C type Harmonic filter design

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1, JANUARY 2012

281

Minimization of the Voltage Harmonic

Distortion for Nonlinear Loads

Shady Hossam Eldeen Abdel Aleem, Ahmed Faheem Zobaa, Senior Member, IEEE, and

Mohamed Mamdouh Abdel Aziz, Senior Member, IEEE

potent technique for power system harmonic suppression because

of their possible different frequency response characteristics that

can achieve a certain required harmonic filtering target, also due

to their simplicity and economical cost. This paper presents an

application of FORTRAN feasible sequential quadratic programming to find the optimal sizing of parameters of C-type passive

filters for minimizing the total voltage harmonic distortion of nonlinear loads, where maintaining a given power factor at a specified

range is desired. The optimal design of the C-type passive filter

as an alternative to the conventional passive filtering techniques

is introduced, and a detailed comparison of the results between

an uncompensated system and a C-type filter are discussed by

means of different numerical examples, considering source and

load nonlinearities, while taking into account compliance with the

IEEE standards 519-1992 and 18-2002.

ICH

Index TermsC-type passive filter, FORTRAN feasible sequential quadratic programming (FFSQP), harmonics, passive filter,

power quality.

VS

N OMENCLATURE

RLH , XLH

GLH , BLH

RSH , XSH

ZCH

ISH

IS

ILH

IC

Load conductance and susceptance in mhos at

harmonic number h.

Transmission system resistance and reactance in

ohms at harmonic number h.

The hth harmonics C-type filter impedance in

ohms.

Average value of the supply current in amperes at

harmonic number h.

Root-mean-square (RMS) value of the supply

current in amperes.

Average value of the load harmonic current in

amperes.

RMS value of the main capacitor current in

amperes.

Manuscript received October 20, 2010; revised January 17, 2011; accepted

March 23, 2011. Date of publication April 7, 2011; date of current version

October 4, 2011.

S. H. E. Abdel Aleem is with the Higher Institute of Engineering, 15th of

May, Helwan, Egypt (e-mail: engy-shady@hotmail.com).

A. F. Zobaa is with the School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University,

UB8 3PH Uxbridge, U.K., and also with Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt

(e-mail: azobaa@ieee.org).

M. M. Abdel Aziz is with the Department of Electrical Power and Machines,

Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2011.2141099

ICN

PL

PS

DPF

VLH

VSH

VL

VC

VC

VCP

amperes at harmonic number h.

Nominal RMS main capacitor current based on

the rated kilovolt-ampere reactive (kVAR) and

voltage in amperes.

Load active power per phase in watts.

Supply active power per phase in watts.

Displacement power factor (PF) in percent.

Average value of the load voltage in volts at

harmonic number h.

Average value of the supply voltage in volts at

harmonic number h.

RMS value of the load voltage (line to neutral) in

volts.

RMS value of the supply voltage (line to neutral)

in volts.

RMS main capacitor voltage in volts.

Nominal RMS main capacitor voltage in volts.

Main capacitor peak voltage in volts.

I. I NTRODUCTION

during the last several years is the increasing of certain

types of loads that result in power quality problems for the

customer and the supplier alike. Power quality issues, harmonic

pollution, and interference problems are becoming potentially

serious; thus, the minimization of the harmonic level is required. In this form, the power quality is a set of constraints that

allows electrical systems in any industrial plant to function with

reliable and continuous expected quality without any additional

loss of performance due to any kind of abnormalities, and it is

actually the quality of the voltage that is being intended in most

cases [1][4].

The IEEE standard 519 clearly states that harmonic currents

should be reduced to minimize voltage distortion since the

power supply system can only control the quality of the voltage

and has no control over the currents that particular loads might

draw. Therefore, the norms in the power quality area are voted

to maintaining the voltage at the point of common coupling

(PCC) with the utility, within certain limits; these limits generally refer to aggregate harmonics, helping to assure efficiency

and reliability for industrial applications [5], [6].

Harmonic pollution is developed by most modern electronic

loads, which can be found in all worldwide industrial facilities.

