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Written by Dr.

In Ku Kim-Marshall

★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★

STEP BY STEP
★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★

Korean 1
through
15 Action Verbs
Table of Contents
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................... 3
About this book ............................................................................................................... 6
How to use this book .................................................................................................... 8

Unit 1
The Korean Alphabet, hangeul (한글)
1. Korean Sounds and Hangeul Letters .................................................... 10
2. How to Read Korean Words .................................................................. 12
3. How to Construct Korean Words.......................................................... 21
4. How to Write Korean Words.................................................................. 23

Unit 2
Korean Sentences with 15 Action Verbs
Introduction ................................................................................................ 34
Chapter 1. 가다 [ga-da]- to go ......................................................... 38
Chapter 2. 공부하다 [gong-bu-ha-da]- to study .................. 42
Chapter 3. 마시다 [ma-si-da]- to drink ...................................... 46
Chapter 4. 만나다 [man-na-da]- to meet ................................. 50
Chapter 5. 말하다 [mal-ha-da]- to speak ................................. 54
Review Exercises 01~05 ............................................................... 58

Chapter 6. 먹다 [meok-da]- to eat ................................................. 62


Chapter 7. 보다 [bo-da]- to see ....................................................... 66
Chapter 8. 사다 [sa-da]- to buy ....................................................... 70
Chapter 9. 오다 [o-da]- to come ..................................................... 74
Chapter 10. 인사하다 [in-sa-ha-da]- to greet ....................... 78
Review Exercises 06~10 ............................................................... 82

4 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs


Chapter 11. 일어나다 [i-reo-na-da]- to get up .................... 86
Chapter 12. 읽다 [ik-dda]- to read ................................................. 90
Chapter 13. 있다 [it-dda]- to have .................................................. 94
Chapter 14. 전화하다 [jeon-hwa-ha-da]- to call ................. 98
Chapter 15. 좋아하다 [jo-a-ha-da]- to like ........................... 102
Review Exercises 11~15 ............................................................. 106
Answer Key ............................................................................................. 110

Unit 3
Korean Culture
Introduction ............................................................................................. 117
1. 세종대왕 [se-jong-dae-wang] :
King Sejong the Great and hangeul, the Korean alphabet ..... 119
2. 태극기 [tae-geug-gi] : The Korean National Flag ............. 120
3. 단군 [dan-gun] : The Founder of Gojoseon,
“the Oldest Kingdom of Korea”(2333 B.C. ~ 108 B.C.) 121
4. 추석 [chu-seok] : Harvest Moon Festival ............................... 122
5. 돌[dol]·환갑[hwan-gap] : Korean Family Celebrations ..... 123
6. 윷 [Yut] 놀이 [nori] : Traditional Korean Game ...................... 125
7. 불고기 [bulgogi]·김치 [kimchi] : Korean Food ...................... 126

Appendix
A. Pronunciation Rules Continued .......................................................... 130
B. Basic Korean Grammar : Review ....................................................... 131

Vocabulary List ............................................................................................. 141

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About this book

Starting to learn a new language can be an intimidating experience for students, especially
if they are using a self-study method. This book is a fun and easy way to help students
learn to read and speak simple Korean.
Sample sentences built with 15 commonly used verbs will introduce simple vocabulary
and basic points of Korean grammar. This way, students can make progress right from the
start. They can then build on the knowledge gained here by continuing with the rest of this
three-book series.

The characteristic elements of this textbook are:

beginning level study with the most common verbs and nouns
introduction of basic Korean grammar rules for verb usage
repetition of sentences on each page, allowing the student to learn vocabulary and
grammar at the same time
introduction of the basic sentence structure in the present tense
grammar notes on each page
vocabulary lists at the end of each page making it easy for the student to learn
important words
verbs followed by exercises to reinforce the knowledge of the verb’ s use
pictures that enable the student to relate what they’ re learning to a visual image

6 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs


conversational sentences which help the student learn simple conversational language
discussion of Korean culture and customs

The author hopes that the learner can develop knowledge and interest in Korean and that
he/she will continue to deepen his/her understanding of the Korean language and culture.

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How to use this book

Read each sentence and its meaning.


