You are on page 1of 116

10

In a few places the language is defective


and ungrammatical, but what is even more
astonishing
takes.

that

is

The

contains spelling mis-

it

which is not
list
an idea of the mis-

following

exhaustive will give


spellings

^jA:

for

yj\

j^^Ju for j^jj^

(Dreams

(Dreams

and 30)

153,9,1

oj:>^Jp for

oj:)Vj

(Dream

8)

for

\j>cp

(Dream

9)

^^\j>>P

(Dream

16)

(Dream
^

iq)
^^

\j>z^

^J\jyc^ for

iand27)

^J[y^ji> for ^x^U^^


,

-iix^t^^j for

JlJ2ii for
<J\'J^ for

A^L^I for

r^^J
(Sj-^-*

for
for

,.

*3i:^U^3

jli>f(Dream

16)

<^l^k (Dream 21)


^y^J\

(Dream

30)

-r^]^ (In the last note)


(5^va.-

And last but not least


jUy for
oTy

(In the last note)

(which occurs twice


in

Dream No.

8)

11

Court historians have

Tipu

only

Sultan's

and

scholarship

eulogized

character

literary

skill,

not

but

his

and

his

mastery of the Persian language has been


taken for granted.
reviled

British historians

disregarding the

character,

his

have

but they have

views of the court historians,

accepted their contention with regard to


his

way

the other

that a great

The

attainments.

scholastic

round.

man

It

is

facts

are

not essential

should also be a master

of some language or other which, in any

Tipu Sultan was not. From the age


of fifteen onwards we see him accompanying his father in the various wars which
he fought. It is not to be wondered at
case,

that he could not receive systematic edu-

cation

of the

type

had he

received

that

lived

he might
in

more peaceful

times.

Now

have
'

a word about the contents of the

dreams.

Of

the

thirty-seven

dreams

recorded the majority are concerned with


his

wars

against

the

British

and

their

THE LIBRARY
OF
THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA
GIFT OF

HORACE W. CARPENTIER

Pakistan Historical Society Publications No.

7.

THE DREAMS OF TIPU SULTAN

Translated from the original Persian

with an Introduction and Notes

By

MAHMUD

HUSAIN,

Professor of History,

Ph. D.

University of Karachi

KiU6

'CARPENTIER

nigno

Ofil

moil bsifiipneiT

ocJouboDf?!

a dH

.VlIA^giH

QUl/iHAU

1>S470

CONTENTS
Page

Acknowledgements

..

..

17

Translator's Introduction

Note on Tipu Sultan's Calendar

..33

Tipu Sultan's Preface

Marhatta Army 35

Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream

I:

Three

II:

The

III:

Seating a

IV:

Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream

IX:

XI:

The Pitchers of Milk


41
The Sea Cocoanuts
43
The Beryl Mine
45
The Line of Entrenchments
47
Hadrat
The Sacred
Relics
from
Bandah-Nawaz
49
The White Elephant from China
52
The Top of the Hill
57
The Bear
59

XII:

Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream

XIII:

A woman

XIV:

Destroying the

XV:

The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The

V:
VI:
VII:
VIII:

Officers of the

Crescent

..38

King on the Throne of Delhi 39


.

X:

XVIII:

XIX:

XX:
XXI:
XXII:

Message from the Prophet through


Hadrat Ali
.

XVI:
XVII:

in

Knife

Man's Dress

Flowers
Strange

Emeralds

67

69

72

72

Nizam's Representative
Extraordinary Idols

570

66

Collapse of the Gate

Thief

63
65

Cow

61

Enemy
.

74
77
78

Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dream
Dseam
Dream
Sayyid

The Mango Grove


The French Troops
XXV:
The Nizam's Minister
XXVI:
The Expulsion of the English
XXVII: The Hajj
XXVIII: The Fresh Dates

XXIII:

80

XXIV:

81

83

84

85

87

XXIX:

Battle with the English

88

XXX:

In the Assembly of Saints

89

XXXI:
XXXII:

The Gift of the Turbans


The Bridge of Elephants.

90

XXXIII: Almonds and

Stones

XXXIV:

Shaikh Sa'adi of Shiraz

XXXV:

Maulana Jami
The Plantain Fruits

XXXVI:

XXXVII; The Armies of the


Muhammad Aslam's Dream

91

92

Unbelievers

Index

94
96

96

98

99

103

ILLUSTRATIONS
Tipu Sultan A Portrait
...
...
page from Tipu Sultan's Book of Dreams
:

Facing page i
Facing page 33

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The
express

who

editor

helped

India

of

deep

his

him

in

Library

Office

a photostatic

script

in

their

Bibliotheque

to

obtain

of

the

those

who

tion,

annotation,

special

assisted

mention of

the

microfilm

original

rotograph

manuthe

was procured from

the

through

Paris,

the

Curiel, Director of Archae-

From among

Government of Pakistan,

ology,

To

of

Nationale^

kindness of Dr. R.

to

particularly thank-

is

possession,

copy of this manuscript

wishes

those friends

all

to

preparation.

he

copy

book

little

its

him

ful for permitting

and

this

gratitude

him

in

etc, he

the

task

is

happy

of translato

make

Mr, ^akariyya Mail of the


Mr, Syed Abdur

Pakistan Historical Society and

Rahman, a
of

research scholar in

History,

lecturer

in the

University

Jamia

of

College,

the

Department

Karachi,

now

^'

Digitized by the Internet Archive


In

2008

with funding from

Microsoft Corporation

http://www.archive.org/details/dreamsoftipusultOOtipprich

INTRODUCTION
In the India Office Library there

is

very valuable and interesting manuscript

Tipu Sultan's dreams in his


It was discovered by

containing

own hand

writing.^

memobed-chamber when

among

Colonel Kirkpatrick^

randa in the Sultan's

palace was subjected

the

the

May

Habibullah,

fall

Tipu Sultan was


time
1

Library

of

Ethe,

the

Catalogue

1822

in

of

India Office, Vol.

Nationale of Paris has a copy

made

for

the

Munshi of

the

was

I,

of

discovered.
Manuscripts

Persian

document

this

BibHotheque

Pets.,

937.

have

Royale,

^Kirkpatrick, W.,
Tippoo Sultaun,

secured photostatic

was

as

was

he

reporting

he did.

was

on the

it

Nationale,

copies

of the
its

copy

Nationale.
is

London,

languages

oriental

India,

the

which

original manuscript in the I ndia Office as well as of


in the Bibliotheque

in

The Bibliotheque

No, 3001.

then called. See the Catalogue of the Bibliotheque

SuppL

in

said to be present at the

manuscript

the

Herman

a thorough

to

of Seringapatam,

search after
1799.

other

and

the editor
181

1.

experience

entrusted with

of

the

documents seized

of
task

Letters

Select

Because of

his

of

knowledge of

different

courts

of examining

in

and

from the palace, which

According

knew of

Kirkpatrick,

to

the

existence

of such

HabibuUah
a manu-

but Tipu Sultan had so successfully

script

concealed

it

that

confidant

this

had never before seen

it.

of his

Tipu Sultan was

have always manifested peculiar


anxiety to hide it from the view of any who

said

to

happened

approach while he was either


reading or writing in it J
Later, on April
180O5

23,
as

to

this

little

"register",

termed, was presented in

has been

it

or

diary,

name of the Marquis


Hugh Inglis, Chairman of

the

Directors of the East India

Company, by

the

Major

(as

Wellesley

to

Court of

he then was) Alexander Beat-

Thus belonging to the Library of


the East India Company, London, it is

son.^

now

in

Library.
IBeatson,
with

possession

Tippoo Sultauny

Memoranda
^At

one

of

London,

in English

time

1800,

by Beatson

aid-de-camp

to

author of one of the

first

cited above.

Office

have

register
and
p.

of

War

also

the

Conduct

196.

See

in the manuscript

itself.

Marquis Wellesley and

Surveyor-General to the army in the

Tipu Sultan,

India

the

Entries in this
A View of the Origin

field;

Beatson

is

the

books published by a British writer on

9
been made in what Ethe has called "a
The dreams and other
fearful Shakista".

on the first thirty- two


pages of the register and again on eleven
pages towards the end of it. In between
notes are recorded

a large number of pages are

The

of

size

the register

is

left

7|

blank.

inches

by

5I inches.
In this diary, apart from a few other

Tipu Sultan has put down some of


dreams. Obviously it cannot be con-

notes,
his

sidered a complete register of his dreams.


It is

more

likely that

such dreams in

The

recording.

dreams

as

it

he wrote out only


he thought worth

first

of

recorded

the

dated 1785, the last 1798, covering a period of thirteen years.


Of some
is

dreams he has given his own


interpretations.
Leaving aside other memoranda, the dreams recorded are thirtyseven in number.^ They are all in Persian.

of

these

Six of these dreams (Nos. 12, 13, 14, 17, 24

been translated by
appendix to

GIX-CXII

his

and 28) have

Beatson and given in the form of an

book

cited

above,

appendix

XXXV,

pp.

10

In a few places the language

and ungrammatical, but what


astonishing
takes.

is

The

that

defective

even more

contains spelling mis-

it

following

list

which

not

is

an idea of the

exhaustive will give


spellings

is

is

mis-

^\:^^

for

yj\

^y{x* for j^^j^

(Dreams

(Dreams

153,9,1

oj')^]^ for

oj'>Vj

(Dream

8)

for

Sjpz^

(Dream

9)

\j>z^

^J\jy^^

for

and 30)
iand27)

^J\J>^ (Dream 16)

^AAy^'j^ tor ^4M<,ji


.
r
A.:^l^^^j tor
,

JlJ2. for

,.

jl:^U^j

Jli>r

(Dream
"^

iq)
^^

(Dream

16)

for

cjl-^k

(Dream

21)

JL^L^I for

j^^d^l

(Dream

30)

vl^^

^^J[

for jOMz^l (In the last note)

(Sj^^ for

^yP^^ (In the last note)

And last but not least


oU^9 for

oTy (which occurs twice


in

Dream No.

8)

11

Court historians

Tipu

only

and

scholarship

have eulogized

Sultan's

character

literary

skill,

not

but

his

and

his

mastery of the Persian language has been


taken for granted.
reviled

British historians

disregarding the

character,

his

have

views of the court historians, but they have

accepted their contention with regard to


his

the other

way

that a great

The

attainments.

scholastic

round.

man

It

is

facts

are

not essential

should also be a master

of some language or other which, in any

Tipu Sultan was not. From the age


of fifteen onwards we see him accompanying his father in the various wars which
he fought. It is not to be wondered at
case,

that he could not receive systematic edu-

cation

of the

received

type

had he

that

lived

he might
in

have

more peaceful

times.