282

responsible for generating harmonic currents. With the incremental sophistication of nonlinear loads, which are typically

characterized into two types of harmonic sources, i.e., the

harmonic current and voltage sources, the degradation of the PF

of the load increase in the transmission-line losses, and hence,

the reduction of the transmission network efficiency are all

expected. Moreover, the level of the voltage harmonic distortion

in distribution networks will significantly increase [7].

For these reasons, different researchers have studied the

proper limitation of harmonic disturbance levels, and among

several techniques used to reduce these harmonic disturbances,

the most frequently managed are the tuned passive filters, due

to their simplicity and economical cost.

In traditional filtering methods, single-tuned and high-pass

filters are employed to mitigate harmonic currents injected.

Single-tuned filters provide strong attenuation at a specific

resonant harmonic frequency but create parallel resonance.

Moreover, high-pass filters attenuate high-order harmonic currents; however, they cannot be tuned to a lower order harmonic

due to their expected large kilowatt losses. When single-tuned

and high-pass filters are employed together to control a harmonic load, they resonate at some frequencies. Moreover, they

cannot satisfy the requirements of the randomly varying loads.

In this paper, the C-type filter is investigated as an alternative approach, to avoid the taints of traditional passive

techniques and the essential equations required for the filter

design, advantages and disadvantages are identified, and then,

the effectiveness of using the C-type filter under various cases

of study is demonstrated. An optimal design of the C-type

passive filter is made based on minimization of the total voltage

harmonic distortion of the nonlinear load, where maintaining

the load PF at an acceptable specified range ( 90%) is desired. The most important concepts to be illustrated involve the

evaluation of harmonic voltage limits on the overall system.

These limits are typically evaluated at the PCC between the

supplier and the customer. In the IEEE standard 519-1992, the

objectives of the nonlinear-load harmonic current limits are to

limit the maximum individual harmonic voltage to 3% of the

fundamental voltage and the total harmonic distortion of the

voltage to 5% on power systems that are 69 kV and below [8].

The optimal design of the C-type filter is a complex and defying tickler since it often involves various conflicting objectives

and constraints. Thus, the selection of an optimal solution can

be treated as a nonlinear programming problem.

The FORTRAN feasible sequential quadratic programming

(FFSQP) optimization technique is used for optimal design and

to establish the suitability and the effectiveness of the C-type

filter.

The FFSQP routine is held as a new approach for solving constrained nonlinear optimization problems; it guarantees

many benefits. It has the ability to achieve an improvement in

solution accuracy, provides convergence to the global solution,

and is considered a very robust and fast method when solving

for the minimization of the maximum of nonlinear objective

goals subject to general constraints [9][11].

Various numerical cases are introduced to demonstrate the

performance of the proposed optimization in a wide range.

Fig. 1.

The C-type filter was first investigated in FranceEngland

Interconnection high-voltage direct current (HVDC) project

as a new strategy for harmonic manipulations and then in

Intermountain and QuebecNew England HVDC projects. The

conventional HVDC transmission system is fabled of a rectifier

portion, a direct-current line, and an inverter portion. During

the commutating process of the family of the thyristors used, a

large number of harmonics will be generated. Therefore, it is

necessary to carry out harmonic suppression [2].

Fig. 1 illustrates a circuit model of an installed C-type filter.

In what follows, the equations that express the filter components

R, X, CMain (CM ), and CAuxiliary (Ca ) will be investigated.

The main feature of the C-type filter that differs from other

passive filters topologies such as the second- and third-order

filters, which are the main types used in the HVDC projects, is

its components L and Ca , which resonate at the fundamental

frequency, and thus, the power loss on the damping resistor R

will be reduced. In other words, this capacitor (Ca ) is sized

so that the magnitude of its capacitive reactance is equal to

the magnitude of the inductive reactance at the fundamental

frequency in order to prevent fundamental current from flowing

in R; therefore, the kilowatt losses in the filter are eliminated,

and thus, the filter acts as a capacitor at the fundamental

frequency.

As frequency increases, the inductor starts to resonate with

CM + Ca , which makes the filter act as a single-tuned filter

with a damping resistor.

At high frequencies, the inductor magnitude becomes larger

than its magnitude at the fundamental frequency, and the current will flow through the resistive branch, resulting in a filtering service similar to that of the first-order filter, which makes

the C-type passive filter topology appear as a combination of

various passive filter topologies [12][16].