Look at each picture and associate the meaning.
Complete the various exercises and word searches including the cross word puzzles in
this book.
Study the grammar notes which can help the learner understand the important grammar
points.

8 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs


Unit 1
The Korean Alphabet,
hangeul
Unit 1 : The Korean Alphabet, hangeul (한글)
When first introduced by King Sejong in 1446, hangeul had 28 letters of which
only 24 are in use today. The 10 basic vowels and 14 single consonants of
hangeul expand to 21 vowels and 19 consonants for a total of 40 letters in
combination. The following are the sound values and names of each letter.

1. Korean Sound and Hangeul Letters


a. Consonants : 19 letters
Single Consonant : 14 letters
Hangeul Letter Sound Value Name of letter Example
ㄱ [g/k] 기역 [gi-yeok] goat
ㄴ [n] 니은 [ni-eun] nose
ㄷ [d/t] 디귿 [di-geut] dog
ㄹ [r/l] 리을 [ri-eul] red
ㅁ [m] 미음 [mi-eum] moon
ㅂ [b/p] 비읍 [bi-eup] big
ㅅ [s/sh] 시옷 [si-ot] soft
ㅇ [*/-ng] 이응 [i-eung] *
ㅈ [j] 지읒 [ji-eut] George
ㅊ [ch] 치읓 [chi-eut] cheese
ㅋ [k] 키읔 [ki-eut] kite
ㅌ [t] 티읕 [ti-eut] table
ㅍ [p] 피읖 [pi-eup] paper
ㅎ [h] 히읗 [hi-eut] hat
silent, when a word starts with this letter“ㅇ”
; -ng, at the end of a word.

10 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs


Double Consonant : 5 letters
Hangeul letter Sound value Name of letter
ㄲ [kk] 쌍기역 [ssang-gi-yeok]
ㄸ [tt] 쌍디귿 [ssang-di-geut]
ㅃ [pp] 쌍비읍 [ssang-bi-eup]
ㅆ [ss] 쌍시옷 [ssang-si-ot]
ㅉ [jj] 쌍지읒 [ssang-ji-eut]

b. Vowels : 21 letters
Single Vowel : 10 letters
Hangeul Letter Sound Value Name of letter Example
ㅏ [a] 아 [a] father
ㅑ [ya] 야 [ya] yacht
ㅓ [eo] 어 [eo] about
ㅕ [yeo] 여 [yeo] young
ㅗ [o] 오 [o] home
ㅛ [yo] 요 [yo] yo-yo
ㅜ [u] 우 [u] mood
ㅠ [yu] 유 [yu] you
ㅡ [eu] 으 [eu] put
ㅣ [i] 이 [i] bee
Vowels by themselves must always be preceeded by“o”(silent), because Korean
words always begin with a consonant.

Ex. 아기 [a-gi] baby 우유 [u-yu] milk


어머니 [eo-meo-ni] mother 오리 [o-ri] duck

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Double Vowel : 11 letters
Hangeul letter Sound value Name of letter Example
ㅐ [ae] 애 [ae] cat
ㅒ [yae] 얘 [yae] yam
ㅔ [e] 에 [e] bet, pen
ㅖ [ye] 예 [ye] yes
ㅘ [wa] 와 [wa] wine
ㅙ [wae] 왜 [wae] quack
ㅚ [we] 외 [we] when
ㅝ [weo] 워 [weo] wonder
ㅞ [we] 웨 [we] when
ㅟ [wi] 위 [wi] we
ㅢ [eui] 의 [eui] -

2. How to Read Korean Words


In Korean, each letter has a unique sound associated only with that letter. The
following are examples of how to read the consonants (c) and vowels (v) that form
each word.

Ⅰ. ㄱ + ㅏ ㄱ [g]
가 [ga] + 고 [go]
[g] [a] ㅗ [o]

Ⅱ. ㄱ + ㅏ ㄱ [g]
[g] [a] +
+ 각 [gak] ㅗ [o] 곳 [got]
ㄱ +
[k] ㅅ[t]

At the end of a word, ㄱ is pronounced as [k], ㅅ is pronounced as [t], when the word is
not followed by another word.