Now
dreams.

a word about the contents of the

Of

dreams
recorded the majority are concerned with
his wars against the British and their
the

thirty-seven

12
allies.

Such are

dreams

I,

III,

VII,

XIV,
XX, XXI, XXIV, XXV,
XXVIII, XXIX, XXXII and XXXVI.
XI,

There are several other dreams which give


tidings of general success and
victory in
war such as dreams II, IV, V, VI, IX,
XVI, XVII, XVIII, XIX, XX, XXII,
XXIII, XXVII, XXVIII, and XXXIII.
Some of the dreams point to his intense
and veneration for the Prophet,
love
Hadrat Ali and other Muslim saints
and sufis. This is manifest from dreams
XXXI XXXIV and
VIII, X, XII,

XXXV.
In

some of

the

dreams

there

is

dream was recorded in the register immediately after Tipu


Sultan woke up. Towards the end of
dream III, for instance, he says, ^' While
this conversation was still in progress, I
woke up and wrote down the contents of
the dream immediately", and at the end
of dream IV, he records, ^^At this juncture
I woke up and wrote down the dream."
clear indication that the

13

Tipu Sultan has also interpreted some


dreams. Such is the case with dreams
XXXI.
XVII, XXVIII and
XIII,

of his

Some

are

of these interpretations

In dream

interesting.

interprets

the

woman

highly

XIII Tipu Sultan


in

man's

dress

as

enemy, the Marhattas, against whom


he was waging a war at that time. In

his

dream XXVIII the


dates

fresh

dominions of

three enemies,

the Marhattas

tish,

so

his

three silver trays

been interpreted

have

he hoped, would

of

as the

the Bri-

and the Nizam, which,


fall

into his hands.

Tipu
Sultan's diary consists of
dreams and
certain other memoranda. In this book
As has been mentioned

above,

the reader will find the translation

As

to

piece

The
to

of

all

by Tipu Sultan.
the other memoranda,
only one
has been selected for translation.

dreams

the

recorded

various items in the

memoranda

relate

some of the events of Tipu Sultan's time

or episodes in his
instance,

one

life.

finds

the

In one

place, for

names of persons

14
or

killed

and

wounded

in

certain

in another, the time of

Tipu Sultan's

departure from, or arrival

in,

on a particular
by Tipu Sultan

occasion

betrothal

report

also

finds

from

received

the

about the discovery of enormous

footprints in a field has

diary

the

the Capital

present given

young couple on the

to a

of their

mention.
mofussil

occasion.

battle,

which,

been included in

incidentally,

is

not

in

Tipu Sultan's own hand-writing. Perhaps


he asked one of
in

the

secretaries to insert

his

There

diary.

is

also

recorded

it

dream of one, Sayyid Muhammad Aslam,


concerning Tipu Sultan which he thought
it fit

to insert along with his

This piece seemed to


present

of the

fit

own

into the

book and

has,

dreams.

scheme

therefore,

been translated.
The dominant note throughout these
dreams is what was uppermost in Tipu
Sultan's

from

mind

the

how

foreign

psycho-analyst

to free

yoke.

may have

country

his

Whatever
to

say

the

about

15

them, to a student of history

importance to discover

it is

of greater

how Tipu

Sultan

himself interpreted these dreams and

they influenced his actions.

From

how

a peru-

becomes clear that

sal

of this register

his

hours of sleep were as devoted to the

it

cause of freedom as the hours while he

was awake.

A NOTE ON TIPU SULTAN'S


CALENDAR
Among

the reforms introduced by

Sultan was the reform of the

calendar.

necessary to have an understanding

It is

of

Tipu

for

it

the

proper appreciation of the

by Tipu Sultan

mentioned

dates

in this

book.

The
tribute
as

function of the calendar

time

into

certain

is

to

periods

dis-

such

hours, days, weeks, months, years, etc.

The

solar

day

is

determined by the daily

on its axis and the


and darkness and the

rotation of the earth

alternation of light

by the revolution of the earth


around the sun which completes the circles
of the seasons. But it is the revolution of
the moon around the earth which yields
the month.
Thus the solar day, the solar year and
solar year

the

lunar

month may

natural divisions

be

of time.

termed

the

The Muslim

18
calendar, however,

is

a lunar calendar in

which twelve lunar months make a year,


of the circle of seasons.

irrespective

Muslim

era,

as

is

well known,

The

counted

is

from the year of the hijrat or migration of


the Prophet of Islam from Mecca
to
Medina in 622, A.D. The result of the
adoption of the lunar year by the Muslims
has been that the Muslim festivals do not
fall

all

any particular seasons and run through


the seasons of the year, and in about 32-^
in

solar years the

starting

point.

Muslim year returns to


Muslim governments,

its

in

following this calendar,

have experienced

administrative

in

difficulty

the

collection

of agricultural taxes since crops are link-

up with
Muslim year
ed

the
is

not.

seasons

whereas

Consequently attempts

have been made in Muslim history

ways

and

difficulty.

the

to devise

overcoming this
means for
While for religious purposes the

lunar year has been treated as sacrosanct,


for

other

have

been

purposes

number of

adopted from

time

to

devices
time.

19

In

connection

this

A.H.5

366
Tai

Fatimid

of the

efforts

A.H.), of the

(363-381

the

In India the

turned

at-

MaHk

Seljuq

(circa

century

nineteenth

.Government also
was described as

CaHph

by the famous

his efforts

Umar Khayyam

poet,

the

about

Al-Aziz,

Abbasid

of the

Shah, assisted in
In

may be mentioned

A.H.)

471,

Ottoman
what

the

towards

Islah-et-teqwim.

MusUms found

that the

Hindus had from very early times employed


cycles made up of a combination of solar and lunar years in which
the lunar year was periodically adjusted
to the solar year. The Hindu rites and festivals were regulated by the lunar year and

luni-solar

in domestic

choosing

the
for

life,

important events such as

an

of

auspicious

marriage or undertaking a

were
But

regulated
this

by

calendar

the
itself

lunar

was

occasion

journey
calendar.

subject

to

adjustments to the solar calendar by the


addition of intercalary months.

The Hindu

calendar also recognized the existence of

20
a sixty-year cycle known as "Brihaspati
Chakra". Tipu Sultan was
apparently
influenced by these factors.

The

reforms introduced by Tipu Sultan

in the prevalent

Muslim

calendar consis-

ted of the following:

He

reckoned the Muslim era not from

the hijrat occurring in 622 but from

He

advent of Islam in 609 A.C.

chose to

era ^'Maulud-i- Muhammad '\

this

call

era reckoned from the birth of

the

the

Muhammad.

Actually, however, his era begins not with

the birth of the Prophet but with the pro-

clamation of prophet-hood by

In

words,

other

years

earlier

Another
Sultan

in

his

than

era

the

measure

Muhammad.

begins

hijrat.

adopted

connection

thirteen

with

by

the

Tipu

calendar

was the adoption of the Hindu months


however,
and the sixty-year cycle. He,
names to the various Hindu
gave new
months.
year

Similarly

cycle

was

each year in the 60given

distinct

In designating the months and

name.

years,

he

21

made

use of the

abjad

terms of numbers.

in

systems

abtath

every letter of the alphabet

of evaluating

which

and

the

follows

The

abjad system

ancient order

alphabet had been quite

common

of the

through-

out the Muslim world for several centuries.

In addition to

employed

known
is

this,

another

as abtath in

however, Tipu Sultan


system

of

valuation

which the order of letters

the one that exists in the Arabic script.

He

also

The

called

it

numerical

'^hisab-i-zcir'\

value

of each

letter

according to the traditional Abjad


is

system

as follows:

C5-

30

20

10

tr

70

6o

50

40

\,

22
J

200

C
600

U*

100

90

80

400

300

<J

500

];

1000

900

J'
800

And the value of the various


ording to the Abtath is:
c_j

700
letl

7-

tr

30

20

10

c^

u'

70

60

50

40

vJ

)i

200

100

90

80

cT

l5

600

500

400

300

c5

900

800

700

4
J

1000

23

The names adopted


cording

were

to

for the

months

ABJAD
I.

Chait

Ahmadi

2.

Baisakh

Bahari

3.

Jeth

Jafari

kSj^^

4.

Asarh

Darai

Jljl^

5-

Sawan

Hashimi

^^u

6.

Bhadon

Wasii

^x^lj

7-

Asuj

Zabarjadi

(or

ac-

the Abjad and Abtath systems

c5a^*.l

l5jV^

Kunwar)

8.

Kartik

Haidari

9-

Aghan

Tului

^>

10.

Pus

Yusufi

j^^.

II.

Magh

Yazidi

iS^jk

12.

Phagun

Bayasi

Li-^

24

ABTATH
I.

Chait

Ahmadi

2.

Baisakh

Bahari

3-

Jeth

Taqi

4-

Asarh

Thamari

5-

Sawan

Jafari

6.

Bhadon

Haidari

Asuj

Khusrawi

7-

(or

c5^W=-l

C^jV:
J''
iSj^'

(Sj^^=-'

<5j^-

Kunwar).

8.

Kartik

Dini

9-

Aghan

Dhakiri

^^ri5

lO.

Pus

Rahmani

j^^j

II.

Magh

Radi^

^^b

12.

Phagun

Rabbani

u^io

1.

In

this register

Tipu Sultan

writes this

month

as

Razi

(Sj

'J

25

Tipu Sultan

also

adopted the system of

There was, however, a


little difference between his system and the
traditional Hindu system.
Whereas these
months were added by the Hindus towards
the end of the year, Tipu Sultan added
them in the beginning.
The names given to each year in the 6oyear cycle were as follows:
intercalary months.

ABTATH

ABJAD

Ahad

I.

Ahad

2.

Ahmad

3-

Ab

vi

Ab

4-

Aba

Aba

5-

Bab

6.

Baj

Ji;^!

a*.=..l

vli

Ahmad

Abad

8.

Abaad

9-

Jah

o.

Awj

Jij!

vl
ijl

vl^

Tab

vij'

Taba

jU

Baj

.U

Taj

Thabit
C-''

a^^l

Bab

C^'
7-

a^l

IjD-

C^

^^
cjir

26

ABTATH

ABJAD
11.

Haj

12.

Jahd

j^^^^

13.

Jihad

^ L^rw

14.

Wajid

15.

Yad

16.

Zuhd

17.

Jawza

18.

Hai

g.^

j^*.lj

Abad

j,A

Abaad
Bar
Hajib

j^ibj

Rija

Ij^:.

Hur

l-J

Dur
C5-^

19.

Wahid

20.

Buduh

21.

