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#################################################################################Bl
ekinge Institute of TechnologySchool of ManagementMaster ThesisM.Sc. in Business
AdministrationThe Use of Promotional Activities in the Tourism Industry: The Case
of Bangladesh#By
Md. Jakir Hossain
Dr.
Klaus Solberg SilenID # 670504-P777
Academic SupervisorEmail: mjho05@student.bth.se
hossainj67@yahoo.comDate: 07 June, 2006
AbstractThis thesis is an attempt to investigate how the use of promotional
activities can help to develop the tourism industry by giving a special
concentration to the case of Bangladesh. The investigation was conducted from both
a theoretical and an empirical point of view. The contribution of the same industry
to the world economy is considerable. Many countries are now dependent on this
sector for foreign currency earnings. Every destination country is trying to
achieve more gain by developing this industry. The expansion of the tourism through
out the world has increased competition among the tourist destinations, trying to
attract more tourists by adopting appropriate marketing techniques and strategies.
Failure of doing so by a particular marketer will lead to a less competitive in the
world tourism market.
As an important element of marketing mix, promotion plays
the vital role in marketing any product and service. Tourism product/service is of
no exception. Because of the tourists want to know in advance about the attractions
and the facilities of a particular destination. The tourist also wants to know
other related information of his/her visit to make the same safe, secured and
enjoyable. As a result, dissemination of information on travel and tourism-related
products and services are highly important. By using the different tools of
promotion, marketers attempt to serve this purpose and try to influence the
potential tourists attitudes in favour of the sponsors destination and grow
interest to visit the same. Though promotion plays an important role in tourism
marketing, the tourism marketing in Bangladesh is far behind from reaching this
goal, which leads to incapacity to attract a significant number of tourists. This
is mainly due to inadequate and ineffective promotional measures of the tourism
sector of Bangladesh. Both the private and public tour operators of Bangladesh have
the resource constraints and can not afford the sufficient budget for the
promotional purpose. As a result, they can not conduct the promotional measures for
the said industry by using international media which is essential for attracting
the foreign tourists. They only depend on the local media which is not sufficiently
fruitful for an industry where the location of the target market is diversified and
they are located at the different parts of the world. In addition to that the low
quality of promotional materials, improper distribution of the materials, the
perceived negative image by the potential tourists due to a wrongful and negative
reporting from international media adversely affect the tourism of Bangladesh. The
research also revealed that the country has a positive trend in arrivals and
earnings and it can be increased to a singnificant level if the country can
undertake appropriate promotion measures by increasing the allocation for this
purpose. The country also needs to employ creative people for this purpose and the
quality of the promotional materials also needs to be developed. The promotional
activities should also be directed in correcting the present image towards
Bangladesh as tourists destination. By ensuring these measures Bangladesh tourism
industry can emerge as one of the major contributors to the national economy of
Bangladesh.