12 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs


Ⅲ. ㄱ +ㅏ ㄱ [g]
[g] [a] +
ㅗ [o] 곬 [gol]
+ 값 [gap]
+
ㅂ ㅅ ㄹ ㅅ
[p] [Ø] [l] [Ø]

When the double consonants ㅂㅅ and ㄹㅅ are used as final consonants and are followed
by ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅅ or ㅈ, they are pronounced as single finals [p], and the ㅅ is not
pronounced.

Reading Practice : Read each word aloud.


a. Consonants : 19 letters
고기 [go-gi] meat 기차 [gi-cha] train
ㄱ [g]
구두 [gu-du] shoes 고추 [go-chu] red-pepper
나비 [na-bi] butterfly 누나 [nu-na] elder sister
ㄴ [n]
노루 [no-ru] deer 나무 [na-mu] tree
다리 [da-ri] leg, bridge 도라지 [do-ra-ji] bellflower
ㄷ [d]
도토리 [do-to-ri] acorn 두부 [du-bu] tofu
라디오 [ra-di-o] radio 러시아 [reo-si-a] Russia
ㄹ [r]*
루비 [ru-bi] ruby 토요일 [to-yo-il] Saturday
* If a word starts with“ㄹ,”you pronounce it [r], but if a word ends with“ㄹ,”you pronounce
it [l].

머리 [meo-ri]
head 모기 [mo-gi] mosquito
ㅁ [m]
모자 [mo-ja]
hat 무 [mu] radish
바다 [ba-da]
sea 바지 [ba-ji] trousers
ㅂ [b]
보리 [bo-ri]
barley 비누 [bi-nu] soap
사자 [sa-ja]
lion 소나무 [so-na-mu] pine tree
ㅅ [s] 수저 [su-jeo]
spoon and 스승 [seu-seung] teacher
chopsticks
아버지 [a-beo-ji] father 어머니 [eo-meo-ni] mother
ㅇ [Ø]* 오리 [o-ri] duck 우유 [u-yu] milk
* Initial“o”is silent.

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자유 [ja-yu] freedom 자두 [ja-du] plum
ㅈ [j]
주사 [ju-sa] injection 지구 [ji-gu] globe
차 [cha] car, tea 초 [cho] candle
ㅊ [ch]
층 [cheung] floor 치마 [chi-ma] skirt
코 [ko] nose 소쿠리 [so-ku-ri] basket
ㅋ [k]
키 [ki] height 코끼리 [ko-ggi-ri] elephant
타자기 [ta-ja-gi] typewriter 투수 [tu-su] pitcher
ㅌ [t]
토끼 [to-ggi] rabbit 타조 [ta-jo] ostrich
파도 [pa-do] wave 포도 [po-do] grape
ㅍ [p]
피부 [pi-bu] skin 파리 [pa-ri] fly
하마 [ha-ma] hippo 허리 [heo-ri] waist
ㅎ [h]
휴지 [hyu-ji] tissue 호도 [ho-do] walnut
까치 [gga-chi] magpie 꾸러미 [ggu-reo-mi] bundle
ㄲ [gg]
꼬마 [ggo-ma] kid 꿈 [ggum] dream
따다 [dda-da] to pick 띠 [ddi] belt
ㄸ [dd]
뜨다 [ddeu-da] to rise 또다시 [ddo-da-si] again
빵 [bbang] bread 빠르다 [bba-reu-da] to be fast
ㅃ [bb]
바쁘다 [ba-bbeu-da] to be busy 기쁘다 [gi-bbeu-da] to be happy
싸우다 [ssa-u-da] to fight 쏘다 [sso-da] to shoot
ㅆ [ss]
쓰다 [sseu-da] to write 쌀 [ssal] rice
짜다 [jja-da] to be salty 쪽 [jjok] piece, direction
ㅉ [jj]
찌다 [jji-da] to steam 찌개 [jji-gae] stew

b. Vowels : 21 letters
가수 [ga-su] singer 나비 [na-bi] butterfly
ㅏ [a]
다리 [da-ri] leg, bridge 아기 [a-gi] baby
야구 [ya-gu] baseball 야자수 [ya-ja-su] palm tree
ㅑ [ya]
야만 [ya-man] savage 대야 [dae-ya] washbowl
거리 [geo-ri] street 머리 [meo-ri] head
ㅓ [eo]
버스 [beo-seu] bus 허리 [heo-ri] waist
여자 [yeo-ja] woman 벼 [byeo] rice plant
ㅕ [yeo]
여우 [yeo-u] fox 여름 [yeo-reum] summer