Tayyib

22.

Tayib

23.

Yuz

24.

Kad

25.

Hawi

26.

Kabad

27.

Agah

j^^lj

Dar

j(j

Rabat

J,

Barid

^ll,
j^,

or
^jU
ju5"

o^T

^j

Charkh

^jc^

Kharaj

^Kk

Taz
Khirad

Badr Tab

Dur Taj

jU
.^^
v^^j-*^^

j^Uj.^

27

ABTATH

ABJAD
28.

Wahid

jl^s-j

Dadar

29.

Yahi

^_^=.Ij

Zad

30.

Kai

31.

Kaya

32.

Kabud

33-

Ibl

J,

34.

Dil

Ji

35.

Dal

Jb

Zartab

36.

Jibal

ju

Rabtaz

37.

Zaki

^^S

Sakh

38.

Azal

Jj

Sakha

39.

Jalu (or
Jilau.)

40.

Dalw

41.

Ma

J'^

jbb

Zar

JJ

\.S'

Zaar

jlj

:>j^

Bazr

j3^

1^

Zarab

vTjj

Sata

^U

Daraz

^^
^^

42.

Kabk

43.

Jam

^^

44.

Jaam

jU

jC5"

Dasa

Sha
Sara

Ij

Sarab

<_>l .*.

Shata

I"/:

28

ABJAD

ABTATH

45.

Adam

Zabarjad

46.

Wall

Sihr

47.

Waali

Sahir

48.

Kawkab

Rasikh

49.

Kawakib S\yS'

^^

j{)

^:^^

^^U

Shad
Hirasat

52.

Yam
Dawam
Hamd

53.

Hamid

Barish

54.

Jan

Rastar

55.

Adan

Bashtar

56.

Huma

Basharat

57.

Majid

Sharh

58.

Kuhl

Rushd

59.

Jahan

Sabah

^Ly?

60.

Mujiz

Irshad

^lijl

50.
51.

Saz

Shadab
^^j U
j

U^j

/^^

oj li.j

29
Before concluding
refer

to

Sultan

one
which,

more

it

is

necessary

innovation

indeed,

deserves

to

of Tipu
special

comprehending it,
the dates in this register would be inexplicable.
Like the Arabic script which is
written from right to left,
Tipu Sultan
wrote figures also in this manner. Thus
he wrote 54 as 45, 132 as 231, and 1217
In the register he writes his figures
as 7 1 2 1
uniformly in this manner, although, to
mention,

for

without

avoid unnecessary confusion, the translator


has followed the normal practice.

THE

DREAMS
OF

TIPU SULTAN

PREFACE
THE BOOK OF DREAMS
The dreams

have had and

am

having are beuig

written in (this register).

^r:?::-;^;:V:S^->;^:v^<;x|.

/.f

.*,

^^?^/<^

"4.

J-'^^-

page from Tipu Sultan's Book of Dreams.

Dream

THREE OFFICERS OF THE

MARHATTA ARMY
On

the

St

of the lunar

month Ahmadi,

on Thursday night, in the beginning of


1200 A.H.^, when three
the year Dalw,
quarters and five watches of the night
were over, while at Shamsabad, I had a
dream: It appeared to me as if the

army had

Marhatta

arrived

throwing out a challenge to

come forward

to

Muslim

and

officer of the

challenge.

its

and

was

commander

fight

In the battle-field,

singly.

army accepted

the

while both

the armies were facing each other, I killed


the

Muslim

officer

with one single strike

of the sword. Thereupon the


of the army,

who was a youth, fled.

and overtook him and


finished
1.

For the

him. Similarly
names

in this diary

commander

of months and

and generally

in
I

pursued

one stroke
killed

years used by

third

Tipu Sultan

for his calendar,^^^ pp. 17

33.

36
of importance.

officer

Having thus

killed

three officers with one strike each, I

back

came

my men

triumphant and victorious.


saw in the dream all my officers and
Sahib^
taking their
Haidar
meals in a house. I was tired and was
asking for drinking water. Those present,
to

Then

paying

after

to

compliments,

requested

me

In the

drink water after taking food.

meanwhile a venerable old man wearing


a white beard and with cream and sweets
in his hands appeared and asked me to
partake of them. I took these things from

him and

them

after eating

I said to

myself:

have never before taken such savoury

*'I

and

food;

tasteful

Then,
quired

it

is

simply delicious."

performing

after

from

had destroyed

my

officers

the

army

ablution,

en-

whether they
unbe-

of the

army
replied that they had not and that they had
taken no initiative in the matter and had
lievers.

The

officers

of the Haidari

cousin of Tipu Sultan's father, Haidar Ali.

It

was Haidar

Sahib, himself in the employnient of the Raja of

who had

first

introduced Haidar Ali to the Raja.

Mysore,

37

Meanwhile, they
said, the army of the unbehevers together
with the booty was stationed in the villages.
Having alerted my army, I at once started
for the place, took away the sword from
been

my

awaiting

attendant

Sayyid

told

orders.

and

tied

Junaid,^

it

my

to

Sayyid

waist.

Ghaffar^

and other officers to be ready with their

men

war.

for

And

that

is

all.

Sayyid Ghaffar, formerly belonging to the army of the

Nawab

was a confidant of Tipu Sultan; a very

brave

trusted

officer

of Arcot,

and

He
war

loyal

of Tipu

Sultan's army,

person and an officer of his

died fighting at Seringapatam


in

Haidari,

in the last

which Tipu Sultan himself was


p.

390.

army

since

1782.

Anglo-Mysore

killed.

JVishan-i-

Dream

II

THE CRESCENT
It

was Sunday, the night of Monday,

of the

on

this

lunar
side

year

the

27th

of

^z7Az/}"^,

of Shahidpur by the

Kaveri,^ about the time of the false

that I

had a dream:

as if along

It

appeared to

with other people

on a high spot looking

river

dawn

for the

me

was standing

new moon

of

month of Ramadan. None could see the


moon. I, however, saw a very slender and
beautiful crescent surrounded by several stars
the

seemed to be pointing
the new moon to all others present and
telling them that, if God willed, 'Id would
be celebrated the following day .... That
of the pleiades.

is all.

Seringapatam, the Capital of Tipu Sultan,

is

situated

Kaveri. In history and literature the river has


closely interlinked

with the

memory

of

Tipu

on the

come
Sultan.

to

be

Dream

III

SEATING A KING ON THE THRONE


OF DELHI
MUNIFICENT

On
the

15th

the

year

GOD

Sha,

month

of the

from the birth of

12 15,

Muhammad, on Monday when


of the day remained,
It

seemed

as if I

nity of Delhi,

Bahari,

five

watches

had a dream:

had ahghted

in the vici-

and Sindhia, the Marhatta

had along with his army, similarly


encamped quite close to us. A fine officer
Chief,

of the Delhi

my

word,

army was nearby. Giving him


ordered him to come to me.

The above mentioned


uddin^

sat

in

front

lay before them.

and Qutbof me and a rosary


officer

asked the officer men-

tioned above to take an oath on the rosary

which symbolises God's word


1

One

of the generals of

Tipu Sultan,

of the mission that was sent to the

Nizam

which

after

He was
in

1787.

member

40
I

promised

would

thereupon,

officer,

tell

him something. The

took the oath on the

him "You along


and Qutbuddin Khan
with your men
the
men
of our own army
along with
should both encamp in front of the

Then

rosary.

I said to

unbelievers and,

if

going to Delhi to
its

God wills, I shall be


make arrangements for

administration and seat a king on the

throne,

since

this

Islam.

Once

will

strength

to

that, I shall

be

give

have done

able to punish the unbelievers thoroughly."

While

conversation

this

progress,

the

contents

This

is all.

woke
of the

was

still

in

up and wrote down


dream immediately.

Dream IV

THE PITCHERS OF MILK

Merciful God!

On

the

8th of the

month Taqi, of

year 1218, from the birth of

the

Muhammad,

on the night of Wednesday, when four


watches were yet to go and while returning
after

of

the

conquest of the

Rama

Nayar^

entrenchments

Madher

at

had

Kerah

dream: It
seemed as if a person immediately after
milking a cow had brought two small
pitchers
of fresh milk before me and
was saying that he had brought this milk
near

Salamabad^,

Leader of the Malabar insurgents.


Nayars, in general,

see

Madras,

For a description of the

E. Thurston.

Castes

and

Tribes of

V, pp. 283-413.
Salamabad was the name given by Tipu Sultan to
Southern India,

mangalam.

The

Salamabad was
tanat-i-Khudadadf

Kirkpatrick's

contention of

the

name

4th ed., p.

mud

Banglori into
II,

181.

Mahmud

503)

Urdu and

is

Sultan,

not

Satya-

Bangalori

given to Coimbatore

Letters of Tipu

Vol.

p.

1909, Vol.

that

(vide Sal-

corroborated

translated

by

entitled Sahifa-i-Tipu

by

MahSultan,

42

me

from the udder and that


it was very sweet,
tasteful and rich in
butter. I took the pitchers from his hand
and found this fresh milk bubbling with
for

straight

on top. After
telling the man that the milk must be very
sweet and agreeable to the palate, I took
the milk and kept it with me. At this
juncture I woke up and wrote down the
particles of butter

dream.

scattered

Dream Y

THE SEA COCOANUTS


Truthful God!

On

the 2 1 St night of the

the

jadi,

following

and corresponding
Zig^'d,

the Capital,

seemed

large upper
to

fifty

to

being

the

Tuesday,

19th

night

when morning was about

at Patau,

dream:

day

month Zabar-

sea

to

dawn,

to

had the following

have gone up

chamber where
cocoa-nuts.

of

The

to the

saw

forty

smallest

of

was about the size of a lemon and the


was as large as a small pitcher.
1 took them all and kept them in front
of me. I cut one of the cocoa-nuts and
drank its water.
I praised the water of
the cocoa-nut and said that it was extremely sweet and refreshing.
I had tasted
these

biggest

the

water

of

sea

cocoa-nuts

previously

on two or three occasions but had found


it brackish. I
was surprised to find the

44
water of these cocoa-nuts so sweet. In the

meantime certain women who were strangers and were sitting there, cut one of the
bigger cocoa-nuts and removing its cover
opened it and passing on the pulp to me
said that it was very sweet. I, thus, took
it

in

my hand.

The

other cocoa-nuts were

lying in front of

me when

and did not again go

to sleep.

still

woke up

Dream VI

THE BERYL MINE


O

Merciful God!