The impedance of the C-type passive filter varies with the

harmonic order, where h is the order of the harmonic presented

and X is the magnitude of the auxiliary capacitive reactance,

which is equal to the magnitude of the inductive reactance, and

it can be illustrated as follows:

R jX h h1

X

j CM .

ZCH =

h

R + jX h h1

Hence, separating the real and imaginary parts of the ZCH

and rearranging and setting the real part of this impedance as

RF and the imaginary part as XF yield

ZCH = RF + jXF

ABDEL ALEEM et al.: C-TYPE PASSIVE FILTER BASED ON MINIMIZATION OF HARMONIC DISTORTION

283

RF (h ) = nh XS

n =

1

1

ISPU (h )

2

(5)

By substitution of (1) and (2) in (4) and (5), two equations with

two unknowns, i.e., R and X, are attained as

XCM 2

+ (nh XS )2

R(h ) = h

(6)

nh XS

X 2

CM

+ (nh XS )2

.

X(h ) = hXCM

(7)

h h1

h

Fig. 2.

XCM 2

+ (nh XS )2

R= h

nh XS

XCM 2

+ (nh XS )2

.

X = hXCM

h h1

h

where

2

R X h h1

2

[R]2 + X h h1

R2 X h h1

XCM

.

XF =

1 2

2

h

[R] + X h h

RF =

(1)

(2)

the value of XCM will be directly calculated from the following

equation:

XCM =

2

VS1

.

QC

R and X, Fig. 2(a) illustrates a simplified circuit model of

a C-type filter installed at a bus, in which the fundamental

frequency reactance is XS (h = 1). The maximum fraction of

the current injected at the tuned harmonic order of the filter,

i.e., h , which can be permitted to flow through the supply

reactance, is denoted as ISPU (h ).

The filter reactance is zero at the resonant tuned frequency

(XF (h ) = 0). Thus, the C-type filter in Fig. 2(a) can be

replaced by a pure resistance at h = h , as shown in Fig. 2(b),

i.e.,

h XS

RF (h ) =

1

ISPU (h )

(9)

The C-type filter has a relatively strong attenuation for harmonic currents at certain resonant frequencies by introducing

low impedance for the harmonic current path, although it is not

as good as that of a single-tuned filter. However, the C-type

filter does not result in a parallel resonance [12][14]. Fig. 3

shows the principle of operation of the C-type filter for the

harmonic current source.

The Thevenin voltage source representing the utility supply

and the harmonic current source representing the nonlinear

load are

vSH (t)

(10)

vS (t) =

iL (t) =

iLH (t).

(11)

ZSH = RSH + jXSH

and the hth harmonic load impedance is

ZLH = RLH + jXLH

or by admittance

2

(3)

1

the filter must attenuate 70% of the seventh harmonic current, as

an example, this means that ISPU = 0.3 and h = 7. Moreover,

at h = h , XF = 0, which means that

R2 X h h1

XCM

.

(4)

2 =

1

h

[R]2 + X h

h

(8)

IV. C OMPENSATED S YSTEM A NALYSIS

After some algebraic manipulations for the system under

study shown in Fig. 3, the compensated load PF is given as

2

GLH VLH

PL

h

=

(12)

PF =

2

VL IS

I2

V

h

SH

LH

284

Fig. 3. Principle of operation of the C-type filter for a harmonic current source.

where

ISH =

[N1 ] + j[N2 ]

[D1 ] + j[D2 ]

VLH =

[N3 ] + j[N4 ]

[D1 ] + j[D2 ]

(13)

given as

2

VLH

VTHD =

h1

VL1

(17)

V. M ULTICONSTRAINTS AND O BJECTIVE O PTIMIZATION

N3 = VSH A3 ILH (A1 RF A2 XF )

N4 = VSH A4 ILH (A1 XF + A2 RF )

D1 = A1 XF (XLH + XSH ) + RF (RSH + RLH )

D2 = A2 + RF (XSH + XLH ) + XF (RLH + RSH )

(14)

so that

A1 = RSH RLH XLH XSH

A2 = RLH XSH + RSH XLH

A3 = RF RLH XLH XF

A4 = RF XLH + RLH XF .

