (d). Then
n(n

+ 1)

- m 1(m 1 + 1) = (n - m1)(m1

+n+

1) =O

This gives for m 1 the two solutions


m1 = -(n

+ 1)

(e)

For the first of these solutions,


m1

n,

a2 2 a 1
a 1 a2 )
( aR2 + R aR + R2 ctn if; ay; + R2 ay;2

= 2(2n
ma= n - 4,

m 2 = n - 2,

The coefficients a 2, a 3, in Eq. (d) are found by equating to zero


the coefficients of each power of x. Taking, for instance, the terms
containing xm,-2r+2, we find for the calculation of the coefficient a, the

l)ar = (m 1 - 2r

+ 2)(m1

from which, by substituting m1

a, = -

- 2r + 3)a,
- (m 1 - 2r
=

+ 4)(m1 -

2r

The series (e) can now be put in the form

n(n - 1) n-2
il',. = a1 [ x" - 2(2n - 1) x

l)(n - 2)(n - 3)
24(2n-1)(2n-3)

n(n -

which represents a solution of Eq. (183).


in (a) and remembering that
X=

cos if;,

c/>2 = B2(r 2 + z2)


c/>s = BaZ(r 2 + z 2)
cp4 = B4(2z 2 - r 2)(r2 + z2)
3
cp5 = B &(2z 3r 2z) (r 2 + z2)

+ 3)a,_1

a..-i

Rx = z,

xn-4 _

],

(f)

Substituting this solution

R =

vr +
2

Substituting in Eqs. (179), we find

<l'r

we find, for n equal to O, 1, 2, 3, . . . , the following particular solutions of Eq. (182) in the form of polynomials:

+
+
+

. . . . . . . . . ..........

(185)

118. Bending of a Circular Plate. Severa! problems of practical


interest can be solved with the help of the foregoing solutions. Among
these are various cases of the bending of
symmetrically loaded circular plates
(Fig. 199). Taking, for instance, the
polynomials of the third degree from
z
(184) and (185), we obtain the stress
FIG. 199.
function
2
3
2
3
(a)
cf> = a 3 (2z - 3r z) + b3 (r z + z )

cf>o =Ao
cf> 1 = A1z
cf> 2 = A2[z 2 - i(r 2 z2)]
cf>a = A 3 [z - fz(r 2 z2)]
cp4 = A4[z4 - ~z2(r2 + z2) + /r,(r2 + z2)2]
cp5 = A&[z5 - 1jz(r2
z2) + /rz(r2
z2)2]

(g)

n,

(n - 2r + 4)(n - 2r + 3)
2(r - 1)(2n - 2r + 3)

+ 3)R"'iJ!,.

Repeating the sarne operation again, as indicated in Eq. (181), we


obtain zero, since (g) is a solution of Eq. (182). Hence R"+ 2'iJ!,. is a
solution of Eq. (181). It is seen that multiplying solutions (184) by
R2 = r2
z 2, we can obtain the following new solutions:

equation
n(n

Rn+2'iJ!,.

(184)

<l'a

= 6aa
(lOv - 2)ba,
<1'9 = 6aa
(lOv - 2)bs
= -12aa
(14 - lOv)ba,
Trz =O

(186)

The stress components are thus constant throughout the plate. By a


suitable adjustment of constants a 3 and ba we can get the stresses in a
plate when any constant values of u. and ur at the surface of the plate
are given.
Let us take now the polynomials of the fourth degree from (184) and
(185), which gives us
cf> = a 4 (8z 4 --- 24r2z2 + 3r4) + b4 (2z 4 + r 2z2 - r 4 )
(b)

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

350

Substituting in Eqs. (179), we find


u,
Uz
Trz

= 96a4Z + 4b4(14v - l)z


= -192a4Z + 4b4{16 - 14v)z
= 96a4r - 2b4(l6 -

(187)

l4v)r

Here q denotes the intensity of the uniform load and 2c is the thickness
of the plate. Substituting the expressions for the stress components
in these equations, we determine the four constants a 6, b6 , a 4, b. Using
these values, the expressions for the stress components satisfying conditions (d) are

u, = q

Taking

<fz

= Trz = O,

Ur

= 28(1

+ v)b4Z

= !-a5(16z 6

120z 4r 2

+ 90z r

2 4

5r6 )
+ b6 (8z 6

q (-

2lz 2r 4

+ 3r&)

Substituting in (179),

Trz

= Se (c 2

= aa(960rz 2

240r3)

48 22(2 - v)]r2z}

(r

6[(

-672

+ 48 22v)z r + (432 2

12 22v)r 8]

= a),

= 0

for

Trz
Trz

+ v~ _
8

3(3

C3

+ v) r 2z

~2

+ vz

e+

3(3

+ v) a2z]
C3

(188)

[2 +8 v zse - ~8 2+5 v:e + 3(3 32+ v) a2z]


c

(f)

32

c3

32

obtained from (187) by taking b4 = O, and a uniform tension in the


z-direction " = b, which can be obtained from (186). Thus we arrive
at expressions for the stress components containing four constants
a6, b6 , a4, b. These constants can be adjusted so as to satisfy the
boundary conditions on the upper and lower surfaces of the plate (Fig.
199). The conditions are
for
for
for

= q [2

(ur)r=o = q

= -192a4Z,

"=o
-q
" =
=0

=O

and at the center of the plate we have

To these stresses we add the stresses


u,

z2)

Then the final expression for u, becomes


<Fr

+b

(e)

J~. u.z dz

= a 6 (320z 3 - 720r2z) + b6[64(2 + llv)z 3 + (504 - 48 22v)r2z]


3
u, = a 6 ( -640z 3 + 960r 2z) + b6 {[-960 + 32 22(2 - v)]z

+ [384 -

8e

It will be seen that the stresses u, and r,, are distributed in exactly the
sarne manner as in the case of a uniformly loaded beam of narrow rectangular cross section (Art. 21). The radial stresses u, are represented by
an odd function of z, and at the boundary of the plate they give bending
~oments ~niformly distributed along the boundary. To get the solut10n for a Simply supported plate (Fig. 199), we superpose apure bending stress (e) and adjust the constant b4 soas to obtain for the boundary

u,

Trz

c3

4c 3

3qr

16z4r2

u,

(e)

If z is the distance from the middle plane of the plate, the solution (e)
represents pure bending of the plate by moments uniformly distributed
along the boundary.
To get the solution for a circular plate uniformly loaded, we take the
stress function in the form of a polynomial of the sixth power. Proceeding as explained in the previous article, we find

q,

[2 +8v; _ 3(332+ v) r z _ ~ :]
~ + ~.:e - !)
e

we have

351

z =e
z= -e
z =e
z = -e

(d)

The el.ementary theory of bending of plates, based on the assumptions


that lmear el.ement~ of the plate perpendicular to the middle plane
(z = O) remam stra1ght and normal to the deftection surface of the
plate 1 during bending, gives for the radial stresses at the center
3(3
Ur

+ v) a z
2

32

C3 q

(g)

1 This assun_iption is analogous to the plane cross sections hypothesis in the


theory of bendmg of beams. The exact theory of bending of plates was developed
by J. H. Michell, Proc. London M ath. Soe. vol. 31 1900 and A E H Lo
"Mathematical Theory of Elasticity," 4th ed., p. 46S, 1927.

ve,

352

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

Comparing this with (f), we see that the additional terms of the exact
solution are small if the thickness of the plate, 2c, is small in comparison
with the radius a.
It should be noted that by superposing pure bending we eliminated
bending moments along the boundary of the plate, but the radial
stresses are not zero at the boundary but are
32+v
2+vz
(ur)r=a = q ( - 8 - C3 - S - 5 3

z)

we find that the last three equations, containing shearing-stress components,


remain the sarne as in the system (130), and the first three equations become
[see Eqs. (e), Art. 116]
2pw2
2
1 ae
2 (u, - uo) + -+
1- 2 = - -r
vr
1-v
2
1 1 ae
2 1
V 2uo + 2 (u, - uo) + -1-- - =
pw
r
+vrr
-1-v
va. + _1_ ae = - 2vpw
1 + v az
1- v

vu, -

(h)

The resultant of these stresses per unit length of the boundary line and
their moment, however, are zero. Hence, on the basis of SaintVenant's principle, we can say that the removal of these stresses does
not affect the stress distribution in the plate at some distance from the
edge.
By taking polynomials of higher order than the sixth for the stress
function, we can investigate cases of bending of a circular plate by
nonuniformly distributed loads. By taking, instead of solution (f)
on page 348, the other solution of Eq. (182), we can also obtain solutions for a circular plate with a hole at the center. 1 All these solutions
are satisfactory only if the deflection of the plate remains small in comparison with the thickness. For larger deflections the stretching of
the middle plane of the plate must be considered. 2

353

(b)

We begin with a particular solution of Eqs. (189), satisfying the compatibility


equations. On this solution we superpose solutions in the forro of polynomials
(184) and (185) and adjust the constants of these polynomials so as to satisfy
the boundary conditions of the problem. For the particular solution we take the
expressions
uo = Cr 2

+ Dz

2,

.... =o

(e)

It can be seen that these expressions satisfy the second of the equations of equilibrium. They also satisfy the compatibility equations which contain shearingstress components [see Eqs. (f) and (g), Art. 116]. It remains to determine the
constants A, B, C, D, so as to satisfy the remaining four equations, namely the
first of Eqs. (189) and Eqs. (b). Substituting (e) in these equations, we find

A = pw 2 (1
3v)
6v
'

B=

pw

D = _ pw2 (1

e= o,

-3,

2v)(l
6v(l - 11)

+ v)

The particular solution is then


119. The Rotating Disk as a Three-dimensional Problem. In our previous
discussion (Art. 30) it was assumed the stresses do not vary through the thickness
of the disk. Let us now consider the sarne problem assuming only that the stress
distribution is symmetrical with respect to the axis of rotation. The differential
equations of equilibrium are obtained by including in Eqs. (177) the centrUugal
force. Then
u, +
+ pw r
ar
Tz + - - ruo
Tn

<Tr -

a.... + au. +
ar
az
r

7'rz

= _ pw 2 r _ pw 2 (1

u. ==

pw 2 (1

Q
7'ra

(189)

z =o

(a)

A number of solutions for a circular plate symmetrically loaded have been


discussed by A. Korobov, Bull. Polytech. Inst., Kiew, 1913. Similar solutions were
obtained independently by A. Timpe, Z. angew. Math. Mech., vol. 4, 1924.
2
See Kelvin and Tait, "Natural Philosophy," vol. 2, p. 171, 1903.

+ 3v) r
6v

pw 2 (1

_
<TO -

where p is the mass per unit volume, and w the angular velocity of the disk.
The compatibility equations also must be changed. Instead of the system
(130) we shall have three equations of the type (f) (see page 231) and three equations of the type (g). Substituting in these equations the components of body
force,
1

<Tr

6v(l - v)
2

(190)

+ 2v)(l + v)

611(1 -

+ 2v)(l + v) zl

v)

=O

This solution can be used in discussing the stresses in any body rotating about an
axis of generation.
ln the case of a circular disk of constant thickness we superpose on the solution
(190) the stress distribution derived from a stress function having the forro of a
polynomial of the fifth degree [see Eqs. (184), (185)],
</> =

a5(8z 6 - 40r 2z3

+ 15r 4z) + b6(2z6

- rz3 - 3rz)

(d)

Then, from Eqs. (179), we find

+
+

a, = -as(l80r 2 - 240z 2)
b6 [(36 - 54v)r
(1
18v)6z]
u, = -a.(-240r 2
480z 2 )
b.[(96 - 108v)z2
(-102
54v)r]
2
09 = a,(-60r
240z 2 )
b5 [(6
108v)z
(12 - 54v)r]
r., = 480a5rZ - b.(96 - l0811)rz

(e)

llSTtTUlllL %UTEMlth
t 1~ -1 i S O A l< A
81BllOTetA CENTRA~~ ~-

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

354

Adding this to the stresses (190) and determining the constants


make the resultant stresses r., and <T, vanish, we find
<Tr = -pw
'1'9

-pw

+
+ 3- 8
+- r
+8 3v) r + 2(1
v(l + v) ]
- v) z

[v(l
v) 2
2(1 - v) z

[(1

and b1 soas to

-e

<n

<T,dz)

r=a

(192)

! ]

To eliminate the resultant radial compression along the boundary, i.e., to make

(!

ef>1 = A1(r2 + z 2)-t


ef>2 = A2z(r 2
z2)-i
2
2
ef>s = A 3 [z (r + z2)-t - i(r 2 + z2)-i]

355

=O

which are also solutions of Eq. (181). By multiplying expressions


(192) by r2 + z2 (see page 349), we obtain another series of solutions of
Eq. (181), namely,
ef>1 = B1(r 2 + z2)!
ef>2 = B2z(r 2 + z 2)-l
(193)

we superpose on (f) a uniform radial tension of magnitude


pw (

+ v)a + pw
2

v(l
v) ~
2(1 - v) 3

Then the final stresses are

<Tr - pw
-

[3

+
v (a
8

[3

+V
2
8 a

<T9 - pw

tT,

O,

+ v6(1(1 +
v) (e -3z')]
- v)
1 + 3v 2 + v(l + v) (c2 8
r
6(1 - v)

- r)
-

'Trz

(191)

3z')]

q, =

120. Force at a Point of an Inde:finitely Extended Solid. ln .discussing this problem we use again Eq. (182) on page 347. By taking
m 1 = -(n
1) [see Eq. (e), page 348], we obtain the second integral
of Eq. (183) in the form of the following series:

n -

-(n+l)
X

B(r 2

+ z )l
2

=O

Comparing this with the previous solution (55), we have here additional terms
with the factorl (e - 3z'). The corresponding stresses are small in the case of a
thin disk and their resultant over the thickness of the disk is zero. If the rim of
the disk is free from external forces, solution (191) representa the state of stress
in parts of the disk some distance from the edge.
. .
The stress distribution in a rotating disk having the shape of a fiat ellipso1d of
revolution has been discussed by C. Chree. 2

'11 _

Each of the solutions (192) and (193), and any linear combination of
them, can be taken as a stress function, and, by a suitable adjustment
of the constants A1, A 2, , B 1, B 2, , solutions of various
problems may be found.
For the case of a concentrated force we take the first of the solutions
(193) and assume that the stress function is

+ (n + l)(n + 2) x-<n+Sl
2(2n + 3)
(n + l)(n + 2)(n + 3)(n + 4) x-<n+&> +
24(2n+3)(2n+5)
+

.. ]

Taking n equal to -1, -2, -3, . . . , we obtain from this the following particular solutions of Eq. (182):
2
1 These terms are of the sarne nature as the terms in z found in Art. 84.
Equations (191) represent a state of plane stress since <T, and rre vanish. Body force
(here centrifugal force), not included in Art. 84, does not alter the general conclusions so long as it is independent of z.
2 C. Chree, Proc. Roy. Soe. (London), vol. 58, p. 39, 1895.

where Bis a constant to be adjusted later. Substituting in Eqs. (179),


we find the corresponding stress components

u, = B[(l u9 = B(l u, = -B[(l


Trz = -B[(l

2v)z(r 2 + z2)-i - 3r 2z(r 2 + z2)-t]


2v)z(r 2 + z2)-i
- 2v)z(r 2 + z2)-f + 3z 3 (r 2 + z 2)-t]
- 2v)r(r 2 + z2)-i + 3rz 2(r2 + z2)-1]

(194)

All these stresses approach infinity when we approach the origin of


coordinates, where the concentrated force
is applied. To avoid the necessity of
considering infinite stresses we suppose
the origin to be the center of a small
spherical cavity (Fig. 200), and consider
forces over the surface of the cavity as
calculated from Eqs. (194). It can be
shown that the resultant of these forces
represents a force applied at the origin in
the direction of the z-axis. From the
z
2
condition of equilibrium of a ring-shaped
Fm.
element, adjacent to the cavity (Fig. 200), the component of surface
forces in the z-direction is

= -(r., sin 1/1

+ u, cos 1/;)

duced at any point by the force P applied at the origin O are determined
by Eqs. (194) and (195) of the previous article. By using the sarne
equations, the stresses produced by the force P at 0 1 can also be
calculated. Remembering that the second force is acting in the opposite direction and considering the distance d as an infinitely small
quantity, any term f(r,z) in expressions (194) should be replaced by
-[f + (f/z)d]. Superposing the stresses produced by the two forces
and using the symbol A for the product Bd, we find

Using Eqs. (194) and the formulas


sin if! = r(r
we find that

z 2 )-~,

cos if! = z(r

B[(l - 2v)(r2 + z2)- 1

+ z )-i
2

+ 3z2(r + z2)2

2
]

The resultant of these forces over the surface of the cavity is


2

"

fo 2 Z VT2+Z2 di/! 211"r

= 8B11"(1 -

v)

The resultant of the surface forces in a radial direction is zero, from


symmetry. If P is the magnitude of the applied force, we have

P = 8B11"(1 - v)

811"(1 - v)

(195)

into Eqs. (194), we obtain the stresses produced by a force P applied at


the origin in the z-direction. 1 This solution is the three-dimensional
analogue of the solution of the two-dimensional problem discussed in
Art. 38.
Substituting z =O in Eqs. (194), we find that there are no normal
stresses acting on the coordinate plane z = O. The shearing stresses
over the sarne plane are
P(l - 2v)
B(l - 2v)
Tra = r2
811"(1 - v)r2

(a)
'~-----4-r

These stresses are inversely proportional to the square of the distance r


from the point of application of
the load.
121. Spherical Container under
Internal or Extemal Uniform Presz
sure. By superposition we can get
FIG. 201.
from the solution of the previous
article some new solutions of practical interest. W e begin with the
case of two equal and opposite forces, a small distance d apart, applied
to an indefinitely extended elastic body (Fig. 201). The stresses proThe solution of this problem was given by Lord Kelvin, Cambridge and Dublin
See also his "Mathematical and Physical Pap~rs," vol. 1, P 37.
From his solution it follows that the displacements correspondmg to t?e stresses
(194) are single-valued, which proves that (194) is the correct solut1on of the
problem (see Art. 82).
1

Math. J., 1848.