On

the 24th/ the following day being

Saturday,

man

had a dream:

venerable old

appeared with a large piece of beryl

hand and said that a mine of this


precious stone was situated in the hill
named after Makhdum Jahanian Jahan

in his

This

(Gasht).^
1

The

month

is

hill

is

situated

near

not mentioned in this dream but apparently

of the same month is meant as has been mentioned


dream immediately preceding.
mentions
'*Makhdum Jahanian Jahan,"
Sultan

the 24th
in the
*

Tipu
apparently
an
omission.
Makhdum
"Gasht" being
popular
title
of
Jahanian
Jahan Gasht was the
Sayyid Jalaluddin Bukhari, the famous saint of Uchh in
the Bhawalpur Division of West Pakistan, He was born in
1307 and died in 1386 at Uchh where he was buried. He
"
travelled widely and thus came to be known as " Jahangasht
Tipu Sultan refers to the hill near Salem
or world-rover.
named after him. This hill is still known by this name amongst
the Muslims of the locality and is situated at a distance of
about seventeen miles from Salem. Coffee is grown on it
and it is a source of supply for aluminium and sand used in
the manufacture of sand-paper.
It
is also kno^vn by the
names of Arkad and Sarwerayan.

46
Salem. Accordingly,
viduals to go

and

ordered trusted indi-

find out

what was the

actual position as regards the beryl mine.

Dream VII

THE LINE OF ENTRENCHMENTS


On

of the year Sarab,


of

month Khusrawi,

17th of the

the

Muhammad,

from the birth

1217,

at Salamabad^,

had

dream: The army of the Sarkar-i-Ahmadi^


seemed
ments

have built a Hne of entrench-

to

for besieging a fort within

Nizam

the progeny of

were sueing

the

after

stage I
1

See

One

under

which

became

was looking

had

Dream No.

this

Sarkar-i-Haidari

the most popular

army

to

name

At

given

this

dream while

IV.

Government was

and Saltanat-i-Khudadad

name

Ahmadi should not be confused

i-Ahmadi, the
his

the

had planned

the names by which Tipu Sultan's

known, others being

Sarkar-i-

and

of entrenchments.

line

woke up.

note
of

for mercy.

strategems

excellent

Khan and

The people within the

son of Basalat Jang.


fort

Ali

which were

by Tipu Sultan

which new converts

for his

with

to Islam

the

kingdom.
Lashkar-

to a section

were

of

recruited.

48
resting before the departure of

Khan and

3 It

Ali

Raza

to

Qutbuddin

Nizam AH Khan.^

was in connection with the mission that the Nizam had sent
negotiate peace that he had asked
to
to Tipu Sultan
Qutbuddin Khan and Ali Raza Khan to accompany the
Nizam's agents to Hyderabad to secure the establishment
of a political as well as matrimonial alliance by marrying
Tipu Sultan's represenhis son to the Nizam's daughter.
tatives

reached

the

Nizam's court in February, 1889.

Dream VIII

THE SACRED RELICS FROM


HADRAT BANDAH-NAWAZ
On

the 5th of the

of the year Shata,

month Raz Thamari,


corresponding to the

from the birth of


Shawwal, 12 18,
Muhammad, on Thursday, while returning to Patau, the Capital, at Salamabad,
I had a dream: I saw coming
two aged
3rd

holy persons, both being

and

baggage
they had

come according

Hadrat

of
I

They

provisions.

to

to

told

servants),

also

me

orders

the

who

Bandah-nawaz^

Hadrat Bandah-nawaz (kind

with

brothers,

had

known

as

Gesu-daraz (the long-haired), is the title of Sayyid Muhammad,


a famous saint who spent the last twenty-two years of his life
at Gulbarga during the rule of Firuz Shah and Ahmad Shah

Bahmani; b. 721, d. 825 A.H. He was buried at Gulbarga.


There was a tradition in the family of Tipu Sultan from
the time of his great-grand-father of attachment to and
veneration for the

tomb of the Gesu-daraz

Haidari, p. 6) . Jalaluddin Husaini

in

the

Cambridge

History

of

is

the

(vide

Nishan-i-

name of the

sahit given

India

(Vol.

Ill,

p.

393)

borrowed by M. H. Khan in his History of Tipu Sultan which


is not supported by any of the well known authorities on the
subject.

50
sent certain sacred relics.

Then they gave

me a few pieces from the covers of the Ka'bah,


the

Madinah-i-Munawwarah and

of Hadrat Bandah-nawaz, a

the

tomb

copy of the

Holy Qur.'an and some sugar-candy. I took


the sacred relics and raised them to my head.
I then opened the Qur'an and found it was
written

in a beautiful hand.

name

of the Qur'an had the


written
I

on

it.

On

some

Every

page

of the scribe

of

the

pages

noticed the names of Hadrat Bandah-

Nawaz and

other saints.

Both

the

holy

me that this copy of the Holy


written by several saints
been
had
Qur'an
Hadrat
and
that
and calligraphists
Bandah-nawaz used to recite constantly
from this copy. The saint had done a
great favour, they added, by sending this
persons said to

copy

for

me. They also pointed out that

from among the


Bandah-nawaz
Hadrat
descendants
and it was their custom to recite the
Fatihah at his tomb and to offer sacrifices
they

themselves

were

of

around

it.

Then

read

those

verses

51
(of

the

Holy

inscribed in fine

of the tomb.

The same
the name
eleven

which had been


handwriting on the gate

Qur'an)

At

this

afternoon
of

Hadrat

cauldrons

point

woke up.

I offered Fatihah in

Bandah-nawaz

of sweets.

on

Dream IX

THE WHITE ELEPHANT FROM


CHINA
On

the

3rd

which happened
the

month Thamari

of the
to

be the

last

night of

month of Ramadan followed by Td

the next morning,

from the birth of

on the

the year Shata,

Muhammad,

outskirts of

12 18,

at a place

Salamabad, while the

army was returning from Farrukhi,^ I had


I
seemed to have gone out
a dream
:

for a Shikar of elephants

and captured from

the jungle two or three

herds of elephants

numbering

about

two

hundred,

like

Having chosen the good


male elephants and after handing them over
to the mahouts, the female-elephants and
flock

of sheep.

the young ones were set free in the jungle.


New name given by Tipu Sultan to Ferokh, now a village

in the

Ernad

district in

Madras.

place in the time of Tipu Sultan who,


the

town

to the

It

was an

important

indeed, tried to

position of a rival to Calicut.

raise

53

The

elephants did not run

freed

and continued
to

the

elephants.

with

along

my

In front of

men on two

Then

captured

the

palace, I found

white elephants and two horses

with

along

to stroll there.

palace

away
came

foot-men

several

carrying

and guns who had come from


somewhere standing to give me a salute.
I also stood up and enquired from them
where they had come from. They replied
they had come from beyond our country's
spears

frontier

along

with

the

agents

of

the

Emperor of China. I asked them to enter


the palace and take a seat in the Diwan-iAm and then called upon the agents of
China to appear before me. The two
agents along with the two elephants and
the two horses presented themselves accordingly.

On

reaching the

they paid their respects.

ceeded towards

me

place of obeisance

When

asked

to stand up, a practice

the

which

is

they proarz-begi^

observed

in the case of ambassadors. I noticed that


The person who presents the petitions to the chief.

54
both the persons were old and wore white
beards.

asked them to

enquiring

after

Emperor of China
purpose of their

no

object

in

the

after

down. Then

sit

health

of the

enquired about the

They

visit.

view

said they

than

other

promotion of greater friendship.

had
the

asked

the elephants and horses to be brought near

me and I made
I

the elephants take a round.

enquired from them as to what

mode

of

capturing

elephants

was the
in

their

country and explained to them the one


prevalent in our

capturing

own which

whole

herd

selecting the better ones

and

consisted in

of

from among them

setting the rest free in the jungle. I

invited

them

phants

captured

to

have a look at the


that very day.

ordered the elephants captured


to

elephants,

be brought.

phants

were

Three or four such

placed

before

the

then

that day
ele-

Chinese

them that the elephants and


which the Emperor of China had

agents. I told

horses

ele-

55

and friendship

sent as a token of affection

indeed,

were,

very good,

was

interchange

friendly

The

custom.

charming

As

was very white

remembered
some three

gesture was

friendly

ever.

for

Sarkar-i-Ahmadi^ I said to them,

possessed an elephant which

and a

and that such

for

example,

thousand years ago, the ruler of

or four

China had sent a present of a white elephant,


a horse and a female

and

one could

this

slave

still

to

Alexander

read in the pages

Sikandar-namah of Hadrat Nizami.^

of the

Perhaps since then the Emperor of China,


I

added, had never sent such a present to

had been sent to the


Sarkar-i-Ahmadi. Having said that I showed
towards them.
all courtesy and kindness
anyone

until

The

it

agents mentioned above were very

They

brave and experienced.


I

Nizamuddin

Abu Muhammad

the great Sufis

work

is

and poets of

Persia,

also pointed

bin

Ilyas

b.

Yusuf,

1140.

one of

His famous

Khamsa, a collection of five great epic poems, One of

which

is

titutes

the central

Sikandar-Namah.

The romance

theme of

this

poem.

of Alexander cons-

56
out that the

Chinese had never sent a

white elephant to anyone except Alexander

and the Presence.


ing dawned and

In the
I rose.

meantime morn-

Dream

THE TOP OF THE HILL


On

29th

the

month Haidari,

of the

on Thursday, in the early hours of the


morning, on the eve of the Marhatta War,
at Patau, I had a dream: It seemed as
if this servant of God Almighty along with
a few persons on elephants and horseback
had gone for an excursion across the river.
The depth of the water in the river seemed
to be somewhat less than a man's height.
After
for

crossing

the

river

the

men

halted

a while for drying up the clothes.

also got

down from

my

the elephant.

At

this

and an elephant
mine gave certain
indications as if they were going to fight
among themselves. Although the fight had

juncture

elephant

that was standing near

not started as yet,

thought of climbing

a hillock nearby in order


at

safe

distance

from

that

the

might be
elephants.

58

Slowly

walked towards the hillock but


on reaching it I found that there was no path
leading to its top. I said to myself I must
climb it somehow or the other. Since
I

was determined, I proceeded upwards.


But I had gone only a few steps when I
had to retreat. I again made up my mind
and with great effort I ascended the hillock and reached the top. Owing to great
fatigue, I was hardly looking at anything
when I saw a small door in front. I entered
the door and as soon as I went in, a venerI

able old man greeted

me

me with a ''Salam

come near him and

alaik'\

showed

asked
extreme kindness towards me. In front of
to

man

saw a darwesh standing resThe


crossed).
pectfully (with his arms
place was very clean and at great height
and one could see a whole world from
here. I was wondering how unusual was the

the old

occasion and

how

able old man.