14 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs


소 [so] cow 오이 [o-i] cucumber
ㅗ [o]
호수 [ho-su] lake 모자 [mo-ja] hat
표 [pyo] ticket 효 [hyo] filial piety
ㅛ [yo]
교수 [gyo-su] professor 요리 [yo-ri] cooking
구두 [gu-du] shoes 두부 [du-bu] tofu
ㅜ [u]
부모 [bu-mo] parents 주소 [ju-so] address
뉴스 [nyu-seu] news 유리 [yu-ri] glass
ㅠ [yu]
유자 [yu-ja] citron 휴지 [hyu-ji] tissue
그네 [geu-ne] swing 스키 [seu-ki] ski
ㅡ [eu]
크다 [keu-da] to be big 흐르다 [heu-reu-da] to flow
이사 [i-sa] moving 비누 [bi-nu] soap
ㅣ [i]
기차 [gi-cha] train 지구 [ji-gu] globe

ㅐ [ae] 배추 [bae-chu] cabbage 배 [bae] ship / pear


(ㅏ+l) 새우 [sae-u] shrimp 해 [hae] sun
ㅔ [e] 세모 [se-mo] triangle 가게 [ga-ge] shop
(ㅓ+l) 나그네 [na-geu-ne] vagabond, traveler 제주도 [je-ju-do] Jeju Island
ㅖ [ye] 예 [ye] yes 시계 [si-gye] watch
(ㅕ+l) 세계 [se-gye] world 차례 [cha-rye] order
ㅘ [wa] 과자 [gwa-ja] cookies 화가 [hwa-ga] painter
(ㅗ+ㅏ) 와요 [wa-yo] come 왕 [wang] king
ㅙ [wae] 돼지 [dwae-ji] pig 왜 [wae] why, old name of Japan
(ㅗ+ㅐ) 왜요 [wae-yo] why 쾌차 [kwae-cha] complete recovery
ㅚ [we] 외교 [we-gyo] diplomacy 외가 [we-ga] mother’
s family
(ㅗ+l) 회사 [hwe-sa] company 외국 [we-guk] foreign country
ㅝ [weo] 추워요 [chu-weo-yo] cold 더워요 [deo-weo-yo] hot
(ㅜ+ㅓ) 매워요 [mae-weo-yo] spicy 원숭이 [weon-sung-i] monkey
ㅟ [wi] 위 [wi] up / stomach 뒤 [dwi] behind, rear
(ㅜ+l) 귀 [gwi] ear 쥐 [jwi] rat
ㅢ [eui] 의사 [eui-sa] doctor 의자 [eui-ja] chair
(ㅡ+l) 예의 [ye-eui] politeness 의회 [eui-hwae] congress

15
Reading PracticeⅡ: continued
c. Third position consonants : 8 pronunciation groups
In Korean, the 2nd and 3rd consonants in a word are referred to as 받
침. 받침 must always be 1 or 2 consonants and all fall into eight
pronunciation groups:

ㄱ, ㅋ and ㄲ are pronounced as [k], when the word


is not followed by another vowel.
Ex. k]
속 [sok inside k] Korea
한국 [han-guk
k] kitchen
부엌 [bu-eok k]
밖 [bak outside

ㄴ is pronounced as [n
n]. This letter sound does not
change, whatever the position.
Ex. nun
눈 [n n] eye, snow n-ji] letter
편지 [pyeon
안개 [ann-gae] fog n] towel
수건 [su-geon

ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅌ and ㅆ are pronounced as [tt], when


the word is not followed by another vowel.
Ex. 곧 [gott] soon 숟가락 [sutt-ga-rak] spoon
빗 [bitt] comb 옷 [ott] clothing
낮 [natt] daytime 잊다 [it-dda] to forget
빛 [bitt] light 꽃 [ggott] flower
밑 [mitt] bottom 끝 [ggeutt] end
있다 [itt-dda] to have

17
4

ㄹ is pronounced as [ll], when the word ends with“ㄹ.”