'1r

[(1 - 2v)z(r2 + z2)-i - 3r 2z(r 2


z

-A- [(1 - 2v)z(r2 + z2)-i]


z

= -A -

" =

Substituting

B =

357

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

356

" = A
Tn

+ z2)-t]
(196)

+ z2)-i + 3z(r2 + z2)-t]


2v)r(r 2 + z2)-i + 3rz 2(r2 + z2)-t]

z [(1 - 2v)z(r2

= A z [(1 -

Let us consider (Fig. 201) the stress components UR and TR>/I acting ata
point M on an elemental area perpendicular to the radius OM, the
length of which is denoted by R. From the condition of equilibrium
of a small triangular element such as indicated in the figure we find 1
uR
TR>/I

u, sin 2 i/!

+ u, cos 2 i/! + 2r,. sin i/! cos i/!

= (u, - u,) sin if! cos if!

(a)

- T,,(sin 2 if! - cos 2 if!)

Using (196), and taking


sin if! = r(r 2

+ z2)-!

= !...,

cos i/! = z(r 2

+ z2)-!

z
= -

we obtain

+ v)A [ - Slll
. 2 ,f, + 2(2 - v)
2 ,f,]
1 + " cos
2(1 + v)A . .t,
.t,
R
sm cos

2(1

't'

'f'

't'

(b)

'f'

The distribution of these stresses is symmetrical with respect to the


z-axis and with respect to the coordinate plane perpendicular to z.
Imagine now that we have at the origin, in addition to the system of
two forces P acting along the z-axis, an identical system along the
r-axis and another one along the axis perpendicular to the rz-plane.
1
The stress components u 9, acting on the sides of the element in the meridional
sections of the body, give a small resultant of higher order and can be neglected in
deriving the equations of equilibrium.

358

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

By virtue of the symmetry stated above, we obtain in this way a stress


distribution symmetrical with respect to the origin. If we consider a
sphere with center at the origin, there will be only a normal uniformly
distributed stress acting on the surface of this sphere. The magnitude
of this stress can be calculated by using the first of Eqs. (b). Considering the stress at points on the circle in the rz-plane, the first of
Eqs. (b) gives the part of this stress due to the double force along the
z-axis. By interchanging sin 1/; and cos 1/1, we obtain the normal str~ss
round the sarne circle produced by the double force along the r-axis.
The normal stress dueto the double force perpendicular to the rz-plane
is obtained by substituting 1/; = 11" /2 in the sarne equation. Combining the actions of the three perpendicular double forces we find the
following normal stress acting on the surface of the sphere:

Then
(pi - Po)a 3b3
a 3 - b3
D = Pob 3 - pia 3
a 3 - b3
Pob 3 (R 3 - a 3)
<TR = R(a 3 - b3)
C

(197)

<1R

(e)

The combination of the three perpendicular double forces is called a


center of compression. We see from (e) that the corresponding compression stress in the radial direction
depends only on the distance from the
center of compression and is inversely
proportional to the cube of this distance.
This solution can be used for calculating stresses in a spherical container submitted to the action of interna! or external
unif orm pressure. Let a and b denote
the inner and outer radii of the sphere
(Fig. 202), and Pi and Po the internal and
the externa! uniform pressures. Superposing on (e) a uniform tension or com2 2

Fm.
pression in all directions, we can take a
general expression for the radial normal stress in the form

<1R

e
R +D

(d)

C and D are constants the magnitudes of which are determinedfrom


the conditions on the i~ner and outer surfaces of the container, which
are

- +D=
a

-p.,

Pia (b
R 3 (a 3
3

R 3)
b3)

The pressures Po and Pi also produce in the sphere normal stresses <Tt in
a tangential direction, the magnitude of which we find from the condition of equilibrium of an element cut out from the sphere by thetwo
concentric spherical surfaces of radii R and R
dR and by a circular
cone with a small angle difl (Fig. 202). The equation of equilibrium is

4(1 - 2v)A
= R

359

<Tt 1R dR(df ) 2 = duR 1R dR(di/1) 2


2
dR 4
from which
duR R
Ut = - - + <1R
dR 2

+ <TR 1rR
dR(d1/;)
2

(e)

Using expression (197) for <TR this becomes

"t

Pob 3 (2R + a 3)
= 2R 3 (a 3 - b3)

Pia 3 (2R 3 + b3)


2R 3 (a 3 - b3 )

(198)

If Po = O, then
p;a 3 (2R 3
"t

= 2R 3 b3

+b

3)

a3

It will be seen that the greatest tangential tension in this case is at the inner
surface, at which

(ut)max.

p; 2a 3

+ b3

= 2 b - a

Ali these results are due to Lam. 1


z
122. Local Stresses around a Spherical
Fm. 203.
Cavity. As a second example consider
the stress distribution around a small spherical cavity in a bar submitted to uniform tension of magnitude S (Fig. 203). 2 ln the case of a solid bar in tension, the
normal and shearing components of stress acting on a spherical surface are
1

Lam, "Leons sur la thorie . . . de l' lasticit," Paris, 1852.


Solution of this problem is dueto R. V. Southwell, Phil. Mag., 1926; see also
J. N. Goodier, Trans. A.S.M.E., vol. 55, p. 39, 1933. The triaxial ellipsoidal
cavity is considered by E. Sternberg and M. Sadowsky, J. Applied Mechanics
(Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 16, p. 149, 1949.
2

360

THEORY OF ELASTICITY
= S cos 2 if;,

<TR

TR>/I

(a)

= -S sin if; cos if;

To get the solution for the case of a small spherical cavity of radius a, we must
superpose on the simple tension a stress system which has stress components on
the spherical surface equal and opposite to those given by the Eqs. (a), and which
vanishes at infinity.
Taking from the previous article the stresses (b), dueto a double force in the
z-direction, and the stresses (e), dueto a center of compression, the corresponding
stresses acting on the spherical surface of radius a can be presented in the following
form:
2 (1 +. v)A sinif;cosif;
_ 2 ( 1 + v)A (-1 + 5 - "cos2
tr..jl 1 = (b)
a
1 + 11
a
11
un" = !!_,
TR>/1
=O
(e)
a

y;),

where A and B are constants to be adjusted !ater. It is seen that, combining


stresses (b) and (e), the stresses (a) produced by tension cannot be made to vanish
and that an additional stress system is necessary.
Taking, from solutions (192), a stress function
<f> = Cz(r 2

u. =

us =
T,.

~~ (1

~~

~~ (1

+ 35 sin 2 if; cos

111

A(l - 2v)
5(1 - 2v)S a 3
r
= 2(7 - 5v) Ti
From Eq. (e) of the previous article,

u. = u,

TR'

"

(l)

S(l - 5v) a 3
2(7 - 5v) Ti

(m)

S [1

+ 2(7
4 -

511 a

5v) Ti

+ 2(7 -9

a
5v) Ti

(n)

At r = a, we find
27 - 15v
(u.)max. = 2(7 - 5v) S

Taking v = 0.3,
(u,)max. =

24
a

Sin

if;

COS

if;

(e)

+
11)A - 2(5 - 11) :'!:.. cos2 if; + ~ - 12; + 36f cos2 if;
a
a
a
a
a
2(1 + 11)A .
24C .
Sill if; COS if; + Sill if; COS if;

(o)

i!S

The maximum stress is thus about twice as great as the unorm tension S applied
to the bar. This increase in stress is of a highly localized character. With
increase of r, the stress (n) rapidly approaches the value S. Taking, for instance,
r = 2a, v = 0.3, we find u, = 1.0548.
ln the sarne manner we find, for points in the plane z = O,

Combining stress systems (b), (e), (e) we find


CTR

(h)

u/'

, + u,,, + u,,,, + S

if;)

J;~ (-3 sin if; cos if; + 7 sin if; cos 3 if;)

TR.jl

s
= 2(7 - 5v)

The total stress on the plane z = Ois

+ 35 cos' if;)

if;),

7 - 511 '

From Eqs. (196), for z =O,

- 5 cos 2 if;)

f (-1 + 3 cos

S(l - 5v)

The complete stress at any point is now obtained by superposing on the simple
tension S the stresses given by Eqs. (d), the stresses (196) due to the double
force, and the stresses dueto the center of pressure given by Eqs. (e) and (e) o the
previous article.
Consider, for instance, the stresses acting on the plane z = O. From the condition of symmetry there are no shearing stresses on this plane. From Eqs. (d),
substituting if; = 7r/2 and R = r,
9C
9Sa 6
(k)
u,' = Ti" = 2(7 - 5v)r6

(d)

12
a

5S
= 2(7 - 511)'

tr.' 11 = (ut).-o == - 2r 3

Using now Eqs. (a) o the previous article, the stress components acting on a
spherical surface of radius a are

un"' =

- 5 cos 2 if; - 5 sin 2 if;

(3 - 30 cos 2 if;

rom which

+ z )--i

the corresponding stress components, from Eqs. (179), are


u, =

361

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

_ 3C _ A(l - 2v) _ .!!.._


(u9) - - r
r
2r

= 2(1
= -

U>

a6

Superposing these stresses on the stresses (a), the spherical surface of the cavity
becomes free from forces if we satisfy the conditions
2(1

+ 11)A + !!_
a

-2(5 - 11) :'!:_3


a
_ 2(1 + 11)A
a3

_ 12C

a5

+ 36C
=
a
+ ~4C =
a'

Substituting from Eqs. (h) and taking r = a, we find that the tensile stress along
the equator (if; = 7r /2) of the cavity is
15v - 3
(u9)-D, r-a = 2(7 - 5v) 8

At the pole of the cavity (if; =O or if; = 7r) we have

u,
-S
S

(g)

= u8 =

2(1 - 2v)A
12C
a
- 7

B
_ 3
15v S
2a 3 =
2(7 - 5v)

Thus the longitudinal tension S produces compression at this point.


Combining a tension 8 in one direction with compression S in the perpendicular
iirection we can obtain the solution for the stress distribution around a spherical

362

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

cavity in the case of pure shear. 1


shearing stress is

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

It can be shown in this way that the maximum

'Tmax.

15(1 - v) S
7 - 5v

(p)

The results of this article may be of some practical interest in discussing the
effect of small cavities 2 on the endurance limit of specimens submitted to the
action of cyclical stresses.

123. Force on Boundary of a Semi-infinite Body. Imagine that


the plane z = O is the boundary of a semi-infinite solid and that a force
P is acting on this plane along the z-a:xis (Fig. 204). 3 It was shown in
Art. 120 that the stress distribup
tion given by Eqs. (194) and
r-----r---::::oon--.:::--------,r (195) can be produced in a semiinfinite body by a concentrated
force at the origin and by shearing forces on the boundary plane
z = O, given by the equation
Trz

= -

B(l - 2v)

r2

(a)

To eliminate these forces and


arrive at the solution of the
FIG. 204.
problem shown in Fig. 204, we
use the stress distribution corresponding to the center of compression
(see page 358). ln polar coordinates this stress distribution is

363

Assume now that centers of pressure are uniformly distributed along


the z-a:xis from z = O to z = - oo. Then, using the principle of superposition, the stress components produced in an indefinitely extended
solid are, from Eqs. (199),
ur

= A

J."' (r 2 -

iz 2)(r 2

Trz

u9

J."' (z r
2

2
)

~ [~ - ~ (r 2 + z2)-l -

=
cr. = A

+ z )-i! dz

(r 2

+ z)-i! dz
2

("'

1 !."'

= - - A

(r 2

+ z )-i dz
2

~ z(r 2 + z )-i!

= zA } z rz(r 2 + z2)-!! dz = 2 r(r2

(200)

+ z2)-i!

A[lr

= - -

z(r 2 + z2)-i]

-2 -

-z (r2
r2

+ z2)-l J

Considering the plane z = O we find that the normal stress on this


plane is zero, and the shearing stress is
(b)

.z

dcr11 R

CJ'R

= R3'

O't

= dR 2

1 A

CJ'R

= - 2R3

in which A is a constant. ln cylindrical coordinates (Fig. 204) .we


have the following expressions for the stress components:
crr = cr11 sin 2 1f; + <Tt cos 2 1/1 = A(r2 - iz 2)(r 2 + z2)-t
cr. = cr11 cos 2 1/1
cr1 sin 2 1/1 = A (z 2 - ir 2) (r 2 z2)-t
(199)
Trz = i(cr11 - cr1) sin 21/1 = jArz(r 2
z2)-i!

cr9

-B(l - 2v)

1 This problem was discussed by J. Larmor, Phil. Mag., series 5, vol.33; 1892..
See also A. E. H. Love, "Mathematical Theory of Elasticity," 4th ed., p. 252, 1927.
2 Such cavities are, for instance, present in a weld, and fatigue experiments
show that cracks usually begin at these cavities.
3 The solution of this problem was given by J. Boussinesq, see "Application des
potentiels . . . ,'' Paris, 1885. The solution for a force at an interna! point of the
semi-infte body was found by R. D. Mindlin, Physics, vol. 7, p. 195, 1936.

+ -A2

=O

from which

= <Tt = - .!.2 R~3 = -' .!.2 A(r z )-i!