To demonstrate the system performance indications for a

C-type filter, the transmission efficiency has been introduced,

which is given as

=

PL

PS

2

GLH VLH

=

2

2

ISH RSH + GLH VLH

h

resonant frequency [inductor resonating with CM + Ca ] and

then build all the system performance on it. This paper introduces a different topology in which there is no predetermination

of the filter resonant frequency, but searching for the optimum

one, which leads to the optimum results required, while taking

into account compliance with the IEEE standard 519-1992 for

harmonic currents and the IEEE standard 18-2002 for capacitor

specifications for its continuous operation, the constraints may

be detailed as follows.

1) Source nonlinearity is represented in the source harmonic

currents as ISH and voltages as VSH .

2) Load nonlinearity is represented in harmonic load currents as ILH and voltages as VLH .

3) The IEEE standard 519-1992. According to the IEEE

standard 519-1992, harmonic voltage distortion on power

systems of 69 kV and below is limited to 5.0% of VTHD

with each individual harmonic limited to 3%.

4) The IEEE standard 18-2002. According to the IEEE

standard 18-2002 [17], capacitors are intended to operate

at their rated voltage. Considering that the main capacitor

rated voltage is VCN , then

(15)

2

PLOSS =

ISH

RSH .

(16)

h

distortion (VTHD) at the compensated load terminals has been

introduced. It is considered a good identifier for harmonic

components. Basically, the VTHD is defined as a measure of

the voltage effective value of the harmonic components of a

ICN =

VCN

XCM

(18)

SCN =

2

VCN

.

XCM

(19)

Capacitors will be capable of continuous operation provided that none of the following limitations are exceeded:

a) 135% of nominal RMS current IC based on the rated

kilovolt ampere and voltage, i.e.,

2

IC =

ICH

h

ABDEL ALEEM et al.: C-TYPE PASSIVE FILTER BASED ON MINIMIZATION OF HARMONIC DISTORTION

ICH =

;

[D1 ] + j[D2 ]

(20)

2

VC =

VCH

h

VCH = ICH

XCM

;

h

XCM

VCP =

(ICH )

; and

h

h

QC = VC IC .

It must be clear that the auxiliary capacitor is just

for tuning the inductor at the fundamental frequency

to bypass the resistor and is not exposed to the system

rated voltage; thus, its peak voltage is very small,

and all of its rating does not exceed the standard

limits (this is why it is commonly called an auxiliary

capacitor).

Thus, the object function for the C-type filter optimization,

complying with the previous constraints, is presented as follows.

Minimize VTHD (XCM , X, and R)

subject to:

VTHD (XCM , X, and R) 5%;

Each individual voltage harmonic is limited to 3%; and

PF (XCM , X, and R) 90%.

VI. FFSQP O PTIMIZATION T ECHNIQUE

Zhou et al. presented a new procedure based on the nonlinear

optimization theory called the FFSQP, which is actually composed of a set of FORTRAN subroutines for the minimization

of the maximum of a set of smooth objective functions subject

to general constraints; the target is simply to find a point

satisfying the objectives and the constraints [11].

If the initial guess proposed by the user is infeasible for

some inequality constraint or some linear equality constraint,

the FFSQP first suffices a feasible point for these constraints;

subsequently, the followed iterations provided by the FFSQP

all satisfy these constraints. Moreover, nonlinear-equality constraints are converted into inequality constraints (to be satisfied

by all iterations), and the maximum of the objective functions

is replaced by an exact penalty function, which penalizes

nonlinear-equality constraint violations only.

285

The FFSQP package provides two algorithms based on sequential quadratic programming modified to generate feasible

iterations as mentioned in [11]:

1) FFSQP-AL: the monotone line search, in which a certain

Armijo-type arc search is used and the objective function

decreases with iterations one by one after feasibility

for nonlinear-inequality and linear constraints have been

reached; and

2) FFSQP-NL: the nonmonotone line search along a

straight line, in which the objective function decreases

within at most four iterations.