At

Place: Patau.

extraordinary the vener-

woke up.
Before the Marhatta War.
this juncture, I

Dream XI

THE BEAR
On

loth of the

the

month designated

Thamari, the year Shata, 1218, from the


of Muhammad,
Nazarabad^
at
while
returning
from Farrukhi^ when
our troops were about to give battle to the
birth

Nizam

Nazarenes/
hattas,

and

and the Mar-

Ali

and, in accordance with the rules

regulations,

was

encamped

at

distance of about a mile from the army,

had a dream

was the night of Thursday, the following day being Thursday, on


which a parade was held. I saw a newly
made fine sword from Nagar* brought
I

New name

2 See
3

note

It

of Mysore.

under

The word used

is

Dream IX.
^'Nasara"

Meant, obviously,

tians.

which

is

the equivalent of Chris-

are the British.

name of a town in the Nagar taluk of Shimoga


Mysore. The town was taken by Haidar Ali
in 1 763 who gave it the name of Haidarnagar and established
It suffered a good deal
in it his principal arsenal and mint.
during the wars fought by Tipu Sultan who, however, strove

Nagar

is

the

district in

hard to restore

its

prosperity.

60
for

me.

my hand

unsheathed
I

it

was praising

and holding
it

it

in

when people

shouted that a bear was coming.

stood

up

and saw a very big bear heading towards


us. As soon as he came near me I struck
him with my sword. With the very first
strike I cut his throat and with the second
his mouth which was cut into pieces and fell
apart. Shortly afterwards came Muhammad
Raza, a bear-leader, whom I had left,
while on the march, to kill bears. I enquired
from him how many bears he had killed.
The bear-leader, mentioned above, replied
that he had killed four while one had
wounded. In the
escaped after being
since morning had
I
woke
up
meantime
already dawned. After taking breakfast
I was to march to a distance of three
miles for military exercises which I did.
While the excursion was on, the bear-leader,
mentioned above, came and informed me
that he had killed two bears and flayed
them while one had escaped ^into his den
after receiving a wound.

Dream XII

A MESSAGE FROM THE PROPHET

THROUGH HADRAT
On

the

of the year
the Z'^r

month Haidari,

of the

2 1 St

Busd^

accordance with

in

evaluation,^

ALI

the

fortieth

of the cycle, at the place where

had

year

halted,

on the farther side of the Tungabhadra,^


I had this dream:
It appeared
to
me
as if it was the Day of Judgement when

no one would be interested in anyone


else. At that time a stranger of great strength
and commanding stature with a bright face
1

Corresponding to about
it

the cycle

are

From

the

respectively

fication introduced at

would

also

come

evaluation

Note on

is

40 (<^

the

same

to

Busd seems

later stage.

to

the Calendar

fortieth year of

to the

Dalw and Desa according

ahtath evaluations^

2 J^ar

786.

would appear that the names given

the ahjad
to

and

be a modi-

Busd, according to abtath


2\ {JT
as

30; ^

8).

abtath evaluation, see

Note on the Calendar.


3

river of

Southern India, chief tributary

formed by the twin


the Western Ghats.

rivers

of the

Krishna,

Tunga and Bhadra which run

in

62

and red beard and moustaches came to


me and taking my hand in his, said to me
'Do you know who I am?' I told him I
did not. He then said to me, "I am Murtaza
AH and the Messenger of God has said
and is still repeating it that he would not set
his foot in paradise without you and would
wait for you and enter the paradise with
you." I felt so happy and woke up. God
is all powerful, and the Messenger is the
intercessor. This suffices.

Dream XIII

A WOMAN IN MAN'S DRESS


Prior

to

Marhattas

night

the
at

attack

Shahnur

by

upon the

the

side

of

month KhusBusd, I had a dream:


rawi, of the year
It seemed to me as if a handsome young
man, a stranger, came and sat down near
me. I passed certain remarks in the manner
on the 6th of the

Devgiri,

in

which one might,

talk to a
is

not

course

woman.

my

custom

with

in

a playful mood,

then said to myself: "It


to enter into playful

anyone."

Shortly

dis-

thereafter,

and walking a few paces,


returned to loosen his hair from beneath
his turban, and opening the
fastenings
the youth rose,

of his
I

saw

robe,
it

displayed

bosom,

his

was a woman."

and

immediately

and seated her and said to her:


"Whereas formerly I had only guessed you
were a woman, and I had cut jokes with you.
called

64
It

is

now

definite that

you

man.

My

in the dress of a

come

true."

are a

midst of

In. the

woman

conjecture has
this

conver-

morning dawned, and I woke


up. I conveyed the contents of the dream
to other people and interpreted it thus:
That please God those Marhattas have
put on the clothes of men, but in fact will

sation the

prove to be women. By the favour of

and the

God

on the 8th

aid of His Messenger,

of the month and the year above mentioned,

on the morning of Saturday, I made a surprise attack upon the army of the unbelievers. Advancing with two or three hundred
men, I myself penetrated the camp of the
unbelievers,
crushing them as I went,
as far as the tent of

and they
1

Well known

all

Hari Pant

women.

fled like

Marhatta

Pharkiah,^

general

who

fought

hattas

and

opponents.

the

Nizam and

Tipu

reflected in the

in

which he

Sultan's success

terms of the

conflict

battlefield

peace treaty,

keen on winning over the Marhattas

the

inflicted defeats

on the

to

Tipu
Mar-

against

Sultan in the war which the latter waged against

on

his

was not

since he

was

his side for the

which he envisaged with the English

owing

to the

mihtary preparations and diplomatic moves of Lord Wellesley.

Dream XIV

DESTROYING THE ENEMY


On the 8th of the month Ja'fari, of

the

year Shata, 1218, from the birth of Muhammad, at Patan, the Capital, in the Darya
Bagh, I had a dream: It seemed to me as
if a battle had taken place near a wood

with the Nazarenes and all the army of


the Nazarenes had dispersed and fled, and
by the favour of God the army of the Sarkar-i-

Ahmadi had been

victorious.

The

officer

of the unbelievers, with a few Nazarenes,


retreated into a large house and closed
the door. I asked my people as to what
was to be done. They advised me to break
open the door, in order that the house
might suffer no
w^hich was ornamented
i
said
to
them
that
the house was
damage,
built of bricks and mortar,
and thereand burn down
fore we should set fire
the gate and destroy all the Nazarenes
within with our muskets. At this juncture
and I awoke. By
the morning dawned

the favour of

God

it

shall

thus

happen.

Dream

XV

THE KNIFE
On

the 24th of the

month Wash of

year Dalw^ 121 2 A.H., at Devgiri,

saw a

a dream:

ghttering.

Its

very

knife,

fine

of

fish-

made

handle was

the

had
and

tooth at the edge of which was set a cor-

nehan.

Holding

it

in

my

hand,

praised

and offered it with a sheet of cloth as a


robe of honour to the famous saint of
Mir Mu'inuddin
Bangalore, Suti Sahib.
said that it was an excellent knife and he
would purchase it from Suti Sahib and

it

bind
(to

it

Mir

him a

to

his

And

handkerchief.

Mu'inuddin) that

said

would give

handle of sword made of jasper.

In the meantime

rose.

It

was morning.

Dream XVI

THE FLOWERS
On

month

the 23rd of the

Ja'fari,

on

Thursday, at Hartala on the far side of

Panchanguda,

war with the

while

intending

to

irrehgious Nazarenes,

go
I

to

had

seemed to me as if I was sitting in the ante-chamber and people were


saying that snow and a cold wave were
coming like solidified clouds and people
a dream:

will

It

of the cold wave.

die

would show mercy.


cloud appeared,

When

Inside

I killed it.

saw a

tiger

the

dead.

the cold bringing

went into the inner


chamber there was
On coming outside

running away.

a gun and after a


tiger

God

I also

chamber.
snake.

said

Then

little

got hold of

chase

noticed

clouds approaching and

to fall

shot the

the

same

watched them

standing. It seemed to be raining

with rain seemed

and along

double jasmine

68
flowers of big size

and many other smaller

wild flower buds.

And

to

God who

said,

has favoured

us

"Praise be

with such

and continues to favour


us with them". I was in this state of happiness when I woke up and morning dawned.
beautiful flowers

May God

grant his favours

Dream XYII

THE STRANGE COW


On

the 7th of the

Shadab,

year

Muhammad,

1217,

the

the

of

birth

the Maghrib Prayers,

the

Nayar,^

invoked

God,

''O

upon

attack

Rama

entrenchments of
these

from

the

while encamped at Salam-

abad^ preceding

terms:

month JaTari, of

in

the

after

God

in

hills

the

enemy have
and prayer; convert them

unbelievers of the land of the

forbidden fasting
all

to

Islam, so that the religion

Messenger may

gain in strength."

of

Thy

In the

course of the night, and towards the morn-

had a dream:

ing I

It

appeared to

that after traversing the forests

army of

me

and high

Ahmadi Sarkar had


encamped. On the way and near the place
of encampment I saw a cow with its calf,
hills

the

the

New name of Satyamangalam. See


Rama Nayar was one of the
revolts

against

note under

Dream IV.

organizers of the

Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan.

Malabar

70
in

semblance

its

countenance,

those of a tiger;

of a cow;
its

forelegs

it

like

big

teeth,
its

striped

etc.,

forelegs

were in

slight

looked

were

had no hinder

tiger;
like

like those

legs

at

all;

motion; and

it

was causing injury to the best of its ability.


Having closely examined it, I reached the
camp and directed several persons to
prepare themselves and accompany me.
I said to them: "God willing, on arriving
near this cow which looks like a tiger,
cut it along
I shall with my own hand
with its calf into pieces." Having said that,
I

reviewed

my

household

orders for two grey horses

stud and gave


to

be quickly

At this moment the


morning appeared and I woke up.
At that very moment, the following
irjiterpretation of the dream suggested itself
to my mind: that the Nazarenes of the
hills are like the cow with its calf with
tigers; and by the
the appearance of
favour of God and through the felicity and
aid of the Prophet, the place mentioned will
saddled and brought.

71

be reduced with ease and


gious

motion

mean

Nazarenes

will

be

of the forelegs
that

they would

all

slain.
I

the

irreli-

The

slight

interpreted

to

make an attempt

wage war, and the absence of hinderlegs indicated that no one would afford
them any help and that no Muslim would
receive any injury at their hands. Through
to

the aid of God, be

it so.