2

It appears now that by combining solutions (194) and (200), we can,


by a suitable adjustment of the constants A and B, obtain such a stress
distribution that the plane z = O will be free from stresses and a concentrated force P will act at the origin. From (a) and (b) we see that
the shearing forces on the boundary plane are eliminated if

2B(l - 2v)

Substituting in expressions (200) and adding together the stresses (194)


and (200), we find

= B { (1 - 2v) [~ cr. = -3Bz 3 (r 2 + z2)-t


ur

~ (r + z2)--l] - 3r2z(r2 + z2)-t}


2

1
z
ue = B(l - 2v) [ - r2 + r2 (r 2
-r,.. = -3Brz 2 (r 2 + z2)-t

.,

+ z2)-l + z(r2 + z2)-f J

(e)

364

35

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

This stress distribution satisfies the boundary conditions, since


-r., = O for z = O. It remains now to determine the constant B
so that the forces distributed over a hemispherical surface with center
at the origin are statically equivalent to the force P acting along the
z-axis. Considering the equilibrium of an element such as shown in
Fig. 200, the component in the z-direction of forces on the hemispherical
surface is
Z = -(Trz sin i/; + <Tz cosi/;) = 3Bz 2(r2 + z2)-2

The stress is thus inversely proportional to the square of the distance


from the point of application of the load P. Imagine a spherical surface of diameter d, tangent to the plane z = O at the origin O. For
each point of this surface,

" =

For determining B we obtain the equation

,,.
P = 2'11"

,..

{2 -

lo Zr(r

z2)l dtf

67rB

r 2 + z2 = d 2 cos 2 t/I

Substituting in (202) we conclude that for points of the sphere the


total stress on horizontal planes is constant and equal to 3P/27rd 2.
Consider now the displacements produced in the semi-infinite solid
by the load P. From Eqs. (178) for strain components,

{2

lo cos 2 tf sin tf dif; = 27rB

u = Esr =

from which
p

Finally, substituting in (e) we obtain the following expressions for


the stress components due to a normal force P acting on the plane
boundary of a semi-infinite solid:

=;:. {

(1 - 2v)

3P

" = - -27r

z 3 (r 2

[~ - ~ (r 2 + z2)-l] - 3r2z(r2 + z2)-t}

_ /

i..:

<Tz

[ z(r

2 + z2)-l - 1

+ -1 -1- 2v r 2z(r2 + z

)-t]

(203)

aw
1
az = Ez = E [u. - v(<Tr

+ z2)-l + z(r + z2)-i }

(201)

aw
ar
= 'Yrz -

3P
z2
3P cos 2 i/;
Trz - 27r (r2 + z2)2 = 2r (r2 + z2)
2 _

+ u.)]

(1 - 2v)(l + v)P
2'll"Er

au
az

+ <Ts)]
2(1 + vhz

au
az

Substituting for the stress components, and for the displacement u the.
values found above, we obtain

Hence the direction of the resultant stress passes through the origin O.
The magnitude of this resultant stress is
_

- v(u,

For determining vertical displacements w, we have, from Eqs. (178),

This solution is the three-dimensional analogue of the solution for the


semi-infinite plate (see Art. 33).
If we take an elemental area mn perpendicular to z-axis (Fig. 204),
the ratio of the normal and shearing components of the stress on this
element, from Eqs. (201), is
<Tz
Z
(d)
Trz
r

u =

+ z )-i

us = -p (1 - 2v) { - -12 + -z2 (r 2


2'11"
r
r
3P 2 2
-r., = '11" rz (r + z2)-t
2

Er [us

Substituting the values for the stress components from Eqs. (201),

B=2'11"

<Tr

(e)

(202)

+ v)r z(r + z2)-i - [3 + v(l - 2v)]z(r2 + z2)-I}


P(l + v) [2(1 - v)r(r + z2)-t + 3rz (r + z2)-t]
27rE

aw = _!__ {3(1
az
27rE
aw = ar

from which, by integration,

For the boundary plane (z = O) the displacements are

(w)z=O

P(l - v2)
E
7r r

(205)

366

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

367

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

showing that the product wr is constant at the boundary. Hence the


radii drawn from the origin on the boundary surface, after deformation,
are hyperbolas with the asymptotes Or and Oz. At the origin the displacements and stresses become infinite. To eliminate the difficulties
in applying our equations we can imagine the material near the origin
cut out by a hemispherical surface of small radius and the concentrated
force P replaced by the statically equivalent forces distributed over this
surface.

124. Load Distributed over a Part of the Boundary of a Semiinfinite Solid. Having the solution for a concentrated force acting on
the boundary of a semi-infinite solid we can find the displacements and
the stresses produced by a distributed load by superposition. Take, as
a simple example, the case of a uniform load distributed over the area
of a circle of radius a (Fig. 205), and consider the deflection, in the
direction of the load, of a point M
on the surface of the body ata distance r from the center of the circle.
Taking a small element of the
loaded area shown shaded in the
figure, bounded by two radii
including the angle dlf; and two
FIG. 205.
ares of circle with the radii s and
s + ds, all drawn from M, the load on this element is qs dlf; ds and the
corresponding deflection at M, from Eq. (205), is

from which
dlf; = a cos 8 d8 =
r cos 1f;

a cos 8 d8
a2
1 - - sin 2
r2

(}

Substituting in Eq. (a) and remembering that 8 varies from O to ~;2,


when 1f; changes from O to 1/; 1, we find
w = 4(1 -

v2)q

~E

(~

}o "

1-

2
2

(~
a 2 cos 2 (} d(}
=
}o r Vl - (a2 /r 2) sin2 8
sin 2

(}d(} -

4(1 _ 11 2)qr
~E

(1 - ~) ri vl r

}o

d(}

(a 2 /r 2 ) sin 2

(206)

(}

The integrais in this equation are known as elliptic integrals, and their
values for any value of a/r can be taken from tables.1

---'--r

(1 - 112)q . s d1f; ds = (1 - v2)q d1f; ds


~E

~E

(aJ

The total deflection is now obtained by double integration,


w = (1

~;2)q

FIG. 206.

JJ

dlf;ds

To get the deflection at the boundary of the loaded circle we tah


r = a in Eq. (206) and find
'

Integrating with respect tos and taking into account the fact that the
length of the chord mn is equal to 2 a 2 - r 2 sin 2 "'we find

w=

4(1 - v2 )q

~"''

~E

va

2,

r sin

"'"'

(a)

in which 1f;1 is the maximum value of lf;, i.e., the angle between r and
the tangent to the circle. The calculation of the integral (a) is simplified by introducing, instead of the variable lf;, the variable angle 8.
From the figure we have
asin8=rsinlf;

(w ) r=a

_ 4(1 - v2 )qa
-

~E

(207)

. If th~ point M is within the loaded area (Fig. 206a), we again cons1der the deflection produced by a shaded element on which the load
qs ds dlf; acts. Then the total deflection is

= (1

~;2)q

ff

ds dlf;

S~e for instance, E. Jahnke and F. Emde, "Funktionentafeln," Berlin, 1909;


.
or Pe1rce, "Short Table of Integrais," 1910.
1

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

368

The length of the chord mn is 2a cos 8, and i/t varies from zero to
,,,.;2, so
"
w = 4(1 - v2)q c2 a cos () dift

,,,.E

"

4(1 - v2)qa c2 ~1
,,,.E
o

r2 .

--S
i n 2 '
'I'
a2
.

d'
'I'

(208)

Comparing this with the deflection at the boundary of the circle we


find that the latter is 2/,,,. times the maximum deflection. 1 It is
interesting to note that for a given intensity of the load q the maximum
deflection is not constant but increases in the sarne ratio as the radius
of the loaded circle.
By using superposition the stresses can also be calculated. Consider, for example, the stresses at a point on the z-axis (Fig. 206b).
The stress" produced at such a point by a load distributed over a ring
area of radius r and width dr is obtained by substituting in the second
of Eqs. (201) 2,,,.r drq instead of P. Then the stress" produced by the
uniform load distributed over the entire circular area of radius a is
=

- lo 3qr drz (r 2 + z
3

)-t

= qz 3 [(r2 + z2

)-i1:

= q

[-l + (a2 ~ z2)il]

= qr dq,
,,,. dr { (1

(b)

The solution of this problem was given by Boussinesq, Zoe. eit. See also
H. Lamb, Proe. London Math. Soe., vol. 34, p. 276, 1902; K. Terazawa, J. Coll.
Sei., Univ. Tokyo, vol. 37, 1916; F. Schleicher, Bauingenieur, vol. 7, 1926, and
Bauingenieur, vol. 14, p. 242, 1933. A complete investigation of this problem, also
of the case in which the load is distributed over a rectangle, is given in the paper by
A. E. H. Love, Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 228, 1929. Special
properties of the deformation and stress in the general case are pointed out by
S. Way, J. Applied Meehanies (Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 7, p. A-147, 1940.

1
- 2v) [ T2

- T2z (r 2 + z 2)-! ]

dr (1 - 2v) [ - -1
d<Fe' = qr dq,
,,,.
rz

+ -r2z (r2

- 3r 2z(r 2 + z2)-t }

+ z )-l + z(r
2

+ z )-i! J

(e)

The normal stresses produced on the sarne planes by the elemental


loads at points 3 and 4 are

)-t]

du/' = qr dq,
,,,. dr (1 - 2v) [ - .!__
r2

+ !..r2 (r 2 + z2)-i + z(r + z2

dr { (1 - 2v) [ T2
1
d<Fe,, = qr dq,
,,,.

ri

z (r 2 + z2)-t ] - 3r 2z(r 2 + z2)-t }

(d)

By summation of (e) and (d) we find that the four elemental loads,
indicated in the figure, produce the stresses

" = d<Fe = qr dq,,,,. dr [(1 =

qr dq, dr

,,,.

[-2(1

2v)z(r 2 + z2)-! - 3r2z(r 2 + z2)-t]

+ v)z(r 2 + z2)-il + 3z (r 2 + z2)-t]

(e)

To get ihe stresses produced by the entire load uniformly distributed


over the area of a circle of radius a we must integrate expression (e)
with respect to <P between the limits O and ,,,. /2, and with respect to r,
from O to a. Then

"' =

This stress is equal to -q at the surface of the body and gradually


decreases with increase of distance z. ln calculating the stresses"' and
1

area (Fig. 206b) with the loads qr dq, dr. The stresses produced by
these two elemental loads at a point on the z-axis, from the first and
third of Eqs. (201), are

d<F/

Thus the deflection can easily be calculated for any value of the ratio
r/a by using tables of elliptic integrais. The maximum deflection
occurs, of course, at the center of the circle. Substituting r = O in
Eq. (208), we find
2(1 - v2 )qa
(209)
(w)max. =
E

<1z

" at the sarne point, consider the two elements 1 and 2 of the loaded

or, since a sin O = r sin i/t, we have


W=

369

"
<j_

~lo [-2(1 + v)z(r 2 + z )-f + 3z (r + z )-!]r dr


2

[-(l + 211) + y2(1a2++v)zz2 _ ( va2z+ z2)3]

(f)

For the point O, the center of the loaded circle, we find, from Eqs. (b)
and (f),
" = -q,

<1r

<18

q(l

+ 2v)
2

Taking v = 0.3, we have " = " = -0.8q. The maximum shearing


stress at the point O, on planes at 45 deg. to the z-axis, is equal to O.lq.
Assuming that yielding of the material depends on the maximum

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

shearing stress, it can be shown that the point O, considered above, is


not the most unfavorable point on the z-axis. The maximum shearing
stress at any point on the z-axis (Fig. 206b), from Eqs. (b) and (f), is

in which m is a numerical factor depending on a, A is the magnitude of


this area, and P is the total load.

370

TABLE OF FACTORS

q [1 - 2v
2 (ue - CTz) = 2 - 2 - + (1

+ v)

ya2

+ z2

3(

2 ya2

).

+ z2

3
]

+ z2

Rectangles with various a =

1.5
m=

from which
2(1 + v)
7 - 2v

(h)

Substituting in expression (g),


Tmax.

l -; v +

~ (1 +

(k)

v) y2(1 + v)]

Assuming v = 0.3, we find, from Eqs. (h) and (k),

z = 0.638a,

Tmax.

= 0.33q

This shows that the maximum shearing stress for points on the z-axis
is at a certain depth, approximately equal to two-thirds of the radius
of the loaded circle, and the magnitude of this maximum is about onethird of the applied uniform pressure q.
For the case of a uniform pressure distributed over the surface of a
square with sides 2a, the maximum defiection at the center is

- 81

Wmax. -

;;:

ogn

(- !<iz
V

..,

+ 1) qa(l E-

v2)

= 2 .24 qa(l E-

v2)

= 1.90

qa(l -

v2 )

!i

'

ili

10

100

0.94

(211)

0.92

0.88

0.82

0.71

0.37

Several values of the factor m are given in the table. It will be seen
that for a given load P and area A defiections increase when the ratio
of the perimeter of the loaded area to the area decreases. Equation
(212) is sometimes used in discussing defiections of foundations 1 of
engineering structures. ln order to have equal defiections of various
portions of the structure the average pressure on the foundation must
be in a certain relation to the shape and the magnitude of the loaded
area.
It was assumed in the previous discussion that the load was given,
and we found the displacements produced. Consider now the case
when the displacements are given and it is necessary to find the corresponding distribution of pressures on the boundary plane. Take, as
an example, the case of an absolutely rigid die in the forro of a circular
cylinder pressed against the plane boundary of a semi-infinite elastic
solid. ln such a case the displacement w is constant over the circular
base of the die. The distribution of pressures is not constant and its
intensity is given by the equation 2
p
21ra ya 2 - r 2

(213)

in which P is the total load on the die, a the radius of the die, and r the
distance from the center of the circle on which the pressure acts. This
distribution of pressures is obviously not uniform and its smallest value
is at the center (r = O), where

p
qmin.

= 2'1T'a2

i.e., it is equal to half the average pressure on the circular area of contact. At the boundary of the sarne area (r = a) the pressure becomes
1

See Schleicher, Zoe. cit.

0.95

q =

Analogous calculations have also been made for uniform pressure distribution over rectangles with various ratios, a = a/b, of the sides.
All the results can be put in the form 1
P(l - v2)
(212)
Wave,. = m
E VA
1

0.96

(210)

The defiection at the corners of the square is only half the deflection at
the center, and the average deflection is
Wavor.

'fi

- - - - - -- - - - - - - - -

= .!_ v~2c~1-+~v)

z =a

EQ. (212)

Square

This expression becomes a maximum when

IN

(g)
Circle

ya2

371

See Schleicher, Zoe. eit.


This solution was given by Boussinesq, loe. cit.

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

373

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

372

infinite. In actual cases we shall have yielding of material along the


boundary. This yielding however is of local character and. does not
substantially affect the distribution of pressures (213) at pornts some
distance from the boundary of the circle.
The displacement of the die is given by the equation

w =

P(l - v2)

(214)

2aE

We see that, for a given value of the average ~nit press~re on the
boundary plane, the deflection is not constant but rncreases rn the sarne
ratio as the radius of the die.
For comparison we give also the average deflection for the case of a
uniform distribution of pressures [Eq. (208)]:

_ Jo w27rr dr
Waver. -

= _!Q_ P(l - v2) = 0. 54 P(l


37!"2

11"2

aE

~, v2)

aE

/z

= 2Ri'

Z2

2R2

+ z2

1
r2 ( 2Ri

r 2 (Ri

1 )

+ 2R2

In the case of contact between a ball anda spherical seat (Fig. 208b),
Ri is negative in Eq. (b), and

r2 (R1 - R2)
2 -

Zi =

(e')

2R1R2

If the bodies are pressed together along the normal at O by a force P,


there will be a local deformation near the point of contact producing
contact ver a small surface with a circular boundary, called the surface
of contact. Assuming that the radii of curvature R1 and R2 are very
large in comparison with the radius of the boundary of the surface of

/ IZ2

~~
Y/.