The superior function used in both searches is the maximum

of the objective functions if there is no nonlinear-equality

constraint. Furthermore, all real variables and arrays must be

defined as a double precision in the routine that calls the FFSQP.

The user must provide subroutines that define the objective

targets and constraints and may provide either subroutines to

compute the gradients of these functions or needs that the

FFSQP estimate them by forward finite differences, and they

are simply demonstrated as follows [11].

1) Objective Subroutine f : subroutine that computes the

values of objective functions;

2) Constraints Subroutine g: subroutine that computes the

values of constraints;

3) Objective-Gradient Subroutine: subroutine that computes gradients of the objectives functions f ; alternatively, it can be replaced by grobfd, which computes

finite-difference approximations; and

4) Constraint-Gradient Subroutine: subroutine that computes gradients of the constraint functions g; alternatively,

it can be replaced by grcnfd, which computes finitedifference approximations.

VII. F ORMULATION OF THE S EARCH A LGORITHM

The optimum values of R, X, and XCM must be found to

fulfill the main objective required. Thus, a numerical optimization technique, i.e., the FFSQP, has been used to determine their

values.

The FFSQP routine was chosen because it is robust, assumes

no smoothness, and guarantees fewer steps for the different

functions evaluation; it also represents improvement in the

solution accuracy. It is based on the objective comparison. At

each iteration step, it generates a new point to replace the old

point if that was worse.

The suggested search algorithm is demonstrated as follows.

1) Determine the specifications of the FFSQP subroutine.

2) Construct the needed subroutines to develop the FFSQP

search.

3) Choose the first value of the increment factor n, which is

a factor varying in the range 0.10.9, i.e.,

n =

1

1

ISPU (h )

2

.

1

286

4) Choose the first value of the standard manufactured reactive power rating of capacitors in kVAR, i.e.,

TABLE I

FOUR CASES OF AN INDUSTRIAL PLANT UNDER STUDY

where j is the number of discrete values available for

the particular voltage rating used and i has a starting

value of 1.

It is commonly suggested in low-voltage industrial

applications that the step of QCi is 50 kVAR [6].

5) Calculate XCMi for a C-type filter from the following

equation:

XCMi =

2

VS1

.

QCi

n, into the equations for R and X, i.e.,

XCM 2

+ (nh XS )2

R= h

nh XS

XCM 2

+ (nh XS )2

.

X = hXCM

h h1

h

7) Substitute the values of XCMi , R, and X into the objective function, and calculate the minimum (VTHD), while

complying with the constraints.

8) Run the search algorithm considering the filter components values to be the initial values at the beginning of

each search.

9) Repeat with the second value of n at the same QCi (e.g.,

n = n + 0.05).

10) Use the search algorithm to solve the objective function

for the minimum (VTHD) at optimum h .

11) If i = j, stop; otherwise, replace i by i + 1, and go to

step 1.

12) The algorithm will halt when a feasible point is reached

or when the stopping criterion is achieved; this criterion

is the relative variance in the objective function, and it is

defined in the search algorithm as

108 .

13) After stopping, scan through the local minimums to get

the global minimum (VTHD) satisfying the constraints.

14) Determine the compensator parameters values corresponding to the global solution.

15) Use the obtained optimum values to evaluate some other

functions that explain the system performance when installing a C-type passive filter.

VIII. S IMULATED R ESULTS AND T HEIR D ISCUSSION

Four cases of an industrial plant (see Table I) were simulated

using the FFSQP optimization method. The numerical data

were taken from an example in IEEE publications [8], where

the inductive three-phase loads are 5100 kW and 4965 kVAR.

The 60-cycle supply bus voltage is 4.16 kV (2400 volts line to

neutral).

TABLE II

UNCOMPENSATED SYSTEM RESULTS IN THE FOUR CASES

TABLE III

SIMULATED RESULTS IN THE FOUR CASES FOR THE OPTIMIZATION

PROCESS FOR THE C-TYPE FILTER

The source and load harmonics were assumed to be timeinvariant quantities and were arbitrarily chosen to have more

harmonic content than that suggested in many previous publications [5], [6].

Table II shows the uncompensated system results to be

defined and compared with C-type filter compensation results.