Ex. 달 [dall] moon 가을 [ga-eull] autumn


얼굴 [eol-gull] face 딸기 [ddall-gi] strawberry

And if a word ends with“ㄹ”and is followed by another


“ㄹ,”you pronounce both [l].

Ex. 달라요 [dall-lla-yo] (it) is different


몰라요 [moll-lla-yo] (I) do not know

ㅁ is pronounced as [m
m]. This letter sound does not
change, whatever the position.
Ex. m] spring
봄 [bom m-sim
점심 [jeom m] lunch
m] night, chestnut
밤 [bam 마음 [ma-eumm] heart

ㅂ and ㅍ are pronounced as a short [p


p]at the end of
a final syllable
Ex. p]
앞 [ap front p]
옆 [yeop side
p] class
수업 [su-eop p] occupation
직업 [ji-geop

ㅇ is pronounced as [-
-ng], when a word ends with
“ㅇ.”
Ex. ng] river
강 [gan ng]
방 [ban room
ng] ball
공 [gon 영국 [yeonng-guk] England
8

ㅎ becomes silent [ø], when it is at the end of a


syllable and is followed by a vowel.
Ex. ㅎ ø(silent) 아 [jo
좋아 o-a] that’
s fine
으면 [jo
좋으 o-eu-myeon] If (you) like

18 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs


But when ㅎ is at the end of a syllable that is followed
by the consonants ㄱ, ㄷ, or ㅈ, the pronunciation of the
consonants changes to the aspirated consonants [ㅋ, ㅌ,
ㅊ] respectively.

Ex. ㅎ+ㄱ k]
[k 놓고 [no-kko] put and
ko](it’
좋고 [jo-k s) fine and

ㅎ+ㄷ [tt] 놓다 [no-tta] to put


좋다 [jo-tta] to be good

ㅎ+ㅈ ch]
[c chi]
좋지 [jo-c
놓지 [no-cchi]

Pronunciation Note : “Liaison” (연음법칙)


When the consonant is at the end of a syllable and is followed by a vowel, it is
pronounced at the beginning of the next syllable.

Ex. 에 [so-g
속에 ge] inside 에 [han-gu-g
한국에 ge] in Korea
에 [bu-eo-k
부엌에 ke] in the kitchen 에 [ba-g
밖에 gge] outside
에 [mi-tte]
밑에 이 [bi-c
under, on the bottom 빛이 chi] the light is
에 [na-jje]
낮에 during the day 옷이 [o-ssi] the clothes are
이 [su-eo-b
수업이 bi] class 이 [ji-geo-b
직업이 bi] the job is
으로 [a-p
앞으 peu-ro] to the front 에 [yeo-p
옆에 pe] to the side

Reading PracticeⅢ:
안녕하세요? [an-nyeong-ha-se-yo] (안녕!) Hello, Hi
Used as a greeting in the morning, in the afternoon, and in the
evening.

안녕히 가세요. [an-nyeong-hi ga-se-yo] Good-bye


Saying good-bye in a situation when one stays at a place and the
other departs.

안녕히 계세요. [an-nyeong-hi gye-se-yo] Good-bye


This phrase is used by the person who departs from the place.

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3. How to Construct Korean Words
There are six ways to construct Korean words using Hangeul. These 6 ways can
be sub-divided into two parts, each consisting of 3 types of word constructions, as
described below in part A and B.
Construction of a Korean word must always begin with a single or
double consonant.

Part A (1-3)
When the first vowel in a word is“ㅏ, ㅑ, ㅓ, ㅕ, or l,”
the word is constructed by having the letters arranged
horizontally. (c-consonant: v -vowel)

1. Horizontal combination of a consonant with one of these 5 vowels

Ex.
c+v ㄱ+ㅏ 가

2. Horizontal combination of 2 consonants and a vowel.

The 1st consonant stands side by side with a vowel. The 2nd
consonant is written below the combined c+v. The 2nd consonant is
받침 [bat-chim]). 받침 can be 1 or
referred to as the third position (받
2 consonants but must always be a consonant.