(6)

faJ

ZJ Zz

Frn. 208.

contact, we can apply, in discussing local deformation, the results


obtained before for semi-infinite bodies. Let w1 denote the displacement dueto the local deformation in the direction Zi of a point such as
M on the swface of the lower ball (Fig. 207), and W2 denote the sarne
displaceme:rit in the direction z2 for a point such as N of the upper bali.
Assuming that the tangent plane at O remains immovable during local
compression, then, due to this compression, any two points of the
bodies on the axes z1 and z2 at large distances 1 from O will approach
each other by a certain amount a, and the distance betwen two points
such as M and N (Fig. 207) will diminish by ~ - (w1 + w2). If
finally, dueto local compression, the points M and N come i:o.side the
surface of contact, we have
(d)

and the mutual distance between these points is


Zi

(e)

(215 )

This average deflection is not very much different from the displacement (214) for an absolutely rigid die.
.
125. Pressure between Two Sphencal
Bodies in c.ontact. The r~sul~s of ~he
2
R2
previous article can be used rn d1scussrng
the pressure distribution between two
bodies in contact. i W e assume that at
Zi
the point of contact these bodies have
spherical surfaces with the radii Ri and
R 2 (Fig. 207). If there is no pressure
between the bodies we have contact at
one point O. The distances from the
plane
tangent at O of points such as M
Frn. 207.
and N, on a meridian section of the
spheres at a very small distance 2 r from the axes Zi and z2, can be
represented with sufficient accuracy by the formulas
r2
r2
(a)
Zi

In the particular case of contact between a sphere and a plane (Fig.


208a), Ri = oo; and Eq. (b) for the distance MN gives

R2)
2RiR2

(b)

1 This problem was solved by H. Hertz, J. Math. (Crelle's J.), vol. 92, 1881.
See also H. Hertz, "Gesammelte Werke," vol. 1, p. 155, Leipzig, 1895.
2 r is small in comparison with R1 and R2.

in which fJ is a constant depending on the radii R 1 and R 2 and given by


Eq. (b), (e), or (e'). Thus from geometrical considerations we find for
1
Such distances that deformations due to the compression at these points can
be neglected.

THEORY OF ELASTICITY
AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

375

any point of the surlace of contact,


Wi

+ W2

= a - {3r 2

(e)

Let us now consider local deformations. From the condition of


symmetry it can be concluded that the intensity q of pressure between
the bodies in contact and the corresponding deformation are symmetrical with respect to the center O of the surface of contact. Taking Fig.
206a to represent the surlace of contact, and M as a point on the surface of contact of the lower ball, the displacement Wi of this point, from
the previous article, is
Wi = (1 ;E;i2) f f

q ds dift

+ W2

= (ki

+ k2) f q ds dift

This equation will be fulfilled for any value of r, and hence the assumed
pressure distribution is the correct one if the following relations exist
for the displacement a and the radius a of the surlace of contact:
1r2a

(f)

in which vi and Ei are the elastic constan,ts for the lower ball, and the
integration is extended over the entire area of contact. An analogous
formula is obtained also for the upper ball. Then
Wi

or

a= (ki

+ k2)qo2

a= (ki

+ k2)

(g)

qo. ~'Ira = P

a 3

(216)

from which
qo

From Eqs. (e) and (g),


(ki

+ k2)ff q ds d1/t

= a - {3r 2

(h)

Thus we must find an expression for q to satisfy Eq. (h). It will now
be shown that this requirement is satisfied by assuming that the distribution of pressures q over the contact surlace is represented by the
ordinates of a hemisphere of radius a constructed on the surface of contact. If q0 is the pressure at the center O of the surlace of contact, then
qo = ka

1!

in which k = q0 / a is a constant factor representing the scale of our


representation of the pressure distribution. Along a chord mn the
pressure q varies, as indicated in Fig. 206 by the dotted semicircle.
Perlorming the integration along this chord we find

fqds=~A
-

r 2 sin 2 ift).

3P
27ra2

(218)

i.e., the maximum pressure is li times the average pressure on the surface of contact. Substituting in Eqs. (217) and taking, from Eq. (b),

f3 =Ri+ R2
2RiR2

we find for two balls in contact (Fig. 207)


3

a=

31r P(k1

+ k2)RiR2

Ri+ R2

(219)

Assuming that both balls have the sarne elastic properties and taking
11 = 0.3, this becomes
3
P RiR2

in which A is the area of the semicircle indicated by the dotted line


and is equal to; (a 2

The value of the maximum pressure qo is obtained by equating the sum


of the pressures over the contact area to the compressive force P.
Then, for the hemispherical pressure distribution this gives

in which

'

(217)

1r2qo

Substituting in Eq. (h), we find that

l.IOY

= 1 23

E Ri + R2

3 p2

E2

Ri

+ R2

(220)

RiR2

The corresponding maximum pressure is


qo =

~ .!:.__2
2 1ra

,
1ili::
1

= 0.388 3 PE2

R1 + R2)2
Ri 2R2 2

(221)

376

377

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

ln the case of a ball pressed into a plane surface, and assuming the sarne
elastic properties of material for both bodies, we find, by substituting
R1 = oo in Eqs. (220) and (221),

The other principal stress, acting in the circumferential direction, is


numerically equal to the above radial stress but of opposite sign.
Hence along the boundary of the surface of contact, where normal
pressure on the surface becomes equal to zero, we have pure shear of
the amount qo(l - 2v)/3. Taking v = 0.3, this shear becomes equal
to 0.133qo. This stress is much smaller than the maximum shearing
stress calculated above, but it is larger than the shearing stress at the
center of the surface of contact, where the normal pressure is the
largest.
Many experiments have been made which verify the theoretical
results of Hertz for materiais which follow Hooke's law and stress
within the elastic limit.1
126. Pressure between Two Bodies in Contact. More General
Case. 2 The general case of compression of elastic bodies in contact
may be treated in the sarne manner as the case of spherical bodies discussed in the previous article. Consider the tangent plane at the
point of contact O as the xy-plane (Fig. 207). The surfaces of the
bodies near the point of contact, by neglecting small quantities of
higher order, can be represented by the equations 3
2 A2xy
Z1 = A1x
Aay 2
(a)
2
Z2 = B1x + B2xy + Bay 2

3~

a= 1.109 '\}E-'

[P2

= 1.23 '\} EJ2Ri--,


2

{PE2

qo = 0.388 '\}R;!

(222)

By taking R 1 negative we can write down also equations for a ball in a


spherical seat (Fig. 208b).
Having the magnitude of the surface of contact and the pressures
acting on it, the stresses can be calculated by using the method developed in the previous article. 1 The resulta of these calculations for
points along the axes Oz 1 and Oz2 are shown in Fig. 209. The maximum pressure qo at the center of the
-.-i-..-,,..-,..:..::;.~~---,-~:_q surface of contact is taken as a unit
of stress. ln measuring the distances along the z-axis, the radius
a of the surface of contact is taken
as the unit. The greatest stress is
the compressive stress cr, at the
center of the surface of contact, but
the two other principal stresses crr
and crs, at the sarne point, are equal to
1+2v
- -cr,. Hence the maximum
2
shearing stress, on which the yielding
z
of such material as steel depends, is
Fm. 209.
comparatively small at this point.
The point with maximum shearing stress is on the z-axis at a depth
equal to about a half of the radius of the surface of contact. This
point must be considered as the weakst point in such material as steel.
The maximum shearing stress at this point (for v = 0.3) is about 0.3lq0
ln the case of brittle materiais, such as glass, failure is produced by
maximum tensile stress. This stress occurs at the circular boundary
of the surface of contact. It acts in a radial direction and lias the
magnitude

(1 - 2v)
cr.. =
qo
3
1 Such calculations were made by A. N. Dinnik, Bull. Polyteck. Inst., . KieW,
1909. See also M. T. Huber, Ann. Physik, vol. 14, 1904, p. 153; S. Fuchs, Physik.
Z., vol. 14, p. 1282, 1913; M. C. Huber and S. Fuchs, Physik. Z., vol. 15, p. 298,
1914; W. B. Morton and L. J. Close, Phil. M ag., vol. 43, p. 320, 1922.

The distance between two points such as M and N is then


z1 + z2 = (A1 + B1)x 2 + (A2 + B2)xy + (As + B 3)y2

(b)

We can always take for x and y such directions as to make the term
containing the product xy disappear. Then
(e)

in which A and B are constants depending on the magnitudes of the


principal curvatures of the surfaces in contact and on the angle
between the planes of principal curvatures of the two surfaces. If
R1 and Ri' denote the principal radii of curvature at the point of con1

References to the corresponding literature can be found in the paper by


See also "Handbuch der physikahschen und technischen Mechanik,'' vol. 3, p. 120.
2
This theory is due to Hertz, loc. cit. Tangential force and twisting couple at
the contact are considered by R. D. Mindlin, J. Applied Mechanics (Trans.
A.S.M.E.), vol. 16, p. 259, 1949.
3
It is assumed that point O is not a point of singularity on the surfaces of the
bodies, but the surface adjacent to the point of contact is rounded and may be
considered as a surface of the second degree.

? Berndt, Z. tech. Physik, vol. 3, p. 14, 1922.

378

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

tact of one of the bodies, and R2 and R2' those of the other, i and if; the
angle between the normal planes containing the curvatures 1/R 1 and
1/R2, then the constants A and B are determined from the equations

The problem now is to finda distribution of pressures q to satisfy Eq.


(g). H. Hertz showed that this requirement is satisfied by assuming
that the intensity of pressures q over the surface of contact is represented by the ordinates of a semi-ellipsoid constructed on the surface of
contact. The maximum pressure is then clearly at the center of the
surface of contact. Denoting it by qo and denoting by a and b the
semiaxes of the elliptic boundary of the surface of contact the magnitude of the maximum pressure is obtained from the equation

+B

1(1

= 2 Ri

1)
+ Ri'1 + R21 + R2'
2

1 [( 1
1)
B - A = 2
Ri - Ri'

1)

R2 - R2'

+ 2 (~i

(d)

_ ;i,)

(~2 _

; 2,) cos 21/;

It can be shown that A and B in Eq. (e) both have the sarne sign, and
it can therefore be concluded that all points with the sarne mutual distance Zi + Z2 lie on one ellipse. Hence, if we press the bodies together
in the direction of the normal to the tangent plane at O, the surface of
contact will have an elliptical boundary.
Let a, wi, w2 have the sarne meaning as in the previous article.
Then, for points on the surface of contact, we have

P =
from which

+ W2

a - Ax 2

fJ

'~

where q dA is the pressure acting on an infinitely small element of the


surface of contact, and r is the distance of this element from the point
under consideration. The integration must be extended over the
entire surface of contact. Using notations (216), we obtain, from (e)
and (f),
qdA
(g)
(ki
k2)
-r- =a - Ax 2 - By2

!!

1 The curvature of a body is considered as positive if the corresponding center


of curvature is within the body. ln Fig. 207 the curvatures of the bodies are
positive. ln Fig. 208b the spherical seat has a negative curvature.

37r P(ki

+ k2)

/37r P(ki

+ k2)

T (A+ B)

m
3

b =
n

By 2

This is obtained from geometrical considerations. Consider now the


local deformation at the surface of contact. Assuming that this surface is very small and applying Eq. (205), obtained for semi-infinite
bodies, the sum of the displacements Wi and W2 for points of the surface
of contact is
2
2
Wi + W 2 = (1 - Vi + 1 - V2 )
q dA
(f)
7rE1
7rE2
r

(223)

We see that the maximum pressure is 1-f times the average pressure on
the surface of contact. To calculate this pressure we must know the
magnitudes of the semiaxes a and b. From an analysis analogous to
that used for spherical bodies we find that

(e)

Wi

~7rabqo

3 p
qo = - 2 7rab

=
or

ff q dA =

379

'\[4 (A+ B)

(224)
.

in which A + Bis determined from Eqs. (d) and the coefficients m and
n are numbers depending on the ratio (B - A): (A
B). Using the
notation

B-A
cos8=A+B

(h)

the values of m and n for various values of () are given in the table
below.i
8 =

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

- - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -m= 2.731 2.397 2.136 1.926 1.754 1.611 1.486 1.378 1.284 1.202 1.128 1.061 1.000
n= 0.493 0.530 0.567 0.604 0.641 0.678 0.717 0.759 0.802 0.846 0.893 0.944 1.000

Considering, for instance, the contact of a wheel with a cylindrical rim


of radius Ri = 15.8 in. and of a rail with the radius of the head R2 = 12
in., we find, by substituting Ri' = Rl = oo and if; = 7r/2 into Eqs. (d),
A

+B
1

= 0.0733,

B - A

= 0.0099,

cos 8

= 0.135,

= 8215'

The table is taken from the paper by H. L. Whittemore and S. N. Petrenko,


U. S. Bur. Standards, Tech. Paper 201, 1921.

AXIALLY SYMME1'RICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

380

exists pure shear. The magnitude of this shear for the ends of the
major axis (x = a, y = O) is

Then, by interpolation, we find from the above table that


m = 1.098,

= 0.918

Substituting in Eqs. (224) and taking E = 30.10 6 p.s.i. and v = 0.25, 1


we find
. b = 0.00792 ~
a = 0.00946 ~'

b = 0.0792 in.,

area of contact 7rab = 0.0236 sq. in.

and the maximum pressure at the center is


q0 = ;

:;,b = 63,600 p.s.i.

Knowing the distribution of pressure, the stresses at any point can


be calculated. 2 It was shown in this manner that the point of maximum shearing stress is on the z-axis at a certain small depth z1, depending on the magnitude of the semiaxes a and b. For instance: Z1 = 0.47a,
when b/a = l; and z1 = 0.24a, when b/a = 0.34. The corresponding
values of maximum shearing stress (for v = 0.3) are Tmax. = 0.31qo and
Tmax. = 0.32q 0 respectively.
Considering points on the elliptical surface of contact and taking the
x- and y-axes in the direction of the semiaxes a and b respectively, the
principal stresses at the center of the surface of contact are
u,. = -2vqo - (1 - 2v)qo a

Uz

+b b

a
-2vqo - (1 - 2v)qo - a+ b
= -qo

(k)

For the ends of the axes of the ellipse we find u,. = -uy and Tzy = O.
The tensile stress in the radial direction is equal to the compressive
stress in the circumferential direction. Thus at these points there
1 H 11 is increased from 0.25 to 0.30 the semiaxes (224) decrease about 1 per cent
and the maximum pressure qo increases about 2 per cent.
s Such investigations have been made by Prof. N. M. Belajef, see Bull. Inst.
Engineers of Ways of Communication, St. Petersburg, 1917, and "Memoirs on
Theory of Structures," St. Petersburg, 1924; see also H. R. Thomas and V. A.
Hoersch, Univ. Illinois Eng. Expt. Sta., Bull. 212, 1930, and G. Lundberg and
F. K. G. Odqvist, Proc. Ingenirs Vetenskaps Akad., No. 116, Stockholm, 1932.

= (1 - 2v)qo (!_2
e

and for the ends of minor axis (x

For a load P = 1,000 lb.,


a = 0.0946 in.,

381

= (1 - 2v)qo -f32

(!e arctanh e - 1)
= O, y = b)

(l)

is

e)

( 1 - f3- arctan e
{3

(m)

where {3 = b/a, e = (1/a) v' a 2 - b2 When b approaches a and the


boundary of the surface of contact approaches a circular shape, the
stresses given by (k), (l), and (m) approach the stresses given in the
previous article for the case of compression of balis.
A more detailed investigation of stresses for ali points in the surface
of contact shows1 that for e < 0.89 the maximum shearing stress is
given by Eq. (l). For e > 0.89 the
. ):')
'
0.Silo
.
. stress is
. ath
o
max1mum
sh
earmg
t e center Jl"''r'F"!':::::c:::l""ici-r-e:p.iiF."1
of the ellipse and can be calculated from
Eqs. (k) above.
By increasing the ratio a/b we obtain
narrower and narrower ellipses of
contact, and at the limit a/b = CX) we
arrive at the case of contact of two
cylinders with parallel axes. 2 The surface of contact is now a narrow rectangle.
The distribution of pressure q along the
width of the surface of contact (Fig. 210)
is represented by a semi-ellipse. If the
x-axis is perpendicular to the plane of
z
the figure, b is half the width of the
FIG. 210.
surface of contact, and P' the load per
unit length of the surface of contact, we obtain, from the semi-elliptic
pressure distribution,
P' = *'1-bqo
from which
2P'
(225)
qo =~
7rb
1

See Belajef, loc. cit.