Dream XVIII

THE EMERALDS
AND
Dream XIX

THE COLLAPSE OF THE GATE


By

the

grace

of God,

Bahari, of the year Shad,


birth

and

of

in

the

month

1223, from the

Muhammad, between

the

9th

had two dreams:


In the course of the first dream I saw
a horseman coming and handing over
to me a few emeralds of superior quahty
and exquisite colour and unequalled in
size,

15th,

indeed as large as oranges.

upon, said that

we

I,

there-

had no
was all due to

in our State

and it
God's grace that He had bestowed such
emeralds on us. It was dawn, and I woke
emerald of

this size

up.

The

other

dream

is

as follows:

the tower at the gate of the

Around

temple,

the

73
unbelievers

had

tied rods of

wood

at great

heights for the purpose of illumination

and

on them. In a moment
fell and the
gate collapsed. There was such a crash that
all the buildings shook and this servant of
God also came out of the building somewhat disturbed. I asked people to come out
of their houses quickly and enquire about
the people who were residing in the many
houses that were situated so close to the
temple. People went and brought
the
news that the gate had collapsed but the
people living in the neighbourhood were
all safe. In the meantime morning dawned
and I woke up.

had

fixed

lights

the lights went out and the rods

XX

Dream

DREAM XX THE THIEF


:

On

29th of the month Ja'fari, of

the

the year Shad,

Muhammad,

from the birth of

1223,

corresponding

of Muharram, on

to

the

28th

Thursday, early in the

had a dream: It seemed as if


morning,
I had said my morning prayers with a large
congregation after which all of us had remained seated. Sayyid Ali Qazi and Abdur
Rahman Maulvi proposed to the gathering
to have a three-lettered Khatm}y in the same
sitting, for, according to them, there was
I

great virtue attached to

They

proposal.

participate

should
1

It

may be

stated

Karachi that

it.

accepted the

one hundred people

said

in

the

recital.

on the authority of a knowledgeable

great

virtue

ed (^J

^^^^ Khatm

pate.

^'Muiz'* VJ"*'*)

beginning with the

in

is

letter

is

attached

which up

to

the

to 117 persons

I
Sufi of

three-letter-

can

partici-

the three-lettered attribute of God,

M (p) with which the Khatm

starts.

75
expressed

them

my

that

willingness to join but

told

could not remain seated for

long hours and, therefore, a hundred persons

should be chosen excluding myself though

would

They chose
began

the

letter

Khatm commenced

When

'M'.

it.

the

found myself among

the participants. Apart from

who were

with

accordingly and

persons

the

with

myself

associate

also

those persons

taking part in the Khatm,

others

were seated on one side and were taking

When

food.

was going

along with other


culvert, I

came

for

men and had

across a black

Marhatta with an empty tray

my

prayers

crossed the

and

bulky

in his hand.

saw him, I drew out


As soon as
dagger and asked him who he was. He
I

me

that

he

was

Dhonduji's^

my
told

servant

and house-steward and that he had brought


As he entreated
gold and silver for me.

me

to

accept the present and generously

distribute
1

it

to

whomsoever

Dhondu Pant Gokhale, a Marhatta

chief.

liked,

76
asked him

my

to

till

He was

talk to him.

on

wait

had

said,

prayers after which,

conclusion

the

Ghulam

Ali^

thus

of

finished
I

would

when

sitting

the

prayers,

came and submitted

that this

was an intruder who had


I asked him to be careseemed to be a great thief

particular person

entered his house.

man

ful for this

who might run away with


I

his horse.

And

asked the unbeliever to surrender the

had brought to the Sarkar-iKhudadad and I made him understand that


like him many people
if I freed a person
ruined.
would be
In the meantime rain
came in torrents and I woke up.
things

2 Perhaps

he

Ghulam AH Khan

is

meant who was

ambassadors despatched by Tipu Sultan to

Turkey

in

786.

the

one of the
Sultan of

Dream XXI

THE NIZAM'S REPRESENTATIVE


On

25th of the

the

of the year Rasikh,


of

month Rabbani,

1222, from the birth

Muhammad, when

four watches of day

saw that the


Diwan of Nizam Ah Khan had arrived. As
to his appearance, he had no teeth in the
mouth and he had dyed his hair. He was
The servant of God
seeking help from me.
said to him, ''AH right, you settle down!
Let me consult my advisers, after which
you will have my reply." After speaking
to him in this manner, I sent -him outside
the fort for being put up and said to myself
that one should console such people in
conversation.
The Poonaite^
was the
first to seek assistance and now it was the
remained,

turn

had a dream:

of those

people

to

seek

assistance.

But one could not depend on their word.


At this juncture I woke up.
I

Pconawala

is

the term used by which

is

meant the Peshwa.

Dream XXII

THE EXTRAORDINARY IDOLS


On

the 8 th of the

month

on the

Zakiri,

night of Tuesday, the following day being

Wednesday, of the year Hirasat, 1224, from


the
to

birth

the

7th

morning,

Muhammad,

of

of

corresponding

the

the

in

Jamadi'Ul'thani,

had

dream:

following

There seemed to be a big temple, the back


portion of which was slightly damaged.
It

contained several large

idols. I

went into

the temple along with a few other

men

and noticed that the idols were seeing like


human beings and their eyes were in
motion. I was surprised to see the eyes
of the idols moving like those of the living and wondered

what could

Then I approached them.


row there were two female

it

be due

In
idols.

the

to.

last

One

of

these two, drawing out her sari from bet-

wixt

her

two

knees,

stated

that

both

79

women while the rest of


were the images of men and
other objects. She added that they had
of them were
the

idols

been praying to God

for a long time

everyone ought to nourish oneself.


her,

"That

is

fine,

and

I said to

do keep yourself occuHav-

pied with the remembrance of God."

ordered

ing said that

dilapidated

building.

woke up.

my men

to repair the

In the meantime

Dream XXIII

THE MANGO GROVE


On

the

year Hirasat,

2 th
1

of the

month

Ja'fari of the

224, from the birth of Muham-

mad, on Monday, early in the morning,


I had a dream It seemed to me as if this
:

servant of

phant,

God

went

Almighty, riding an

noticed a large

ele-

mango grove and


number of clusters of man-

into

Each mango, a cubit in


was so big in size. Some of the
mangoes were round and these were as
goes on the trees.

length,

large as cocoa-nuts.
I was very pleased to see these mangoes
and plucking many of them from the trees,
I put them in front of me, in the canopied
litter of the elephant.
I was still having
a ride in the grove when I woke up.

Dream XXIV

FRENCH TROOPS
On
the

of

the

year

of the

2 th

Hirasat,

Muhammad, on

the

from

1224,

Bahari, of
birth

the

the night of Thursday,

day

following

month

being

and

Friday,

God
to me

towards the morning, this servant of

had a dream: It was represented


that a Frenchman of standing had arrived.
I sent for him, and he came. When the
Frenchman came, I was absorbed in some
But

business.
I

as

he approached the throne

him and I
asked him to

noticed

him.

quired

after

his

and embraced
take a seat and inrose

The

health.

Christian

then said: 'T have come with ten thousand

Franks to serve the Sarkar-i-Khudadad^ and


I

have disembarked them

They
I,
1

are

well-built,

all

stout

thereupon, said to him,

See note under DreemVII.

on the

shore.

and young."

"That

is

fine.

82

Here too
and the

the equipment for

followers

numbers,

large
this

all

moment

awoke.

to

the

war

is

ready

of Islam are eager,


prosecute

Jihad''

morning came and

in

At
I

Dream

XXV

THE NIZAM'S MINISTER


On

year

the

Hirasat,

Muhammad, on

of

had a dream:

come
come

to

month

14th of the

the

He

me.

1224,

the night of

Saturday,

saw Asad

Ah Khan^

submitted

conquering

after

He

Kuddapah^.

the

offered his

four thousand horsemen,

have him.

the offer but,

indicated
in

of four thousand,

if

my

that he
territory

had
of

services with

only

would

acceptance of

addition to the service


I

asked

for

an yearly

In the meantime morning came

present.

and

Bahari, of

from the birth

awoke.

Asad Ali Khan, a Minister of the Nizam, sent to Tipu Sultan


in 786 to dissuade him from attacking Adoni. Later he led
an army against Tipu Sultan in 1795. Nishan-i-Haidari,
p. 302 and Mackenzie, A Sketch of the War with Tippoo Sultan

Vol.
2

II,

p.

66.

Madras. In the time of Tipu Sultan it was


After 1799 it formed a part of the
Nizam's Dominions for a short while and then , in 1800,
passed into the hands of the East India Company.
district

in

included in his State.

Dream XXVI

THE EXPULSION OF THE ENGLISH


On

month Razi, corresof the month oi Sha'ban^

the 3rd of the

ponding

to the

St

1224, from the birth of

Monday,

night

the

metropoHs,

in

the

Muhammad, on

of Tuesday,
early

the

at

of

hours

the

morning, I had a dream: Raghunath Rao,^


who had been
the
Marhatta agent,
to me before, appeared before me and said,
"The EngHsh have suffered a crushing
defeat in Europe and are now on the verge
of leaving Bengal

voluntarily."

ing his statement,

said,

On

"That

will despatch troops as well as

if

God

wills,

hear-

is

fine,

money;

the Nazarenes shall be expelled

from India."
I

Perhaps meant

is

Raghunath

Rao

Patwardhan

who

numerous occasions had dealings with Tipu Suhan both


a soldier and a diplomat.

on
as

Dream XXVII

THE HAJJ
On

the 29th of the

ponding

to

the

27th

from the birth of


jangor where

month Razi,

corres-

of Sha'bariy

Muhammad,

had gone

1224,

at

for shikar

had ordered the construction of a

Tanand

fort to

be named Ilahabad, early in the morning,

had a dream: It seemed I had gone for


Hajj. When I was entering the sanctuary
of the Ka'bah, a respectable and distinguished gentleman from among the Arabs
came and took me into the Ka'bah and inI

dicated to
I

me how

followed

prayers.

Stone.

his

should

ojfifer

my prayers.
my

instructions in saying

Then he asked me to kiss the Black


The Black Stone was affixed to a big

square towards the lower side of the wall.


I felt

very happy at the time of kissing the

Stone and

did

it

with the greatest reverence.