Ex. c+v ㄱ+ㅏ 각


c (받침) ㄱ

3. Horizontal combination of 3 consonants and a vowel.


(c+v+2 consonants)

Ex. c+v ㄱ+ㅏ 값


c c (받침) ㅂ ㅅ

21
Part B (4-6)
When the final vowel in the word is,“ㅗ, ㅛ, ㅜ, ㅠ or ㄱ
ㅡ,”the word is constructed by having the letters
arranged vertically.

4. Vertical combination of a consonant with one of these 5 vowels


(ㅗ, ㅛ, ㅜ, ㅠ or ㅡ).

Ex. c ㄱ
+ + 고
v ㅗ

5. Vertical combination of 2 consonants and a vowel.

Ex. c ㄱ
+ +
v ㅗ 곳
+ +
c (받침) ㅅ

6. Vertical combination of 3 consonants and a vowel.


(c+v+2 consonants).

Ex. c ㄱ
+ +
v ㅗ 곬
+ +
c c (받침) ㄹ ㅅ

22 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs


4. How to Write Korean Words
The easiest way to learn to write hangeul is to follow the prescribed stroke order
below using squared paper.

a. Consonants : 19 letters
The fourteen consonants are shown below in Korean alphabetical order with
the direction and sequence of the strokes. The romanized letters are their
sound value.

ㄱ g

ㄲ gg

ㄴ n

ㄷ d/t

23
ㄸ dd

ㄹ r/l

ㅁ m

ㅂ b/p

ㅃ bb

ㅅ s

24 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs


ㅆ ss

ㅇØ

ㅈ j

ㅉ jj

ㅊ ch

25
ㅋ k

ㅌ t

ㅍ p

ㅎ h

26 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs


b. Vowels : 21 letters
There are a total of twenty-one different vowel-syllables. In the table below, the
vowels are listed in Korean alphabetical order

ㅏ a

ㅐ ae

ㅑ ya

ㅒ yae

ㅓ eo

27
ㅔ e

ㅕ yeo

ㅖ ye

ㅗ o

ㅘ wa

ㅙ wae
28 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs
ㅚ oe

ㅛ yo

ㅜ u

ㅝ weo

ㅞ we

29
ㅟ ui

ㅠ yu

ㅡ eu

ㅢ eui

l i

30 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs


Exercises
1. Write the fourteen consonants in the .

ㄱ- - - - - - - - - - - - -
2. Fill in the boxes alphabetically.

ㄱ- -ㄷ- -ㅁ-ㅂ- - -ㅈ-ㅊ- -ㅌ- -ㅎ


3. Write the ten vowels in the .

ㅏ- - - - - - - - -
4. Please fill in the gaps in alphabetical order.

ㅏ- - -ㅕ- -ㅛ -ㅠ- -ㅣ
5. Write the words in alphabetical order.

ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄷ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅂ, ㅅ, ㅇ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅎ
가지 호수 나무 오이 라디오
치마 파도 사자 마음 불고기
자두 타다 크다 다리
① ⑧
② ⑨
③ ⑩
④ ⑪
⑤ ⑫
⑥ ⑬
⑦ ⑭

31
Unit 2 : Introduction
In Korean, verbs are conjugated in 4 different forms depending on whom is being
addressed. These forms are:

Polite formal,
Polite informal,
Plain and
Intimate Speech style
(See detail in Appendix, page 135)

You will learn in Unit 2

1. How to conjugate verbs in the present tense using the polite


informal form (Vst+-아요/어요/여요): (Vst : abbreviation of
Verb Stem)
The infinitive form of every Korean verb consists of the
stem and the -다 ending.