Executive SummaryTitle
: The Use of Promotional Activities in the
Tourism Industry: The Case of Bangladesh.Author
: Md. Jakir HossainAdvisors
: Dr. Klaus Solberg SilenCourse
: M. Sc. Thesis in Business
AdministrationDepartment
: School of Management, Blekinge Institute of
Technology,
SwedenDate
: 07 June, 2006Purpose
: The main purpose
of this study is to analyze the current position and future prospects of Bangladesh
tourism industry and to highlight how the promotion activities can play the role in
the tourism development of a country like Bangladesh. Considering this view, the
promotional activities undertaken by the tour operators of Bangladesh have been
analyzed to identify the problems and limitation of the said activities. In
addition to that it was attempted to find out the types of promotional activities
most suited for tourism in Bangladesh. Finally, based on the findings, some
suggestions have been put forwarded to the policy makers of the concerned
authority.Method : The present research is a combination of both theoretical and
empirical. For the theorical foundation and analysis, the existing literatures were
investigated. The existing literature includes published journals, periodicals,
newspapers, related magazines, Internet etc. Most of the statistical data have been
collected from the related web pages. To collect the primary data from the selected
tour operators, a survey questionnaire has been used. To analyse the collected
data, different quantitative and qualitative measures have been taken.
Findings
: It is revealed that promotion plays a pivotal role in developing the
tourism industry in any specific destination as the tourists wants to know in
advance about the tourism attractions and facilities at the destination.
Promotional measures are intended to provide the information as required by the
potential tourists and acts as vital force to draw the attention and grow interest
to select that particular destination to visit. Though Bangladesh has some
beautiful attractions to its destination, it fails to attract the significant
number of tourists partly because of insufficient promotional activities. As the
country lacks sufficient funds for this purpose, it can not take the necessary
promotional activities for this industry. To promote the tourism of any destination
one needs to launch the promotional activities through e.g. international media
like cable TV, world renowned newspapers, magazines and other world coverage media.
Due to resource constraint, the country can not use the international media. As a
result, the country has to depend on the local media to advertise the same which is
not effective measure for attracting foreign tourists. The country also suffers
from the image problem and the international media most often highlight the country
in a negative way which causes potential visitors not to select Bangladesh as a
tourist destination. The real situation is different. To overcome this negative
image, international media coverage in a positive way can play an important role.
As it is now the country does not have enough funds, it can not launch effective
promotional steps in correcting the same. The government initiative in this regard
is also insufficient. All these cause the country to attracting insignificant
number of tourists and resultant effect is the failure of earning sufficient amount
of foreign currency. Therefore, the initiatives concern authority of the government
along with the tourism authority is a must for correcting the image of the country
to the potential tourists in order to draw their attention and grow interest to
choose Bangladesh as a tourist destination and visit the same.Bangladesh also lacks
the infrastructural facilities to the standard of international levels to its
destination places. This important issue needs to be considered immediately and in
the priority basis before going to promoting the same sector in order to develop
the industry. Again it requires more investment for the same. The participation of
the private sector in the same industry is not also at expected levels and even
most of the private tour operators are new in this area. They also have the
resource constraint to play the active role for the development of the industry.
The effective steps to encourage the private sector investment from the local as
well as from the foreign investors can contribute to develop the industry. The
country also lacks the coordinated efforts among different ministries related to
tourism like Ministries of Home, Civil Aviation, Communication, Health, Planning
etc. which need to overcome for the overall development of the industry. The

coordinated efforts can make the visit more safe, comfortable and enjoyable and can
fulfill the needs of the tourists.The promotional activities of Bangladesh tourism
are inadequate to promote the industry in the world competitive market as it has to
depend on only local media and some printed materials like brochures, folders,
souvenirs, tourists maps, tourist guides etc. to promote the same. At the same time
the quality of those printed material is not up to the mark. In addition, the use
of information technology is very negligible. The web page used by BPC needs to
well-designed and updated. The ultimate effects of all these insufficient
promotional steps lead to no significant growth of tourism industry in Bangladesh
though the industry and its market have grown phenomenally in worldwide. It is
expected that Bangladesh can enjoy a positive growth of this industry if proper
steps can be taken at least regarding the promotional aspects.Keywords :
Promotion, Promotion Tools, Tourism Industry, Bangladesh Tourism, Tourism
Development, Tourism Products/Services

AcknowledgementI am indebted to a number of individuals without whose assistance


this research could not have been completed in time. My first gratitude goes to
Anders Nilsson, Program Administrator, M.Sc. in Business Administration and Dean,
School of Management, Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH) also extended his nice
guidance and cooperation during the problem formulation as well as preparing the
research proposal which preserve special thanks from the researcher. I owe a great
deal of gratitude to my supervisor Dr. Klaus Solberg Silen. He offered me constant
guidance and many insightful and constructive observations throughout the study.
Basically, his support, encouragement and availability to discuss ideas and
problems have contributed much in completing this study. He always kept me on task
and pointing out me back to my research objectives. I really appreciate Dr. Klaus
Solberg Silen, for his patience and high efficiency in guiding me in a proper way
in conducting this research. His friendly guidance and cooperation which is very
rare inspired me to complete the whole work timely. He preserves my special thanks.
The author is also grateful to all other teachers of School of Management for
guiding and upgrading the knowledge through fulfilling the gap between previous and
up to date knowledge which will be useful in our future career. Thanks to all other
staffs of the School for their nice cooperation during the whole study. The author
would like to convey the thanks to the authority of Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation
(BPC) for providing necessary data and related literature. Special thanks to one of
my friends Dr. Md. Kamal Uddin, Associate Professor (Marketing) of the University
Dhaka, Bangladesh for extending his nice cooperation in questionnaire survey. At
the end, thanks to my family members who have been waiting for a long time for my
presence.