A direct derivation of this case, with consideration of tangential force at the
contact, is given by H. Poritsky, J. Applied Mechanics (Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol.17,
p. 191, 1950.
1

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION


THEORY OF ELASTICITY

382

The investigation of local deformation gives for the quantity b the


expression
4P' (ki + k2)RiR2
(226)
b =
Ri+ R2
in which Ri and R 2 are the radii of the cylinders and ki and k2 are constants defined by Eqs. (216). If both cylinders are of the sarne material and v = 0.3, then

b = 1.52

i.osR
{P'R

P'(Ri

7 2

(ki

+ R2)

+ k2)RiR2

(a)

= -P,

(228)

and we find, from Eqs. (a), that


=

_pm'

m2

m1m2

(229)

Substituting b from Eq. (226) into Eq. (225), we find

qo

dv,

m,dt

in which m 1 and m 2 denote the masses of


Frn. 211.
the spheres. Let a be the distance the two
spheres approach one another due to local compression at O. Then the velocity of this approach is

For the case of contact of a cylinder with a plane surface,


b = 1.52 '\)E-

127. Impact of Spheres. The results of the last two articles can be used .in
investigating impact of elastic bodies. Consider, as an example, the impact of
two spheres (Fig. 211). As soon as the spherei;, in their motion toward one
another, come in contact ata point 0, 1 the compressive forces P begin to act and to change the
velocities of the spheres. If v, and v2 are the
values of these velocities, their rates of change
during impact are given by the equations

(227)

In the case of two equal radii, Ri = R2 = R,

383

Investigations show that the duration of impact, i.e., the time during which the
spheres remain in contact, is very long in comparison with the period of lowest
mode of vibration of the spheres. 2 Vibrations can therefore be neglected, and it
can be assumed that Eq. (219), which was established for statical conditions,
holds during impact. Using the notations
A

(230)

(b)

n =
we find, from (219),

/16

R1R2

\'g,,. 2 (k1 + k.) 2 (R1 + R.)'


P = nal

(e)
(d)

and Eq. (b) becomes


(e)

If the materials of both cylinders are the sarne and v "" 0.3,
(231)

q0 = 0.418
I~

Multiplying both sides of this equation by ,


j-d() 2

= -nn 1ai da

from which, by integration,


(/)

ln the case of contact of a cylinder with a plane surface,

[FE

qo = 0.418 '\)R-

(232)

Knowing qo and b, the stress at any point can be calc~lated. ~hese


calculations showi that the point w:ith maximum sheanng _stress lS .n
the z-axis at a certain depth. The variation of stress co~ponents w~th
the depth, for v = 0.3, is shown in Fig. 210. !he u:iax1mum shearmg
stress is at the depth zi = 0.78b and its magmtude lS 0.304qo.
1

See Belajef, loc. cit.

where v is the velocity of approach of the two spheres at the beginning of impact.
If we substitute = O in this equation, we find the value of the approach at the
instant of maximum compression, a 1, as

'

(~4nn,
~)i

(g)

With this value we can calculate, from Eqs. (219), the value of the maximum
compressive force P acting between the spheres during impact, and the corresponding radius a of the surface of contact.
1
We assume motions along the line joining the centers of the spheres.
2
Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag., series 6, vol. 11, p. 283, 1906.

384

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

385

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

For calculating the duration of impact we write Eq. (/) in the following forro:

()
This solution can be taken in the forro
t/> = f(r) sin kz

or writing a/a 1 = z and using Eq. (g), we find that

dt=~
V

in which f is a function of r only. Substituting (b) into Eq. (a), we arrive at the
following ordinary differential equation for determining f (r):

dz

yl -

(z)t

d2f
dr 2

from which the duration of impact is

t = 2a1

v }o

dz

yl -

(b)

(z)i

= 2.94 ~
v

(233)

ln the particular case of two equal spheres of the sarne material and radius R, we
have, from (g),

+ !.r ~
dr.

k'f =

(e)

We take an integral of this equation in the forro of a series,


(d)

Substituting this series in Eq. (e) we find the following relation between the consecutive coefficients:

(234)

from which
where p denotes the mass per unit volume of the spheres.
We see that the duration of impact is proportional to the radius of the spheres
and inversely proportional to (v)A. This result was verified by severa! experimenters.1 ln the case of long bars with spherical ends, the period of the fundamental mode of vibration may be of the sarne arder as the duration of impact, and
in investigating local compression at the point of contact these vibrations should be
considered. 2
128. Symmetrical Deformation of a Circular Cylinder. For a circular cylinder
submitted to the action of forces applied to the lateral surface and distributed
symmetrically with respect to the axis of the cylinder, we introduce a stress function q, in cylindrical coordinates and apply Eq. (180). 3 This equation is satisfied
if we take for the stress function q, a solution of the equation
1 M. Hamburger, Wied. Ann., vol. 28, p. 653, 1886; A. Dinnik, J. Russ. Phys.Chem. Soe., vol. 38, p. 24,2, 1906, and vol. 41, p. 57, 1909. Further references to
the literature of the subject are given in "Handbuch der physikalischen und
technischen Mechanik," vol. 3, p. 44~, 1927.
2 See p. 452.
Longitudinal impact of rods with spherical surfaces at the ends
has been discussed by J. E. Sears, Proe. Cambridge Phil. Soe., vol. 14, p. 257, 1908,
and Trans. Cambridge Phil. Soe., vol. 21, p. 49, 1912. Lateral impact of rods with
consideration of local compression was discussed by S. Timoshenko, Z. Math.
Physik, vol. 62, p. 198, 1914.
s The problem of the deformation of a circular cylinder under the action of forces
applied to the surface was discussed first by L. Pochhammer, Crelle's J., vol. 81,
1876. Several problems of symmetrical deformation of cylinders were discussed by
C. Chree, Trans. Cambridge Phil. Soe., vol. 14, p. 250, 1889. See also the paper
by L. N. G Filon, Trans. Roy. Soe. (London), series A, vol. 198, 1902, which
contains solutions of several problems of practical interest relating to symmetrical
deformation in a cylinder.

Substituting these in the series (d), we have

f(r) = ao ( 1

k 2r 2

k'r'

k 6r 6

+ 22 + 22 . 42 + 22 . 42 . 6' +

(e)

The second integral of Eq. (e) can also be obtained in the forro of a series, and it
can be shown that this second integral becomes infinite when r = O, and hence
should not be considered when we are discussing deformation of a solid cylinder.
The series in the parentheses of Eq. (e) is the Bessel function of zero order and of
the imaginary argument ikr. 1 ln the following we shall use for this function the
notation J 0(ikr) and write the stress function (b) in the forro

(!)

t/>1 = aoJ o(ikr) sin kz

Equation (180) also has solutions different from solutions ~f Eq. (a). One of
these solutions can be derived from the above function J 0 (ikr). By differentiatfon,

dJo(ikr)
ikr (
d(ikr) = - 2 1

k 2r 2

k'r'

k6r6

+ 2 4 + 2 42 6 + 2 42 62. 8 +

(g)

This derivative with negative sign is called Bessel's function of the first order and is
denoted by J,(ikr). Consider now the function

f 1(r)

= r dr Jo(ikr} = -ikrJ,(ikr) =

ktr
2

k2r
k'r'
+n
+ 2 .42.
6 + ..

(h)

1
Discussion o the differential equation (e) and of Bessel's functions -~an bl
f?und,,in.the following books: A. R. Forsyth, "A Treatise on Differential Equa~
tions, and A. Gray and G. B. Mathews, "A Treatise on Bessel Functions:"
~umerical tables for Bessel's functions can be found in E. Jahnke and F. Erode,
Funktionentafeln mit Formeln und Kurv~n," Berlin, 1909.

386

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

and the shearing forces by the series

By differentiation it can be shown that

- + -r1 -drd -

d2
( dr 2

2,,.z B
. 31rz+
. ,,.z+B.
B tSlllT
2Slll-z-+
3Slll-z-

k 2 ) f1(r) = 2k2Jo(ikr)

Then, remembering that J 0 (ikr) is a solution of Eq. (e), it follows that f1(r) is a
solution of the equation

~2 + !.! (dr
r dr

k)

(d'f1
dr

+ !r dfi
dr

</> = f(r)

- kfi)

and proceed as before, we find, instead of expression (;j), the stress function
<f>

(i)

Combining solutions (f) ,and (i), we can take the stress function in the form
sin kz[aoJo(ikr)

+ a1(ikr)J1(ikr)J

(j)

Substituting this stress function in Eqs. (179) we find the following expressions for
the stress components:
<Tr = cos kz[aoF1(r)
a1F2(r)]
(k)
Tra = sin kz[aoFa(r)
a1Fh)J

+
+

in which F 1(r), . . , F.(r) are certain functions of r containing J o(ikr) and J 1(ikr).
By using tables of Bessel functions, the values of F1(r), . . , F,(r) can easily be
calculated for any value of r.
Denoting by a the externa! radius of the cylinder, the forces applied to the
surface of the cylinder, from Eqs. (k), are given by the following values pf the stress
components:
<Tr = cos kz[aoF1(a)
a1F2(a)J
(Z)
Tra = sin ke[aoFa(a) + a,F,(a)]

By a suitable adjustment of the constants k, a 0 , a1, various cases of symmetrical


loading of a cylinder can be discussed. Denoting
the length of the cylinder by l and taking
k = n,,.
l

aoF1(a)
aoFa(a)

+ a1F2(a)

+ a1F.(a)

-A,.
=O

we obtain the values of the constants ao and a1 for


the case when normal pressures A,. cos (n,,.z/l) act
z
on the lateral surface of the cylinder. The ase
FIG. 212.
when n = 1 is represented in Fig. 212. ln an
analogous manner we can get a solution for the case when tangential forces of
intensity B,. sin (n,,.z/l) act on the surface of the cylinder.
By taking n = 1, 2, 3, .. , and using the superposition principle, we arrive
at solutions of problems in which the normal pressures on the surface of the cylinder
can be represented by the series

,,.z

2,,.z
A 1 cos T +A, cos - 1-

cos kz

=o

</>2 = a1 sin kz(ikr)J1(ikr)

(n)

If we take for the stress function </>, instead of expression (b), the expression

Hence a solution of Eq. (180) can be taken in the form

q,

387

+ Aa cos 31rz
-l-

(m)

= cos kz[boJo(ikr)

+ b1(ikr)J1(ikr)]

(o)

By a suitable adjustment of the constants k, bo, b1, we obtain the solution for the
case in which normal pressures on the cylinder are represented by a sine series and
the shearing forces by cosine series. Hence, by combining solutions (j) and (o), we
can get any axially symmetrical distribution of normal and shearing forces over the
surface of the cylinder. At the sarne time there will also be certain forces distributed over the ends of the cylinder. By superposing a simple tension or compression we can always arrange that the resultant of these forces is zero, and
their effect on stresses at some distance from the ends becomes negligible by virtue
of Saint-Venant's principle. Several examples of
symmetrical loading of cylinders are discussed by
L. N. G. Filon in the paper already mentioned.1
We give here final results from his solution for the
case shown in Fig. 213. A cylinder, the length of
which is equal to ,,.a, is submitted to the tensile
action of shearing forces uniformly distributed over
the shaded portion of the surface of the cylinder
indicated in the figure. The distribution of the
normal stress ,,., over cross sections of the cylinder
a
is of practical interest, and the table below gives the
z
ratios of these stresses to the average tensile stress,
FIG. 213.
obtained by dividing the total tensile force by the
cross-sectional area of the cylinder. It can be seen that local tensile stresses near
the loaded portions of the surface diminish rapidly with increase of distance from
these portions and approach the average value.

r =O

0.05Z
O.lOZ
0.15Z
0.20Z

0.689
0.673
0.631
0.582
-0.539

1 Loc. cit.
p. 176, 1944.

= 0.2a r = 0.4a r = 0.6a


0.719
0.700
0.652
0.594
0.545

0.810
0.786
0.720
0.637
0.565

0.962
0.937
0.859
0.737
0.617

r=a

1.117
1.163
1.344
2.022
1.368

See also G. Pickett, J. Applied Mechanics (Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 11,

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

388

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

Another application-of the general solution of the problem in terms of Bessel's


functions is given by A. N dai in discussing the bending of circular plates by a force
concentrated at the middle 1 (Fig. 214).
129. The Circular Cylinder with a Band of Pressure. 2
When a short collar is shrunk on a much longer shaft the
simple shrink-fit formulas, valid when collar and shaft are
of equal lengths, are not accurate. A much better
approximation
is obtained by considering the problem,
FIG. 214.
indicated in Fig. 215a, of a long cylinder with a uniform 3
normal pressure p acting on the band ABCD of the surface.
The required solution can evidently be obtained by superp?sing the e~ects of
the two pressure distributions indicated in Fig. 215b. The bas1c problem 18 therefore that of pressure p/2 on the lower half of the cylindrical surface and -p/2 on

389

From Eqs. (179) we find that the shear stress will be


Trz

lo

00

[pklo'(kr) - k 2rli'(kr) - kl 1 (kr)

- 2k(l - v)Io'(kr)]k2f(k) cos kz dk

(e)

where primes denote differentiation with respect to kr. This must vanish at the
surface r = a. Putting r = a in the expression in square brackets, and equating
this bracket to zero, we obtain an equation for p which gives
p = 2(1 - 11)

+ ka Io(ka)
J,(ka)

(d)

The remaining boundary condition is

=E

<Tr

= -

<Tr

for

r =a, z >O

for

r =a, z <O

(e)

The value of <Tr obtained from (b) by Eqs. (179) is


<Tr

= -

lo

00
[

(1 - 211 - p)lo(kr)

+ (kr + fr) l

(kr)

Jk /(k) sin kz dk
3

(f)

We now make use of the fact that'

,,.

(b}

(aJ

2 for z >O

FIG. 215.

l!.

O for z =O

the upper half, the length of the cylinder being infinite, and its solution will now be
given.
. .
We begin with the stress function given by Eq. (o) of Art. 128, wntmg I o(kr) for
J 0 (ikr) and i/1(kr) for J1(ikr). We also write bo = pbi. Then
cf> = [pl 0 (kr) -

krl 1(kr)]b1 cos kz

bi = f(k) dk

Putting this in (a) and adding up all such stress functions we obtain a more general
stress function in the form
cf> =

lo

[pl 0 (kr) - krl 1 (kr)]f(k) cos kz dk

'!!.

,,. lo

00

sinkzdk=
k
(

Efor z >o
O for z =O

(h)

- '!!.for z <O
2
in which the values on the right correspond to the boundary values for rrr given by
(e). The boundary conditions (e) are therefore satisfied if we make the right-hand
side of Eq. (/), with r = a, identical with the left-hand side of Eq. (h). This
requires

(b)

A. Ndai, "Elastische Platten," p. 315, 1925.


M. V. Barton, J. Applied Mechanics (Trans. A.S.M.E.), vol. 8, p. A-97, 1941.
A. W. Rankin, ibid., vol. 11, p. A-77, 1944.
a The pressure in the shrink fit is not uniform in the axial direction.
2

p/,,., we obtain

- [ (1 - 211 - p)lo (ka)

00

We shall now see how it is possible to select the function f(k) so that this stress
function will give the solution to our problem.
i

If we multiply this by

(a)

This satisfies Eq. (180) no matter what value is given to k. lf we consider k to


take a range of values we can allow b1 to depend on k and an increment dk by
writing

(g)

- ~for z <O
2

+ (ka +:a) l

1 (ka)

Jkj(k) =; ~

(i)

and this equation determines/(k). The stress components are then found from the
stress function (b) by means of the formulas (179), and will be integrais of the sarne
~eneral nature as that of Eq. (f), which gives rrr. Values, obtained by numerical
i~tegration, are given by Rankin in the paper cited on page 388. The curves in
Fig. 216 show the variation of the stresses in the axial direction for various radial
distances, and also the surface displacements.
1

See for instance 1. S. Sokolnikoff, "Advanced Calculus," lst ed., p. 362.