Ex. 가다 (to go) 공부하다 (to study)

가 다 공부하 다

stem ending stem ending

When conjugating the verb, -다 is dropped and the polite informal


form is added to the stem. All verbs fall into one of three groups,
which determines the conjugation:

34 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs


a. When the Vst ends with the vowel ㅏ or ㅗ, then the ending
changes this way ⇒ Vst+-아요

Ex. 가다 (to go) 가+-아요 가요

stem
오다 (to come) 오+-아요 와요

stem

b. When the Vst ends with any vowel except ㅏ or ㅗ, then the
ending changes this way ⇒ Vst+-어요

먹다 (to eat) 먹+-어요 먹어요


stem
입다 (to wear) 입+-어요 입어요
stem

c. When the Vst ends with“하다”verb ending, such as 공부하다,


좋아하다, then the ending changes this way ⇒ 하+-여요 which is
contracted as Vst+-해요

공부하다 (to study) 공부하+-여요 공부해요

stem
일하다 (to work) 일하+-여요 일해요

stem

35
Note: When conjugating some verbs, certain vowel combinations occur, which
are then contracted. The following are examples of contraction rules:

Ex.
Example:
contraction Verb polite informal conjugation
(Vst+-아/어/여요)
아+아 = ㅏ [a] 가다 (to go) 가+-아요 가요
오+아 = ㅘ [wa] 오다 (to come) 오+-아요 와요
우+어 = ㅝ [weo] 주다 (to give) 주+-어요 줘요
어+어 = ㅓ [eo] 서다 (to stand) 서+-어요 서요
이+어 = ㅕ [yeo] 마시다 (to drink) 마시+-어요 마셔요
아+여 = ㅐ [ae] 일하다 (to work) 일하+-여요 일해요

2. How to construct a Korean Sentence : The Korean sentence


is structured in Subject-Object-Verb (SOV) order. The verb
is always at the end of the sentence. Unlike in English, the
Korean subject is followed by a subject particle (-이/가) and
the object is followed by an object particle(-을/를).

Ex. subject object

아기가 우유를 마셔요. (The baby drinks milk.)

subject particle object particle

Note: The verb in the Korean language never changes regardless of whether
the subject is singular or plural, personal pronoun third person (he, she,
it), or a proper noun (Georgetown University). Also, Korean never uses
capital letters or cursive.

36 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs


For the rest of this course, verbs (in the vocabulary list) will be written
with the stem in a larger font than the ending:

Ex. 가다 ⇒ 가 verb stem + 다 ending


먹다 ⇒ 먹 verb stem + 다 ending
공부하다 ⇒ 공부하 verb stem + 다 ending

37
Chapter. 01 가다 (to go)
나는 학교에 가요.
I go to school.

Vocabulary
가다 to go
가요 (가+-아요)-present tense
어디(에) (to) where
나(는) I (topic marker)
학교(에) (to) school / 학교-school

38 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs


가요.
가요.
어디에 가요?
학교에 가요.

나는
나는
학교에 가요.

Grammar Notes
-은/는 Topic marker. When attached to a noun, it shows the subject
of the sentence, or“contrast,” (See p.132)

Subject of the sentence


ⅰ. When the noun ends in a consonant,“-은”
Ex. 수진은 학교에 가요. (수진-Sujin)
As for Sujin, she is going to school.
ⅱ. When the noun ends in a vowel,“-는”
Ex. 나는 대학교에 가요. (대학교-university)
As for me, I am going to the university.

어디 “where”

-에 “in,”“at,”or“to.”Used after place or time nouns to show


location or direction.
Ex. 학교에 가요. I go to school.
뉴욕에 가요. (뉴욕-New York) I go to New York.

39
Exercises 01
1. Fill in the blanks with“은”or“는”
.

ⓐ 나( ) 학교에 가요.

ⓑ 앨버트( ) 학교에 가요. (앨버트-Albert)

ⓒ 수진( ) 집에 가요. (수진-Sujin / 집-home)


가다 (to go)

ⓓ 어머니( ) 가게에 가요. (어머니-mother / 가게-store)

ⓔ 우리들( ) 학교에 가요. (우리들-we)

2. Fill in the blanks with“에”.

ⓐ 나는 학교( ) 가요.

ⓑ 앨버트는 뉴욕( ) 가요. (뉴욕-New York)

ⓒ 수진은 서울( ) 가요. (서울-Seoul)

ⓓ 우리들은 한국( ) 가요. (한국-Korea)

3. Translate into Korean.

ⓐ I go to school.

ⓑ Albert goes to New York.

ⓒ We go to Florida.

ⓓ Sujin goes to Seoul.

40 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs


4. Read the sentence. Which word is the verb? Mark your

Ch. 01
answer in each line.

Ex.
나는 학교에 가요.