DedicationTo my beloved sonsM. Shafwan Jarif&M. Shafwan Javid

Table of Contents# TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u ## HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692823" ##Chapter


1 Introduction
# PAGEREF _Toc138692823 \h ##1### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692824"
##1.1 Introduction
# PAGEREF _Toc138692824 \h ##1### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692825" ##1.2 Importance of the Study # PAGEREF _Toc138692825 \h ##3###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692826" ##1.3 Research Areas
# PAGEREF _Toc138692826 \h
##4### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692827" ##1.4 The Research Problems # PAGEREF
_Toc138692827 \h ##4### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692828" ##1.5 Research Questions
# PAGEREF _Toc138692828 \h ##6### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692829" ##Chapter 2
Research Methodology and Techniques # PAGEREF _Toc138692829 \h ##7### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692830" ##2.1 The Nature of the Study # PAGEREF _Toc138692830 \h ##7###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692831" ##2.2 Source of Data and Data Collection Procedure
# PAGEREF _Toc138692831 \h ##7### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692832" ##2.3
Population and Sample Size of this Study # PAGEREF _Toc138692832 \h ##8###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692833" ##2.4 Organization of the Study
# PAGEREF
_Toc138692833 \h ##8### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692834" ##2.5 Literature Review #
PAGEREF _Toc138692834 \h ##8### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692835" ##Chapter 3
Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
# PAGEREF _Toc138692835 \h ##14###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692836" ##3.1 Defining Tourism and its Related Terms
#
PAGEREF _Toc138692836 \h ##14### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692837" ##3.1.1 Tourism
Meanings and Scope
# PAGEREF _Toc138692837 \h ##14### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692838" ##3.1.2 Tourist Attractions Meanings
# PAGEREF
_Toc138692838 \h ##18### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692839" ##3.2 Travelling- Meanings
# PAGEREF _Toc138692839 \h ##19### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692840" ##3.3 Service
- Meanings and Characteristics
# PAGEREF _Toc138692840 \h ##20### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692841" ##3.4 Recreation - Meanings
# PAGEREF _Toc138692841 \h ##22###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692842" ##3.5 Meaning of Leisure # PAGEREF _Toc138692842 \h
##23### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692843" ##3.6 Different Types of Tourism # PAGEREF
_Toc138692843 \h ##24### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692844" ##3.6.1 Adventure Tourism
# PAGEREF _Toc138692844 \h ##25### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692845" ##3.6.2
Agritourism # PAGEREF _Toc138692845 \h ##25### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692846" ##3.6.3
Ecotourism # PAGEREF _Toc138692846 \h ##25### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692847" ##3.6.4
Heritage Tourism # PAGEREF _Toc138692847 \h ##26### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692848"
##3.6.5 Sex Tourism
# PAGEREF _Toc138692848 \h ##26### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692849" ##3.6.6 Space Tourism
# PAGEREF _Toc138692849 \h ##27###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692850" ##3.6.7 Cultural Tourism # PAGEREF _Toc138692850 \h
##27### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692851" ##3.6.8 Alternative Tourism # PAGEREF
_Toc138692851 \h ##28### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692852" ##3.6.9 Geotourism
#
PAGEREF _Toc138692852 \h ##28### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692853" ##3.6.10 Benefit
Tourism
# PAGEREF _Toc138692853 \h ##28### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692854" ##3.7
Promotion Meaning and Forms # PAGEREF _Toc138692854 \h ##29### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692855" ##Chapter 4 Product Specification: Tourist Attractions in
Bangladesh # PAGEREF _Toc138692855 \h ##32### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692856" ##4.1
Introduction- Geographical Location of Bangladesh
# PAGEREF _Toc138692856 \h
##32### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692857" ##4.2 Seasons and Climate
# PAGEREF
_Toc138692857 \h ##32### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692858" ##4.3 Tourism
Attractions/Spots of Bangladesh
# PAGEREF _Toc138692858 \h ##33### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692859" ##4.4 Sea Beaches as the Tourism Attractions in Bangladesh
#
PAGEREF _Toc138692859 \h ##34### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692860" ##4.5 Archaeological
Sites # PAGEREF _Toc138692860 \h ##35### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692861" ##4.6
Historical Places and Cultural Heritage # PAGEREF _Toc138692861 \h ##35###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692862" ##4.6.1 Historical Places
# PAGEREF
_Toc138692862 \h ##36### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692863" ##4.6.2 Monuments
#
PAGEREF _Toc138692863 \h ##36### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692864" ##4.6.3 Historical
Buildings
# PAGEREF _Toc138692864 \h ##37### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692865" ##4.6.4
Museums
# PAGEREF _Toc138692865 \h ##37### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692866" ##4.6.5
Dances, Art and Music
# PAGEREF _Toc138692866 \h ##38### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692867" ##4.7 Forest, Gardens and Parks # PAGEREF _Toc138692867 \h ##38###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692868" ##4.7.1 Forests
# PAGEREF _Toc138692868 \h ##38###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692869" ##4.7.2 Gardens and Parks
# PAGEREF