Inside the sanctuary where there was not

86

much room, there was a box. The gentleman said that the turban which was kept
there had been conferred on me by God
and he asked me to grasp it. He then took
out the turban from the box and handed
it

seized one

end of the turban

he seized the other

and together we

over to me.

and

unfolded
It

and found

it

it

was an exquisite piece of craftsmanhaving a look at

ship. After

the turban with care and

and carried

it

it

in the

box

with me. Then

came

out.

me

that

gentleman told

there was an idol at

ought to

throw

insult

instructions
I

some distance which


at which I ought to
with

accordance

threw

proceeded to

meantime

and

In

stones.

refolded

it,

put

The venerable
I

with gold.

laid

visit

stones

at

it.

certain shrines.

awoke.

his

Then
In the

Dream XXVIII

THE FRESH DATES


At the capital, on the night of Sunday,
the following morning being Monday, the
2nd of the month Zakiri, of the year Saz,

Muhammad,
of
1225, from the birth
the
3rd
to
corresponding
Jamadi-ul
thaniy I had a dream: It seemed to me as
if three silver trays of fresh dates known
as ratb were brought and placed before me.
The dates were each of the size of a span.
They were fresh and full of juice. It was
reported to me that they had been reared
in the garden. At that moment I awoke
and found it was morning. This servant
of God interpreted the dream as follows:
That by the grace of merciful God the
dominions and homes of all the three Kafirs^
shall fall into his hands. On the 3rd of the
month mentioned above news
Nizam Ali was dead.
I

Among

the three

Kafirs

are

arrived that

obviously included

not only the

and the Marhattas but the Nizam! In the eyes of


Tipu Sultan he who sided with the Kafirs was a Kafir,
British

Dream XXIX

A BATTLE WITH THE ENGLISH


On
the

the 28th of the

year

Saz,

Muhammad,
of

1225,

month

from

the

corresponding

Jamadi'ul'thani,

12 12

to

Zakiri,

of

birth

of

the

26th

A. H., at the

had a dream:
It seemed as if a battle had taken place
between the Sarkar-i-Khudadad^ and the
Nazarenes. This servant of God was standing on a hillock and the troops had similarly taken their position upon it. All of
them were asking for permission to let
off their guns and were saying: 'Tf God the
Most High wills, we shall turn out the
In the meanNazarenes from India".
metropoHs, on Wednesday,

while

woke up.

See note under dream VII

XXX

Dream

IN

THE ASSEMBLY OF SAINTS

On

the 2 1 St of the

month

Zakiri, of the

year Saz, 1225, from the birth of

mad, corresponding

to the

Muham-

gth of Jamadi-

on Saturday, at
the metropohs, I had a dream: It seemed
as if this servant of God had gone to an
assembly of saints where he saw about
12 12

ul'thani,

A. H.,

fifty to sixty saints sitting.

They

me

with

Salam-'alaik.

Shah Sahib^

He

saints.

before him.

gun.

also

called

He

replied:

whoever may

asked

me

''Sir,

among

divine

am

shall

of

soldier;

be the

a gun". In the meantime

contemporary

sat

to get hold of a

up.

the

went and

gun or any other

possess a

arms, these are mine.


to seize

greeted

saw 'AtauUah

sitting

me.

all

Tipu Sultan.

first

woke

Dream XXXI

THE GIFT OF THE TURBANS


On

month Rahmani,
on Friday, the night of Saturday, 1225,
from the birth of Muhammad, in the
the 25th of the

I had a dream:
saw Hadrat Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him,) bestowing on me a green turban and asking me
to bind it on my head. I did it accordingly.
Then Hadrat Bandah-nawaz^
bestowed
a turban and asked me to put it on my head
which I did. Then Hadrat Ahmad^ bestowed a turban and I bound it on my

hours of the morning,


I

On

head.

the top of the mountain there

was an excellent
at

it

when

of the dream

our

Prophet

of the
1

See

It is

note

seven

fort.

was having a look

woke up.
is

that

have

My

conferred

climes

interpretation

God Almighty and


the

empire

upon me.

Dream VIII.
who is meant, may be

under

not clear

it is

Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-Thani,

Dream XXXII

THE BRIDGE OF ELEPHANTS


On

the

2th

of the

of the year Shadab,

of

Muhammad, on

month Ahmadi,

1226, from the birth

the night of Thursday,

had a dream. The troops seemed to be


stationed by the side of the river. This
servant of the High was on horseback.
He saw that the river was in spate and
I

he issued instructions that


should be
in

the

brought

river,

all

the elephants

and made

to

stand

one adjacent to the other,

thus forming a bridge.

He

then asked the

by passing over
the backs of the elephants and under their
The whole army actually
protection.
In the
crossed the river in this manner.
meanwhile I woke up.

troops to cross the river

Dream XXXIII

ALMONDS AND STONES


On

the

St

of the

month

Dini, of the year

Shadab, 1226, from the birth of


mad, on Thursday, when four

Muhamwatches

of the day were yet to go, while in the metro-

had a dream I seemed to be reciting the names of God on almonds among


which I had mixed 'salgram'i stones,
salgram being an object of worship by the
unbelievers. My motive in doing so was
that like their idols who were embracing
Islam, the unbelievers also would enter
poHs,

the

fold

of

Islam.

On

concluding

my

recitation, I stated that all the idols of the

had

unbelievers
I

ordered the

replaced
I

senting Vishnu
curse. It

and Gandak.

My

rounded by the

who
is

and

Islam

stones to be picked out

by almonds.

small flinty stone

by a

embraced

is

and

interpretation

action

of water

said to have been turned to

found in the beds of the

rivers

repre-

stone

Narbada

93

by the grace of God all unbelievers


would embrace Islam and the country
would pass into the hands of the Sarkar-iis

that

Khudadad.

Dream XXXIV

SHAIKH
On

month Khusrawi, on

the 13th of the

Monday,
of

OF SHIRAZ

SA^DI

in the year 1226,

Muhammad,

from the birth

nth

corresponding to the

of Jamadi-uUawwaU

on

12 13 A. H.,

the

the moon, the follow-

fourteenth night of

ing day being Tuesday, in the early hours

of the morning,

Hadrat Sa'di

had a dream:

The

Shirazi.^

of the aforesaid

saw

appearance

was somewhat

like

this:

he was big-bodied with a large head and a


long and white beard.
offered

him a

seat.

He seemed

pleased. I enquired from


tries
1

he had

Shaikh

visited.

Muslihuddin

most

Sa^di

respectfully
to

be very

him what coun-

"Hindustan,^

Arcot,^

of Shiraz; famous Persian

poet

writer; b. 1184; the date of his death is uncertain but


he is said to have lived for about 100 years. His best
known works are Gulistan and Bustan. In poetry he is sup-

and

posed to be the master of ghazal.


Northern India.
At present an inland district on the eastern side of the State
of Madras. In Muslim times there was a Sub ah of Arcot.

95
the
the

country
country

Konkon"^

was

and

Kalopant^

of

Then he

reply.

his

couplets

and

going round the palace he took a

seat.

recited
after

Abdun Nabi Khan,'

of

several

and

verses

In the meantime

woke up,

the

since

morning had already dawned.

Abdun Nabi Khan had


self

carved

sometime during the

century centring in the

his

sway.

all

of

him-

the eighteenth

He

Kuddapah.

brought

Salem and Goimbatore under

Abdun Nabi Khan

was the

Kalopant

principality for

quarter

district of

certain adjacent areas such as

out a

first

died

about

730.

powerful Minister of Venkat Rao, and

as such, the real ruler of

Nargund, a petty

state,

annexed by Tipu Sultan in 1785. Nargund

is,

which was
at present,

a taluka in the Dharawar District of Bombay.


3

Konkan

is

the

name

applied to the tract of country below

the Western Ghats including

Bombay and

Thana, Kolaba, Ratanagiri and the


as well as the islands of Janjira,

the district of

coast strip of

Goa,

etc.

Kanara,

Dream

XXXV

MAULANA JAMI
AND
Dream XXXVI

THE PLANTAIN FRUITS


On

the 24th of the

month Taqi, of

the

year Shadab, on Friday, in the afternoon,

had a dream: It seemed


as if this servant of God had gone into a
garden in which there were several buildings.
The people told me that Maulana Jami^
was staying there. I went to the Maulana
and expressed my pleasure at his arrival.
The Maulana said to me. 'T have come
to meet you". I again repeated how nice
and appropriate it was that he had come,
at

Haidarabad,

Maulana Nuruddin

Abdur

Rahman Jami;

great

Persian

poet, often described as the last classic poet of Persia; b. 1414


in the district of

greatly influenced

Muhammad

Jam

in

the

Province of Herat;

by mystic thought; a

disciple

Kashghari, himself a disciple and

the famous sufi saint,

Bahauddin Naqshband,

d.

1492;

of Saduddin
successor

of

97

and added, "In old times lived Maulana


Sa'adi, and in our own God Almighty had
produced Maulana Jami and sent him to us.
I shall seek his blessings". Having said
that I took the

Maulana with me

to

my

residence.

That very night in the early hours of


had another dream A young
and beautiful woman, putting on costly
jewellery and clothes, came to me. She
was carrying three big ripe plantain fruits
of the size of large cucumbers. She handed
over the fruits to this servant of God,
and I said, I had never seen such plantain
fruit. I ate one of them and found it extremely sweet and delicious. In the meanwhile I woke up.
the morning I

Dream XXXVII

THE ARMIES OF THE UNBELIEVERS


On

loth of the

the

month Rahmani,

of the year Shadab, 1226, from the birth


of

Muhammad,

corresponding to the gth

month of Shaban,

of the

12 13 A. H.,

on

the night of Wednesday, the following day

being
polis,

Wednesday, while at the metroI had a dream. I saw


one of the

armies of the

and

taken

Sarkar-i'Khudadad.

had
vers

on
also

behalf

me

informing

army of

and

expressed

the

killed

of the

that

said

of another

reached

arrival

being

unbelievers

prisoner

me

news

of

the

the unbelie-

feeling

that

it

ought to be similarly destroyed. I started


accordingly in order to accomplish this
mission.
it

In

the

was morning.

meanwhile

woke up;

99

SAYYID MUHAMMAD
ASLAM'S DREAM
Sayyid Muhammad Aslam, a
residing at Kolar^

memorandum

sent a

to the Prince saying that in the

the day

Rajab-al'Murajjab,

divine

month of

being Thurs-

day, he had received the following tidings


the course of

(in

was

world^

of the

a dream)

Suddenly

Hadrat

mallah-u-Wajhu^

Hadrat

seized
outside,
horse.

Shah

arm,

All's

to

red

attendance.

Murtaza

arrived.

and asked him

The

in

also

The Imam
on

sitting

The faqir^ was

floor.

KaraThe Prophet
brought him

mount

a piebald

Prophet himself rode another

one and fixed a naked sword on

his shoul-

Thus the two departed. They had


gone some distance when they saw hundreds
of thousands of Nazarenes armed with

der.

guns.

Suddenly there was a loud thunder

The

Sayyid

Hadrat Ah.

district in the east

Prophet

of

of the State of Mysore.

Islam.

Muhammad Aslam

himself.