ⓐ나 ⓑ 가요. ⓒ 학교 ⓓ에

가다 (to go)
ⓐ 가요. ⓑ 학교 ⓒ는 ⓓ나
ⓐ 학교 ⓑ나 ⓒ에 ⓓ 가요.

5. Read each sentence. Choose the sentence that is written


correctly. Mark your answer.

ⓐ 학교에 가요 나는.
ⓑ 가요 나는 학교에.
ⓒ 나는 가요 학교에.
ⓓ 나는 학교에 가요.

6. Answer the following questions, using the answers given


in parentheses.

ⓐ 어디에 가요? (학교)

ⓑ 수진은 어디에 가요? (집-home)

ⓒ 친구는 어디에 가요? (뉴욕-New York / 친구-friend)

ⓓ 앨버트는 어디에 가요? (한국-Korea)

ⓔ 어머니는 어디에 가요? (가게-store)

41
Chapter. 02 공부하다 (to study)
나는 한국말을 공부해요.
I study Korean.

Vocabulary
공부하다 to study
공부해요 (공부하+-여요)-present
tense
나(는) I (topic marker)
한국말(을) Korean language (object particle)

42 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs


공부해요.
공부해요.
나는 공부해요.

나는
나는 공부해요.
나는 한국말을 공부해요.

Grammar Notes
-을/를 Object particle. It comes after a noun and shows the“object”
of the verb.
i. When a noun ends in a consonant, “-을”
Ex. 친구가 한국말을 공부해요. (친구-friend)
ii. When a noun ends in a vowel, “-를”
Ex. 친구가 영어를 공부해요. (영어-English)
My friend studies English.

Personal Pronoun These forms are used when the speaker talks to a
subordinate or an equal.
singular plural
I 나 we 우리(들)*
you 너 you 너희(들)
he 그
그들
she 그녀 they
it 그것 그것들

*-들 Plural marker


Ex. 학생 (student) 학생들 (students) / 아이 (child) 아이들 (children)

43
Exercises 02
1. Fill in the blanks with“을”or“를.”
Ch. 02

ⓐ 앨버트는 한국말( ) 공부해요.


ⓑ 수진은 영어( ) 공부해요. (영어-English)
ⓒ 나는 독일어( ) 공부해요. (독일어-German)
ⓓ 수미는 스페인어( ) 공부해요. (수미-Sumi / 스페인어-Spanish)
공부하다 (to study)

ⓔ 친구는 중국어( ) 공부해요. (중국어-Chinese)

2. Translate into Korean.

ⓐ My friend studies Korean. (my-내)

ⓑ Sujin studies English. (Sujin-수진)

ⓒ We study Spanish. (we-우리들)

ⓓ My friend studies Chinese. (Chinese-중국어)

ⓔ I study Japanese. (Japanese-일본어)

ⓕ We study German. (we-우리들)

3. Read the sentences and choose the one that is written


correctly. Mark your answer.

ⓐ 한국말을 수진 공부해요.
ⓑ 공부해요 나는 영어를
ⓒ 우리들은 공부해요 영어
ⓓ 우리들 영어를 공부해요.
ⓔ 우리들은 한국말을 공부해요.

44 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs


4. Form a correct sentence from each group of words given

Ch. 02
below.

ⓐ 독일어, 수진, 공부하다

공부하다 (to study)


ⓑ 공부하다, 나, 스페인어

ⓒ 앨버트, 한국말, 공부하다

ⓓ 영어, 우리들, 공부하다

5. The following sentences are scrambled. Please write


them correctly.

ⓐ 공부해요 중국어를 나는

ⓑ 영어를 수미는 공부해요 (수미-Sumi)

ⓒ 앨버트는 공부해요 스페인어를

ⓓ 공부해요 독일어를 수진은

45
Chapter. 03 마시다 (to drink)

동생이 물을 마셔요.
My younger sibling drinks water.

Vocabulary
마시다 to drink
마셔요(마시+-어요)-present tense
내 my (shortened form of 나의-my)
동생(이) younger sibling (subject particle)
물(을) water (object particle)
운동 exercise
후에 after
지금 now

46 STEP BY STEP KOREAN (1) through 15 Action Verbs