_Toc138692869 \h ##40### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692870" ##4.8 Sanctuaries


#
PAGEREF _Toc138692870 \h ##42### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692871" ##4.8.1 Mosques
# PAGEREF _Toc138692871 \h ##42### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692872" ##4.8.2 Tombs
and Shrines and Churches
# PAGEREF _Toc138692872 \h ##42### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692873" ##4.8.3 Temples and Monastery # PAGEREF _Toc138692873 \h ##43###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692874" ##4.9 Fairs and Festivals
# PAGEREF
_Toc138692874 \h ##43### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692875" ##4.10 Hills, Rivers, Lakes
and Island # PAGEREF _Toc138692875 \h ##46### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692876" ##4.11
Economic Importance of Tourism
# PAGEREF _Toc138692876 \h ##46### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692877" ##4.12 Perception or Image of Bangladesh as a Tourist Destination
# PAGEREF _Toc138692877 \h ##53### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692878" ##4.12.1
Tourists Impressions on the Price of Some Important Tourism Components
#
PAGEREF _Toc138692878 \h ##56### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692879" ##4.12.2
Effectiveness of Promotional Measures of Bangladesh Tourism Industry
# PAGEREF
_Toc138692879 \h ##57### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692880" ##4.13 Statistics on Tourist
Arrivals and Earnings
# PAGEREF _Toc138692880 \h ##58### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692881" ##4.13.1 World Tourist Arrivals and Receipts
# PAGEREF
_Toc138692881 \h ##58### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692882" ##4.13.2 International
Tourist Arrivals and Earnings by Regions # PAGEREF _Toc138692882 \h ##59###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692883" ##4.13.3 International Tourist Arrivals and Earnings
in Asia by Sub-Regions # PAGEREF _Toc138692883 \h ##61### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692884" ##4.13.4 International Tourists Arrivals and Earnings in South
Asian Countries
# PAGEREF _Toc138692884 \h ##63### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692885"
##4.13.5 Total Tourist Arrivals in Bangladesh # PAGEREF _Toc138692885 \h ##65###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692886" ##4.13.6 Foreign Exchange Earnings from Tourism and
Travels in Bangladesh
# PAGEREF _Toc138692886 \h ##67### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692887" ##4.13.7 Tourists Arrivals from SAARC Countries to Bangladesh
# PAGEREF _Toc138692887 \h ##68### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692888" ##Chapter 5
Empirical Analysis of the Study
# PAGEREF _Toc138692888 \h ##69### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692889" ##5.1 Introduction- Promotion in Tourism Marketing
# PAGEREF
_Toc138692889 \h ##69### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692890" ##5.2 Promotional Activities
Used in Bangladesh for Tourism Marketing # PAGEREF _Toc138692890 \h ##71###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692891" ##5.3 A Brief Overview/Profile of Some Selected South
Asian Countries
# PAGEREF _Toc138692891 \h ##74### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692892"
##5.4 Transportation, Accommodation, Food and Drinks # PAGEREF _Toc138692892 \h
##75### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692893" ##5.4.1 Transportation in Tourism # PAGEREF
_Toc138692893 \h ##75### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692894" ##5.4.2 Accommodations/
Hotels in Tourism # PAGEREF _Toc138692894 \h ##76### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692895"
##5.4.3 Food and Drinks # PAGEREF _Toc138692895 \h ##78### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692896" ##5.4.4 Estimated Cost for a Visit/Travel # PAGEREF