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

390

They are reproduced from the paper of Barton (see page 388) and were obtained
by a different method using Fourier series. From these curves results can be
obtained for the problem of Fig. 215 by superposition, as explained at the beginning
of this article. Curves for the stresses and displacement for pressure bands of
several widths are given in the papers cited. When the width is equal to the radius
of the cylinder the tangentiaJ stress q9 at the surface and at the middle of the pressure band reaches a value about 10 per cent higher than the applied pressure, and
is, of course, compressive. The axial stress(/ in the surface just outside the pres1.0\ (9,,0.f,.,0.6

IT9

-0.5 f-1.IG~~--r-,
-0.4
\~
-0.31-#1/,I'-+'-+---+--<

-0.2 flll.--+---1-----1--__,

-2a -~ -a --0.1 --+--+---+--l,


a
2

391

130. Twist of a Circular Ring Sector. This problem is of practical interest in


connection with the calculation of stresses in close-coiled helical springs. Consider
a ring sector under the action of two equal and opposite forces P along the axis
through the center of the ring and perpendicular to the plane of the ring (Fig. 217).
These forces produce the sarne torque M 1 = PR in all cross sections of the ring. lf
the cross-sectional dimensions of the ring are small in comparison with the radius
R, formulas derived for the torsion of prismatical
bars can be used with sufficient accuracy in calculating
the stresses. ln the case of heavy helical springs the
cross-sectional dimensions are no longer small, and
the difference in length of outer and inner circumferential fibers must be considered. ln this manner
it can be shown that at inner points, such as i, the r O
shearing stress .is considerably larger than that given
by the theory of torsion of straight bars.1 For a
more rigorous solution of the problem we apply the
z
general equations of the theory of elasticity in
d
2
[E
FIG. 217.
.
d
.
1
cy1m rica coor mates
qs. (170), page 306].
Assumin~ that in this case of torsion only the shearing-stress components 78, and
rre are d1fferent from zero (Fig. 218), we find, from Eqs. (170),
(a)

r/a

-0.318 --------------0.3

Consider now the compatibility equations (130).

--=a9
----=a6

-0.2

1"yz

-----=0.4

tj-z

p-0.I

From Fig. 219 we find

- - - =0.8

--:/j.j.\!\---------- =0.2
a ~ 2a
-~ -a

O t-"""'~~~'-t4l>::::=;;;l;R_.l.__-+z

Txy

= T9z COS 8
= Tr9(COS 2 O -

sin 2 O) =

Tr9

cos 28

-2a -~

0.1
fw.!z-.a/uo

u 0 =-pa(J-v)/2E

,.crtf8t]J'J"'z
-!f
f

-Za -~ -a

-za -J,f -a

Za

FIG. 216.

sure band reaches a tensile value of about 45 per cent of the applied pressure. The
shear stress Trz attains a greatest value, equal to 31.8 per cent of the applied pressure, at the edges of the pressure band AB and CD in Fig. 215 and just below the
surface.
When the pressure is applied all over the curved surface of the cylinder, of any
length, we have simply compressive (fr and q9 equal to the applied pressure, and (/
and Trz zero.
Solutions have been obtained in a similar manner for a band of pressure in a hole
in an infinite solid, 1 and for a band of pressure near one end of a solid cylinder. 2
1 G. J. Tranter, Quart. Applied Math., vol. 4, p. 298, 1946; O. L. Bowie, ibid., vol.
5, p. 100, 1947.
2 C. J. Tranter aod J. W. Craggs, Phil. Mag., vol. 38, p. 214, 1947.

y
FIG. 218.

FIG. 219.

Substituting in the fourth and sixth of Eqs. (130) and remembering that

e=

(fr

+ + =o
(JQ

(/z

1
An elementary theory of twist of a ring sector was given by V Roever V D [
vol 57'. 1913

' "
. See also M. P1lgram,
Artill. Monatshefte, 1913. An experimental
determmat1on of maximum stress by measuring strain at the surface of the coil was
made by A. M. Wahl, Trans. A.S.M.E., 1928.
2 Th'
. d ue to O. Ghner, Ingenieur-Archiv, vol. 1, p. 619, 1930 vol. 2
isso1u t'10n is
PP- 1 and 381, 1931; vol. 9, p. 355, 1938.
'
'

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

392
we find

(b)

The remaining four of the compatibility equations [see Eqs. (g), page 346] are
satisfied by virtue of our assumption that u, = <TB = u, =. "" =
Thus the problem reduces to the solution of Eqs. (a) and (b). For thIB solut1on we use a stress
function cJ>. We satisfy Eq. (a) by taking

GR 2acJ>

az'

'TrB =

GR 2 c/>
j:2 ar

= -

'T8z

(e)

where G is the modulus of rigidity and R the radius of the ring.


in Eqs. (b), we find

a (2"' a2cJ> ar ar 2 + az 2
a (2"' a2cJ> z ar 2 + az 2

~ "')

r ar
~ "')
r ar

Substituting (e)

ar2 + az2
2

</>

"' -

"'

~r ar + 2c

Then, as the number of terms in the series (g) increases, the sum of Eqs. (h)
approaches more and more closely Eq. (e), and the series (g) approaches the exact
solution for the stress function cJ>. Consider now the boundary conditions. The
resultant shearing stress at the boundary (Fig. 218) must be in the direction of the
tangent to the boundary, hence
'TrB

cos (NJ;) -

"B

cos (Nr) = o

or, by using Eqs. (e),

This shows that cJ> must be constant at the boundary, and we satisfy this condition
hy taking solutions of Eqs. (h) such that c/>o, c/>1, e/>., are zero at the boundary.
Having obtained c/>o, cj> 1, the successive approximations for the stress components are now obtained from Eqs. (e). Introducing the new variables J; and r,
these equations can be represented in the following form:
(i)

f m which we conclude that the expression in the parentheses must be a constant.


~:noting this constant by -2c, the equation for determining the stress function
e/> is

U sing now the expansion

(d)

= O

and the series (g), we find as the first approximation

We introduce now, instead of coordinates r and z (Fig. 218), new coordinates


J; and

r.

J; = R

-r,

a2cJ>
a1;2

a2c/>
ar2

(Tez)o = G

r=z

and Eq. (d) becomes

i;) "' +

+ R ( 1 -n,

ai;

(e)

J;

--J; = 1

1-R

1;2

+ R + R2

we shall now solve Eq. (e) by successive approximations.


e/> = c/>o

and determine c/>o, c/>1, c/>2,

(1 + 2R1;) "'
+ "'
ar
ar
2
G [ (1 + 1;) "' + "'
R

(,,.,e)i = G [
(,,.e.)i

Considering J;/R as a small quantity, and using the expansion

!:

~~o

For the second approximation we find from Eqs. (i)


2c = O

I'
1

393

(f)

Assume

+ c/>1 + c/>2 +

(g)

. in such a manner as to satisfy the equations

(k)

ai;

ai;

For the third approximation,


(,,.,e)2 = G [ ( 1

+ ~ +~:)a"'/ + ( 1 + ~) ~t1 + a~2 ]

(,,.e.). = G [ ( 1

+ ~ + ~:) ~ + ( 1 + ~) a~' + a~2 J

(l)

We apply this general discussion to the particular case of a ring of circular cross
section of radius a. The equation of the boundary (Fig. 218) is

(h)

1; 2

+r

a=

(m)

and the solution of the first of Eqs. (h), satisfying the boundary condition, is

c/>o = 1.

''

'li

~
'

2 (!;2 +

r2 - a)

l~Sil Tv
Pl\T~
f----------=
,.,
' T
l\JI..

'

1~-11 ~O

~i

R /4..

'

~i~~\OTECI\ Cf.N'f'R~_.

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

394

horizontal diameter of the cross section of the ring (Fig. 21S)


from the second of the Eqs. (q), we find

The first approximation for the stress components, from Eqs. (j), is
he)o

= -cGr,

(n)

(re,)o = -cG~

This is the sarne stress distribution as for a circular shaft.


value of the torque is
M1 = - Jf Crrer + -r.e~) d~ dr

(-rezh = -cG (t

The corresponding
(o)

For the inner point i,

Substituting from Eqs. (n),

+ ~ f. +
8R

e= 2(M,)o
G7ra 4

' re

O, and

2
+ a2)
SR
4R2

13 _E+ 3a

16 R 2

= a, and we have

(-re,); = -cGa (1

dha 4
(M1)0 = - -,
2

r= o

395

+ 4R
~ !: + 17 ~)
16R
2

For the outer point O, t = -a, and

To get the second approximation we use the second equation of (h).


tuting for </>o the expression above we find

Substi-

(-ro,)o = cGa (1 -

~!: + 17
)
l6R2
2

4R

Using Eq. (r), the values of these stresses become


The solution of this equation, satisfying the condition that </>1 vanishes at the
boundary, is
</>1 = 3- e~
- (~2 + r2 - a2)
SR
Substituting this in Eqs. (k) we find the second approximation for the stress components

-cG

(r +Hf)

-cG

1e a 2
[ + -SR- - -SR (r t

a2)

.
(TOz,
)

!
j:
l

a2<1>2
ar2

~ .!:__ <,2
S R2 '

+ 5r2

- 15a2)(e

+ r2

17 a 2
4R + l6R2
1
3 a2
+ l6R2
= ::: (

1 -

~ ~ + ~ ~:)

= _

1
1a
1 (
2PR .1 - (a/R)
4 R i6
'Ira
_ ~
(a/R)2
1
16 1 - (a/R)2

)2

(235)

1:he distribution of shearing stresses along the horizontal


d~ameter for a particular case, a/R = t, is shown in
Fig. . 220. For comparison the first approximation
obtained by applying the formula for a circular shaft is
shown by a dotted line.2
T~e method described has also been applied to the
tors1on problem for ring sectors of elliptic and rectangular
FIG. 220.
~ross s~ctio~s. a For a square cross section with sides of length 2a, the third
pproximatwn g1ves for the stress at the inner point

The solution of this equation satisfying the boundary condition is

</>2 = - 64R2 (t2

+ ~ _i:

(p)

(-re,);

ar2 - a 2) =
a

'Ira

---~-.::~:.::...

The calculatio.n of further approximations shows that the final expression for the
greatest shearmg stress can be put in the form 1

a2<1>2
a~2

-2M1

--

(ro,)o

Substituting </>o and </>1 in the third of Eqs. (h), we find

- a2)

By using Eqs. (l) we find the third approximation for the stress components,

(q)

Substituting these expressions for the stress compoilents into Eq. (o) the corresponding torque is
2
cG7ra 4 (
3 a )
(r)
(M1)2 = -2- 1
16 R2

By determining from this the constante, and substituting it in expressions (q), we


tan find the stress components as funct10ns of the applied torque (M,)2. Along the

(-re, )

0.6PR
= - -(1
a

2)
+ 1.20 -Ra + O.56 .!!...
R

(236)

131. Pure Bending of a Circular Rin S


approximations used in th
.
. g ector. The method of successive
e prev1ous artIC1e can be applied also in discussing pure
This formula was communica
. t ed t 0 S T'1moshenko m
. a letter from O Go"'h
Th
e
e
ementar
1 t'

1
before (see p 391) gi've for (-ro, ); va1ner.
. h are m
.
wh 1c
d Y so u 1ons ment10ned
.
ues
G'h
goo
.
agreement
w1th
the
results
calculated from Eq (235)
3
o ner, Zoe. cit.

AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

396

bending of a sector of a circular ring. 1 If two equal and opposite couples M are
applied at the ends of a circular ring sector in the plane of the center line of the ring
(Fig. 221), they produce strain symmetrical with
respect to the z-axis, and the shearing stresses Tr8
and T8 in the meridional cross sections of the ring
are zero. The remaining four stress components
must satisfy the equations of equilibrium for the
case of symmetrical strain (see Art. 116)

aur + ar., + Ur - 11'8


ar
az
r
ar., + au, + Trz
ar
az
r

z
Fm. 221.

w1:Jere

4M
e= raE
To get the second approximation we consider ~as small in comparison with R and
neglect the products of ~IR and of small corrections in the stresses as small quantiiies of higher order. Equations (d) and (e) then become
a(u~\

- (ur -

V'ue

+ T2 (ur

1 ae
+-1+var

ue)

a(r~l)l

(a)

+ _1_ a(o)i
1 +
a~
+ ~ ( 1 + 1 ~ v) cE

tl(u )

V'u

ae

T2 Tra + 1 + V aTaz

= O

+ l + v ----af2

A(rt1)1

+v

= O

= O

(e')

a(e)i

A(u1\

(b)

ae

+ 1 + v az

V2Trz -

A(u 6\

+ 1 + V r ar = o

(d')

a(u!)I

~+---ar =0

= Q

1 ae

- ue)

cE~

a(rt!)t

~+-----ar-T=O

= O

and the corresponding compatibility equations [see Eqs. (g), Art. 116]
V 2u -

397

a(o)i

a~ar

= 0

=o

where the symbol A means a/a~ + a/ar.


We introduce now a stress function c/n. By taking

= 0

Taking, as an example, a ring of constant circular cross section and introducing,


instead of r and z, the new coordinates (Fig. 218)
(e)
r=z
~ = R - r,

(u ) = cE (~

2R
cE

aq,1

R ~

(u1)1 =

Eqs. (a) and (b) become

+ r _ a ) + cE
aq,1
R ar
(g)

cE aq,1
(r~1) 1 = - R a~ af

(cl)

we satisfy Eqs. (d'). Substituting (g) in Eqs. (e'), we find that the stress function
c/>1 should satisfy the equation
A Ac/>1 = - 1
1

!~

(e)

+ 2v
+V

The boundary conditions for c/>1 are obtained from Eqs. (12).
the expression for (u~)i is zero at the circular boundary and

z =dr,

,,

'!

ds

(h)
As the first term in

m=

we find that
As a first approximation we take the sarne stress distribution as occurs in pure

bending of prismatical bars.