100

from behind and

the Nazarenes took to

After covering about two miles

their heels.
I

all

saw the party returning towards the metro-

polis

highly

pleased.

Here

They stopped

at

Messanger of
God, on whom be peace, was sitting on a
prayer carpet and near him was a boy
another

place.

five to six years old.

the

Many

row

gions were present in a

while

reli-

like followers

prayer.

In

Hadrat Murtaza Ali

said

congregational

in

leaders of

mean(to the Mesthe

senger of Allah) pointing to the boy, that he

was the Sultan. The Hadrat, thereupon, uttered the words ''Daimun, Qaimun''
*'
and
Qaimun, Daimun "^ Hadrat Ali,
asked the names of the
Comthen
(the boy)

panions

on

his

of

the

Cave^

to

be

inscribed

(the Sultan's) standard. After

ing an obeisance, I went out and saw

mak-

all

the

seven Khwajas, clad in shreds and patches


1

Literally
It

may

tuation
^

the

words stand

for

"durable

and

perpetual".

be taken as a prayer for the durability and


of

A shab-i-Kahf

Tipu
or the

Sultan's

perpe-

regime.

Companions of the Cave whose

related in the eighteenth chapter of the

history

Holy Quran.

is

101

Somone asked

going.

who

this

servant as

to

were and he repHed


that these were: Khawajah Yusuf HamBayazid
Bastami,^
dani\ Khawajah
these dignitaries

Kharqani^,
Khwajah Abul Hasan
Khwajah Bahauddin Naqshband^
and
Mansur Maturidi.^ The
Khwajah Abu
made an
Shahinshah^ came. All then
obeisance and
1

left.

bin Ayyub Hamdani;


b.
1048; d. 1140
Marw; disciple of Shaikh Abu Ali Farindi
Shaikh Abu Ishaq Shirazi. Used to meet Hadrat

Yusuf

Khawaja

A.C., buried at

and
Ghauth-i-Azam frequently

at

Baghdad.

Bayazid Bastami's real name was Abu Yazid Taifur bin


Isa bin Surushan; a famous Sufi saint who died in 875 or
878 A.C., buried at Bastam, a town in the Persian province
of Khorasan.

Shaikh Abul Hasan Kharqani; a great Sufi; his real name


was Ali; his Kwmiyat was Abul Hasan; contemporary of
Bayazid Bastami; there is a long discourse on him by Shaikh
Fariduddin Attar in his Tadhkiratul Awliya translated by R.A.

Muhammad

Nicholson,

band,
b.
5

6.

1907.

bin Muhammad Bahauddin al-Bukhari


founder of the Naqshbandi
order
of

1317;

d.

NashqSufiism,

1389.

Abu Mansur

Maturidi, the head of the Maturidi school of


Muslim theology which is orthodox and Sunnite; contemporary of Ashari, the founder of another orthodox school;
defended orthodox Islam by the same weapons of logical
argument with which the Mutazalites attacked it; died in

Samarqand in 944 A.C.


The '*King of Kings," i.e. the Prophet

of Islam.

INDEX
Abdun Nabi Khan, 95.
Abdur Rahman Maulvi,

Bandanawaz
74.

(Gesu-daraz,)

49> 50, 51, 91.

Abjadf 21 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 285

Basalat Jang, 47.

Abtath, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28,


61.

Bayazid Bastami, Khwajah, loi


Beatson,

Abu

Maturidi,
Mansur
Khwajah, loi.
Abul Hasan Kharqani, Khwajah,

lOI.

A,

8n,

Bibliotheque Nationale,

Royale,

Bibliotheque

Ahmad, Hadrat,

Black

90.

Stone,

Bombay, 95 n.

Ahmadi
Sarkar
Ahmadi)

British,

the,

Bustan,

94n.

Sarkar-i-

7.

7.

85.

Ahmad Shah Bahmani, 49n


(see

9n.

Bengal, 84.

(See English, the)

Al-Aziz, the Fatimid, 19.


Calicut, 52n.

Alexander, 55, 56.


Cambrid,^e History

Ali,

Hadrat,

Ali

Raza Khan,

12, 61, 62, 99, 100.

48.

War,

Anglo- Mysore

I I.

and Tribes
India i 4 in.

Castes

3 7n

of India,

of

Arabs, the, 85.

China, 52, 53, 54, 55.

Arcot, 37n, 94.

Chinese, the, 56.

Ali

Khan,

Ashab-i'Kahf,

Companions of the Cave,

83.

100

Darya Bagh,

AtauUah Shah, 58

100.

65.

Delhi, 39, 40.

at-Tai, 19.

Bahauddin

Southern

Coimbatore, 4 in, 95n.

Arkad, 45n.

Asad

vol

49n.

Devgiri, 63, 66.

Naqshband,

lOI.

Bahawalpur, 45,

96n,

Dhonduji (Dhondu Pant

Go-

khale,) 75.

East India

Company,

8,

83n.

104
English, the, (see also

the

Na-

zararenes) 6411, 84, 88.

Ernad,
Ethe,

India, 19, 84, 88.

India Office Library,

7, 8.

5211.

Hugh,

Inglis,

Herman,

8.

9.

7,

Islahet-teqvim,

19.

Europe, 84, 84.

Islam, 39, 47n, 92, 93.

Farrukhi,

52.

dum,

Firuz Shah Bahmani, 49n.


Franks, the, 81.

Frenchman,

the,

81.

Gandak, 92n.

Ghaffar, Sayyid, 37.

Ghulam AH Khan,

Jalaluddin Husaini, 49n.

Jihad,

96,

97.

95n.

82.

Junaid, Sayyid, 37.

Ka'bah, 50, 85.


76.

Goa, 95n.
Gulbarga, 49n.

Kalopant, 95.
Kanara, 95n.
Kaveri, 38.

Gulistan, g^-n.

Haidar

45.

Jam, 96n.
Jami, Maulana,
Janjira,

Gesu-daraz, (see Bandanawaz)

HabibuUah,

Makli-

Jahanian Jahan-gasht,

Ferokh, 52n.

Khamsa, 55n.
8.

7,

Ali, 36n, 59n, 69n.

Khan, M.H., 49n.

Khayyam, Umar,

Haidar Sahib,

36.

Kirkpatrick,

Haidarabad,

96.

Kolaba, 95n.

Haidarnagar, 59n.

Konkan,

Hajj, 85.

Krishna,

Hartala, 67.

Kuddapah,

Herat, gGn.

19.

W.,

7,

8,

41 n.

95.
the,

61.

83,

Lashkar-i-Ahmadiy

95n.

47n.

Hijrat, 18, 20.

Hindustan, 94.
Hisab-i'Zary 21, 61.
History of Tipu Sultan, 49n.

Ilahabad, 85.

Mackenzie, 83n.

Madher Kerah,

41.

Madinah-i-Munawvvarah,
(See Medina),

Madras, 4on. 4n, 52n, 83n, 94n

105
Mahmud Banglori, 4111.
Makhdum Jahanian Jahangasht,

Ottoman Government,

45.

Malabar,

4111, 6911.

Panchanguda,

Malik Shah, the Seljuq,


Marhattas, the,

19.

13, 35, 57j

Medina,

19.

67.

Patan, (See Seringapatam.)


5^i

59. 63, 64, 75, 84.

Mecca,

Nizami, 55.

Northern India, (See Hindustan)

Persia, 96n.

Peshwa,

18.

the, 77.

Pharkiah, Hari Pant, 64.

18,

Metropolis,

50.

Poonaite,
(See

the,

gapatam)

Quran,

Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-Thani,

Muhammad

9011.

the Prophet,

12,

20, 31,41.4749,52,61,62,
64, 65, 69, 70, 72, 74, 77,
78, 80, 81, 83, 84, 85, 87,
88, 90, 94, 99, 100, 10 1.

Muhammad

Raza, 60.

Muinuddin, Mir,

Nargund,

9511.

Rama

84.

Nayar, 41, 69.

Ratnagiri, 95n.
Sa'di of Shiraz, 94, 97.

Sa'duddin

Muhammad

Kash-

Bahauddin

52,

Salem, 45n, 46, 95n.

Salgram, 92.
Saltanat-i'Khudadad, 4 in,
76, 81, 88, 93, 98.

47n,

Nayars, 4 in.

Sarkar-i-Ahmadiy 47, 55, 65.

Nazarabad,

Sarkar-i'Haidari,

59.

Nazarenes, 59, 65, 67, 70, 71,


84, 88, 99.

47n.

Sarkar-i-Khudadad,
(Sec
tanat'i-Khudadad.)

Sal-

Sarwerayan, 45n.

Nishan-i-Haidari, 37n, 83n.

Nizam,

the, 13, 39n, 47, 48, 59,


64n, 77, 83, 87.

Nizam's Dominions,

48.

39, 40,

Salamabad, 41, 47, 49,

Nagar, 59, 60.

the, 92n.

Raghunath Rao,

Sahifa-i-Tipu Sultan, 4 in.

Mysore, 59n.

Narbada,

10, 50, 51.

Qutbuddin Khan,

ghari, 96n.

66.

Naqshband, (See
Naqshband.)

Peshwa.)

(See

Serin-

the, 83n.

Satyamangalam,

4 in,

69n.

Sayyid Ali Qazi, 74.

Sayyid
45".

Jalaluddin

Bukhari,

106
Sayyid

Muhammad,

Sayyid

Muhammad

H,
Select
7,

4911.

Aslam,

Thurston,

Tipoo

of

Svitan,

14, 37,n, 3811,

7,

17,

20,

45n, 47n, 48n,


59n, 64n, 69n,
84n, 88n, 100.

4in.

Seringapatam

7, 8, 9. 11, 13, 14,

21, 26 29, 31,


33, 35, 36n, 37^, S^n, 39^,
15,

99Letters

4 in.

Tipu Suhan,

49n,
76n,

52n,
83n,

43, 57, 58, 65, 88, 92.

Tungabhadra,

Shahidpur, 38.

Shahnur, 63.

Shamsabad,

61.

Uchh, 45n.
35.

Umar Khayyam,

19.

Shimoga, 59.

Venkat Rao 95n.

Sikandarnamahy 55.

Vishnu, 92n.

Sindhia, 39.
Sketch

of

Sultaurif

the

War

A,

with Tipp09

Sultan of Turkey, the,


Suti Sahib, 66.

Thana,

Wellesley, Marquis, 8, 64n.

8311.

West Pakistan, 45n.


7611.

Western Ghats, 6 in, 95n.

Yusuf Hamdani, Khwajah,


9511.

Times Press, Sadar, Karachi.

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2001

U.C.BERKELEY

MAR

1 7 2007

y
12,000 dl/QS^

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