_Toc138692896 \h ##79### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692897" ##5.5 Important Findings from
the Existing Literature and Experience Presented as Syllogisms
# PAGEREF
_Toc138692897 \h ##79### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692898" ##5.6 Important Remarks Based
on Existing Literature and Empirical Study
# PAGEREF _Toc138692898 \h ##86###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692899" ##5.7 Analysis of Respondents Responses
# PAGEREF
_Toc138692899 \h ##88### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692900" ##5.7.1 Tour Operators #
PAGEREF _Toc138692900 \h ##88### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692901" ##5.7.2 Type of
Promotional Activities Undertaken in Bangladesh Tourism
# PAGEREF
_Toc138692901 \h ##90### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692902" ##5.7.3 Methods of
Determining Promotion Budget # PAGEREF _Toc138692902 \h ##90### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692903" ##5.7.4 Comment on the Amount Spend on Promotion # PAGEREF
_Toc138692903 \h ##91### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692904" ##5.7.5 Effectiveness of the
Promotional Activities Undertaken # PAGEREF _Toc138692904 \h ##91### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692905" ##5.7.6 Attitude toward the Role of Promotional Activities
#
PAGEREF _Toc138692905 \h ##92### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692906" ##5.7.7 Attitude
toward the Promotional Activities to Develop the Tourism Industry
# PAGEREF
_Toc138692906 \h ##92### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692907" ##5.7.8 Tourism Season and
Promotional Activities Undertaken by the tour Operators
# PAGEREF
_Toc138692907 \h ##93### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692908" ##5.7.9 Overall Opinions of

the Respondents on Promotional Activities of Bangladesh Tourism # PAGEREF


_Toc138692908 \h ##93### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692909" ##5.7.10 Suggestions from the
Tour Operators
# PAGEREF _Toc138692909 \h ##94### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692910"
##Chapter 6 Recommendations and Conclusion
# PAGEREF _Toc138692910 \h ##96###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692911" ##6.1 Introduction # PAGEREF _Toc138692911 \h ##96###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692912" ##6.2 Recommendations for Managerial Implications
# PAGEREF _Toc138692912 \h ##96### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692913" ##6.3
Conclusion # PAGEREF _Toc138692913 \h ##100### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692914" ##6.4
Direction for Further Research
# PAGEREF _Toc138692914 \h ##102###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692915" ##References #
PAGEREF _Toc138692915 \h ##103### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692916" ##Index
#
PAGEREF _Toc138692916 \h ##114### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692917" ##Appendices #
PAGEREF _Toc138692917 \h ##115### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692918" ##Appendix I
Questionnaire
# PAGEREF _Toc138692918 \h ##115### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692919"
##Appendix II Comparison on Some Selected Factors among the South Asian Countries
# PAGEREF _Toc138692919 \h ##117### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692920" ##Appendix
III Details of Air fare # PAGEREF _Toc138692920 \h ##119### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc138692921" ##Appendix IV Details of Accommodation Cost# PAGEREF
_Toc138692921 \h ##122### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692922" ##Appendix V Hotel and Motel
owned by BPC
# PAGEREF _Toc138692922 \h ##129### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc138692923"
##Appendix VI Total Cost of a Tour for 10 Days from Selected Destinations to some
Selected South Asian Countries
# PAGEREF _Toc138692923 \h ##131###