The system analysis has been evaluated for different study

system configurations that indicate the system performance

with the C-type filter installed at the load side.

For the uncompensated system, a small harmonic current

can cause a very high voltage distortion, as shown in Table II,

because of the nonlinearity relation between them [18].

The comparison of the results given in Tables II and III show

that the general serving of the method is satisfactory, providing

improvement in the overall performance.

Table III shows that the proposed technique results in dipping in the supply current, lower transmission loss, higher

ABDEL ALEEM et al.: C-TYPE PASSIVE FILTER BASED ON MINIMIZATION OF HARMONIC DISTORTION

287

TABLE IV

MAIN CAPACITOR DUTIES (IEEE STANDARD 18-2002)

Fig. 4.

Fig. 5.

transmission efficiency, and higher load PF than the uncompensated system cases shown in Table II.

It is obvious that the total harmonic voltage distortion is

dramatically reduced, satisfying the required objective function

and complying with the IEEE standard 519-1992. Figs. 4

and 5 show the values of the load harmonic voltage after

compensation in cases 1 and 3, respectively. It is obvious that

the resultant values all come out well within standard limits.

Thus, the main advantage of the presented method consists of

less harmonic power but much higher power quality in all the

electrical portions owned by the end user.

Table III shows that the C filter improves the PF and the

DPF, decreases the VTHD, and reduces harmonic currents, thus

preventing the proliferation of these currents in the network,

compared with the uncompensated system.

The IEEE standard 18-2002 specifies the prediscussed continuous capacitor ratings; Table IV shows the calculated capacitor limits compared with the standard limits for all cases. The

comparison of the calculated and standard limits shows that

all values lie within the standard limits; additionally, to avoid

the voltage rise at the fundamental frequency and due to the

harmonic loading, it is usually a good idea to use capacitors

with higher voltage rating [5].

Based on the results and the experience gained from this

study, these observations are based on the concept of constrained minimization of the VTHD for harmonic current

source loads.

For equal short-circuit capacity systems, the additional supply voltage harmonic contents for the same harmonic load will

result in the following.

1) Higher RMS load voltage VL as its fundamental component increases; the active load power consumption

increases as the harmonic load voltage increases, which

represents excessive loading for the network.

2) Higher line current passes to the compensated load; thus,

the higher transmission losses and voltage drop as the

efficiency decreases.

3) Lower load PF, as the line current passed through the

compensated load increases.

4) Higher load VTHD level, because of the increase in

its harmonic content with respect to the fundamental

component.

5) More harmonic currents IC should be supplied by the

C-type filter, and thus, the capacitor kVAR increases,

which will reflect on the compensator investment cost.

The results shown in Table IV indicate that the capacitor

will be more stressed according to the IEEE standard

18-2002.

Results for lower short-circuit capacity systems with the

same supply voltage harmonic contents and the same load

harmonic currents will result in the following.

1) Lower RMS load voltage VL as its fundamental component decreases; thus, the useful power gained from the

source will be reduced, as less voltage is supplied to the

load.

2) Lower line current passes to the compensated load; paradoxically, a significant increase is observed in the transmission voltage drop, although IS decreases, and this is

because of the higher transmission impedance.

3) Higher load PF, as the line current passed through the

compensated load decreases and less voltage is supplied

to the load.

4) Higher load VTHD level, because of the increase in

its harmonic content with respect to the fundamental

component.

IX. C ONCLUSION

The FFSQP is considered a new routine for solving constrained nonlinear problems. The design is based on fulfilling a certain objective, which is minimizing the total voltage

288

harmonic distortion. It provides improvement in the solution accuracy and effectiveness of the developed algorithm to achieve

convergence to the global solution.

Four cases have been tested, and the general performance of

the method used is satisfactory, providing improvement of distortion levels and PF correction compared with other published

results. The analysis is also compatible for more general loads,

even if the structure is more complicated than that in Fig. 3. It

suffices to use proper GLH and BLH characteristics.

Passive filters provide strong attenuation for harmonic currents at a specific harmonic frequency but suffer from the possibility of occurrence of resonance, and also, high-pass filters

attenuate high-order harmonics components but suffer from the

additional losses when tuned to a low harmonic frequency;

other solutions beginning from the combination of both up to

using active filters as well will be expensive.