Then

(u~)o = (u!)o = (r;i-)o =O

(f)

(u6) 0 = -cE~
1;

Ghner, loc. cit.

j,_

ds

("'l)
ar =o'

!:_
ds

("'l) =o
a~

Thus aq,i(ar and aq,ifa~ are constant along the boundary, and we can assume that
c/>1 and dq,ifdn are zero at the boundary. Equation (h) together with these boundary conditions completely determines the stress function <f> 1 It is interesting to
note that Eq. (h) and the above boundary conditions are identical with the equa-

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

398

tions for the deflection of a plate clamped at the edges and unif~rmly loa~ed.. ln
the case of a circular plate we know the deflection surface. Th1s deflect1on g1ves
us the expression for the stress function
- 1 + 2v (~2 + r2 - a2)2
</>l 64(1 + v)

(k)

CHAPTER 14

Substituting in Eqs. (g) we find the following expressions for the stress components:
_
cE
{(7 + 6v)(~2 _ a2) + (5 + 2v)l2}
(,,.t ) 1 - 16R(l + v)
__ cE(l + 2v) ( 3 ~ 2 + r2 _ a2)
(,,., ) 1 16R(l + v)
cE 1 + 2v
(r~1)1 = SR 1 + v ~t

(t)

Snbstituting these expressions in Eqs. (e'), we find


P(u 8\

~ = -

J 2 (u 9) 1

--;)f2 =

cE(4 + 5v + 2v 2 )
2R(l + v)

cE(3v + 2v 2)
2R(l + v)

THERMAL STRESS
132. The Simplest Cases of Thermal Stress Distribution. One of
the causes of initial stresses in a body is nonuniform heating. With
rising temperature the elements of a body expand. Such an expansion
generally cannot proceed freely in a continuous body, and stresses due
to the heating are set up. ln many cases of machine design, such as
in the design of steam turbines and Diesel engines, thermal stresses are
of great practical importance and must be considered in more detail.
The simpler problems of thermal stress can easily be reduced to problems of boundary force of types already considered. A.B a first example

J2(u9)1 =O

atar
Integrating these and adjusting the consta~ts of integr~tion :ot"as l~o ma~::~:~~
tribution of normal stresses over cross sect1ons of the rmg s a ma Y eqm
the bending moment M, we find
4M [
(8 + 10v + 4v2W - (6v + 4v2)r2 - (2 + v)a2]
(m)
(u 8) 1 = - 'll"a t +
8(1 + v)R
Taking

O and t = a, the stress at the inner point i (Fig. 218) is


2
4M{
6-+ 9v + 4v
(u9)1 = - 'll"a 1 +
R
8(1 + v)

(n)

Calculations of further approximations result in the following expression for the


stress at the inner point1 (~ = a):
2
4M [
a
0.64(a/R) ]
0'9 = - 'll"a
1+0.87R+1 - (a/R)

(p)

The elementary theory of bending of curved bars, based ~n t~e as~umpti~n that
cross sections remain plane and neglecting the stresses ur, g1ves m th1s case
,,. = - 4M [1 + 0.75 _Ra + 0.50 ;: + . . . ]

8
'll"a
letter from O. Ghner.
.
h k
This formula was communicated to S . T imos en o m
2 See S. Timoshenko, "Strength of Materials," 2d ed., vol. 2, p. 73.

r
e

_l

1---t

t--1
(a)

~
12

-tja:E?J()

Frn. 222.

For v = 0.3, the above equation becomes

+ 0.87 -R)

-4M ( 1
(,,. 8) 1 = - 'll"a

let us consider a thin rectangular plate of uniform thickness in which


the temperature T is an even function of y (Fig. 222) and is independent of x and z. The longitudinal thermal expansion aT will be
entirely suppressed by applying to each element of the plate the longitudinal compressive stress
u,,' = -a.TE
(a)
Since the plate is free to expand laterally the application of the stresses
(a) will not produce any stresses in the lateral directions and to maintain the stresses (a) throughout the plate it will be necessary to distribute compressive forces of the magnitude (a) at the ends of the plate
only. These compressive forces will completely suppress any expansion of the plate in the direction of the x-axis dueto the temperature
rise T. To get the thermal stresses in the plate, which is free from
externa! forces, we have to superpose on the stresses (a) the stresses
399

400

401

THERMAL STRESS

THEORY OF ELA8TICITY

produced in the plate by tensile forces of intensity aTE distributed at


the ends. These forces have the resultant

from which

-11" = -3 3
e

J_: aTE dy

2c

+e aETydy

-e

u,." = -3y3
2e

'

+e aETydy

-e

Then the total stress is


and ata sufficient distance from the ends they will produce approximately uniformly distributed tensile stress of the magnitude
-1
2c

+e aTEdy

-e

so that the thermal stresses in the plate with free ends at a considerable
distance from the ends will be
u,. = -1
2c

+e aTEdy - aTE

(b)

-e

Assuming, for example, that the temperature is distributed parabolically and is given by the equation
T = To

(e)

This stress distribution is shown in Fig. 222b. N ear the ends the
stress distribution produced by the tensile forces is not uniform and
can be calculated by the method explained on page 167. Superposing
these stresses on the compressive stresses (a), the thermal stresses near
the end of the plate will be obtained.
If the temperature T is not symmetrical with respect to the x-axis,
we begin again with compressive stresses (a) suppressing the strain E,..
ln the nonsymmetrical cases these stresses give rise not only to a resultant force -

J_~ aET dy but also to a resultant couple

J_~ aETy dy,

and in order to satisfy the conditions of equilibrium we must superpose


on the compressive stresses (a) a uniform tension, determined as before,
and bending stresses u",. = uy /e determined from the condition that
the moment of the forces distributed over a cross section must be zero.
Then
+e uy 2d y +o aETy dy = O

-o

-o

+e

-e

aET dy

+ 233ye

+o

-e

aETy dy

aET

IJ":c

2 aToE - aToE ( 1 - yc2)


u,. = "3

+ 21e

(d)

ln this discussion it was assumed that the plate was thin in the
z-direction. Suppose now that the dimension in the z-direction is
large. We have then a plate with the xz-plane as its middle plane, and
a thickness 2c. Let the temperature T be, as hefore, independent of x
and z, and soa function of y only.
The free thermal expansion of an element of the plate in the x- and
z-directions will be completely suppressed by applying stresses u,., u,
obtained from Eqs. (3), page 7, by putting E,. = E, = -aT, <ru = O.
These equations then give

(1 - ~:)

we get, from Eq. (b),

1,

u,. = -aET

= u. = - 1 - v

(e)

The elements can be maintained in this condition by applying the distributions of compressive force given by (e) to the edges (x = constant,
z = constant). The thermal stress in the plate free from externa!
force is obtained by superposing on the stresses (e) the stresses dueto
application of equal and opposite distributions of force on the edges.
If T is an even function of y such that the mean value over the thickness of the plate is zero, the resultant force per unit run of edge is zero,
and by Saint-Venant's principle (Art. 18) it produces no stress except
near the edge.
If the mean value of Tis not zero, uniform tensions in the x- and
z-directions corresponding to the resultant force on the edge must be
superposed on the compressive stresses (e). If in addition to this the
temperature is not symmetrical with respect to the xz-plane we must
add the bending stresses. ln this manner we finally arri~e at the
equation
Ux

= Uz

1
= - 1a TE
- v + 2c(l -

v)

+e

-e aTE dy

3y
!+e
- v) -e aTEy dy

+ 2c(l

(f)

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

402

which is analogous to the Eq. (d) obtained before: By 1_1si~g E~. (f)
we can easily calculate thermal stresses in a pla~e, li the d1stnbut10n of
temperature T over the thickness of the plate is known.
Consider as an example, a plate which has initially a uniform temperature To
d which being cooled down by maintaining the surfaces y = e ata constant
an
t
T i By Fourier's theory the distribution of temperature at any
t empera ure ,.
instant tis
3
T = Ti
(To - Ti) (e-P1 1 cos
e--Pat cos ;;'
(g)

is

+~

~~

- 3p
p = np 1
pi, pa i, ' "
'
ing in Eq. (f), we find

in

h" h
lC

_
_ 4aE(To - T1) [e-Pit
u, - u, 11"(l _ v)

e~71"

cos 71"Y)
2c

'

+ )

are certain constants.

For y =

At the middle plane y

+ ~ e-p,t (;11"

l -

5
- cos ; ; )

+ ]

(h)

cos 71"Y)
2c

O we obtain compressive stresses

1~

from which

'!

(l _71"~)

<Tr = <Tr

2c

',,1

~
1
1

'

1\

= '2 (T 1 + T 2) + 2 (T 1 + T 2) e

(i)

This problem was discussed by Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag., series 6, vol. 1,

p. 169, 1901.

li

pas
rs

<Tt

-1

pa

(m)

= -2r 3

= - p,

and the increase of this radius, due to pressure p, is

If the surfaces y = e of a plate are maintained at two different


temperatures T 1, T 2, a steady state of heat flow is esta?lished afte: a
certain time and the temperature is then given by the lmear funct10n
1

(l)

At the radius r = a we obtain

y = 0.560c

(k)

The thickness of the plate does not enter in this formula, but in the
case of a thicker plate a greater difference of temperature between the
two surfaces usually exists. Thus a thick plate of a brittle material is
more liable to break due to thermal stresses than a thin one.
As a last example let us consider a sphere of large radius and assume
that there occurs a temperature rise T in a small spherical element of
radius a at the center of the large sphere. Since the element is not free
to expand a pressure p will be produced at the surface of the element.
The radial and the tangential stresses due to this pressure at any point
of the sphere ata radius r > a can be calculated from formulas (197)
and (198) (see page 359). Assuming the outer radius of the sphere as
very large in comparison with a we obtain from these formulas

~-cos71"Y=0

71"

aETi

The points with zero stresses are obtained from the equation

1'

aT
y
- --Ti-

= (<rz)max. = -1-p

4aE(To - Ti) -p 1t ~
11"(1 - v)
e
71"

_
_ _ 4aE(To - T1) e-p,t
u, - u, 11"(1 - v)

[,

and Eqs. (e) give

The maximum stress is

e we have tensile stresses


= u, =

(j)

+ !3 6-p,t ( 3271" + cos ;y)


e

_
_ 4aE(To - T1) 6 -p 1t e~
u, - u, 11"(1 - v)
71"

u,

Substitution in Eq. (f) shows that the thermal stresses are zero, 1
provided, of course, that the plate is not restrained. If the edges are
perfectly restrained against expansion and rotation, the stress induced
by the heating is given by Eqs. (e). For instance li T2 = -Ti we
have from (i)

Substitut-

After a moderate time the first term acquires dominant importance, and we can
assume

403

THERMAL STRESS

= (ae,)r=a = ; [<Tt - v(<Tr

+ <Tt)]r=a =

~; (1

+ v)

This increase must be equal to the increase of the radius of the heated
spherical element produced by temperature rise and pressure p. Thus
1
In general, when T is a linear function of x, y, z, the strain corresponding to
free thermal expansion of each element, viz.,

'Yzu = 'Yz = 'Yu =

satisfies the conditions of compatibility (129) and there will be no thermal stress.

we obtain the equation

aTa from which

1; (1 -

2v)

~; (1

+ v)

2 aTE
31 - JI

(n)

p=---

Substituting in equations (m) we obtain the formulas for the stresses


outside the heated element
<Tr

= -

2 aTEa 3
3 (1 - v)r 3'

1 aTEa 3

<Tt

405

THERMAL STRESS

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

404

= -3 (1 - v)r 3

(o)

It was pointed out on page 95 that a normal stress on a straight


boundary prod~ces a like normal stress parallel to and at the boundary.
~ence the tens10ns aET will produce tensile stress aET in the x-direct10n. Both normal stresses die away as we proceed into the plate nor,mal to th~ edge. ?n s_uperposing these stresses on the compressive
stress (a) m ~he y-direct10n, we obtain curves 1 for <Tx and u11 alonga line
such as AB m the hottest part of the plate of the character shown in
Fig. 223b. N ear the edges the prevailing stress is <Tx with the value
aET, ~ensile when T ~s positive, and near the middl~ the prevailing
stress is ~11, a compress1ve stress of magnitude aET when T is positive.
The max1mum stresses are of magnitude aETmax ..

133. Some Problems of Plane Thennal Stress. Suppose that a


strip of thin plate (Fig. 223) is nonuniformly heated so that the temperature T is a function of the longitudinal coordinate x only, being

L.1
I

aET

#
-~

+I
I

l_T
e 2

+/

1.-=1
e

fb)

,/

Frn. 223.

Edge
+

uniform across any given cross section. If the plate is cut into strips
such as AB (Fig. 223), these strips expand vertically by different
amounts. Due to the mutual restraint there will be stresses set up
when they are in fact attached as in the plate.
Considering the unattached strips, their vertical expansion is suppressed if they are subjected to compressive stress

1~
,,'
1

'1

u11 = -aET

FIG. 224.

If the

~emperature

T is a periodic function of x the application of

~~:~ens10ns aET presents a problem of the type considered in Art. 23.

T = To sin ax

(a)

by applying such stress at the ends A and B of each strip. The strips
fit together as in the unheated plate. To arrive at the thermal stress
we must superpose on (a) the stress due to the application of equal
and opposite forces, i.e., tension of intensity aET, along the edges
y = e of the strip.
If the heating is confined to a length of the strip short in comparison
with its width 2c, such as CDFE in Fig. 223, the effect of the tensions
aET wi1l be felt only in the neighborhood of CD on the top edge, and of
EF on the bottom edge. Each of these neighborhoods can then be
considered as presenting a problem of the type considered in Art. 34.

C.L.

(b)

we find from Eqs. (k) of Art. 23, putting A = B = -aETo in accordance with Eq. (f),
rrx

= -2aETo (ac cosh ac - sinh ac) cosh ay -

sinh 2ac
rr
11

Txu
1

+ 2ac

ay sinh ay sinh ac
sin ax

= 2aETo (ac cosh ac + sinh ac) cosh ay - ay sinh ay sinh ac .

sinh 2ac + 2ac


sm ax
ay - ay cosh ay sinh ac
2aETo ac cosh ac sinh
sinh 2ac + 2ac
. cos ax

J. N. Goodier, Physics, vol. 7, p. 156, 1936.

406

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Together with the compressive stress <rv = -aET from Eq. (a), these
give the thermal stress in the plate. 1 ln Fig. 224 the distributions of
u,, along the lines of maximum temperature for various wave lengths
2Z = 211"/a are shown. W e see that the maximum stress increases as
the wave length diminishes and approaches the value aET 0 Having
the solution for a sinusoidal temperature distribution, other cases in
which the temperature is a periodic function of x can be treated. It
can be concluded also that the maximum stress in plates of finite length
can differ only slightly from the value aET 0 obtained for an infinite
strip.

lf u denotes the radial displacement we have, from Art. 28,


Er

du,

dr

+ <Tr - <T9

= O

(a)

obtained from Eq. (40), page 58, by putting R = O. The shear stress
is zero on account of the symmetry.
The ordinary stress-strain relations, Eqs. (52), page 66, for plane
stress, require modification since now the strain is partly dueto thermal
expansion, partly due to stress. If Er represents the actual radial
strain, Er - aT represents the part due to stress, and we have

T,9

Er -

aT =

E1 (ur

V<fo)

(b)

and similarly
E9 - aT =
1

'

E1 (u9

V<Tr)

(e)

O'r

l _ v2 [er

VE9 -

(1

.!}_
dr

u = (1

l
.

.
i

+ v)a dT
dr

(g)

11

v)a r

Tr dr

e
+ C1r + _:
r

(h)

wh~re t~e lower limita in the integral can be chosen arbitrarily. For
a disk with a hole it may be the inner radius. For a solid disk we may
take it as zero.
The stress components are now found by using the solution (h) in
Eqs. (f), and substituting the results in Eqs. (d). Then
E

1 ('

<Tr = -aE T2 }a Tr dr+ l _


<r9

1 {'

= aET2 },. Trdr - aET

v2

C1 (1

+ 1 _E v

+ v)

C 1 (1

- C2 (1 - v)

~]

+ v) + C (1- v)~]
2

(i)
(j)

?1,

The consta?ts
C2 are determined by the boundary conditions.
For a sohd d1sk, we take a as zero, and observing that

11
r

Tr dr= O

(d)

C1 = (1 - v)
(e)

~2 fb
b

}o

Tr dr

The final e"pressions for the stresses are consequently

~la' Tr dr)
= aE(-T + ; lab Trdr +~la' Trdr)

<Tr =
<19

d(ru)] _ ( 1
r dr
-

we see from Eq. (h) that C2 must vanish in order that u may be zero at
the center. At the edge r = b we must have O'r = O and therefore
from Eq. (i)
'

1 The problem wa.s discussed by J. P. Den Ha.rtog, J. Franklin Inst., vol. 222,
p. 149, 1936, in connection with the therma.1 stress produced in the process of
welding.

