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Basic Firefighter

Fire Streams

Michael Corsello – Peyton Fire

Fire Streams
A stream of fire extinguishing agent
from the time it leaves a hose and
nozzle until it arrives at it desired
Fire Streams
A fire stream is composed of 4
primary elements:

1. Pump
2. Hose
3. Nozzle
4. Water
Fire Streams
The primary extinguishing agent
Cheap / plentiful
Multiple states (liquid, solid, gas)
Expands to 1700 times its original size
when converted to steam
Occupies 1700 times its original volume
Increases surface area greatly, greatly
improving its heat absorption rate
Fire Streams
Pressure loss / gain
Gravity loss / gain
1 atm = 14.7 psi
33ft column of water exerts 1 atm of force
Every 33 ft of elevation gain = 14.7 psi loss
Every 33 ft of elevation loss = 14.7 psi gain
Nozzle lower than source = greater pressure
Nozzle higher than source = less pressure
Fire Streams
Pressure loss / gain
Friction loss
The resistance of flow through a hose caused by bends
in the line, surface flow, deformities, etc; are collectively
known as friction loss
Larger hoses experience less friction loss than smaller
The longer the distance, the greater the loss
Avoid sharp bends in hoses
Use the shortest lines possible
Use larger hoses for longer runs (or siamese appliances)
Keep hoses in good condition
Fire Streams
Water Hammer
Sudden reduction in the rate of flow of water
through a hose or pipe results in a transfer of
kinetic energy to the surrounding area – hose,
fittings, pumps, etc.
Water hammer can be heard as a sudden, sharp
Water hammer can cause serious damage to all
parts of the system
Fire Streams
Fire Streams
Fire Stream Types
Low-volume streams
Less than 40gpm (i.e. booster lines)
Handline streams
40-350gpm – 1½-3in lines
Master streams
Over 350gpm – fed by multiple 2½ or 3in lines
or by LDH lines – these are large-volume
Fire Streams
Fire Stream Patterns
Solid Stream
Fixed, open orifice (pressure jet nozzle)
Operating pressure – 50psi hand, 80psi master
Long range, small surface area – indirect attack
Broken Stream
Stream broken into coarse droplets
Operate at greater pressures, have moderate distance,
larger surface areas – suitible for direct attack
Fire Streams
Fire Stream Patterns
Fog Stream
Stream broken into extremely small droplets
Generally, nozzles are capable of varying widths of
Very short distance
LARGE surface area
Direct attacks
Cause much thermal imbalance
May cause excessive water damage
Fire Streams
Each stream pattern has distinct advantages

Smaller droplets provide better surface area and

heat absorption, but have little resistance to

Larger droplets have better distance, at the cost

of heat absorbing surface area
Fire Streams
Fire Streams
Safety First