The C-type filter has a good suppression at the tuned frequencies and does not result in a parallel resonance; moreover,

it is applicable to randomly varying loads such as arc furnaces,

because it offers lower losses when tuned to low frequencies

and mitigates characteristic and noncharacteristic harmonics

and interharmonics that may be injected [13].

Unlike the passive filter, the C-type filter is more durable

against tuning-frequency variations. Thus, there is less concern

for manufacturing tolerance [16].

The general system performance when using C-type filters

has been implemented and discussed. The results have discussed the effect of increasing the source harmonic voltage

levels on the system performance for two different systems

short-circuit capacities. Finally, the simulated results have

demonstrated the robustness and the viability of the proposed

design procedure.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to thank J. L. Zhou, A. L. Tits,

and C. T. Lawrence of the Electrical Engineering Department

and Institute for System Research, University of Maryland,

College Park, MD (System Research Center TR-92-107r2),

who provided the FFSQP package.

R EFERENCES

[1] J. Napoles, J. I. Leon, R. Portillo, L. G. Franquelo, and M. A. Aguirre,

Selective harmonic mitigation technique for high-power converters,

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 23152323, Jul. 2010.

[2] L. Luo, Y. Li, J. Xu, J. Li, B. Hu, and F. Liu, A new converter transformer

and a corresponding inductive filtering method for HVDC transmission

system, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 14261431, Jul. 2008.

[3] A. Hamadi, S. Rahmani, and K. Al-Haddad, A hybrid passive filter

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the B.Sc. degree from Helwan University, Helwan,

Egypt, in 2002 and the M.Sc. degree from Cairo

University, Giza, Egypt, in 2010 (both in electrical

power and machines).

From 2003 to 2010, he was an Instructor with

the Higher Institute of Engineering, 15th of May,

Helwan, where he has been a Teaching Assistant

since 2010. Currently, he is working in the field of

electric machines, electric circuits, and engineering

mechanics. His areas of research include harmonic

problems in power systems, power quality, cables, electric machines, and

engineering mechanics.

B.Sc.(Hons.), M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical

power and machines from Cairo University, Giza,

Egypt, in 1992, 1997, and 2002, respectively.

From 2007 to 2010, he was a Senior Lecturer

in renewable energy with the University of Exeter,

Cornwall, U.K. He was also an Instructor from 1992

to 1997, a Teaching Assistant from 1997 to 2002, and

an Assistant Professor from 2003 to April 2008 with

the Department of Electrical Power and Machines

and the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University,

where he has also been an Associate Professor since April 2008. Currently, he

is also a Senior Lecturer in power systems with Brunel University, Uxbridge,

U.K. His main areas of expertise are power quality, photovoltaic energy, wind

energy, marine renewable energy, grid integration, and energy management.

Dr. Zobaa is an Editor-in-Chief for the International Journal of Renewable

Energy Technology. He is also an Editorial Board member, Editor, Associate

Editor, and Editorial Advisory Board member for many international journals.

He is a registered Chartered Engineer and European Engineer. He is also a

registered member of the Engineering Council U.K., Egypt Syndicate of Engineers, and the Egyptian Society of Engineers. He is a Fellow of the Institution

of Engineering and Technology. He is a member of the Energy Institute (U.K.),

the International Solar Energy Society, the European Society for Engineering

Education, the European Power Electronics and Drives Association, and the

IEEE Standards Association.

ABDEL ALEEM et al.: C-TYPE PASSIVE FILTER BASED ON MINIMIZATION OF HARMONIC DISTORTION

received the B.Sc. (Hons.), M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical power and machines from Cairo

University, Giza, Egypt, in 1970, 1972, and 1975,

respectively.

He was an Instructor from 1970 to 1972 and

a Teaching Assistant from 1972 to 1975 with the

Department of Electrical Power and Machines, Cairo

University, where he is currently a Professor. On

the technical side, he has authored or coauthored

many refereed journal and conference papers. His

areas of research include cables, contact resistance, harmonics, power quality,

photovoltaic systems, and wind-energy systems.

289

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