;I

+ v)a dr

Integration of this equation yields

11nd with these Eq. (a) becomes


d
dT
r dr (E,+ VEo) + (1 - v)(er - Eo) = (1 + v)ar dr

(f)

dT

(1

[!

r-+O

= -1 _ v2 [E9 + VEr - (1 + v)aT]

=r

which may be written

lim-

+ v)aT],
<19

E,

Solving (b) and (e) for u,, u 9 we find

du
dr 1

Substituting these in (e) we obtain


d 2u
1 du
u
dr2 + dr - T2

134. The Thin Circular Disk: Temperature Symmetrical about


Center. When the temperature T does not vary over the thickness
of the disk, we may assume that the stress and displacement dueto the
heating also do not vary over the thickness. The stresses u, and uo
satisfy the equation of equilibrium

407

THERMAL STRESS

aE (:2

lab Tr dr
2

(237)
(238)

408

11'

1 +-v a u = 1- v
r

These give finite values at the center since

lim ..!. (' Tr dr = !2 To

aE
<lr = - 1 - P

,,_.o r 2 } o

where To is the temperature at the center.


135. The Long Circular Cylinder. The temperature is taken to be
symmetrical about the axis, and independent of the axial coordinate
z.1 We shall suppose first tht w, the axial displacement, is zero
throughout, and then modify the solution to the case of free ends.
We shall now have three components of stress, <Tr, <To, <Tz, all three
shear strains and stresses being zero on account of the symmetry about
the axis and the uniformity in the axial direction. The stress-strain
relations are
1
Er aT = E [<lr - v(<To + <1,)]
Eo -

aT =

E1 [<lo

- v(<Tr

E, -

aT =

E1 [<1,

+ <1,)]

(239)

v(<Tr +<To)]

But since w = O, e, = O, and the third of Eqs. (239) gives


<lz = v(<lr

+ <To)

- aET

(a)

On substituting this into the first two of Eqs. (239), these equations
become
1 - p2 (
p
)
Er (1 + v)aT = --E- <lr - l _ P <19
(b)
2
1 -' v (
v
)
Eo - (1 + v)aT = ~ <To - l _ P <lr
i:~
!1

!i

li
i

LJ
'"

1.

It may be seen at once that these equations can be obtained from the
corresponding equations of plane stress, Eqs. (b) and (e) of the preceding article, by putting, in the latter equations, E/(1 - v2) for E,
v/(1 - v) for v, and (1 + v)a for a. .
Equations (a) and (f) of the preceding article re1Il~in_ yal_i~ ...he~E;J,
The solution for u, <T,, and <To proceeds in just the same wi:ty.: W~ ruay
therefore write down the results by making thE:J above substitutions in
Eqs. (h), (i), and (f). 'Thus for the. present probfom
The first solution of this problem is that o.f J .. M. C. Du]lamel,..,Memoires . . .
pa~ divers savants, voL 5, p~ 440, Paris, 1838;
1

409

THERMAL STRESS

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

1 1r

'2

Tr dr

+ C 1r + -Cr

Tr dr

E
+1+

aET
<To = -aE
- -11r Tr dr - 1 - v r2 a
1 - v

(
P

(e)

C1
C2)
1 - 2v - T2

(d)

E- ( --C1 + -C
+1 + v 1 - 2v
r

2)

(e)

and, from Eq. (a),


_ aET
1 - v

+
(1

2vEC1
- 2v)

+ v) (1

(f)

Normal force distributed according to Eq. (f) must be applied to the


ends of the cylinder in order to keep w = O throughout. If we superpose a uniform axial stress <lz = c3, we can choose c3 so that the
resultant force on the ends is zero. The self-equilibrating distribution
remaining on each end will, by Saint-Venant's principle (see page 33),
give rise only to local effects at the ends.
The stresses <Tr, <To will still be given by Eqs. (d) and (e). The displacement u, however, is affected by the axial stress C3 A term
-vC 3r/E must be added on the right of Eq. (e). The axial displacement is that corresponding to the uniform stress C 3
Solid Cylinder. ln this case we may take a, the lower limit of the
integrals in Eqs. (e), (d), and (e), as zero. The displacement u must
vanish when r = O. This requires that C2 = O.
The constant C1 is found from the condition that the curved surface
r = b is free from force, so that (<1r)r=1> = O. Thus from Eq. (d),
putting C2 = O, a = O we find
1
a
- -C-- = - -1
(1 + v)(l - 2v)
1 - v b2

lb
o

Trdr

(g)

The resultant of the axial stress (f) is

{b

__

}o <T, 21r dr -

21aE [b
1 _ v }o Trdr

(l

2vEC1
2
v)(l _ 2 v) 7rb

and the resultant of the uniform axial stress C 3 is C 3 7b 2 The value


of e 3 making the total axial force zero is therefore given by
_

27aE {b
2
C 3 7b - 1 _ v }o Tr dr - (l

2vEC1
2
_ 2 v) 7b

+ v)(l

(h)

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

410

The final expressions for u, <Tr,


and (h),

<TB, <Ta

are, from Eqs. (e), (d), (e), (f), (g),

1+
u =-v a [ (1 - 2v) -r2
1 -

<T,.

<TB

<Tz

ub Tr dr + -r1
O

Tr dr ]

(1 (b Tr dr - f21Jr Tr dr)
aE- (1
=- fb Tr dr + 1Jr Tr dr - T )
r

_E v

1 -

b2

! v (;:

(240)

ob

A ..Jo

(ti.

n=l

e-p.t

(i)

2
A,. "" {J ..Ji (tJ,.)

fJ,.2

cP 'bi

in which k is the thermal conductivity, e the specific heat of the material, and P
the density. Substituting series (i) into Eq. (241) and taking into account the fact
that 8

we find that

1
u _ 2aETo
r -

1 -

L.,

e-p.t {_!_ _ - \ ~ Ji[P,.(r/b)]}


fJ,.2
tJ,. r J i(fJ,.)

(k)

n=l

i It is assumed that the surface of the cylinder suddenly assumes the temperature zero. If the temperature of the surface is Ti instead of zero, then To - Ti
must be put instead of To in our equations.
2 See Byerly "Fourier Series and Spherical Harmonics," p. 229.
The calculation of thermal stresses for this case is given by A. Dinnik, "Applications of Bessel's
Function to Elasticity Problems," pt. 2, p. 95, Ekaterinoslav, 1915. See also
C. H. Lees, Proc. Roy. Soe. (London), vol. 101, p. 411, 1922.
a See E. Jahnke und F. Emde, "Funktionentafeln," p. 165, Berlin, 1909.

li

ll:
.

~ j

+ _!_ ~ Ji[tJ,.(r/b)]
{J,. 2 r

J i(fJ,.)

_ Jo[{J,.(r/b)]}

(l)

fJ,.J i(tJ,.)

L.,

n=l

e-P.

{.!.2 _Jo[tJ,.(r/b)]}
1(fJ,.)
{J,.

{J,.J

(m)

Formulas (k), (l), and (m) represent the complete solution of the problem. Several
numerical examples can be found in the papers by A. Dinnik and C. H. Lees,
mentioned above. 1

Figure 225 represents 2 the distribution of temperature in a steel


cylinder. It is assumed that the cylinder had a uniform initial temperature equal to zero and that
beginning from an instant t = O
the surface of the cylinder is maintained ata temperature T 1 The
temperature distributions along
the radius, for various values of
t/b 2 (tis measured in seconds and
601---,\--~...+.......i~:I--+-'~
u
b in centimeters), are represented
k; 50 l---+-\-~~---t...---1------t
by curves. It will be seen from ~401----+--'\l---'t--~--f~f--t--=,....~::::I
Eqs. (i) and (j) that the tempera301--+-----+->.rt-3'cl---i-'"'*ture distribution for cylinders of
201--+-+-.>o,f--1-'-.+------+---+---"i=-t
various diameters is the sarne if
the time of heating tis proporo
tional to the square of the diameter. From thefigure, theaverage
temperature of the whole cylinder
FIG. 225.
and also of an inner portion of
the cylinder of radius r can be calculated. Having these temperatures
we find the thermal stresses from Eqs. (241), (242), and (243). If we

and the constants p,. are given by the equation


=

e-,..,{_!_
{J,. 2

u = 2aETo

1 - "

in which J 0 (tJ,.r/b) is the Bessel function of zero order (see page 385), and the
{J's are the roots of the equation J 0 (fJ) = O. The coefficients of the series (i) are

p,.

1 - " L.,

(242)
(243)

= 2aETo

Substituting series (i) in Eq. (243) we find

Take for example a long cylinder with a constant initial temperature To. If,
beginni~g from an i~stant t = O, the lateral surface of the cyl~nder is ~a~tained
ata temperature zero,i the distribution of temperature at any mstant tis given by
the series 2

T =To

<TB

(241)

Tr dr - T)

ln the sarne manner, substituting series (i) in Eq. (242), we obtain

n=l

b2

411

THERMAL STRESS

1
Temperature distribution in solids during heating and cooling was discussed
by Williamson and Adams, Phys. Rev., series 2, vol. 14, p. 99, 1919. An experimental investigation of the effects of fire and water on columns has been made by
Ingberg, Griffin, Robinson, and Wilson. See U. S. Bur. Standards, Tech. Paper
184, 1921.
2
The figure is taken from A. Stodola, "Dampf- und Gasturbinen," 6th ed.,
p. 961, 1924.

413

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

THERMAL STRESS

take a very small value for t, the average temperatures, mentioned


above, approach zero and we find at the surface

surface is zero, the temperature T at any distance r from the center is


represented by the expression

412

O'r

=O,

ue =

O'z

= -

T =

aET1
1 -

This is the numerical maximum of the thermal stress produced in a


cylinder by heating. It is equal to the stress necessary for entire suppression of thermal expansion at the surface. During heating this
stress is compression, during cooling it is tension. In order to reduce
the maximum stresses it is the usual practice to begin the heating of
shafts and rotors with a somewhat lower temperature than the final
temperature T 1, and to increase the time of heating in proportion to
the square of the diameter.
Cylinder with a Concentric Circular Hole. 1 The radius of the hole
being a, and the outer radius of the cylinder b, the constants C1, C2 in
Eqs. (e), (d), (e) are determined so that ur will be zero at these two
radii. Then

aE
1 (b
d
- 1 - P b2 }a Tr r

+1+P

av~f;g(b/a) [ - log ~ - (b2 ~ a2) ( 1 - ~) log ~]


" = 2(1 - v~f;g(b/a) [ 1 - log~ - (b2 ~ a2) ( 1 + ~) log~]
= 2(1 -

Ur

_
Uz

(247)

aETi
[
b
2a
l b]
2(1 - v) log(b/a) 1 - 21 og T - (b 2 - a 2 ) og

If Ti is positive, the radial stress is compressive at all points and


becomes zero at the inner and outer surfaces of the cylinder. The

C1
C2)
1 - 2v - b2 =O
FIG. 226.

EC2
aE
a2
(b
1 + v = 1 - v b2 - a2 j Tr dr
EC1

+ v) (1

- 2v)

= ~ __1_
1 -

b2

a2

stress components ue and u, have their largest numerical values at the


inner and outer surfaces of the cylinder. Taking r = a, we find that

fb Trdr
}

(ue)r=a = (uz)r=a =

Substituting these values in (d), (e), and (f), and adding to the last the
axial stress C 3 required to make the resultant axial force zero, we find
the formulas
aE 1 2 - 2 (b
('
)
(244)
2 j Tr dr ur = l _ v f2 b2 _
j Tr dr

aE
1 - V

0"8

O"z

=1-

(r a
1 (r + a {b
{'
f2 b2 - a2 J Tr dr + J Tr dr -

aE (
V

b2 - a2

J(ba Tr dr -

(245)
(246)

Consider, as an example, a steady heatjlow. If Ti is the temperature


on the inner surface of the cylinder and the temperature on the outer
1

(n)

Substituting this in Eqs. (244), (245), and (246), we find the following
expressions for the thermal stresses: 1

and from these

(1

Ti
log ~
log(b/a)
r

See R. Lorenz, Z. Ver. deutsch. Ing., vol. 51, p. 743, 1907.

b ( 1 - b2 - a2 log a
2(1 - v) log-

2b

b)

(248)

(l -

a 2 log ~)

(249)

aET,

For r

b we obtain
(ue).....o = (u,)r=b =

aETi b
2(1 - v) log a

b2

The distribution of thermal stresses over the thickness of the wall for a
particular case a/b = 0.3 is shown in the Fig. 226. If T, is positive,
the stresses are compressive at the inner surface and tensile at the outer
surface. In the case of such materials as stone, brick or concrete
. are weak in tension, cracks are likely to start on the' outer surface'
wh1ch
of the cylinder under the above conditions.
1

Charts for the rapid calculation of stresses from Eqs. (247) are given by
L. Barker, Engineering, vol. 124, p. 443, 1927.

414

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

THERMAL STRESS

If the thickness of the wall is srnall in cornparison with the outer


radius of the cylinder, we can sirnplify Eqs. (248) and (249) by putting

ln the foregoing discussion it was assumed that the cylinder is very


long and that we are considering stresses far away from the ends.
N ear the ends, the problem of thermal-stress distribution is more complicated due to local irregularities. Let us consider this problem for
the case of a cylinder with a thin wall. Solution (250) requires that
the normal forces shown in Fig. 227a should be distributed over the
ends of the cylinder. To find the stresses in a cylinder with free ends
we must superpose o~ the stresses (250) the stresses produced by
forces equal and oppos1te to those shown in Fig. 227a. ln the case of a

-=l+m
a

'

b
log a

m2
m - 2

and considering m as a srnall quantity.


(as),._

(a,)r=a

=-

(ae).- = (a,),=1> =

+ -m3 -

Then

2 (~E!_iv) ( 1 + i-)

2(~E!_iv) ( 1 -

l)

(248')
(249')

If the ternperature at the outer surface of the cylinder is different frorn


zero, the above results can be used by substituting the difference
between the inner and the outer ternperatures, Ti - T 0 , in all our
equations instead of Ti.
In the case of a very thin wall we can rnake a further sirnplification
and neglect the terrn m/3 in cornparison with unity in Eqs. (248') and
(249'). Then
aET,
(as)._ = (a,),._ = - 2(1 - v)
(250)
aET;
(ae)r=b = (a,),=1> = 2(1 - v)
and the distribution of therrnal stresses over the thickness of the wall
is the sarne as in the case of a flat plate of thickness 2c = b - a, when
the ternperature is given by the equation (Fig. 222)

415

T,y
(b - a)

and the edges are clarnped, so that bending of the plate, due to nonuniforrn heating, is prevented [see Eq. (k), Art. 132].
If a high-frequency fluctuation of ternperature is superposed on a
steady heat flow, the therrnal stresses produced by the fluctuation can
be calculated in the sarne rnanner as explained for the case of flat plates
(see Art. 132). 1
1 Thermal stresses in cylinder walls are of great practical importance in the
design of Diesel engines. A graphical solution of the problem, when the thickness
of the wall of the cylinder and the temperature vary along the length of the cylinder,
was developed by G. Eichelberg, Forschungsarbeiten, No. 263, 1923. Some
information regarding temperature distribution in Diesel engines can be found in
the following papers: H. F. G. Letson, Proc. Mech. Eng., p. 19, London, 1925;
A. Ngel, Engineering, vol. 127, pp. 59, 179, 279, 466, 626, 1929.

(aJ

()
FIG. 227.

thin wall of thickness h these forces can be reduced to bending moments


M, as shown in Fig. 227b, unormly distributed along the edge of the
cylinder and equal to
aET; h2
M=
(o)
2(1 - v) 6
per unit length of the edge. To estimate the stresses produced by
these moments, consider a longitudinal strip, of width equal to unity
cut out from the cylindrical shell. Such a strip can be treated as aba;
on an elastic foundation. The deflection curve of this strip is given by
the equation 1
u

Me-fJ

= 2132D (cos {3z

- sin {3z)

(p)

in which

fJ

D= ~_E_h_
12(1 - v2)

(q)

.nd e is the middle radius of the cylindrical shell. Having this deflection curve, the corresponding bending stresses a, and the tangential
1

See S. Timoshenko, "Strength of Materials,'' 2d ed., vol. 2, p. 166.

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

THERMAL STRESS

stresses uo can be calculated for any value of z. The maximum deflection of the strip is evidently at the end z = O, where

On:account of