List of Tables# TOC \h \z \c "Tabell" ## HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393118" ##Table 3.1


Service Characteristics and Marketing Problems # PAGEREF _Toc137393118 \h ##21###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393119" ##Table 4.1 Tourists Impressions on the Prices of
Some Important Tourism Components # PAGEREF _Toc137393119 \h ##56### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc137393120" ##Table 4.2 Effectiveness of Various Promotional Measures of the
Tourism Industry in Bangladesh
# PAGEREF _Toc137393120 \h ##57### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc137393121" ##Table 4.3 World Tourist Arrivals & Receipts (1990, 1995 and 20002005) # PAGEREF _Toc137393121 \h ##59### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393122" ##Table 4.4
International Tourist Arrivals (in 1000) by Regions and Share of each Region #
PAGEREF _Toc137393122 \h ##59### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393123" ##Table 4.5
International Tourism Receipts (US$ million) by Regions and Share of each Region
# PAGEREF _Toc137393123 \h ##60### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393124" ##Table 4.6
International Tourist Arrivals in Asia and the Pacific (in 1000) by Sub-Regions and
Share of Each Sub-Region
# PAGEREF _Toc137393124 \h ##61### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc137393125" ##Table 4.7 International Tourism Receipts (US$ million) in Asia
and the Pacific by Sub-Regions and Share of each Sub-Region# PAGEREF
_Toc137393125 \h ##62### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393126" ##Table 4.8 International
Tourists Arrivals in South Asia (1000) and Share of Each Country # PAGEREF
_Toc137393126 \h ##63### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393127" ##Table 4.9 Foreign Exchange
Earning from Tourism in South Asian Countries (US$ million)# PAGEREF
_Toc137393127 \h ##65### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393128" ##Table 4.10 Year-Wise Total
Tourist Arrivals in Bangladesh
# PAGEREF _Toc137393128 \h ##66### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc137393129" ##Table 4.11 Foreign Exchange Earnings from Tourism and Travels in
Bangladesh # PAGEREF _Toc137393129 \h ##67### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393130" ##Table
4.12 Tourists Arrivals from Member Countries of SAARC (1995-2004)
# PAGEREF
_Toc137393130 \h ##68### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393131" ##Table 5.1 Foreign Exchange
Earnings, Promotion Budget and Actual Promotion Expenditure of Bangladesh Parjatan
Corporation (BPC) # PAGEREF _Toc137393131 \h ##73### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393133"
##Table 5.2 Average Hotel/ Accommodation Cost (in US$) in South Asian Countries
# PAGEREF _Toc137393133 \h ##77### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393136" ##Table 5.3
Distribution of the Sample
# PAGEREF _Toc137393136 \h ##89### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc137393137" ##Table 5.4 Year of Establishment of Private Tour Operators 89##
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393138" ##Table 5.5 Methods Used to Determine the Promotion
Budget
# PAGEREF _Toc137393138 \h ##90### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393139" ##Table
5.6 Opinion on the Amount Spendt for Promotion # PAGEREF _Toc137393139 \h ##91###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393140" ##Table 5.7 Effectiveness of Promotional Activities
Undertaken # PAGEREF _Toc137393140 \h ##91### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393141" ##Table
5.8 Promotional Activities can Play any Role to Tourism Industry # PAGEREF
_Toc137393141 \h ##92### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393142" ##Table 5.9 More Promotional
Activities are Needed to Develop the Tourism Industries in Bangladesh # PAGEREF
_Toc137393142 \h ##92### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393143" ##Table 5.10 Promotional
Activities Undertaken by the Organization # PAGEREF _Toc137393143 \h ##93###
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393144" ##Table 5.11 Respondents Opinion on Promotional
Activities of Bangladesh Tourism
# PAGEREF _Toc137393144 \h ##94### HYPERLINK \l
"_Toc137393145" ##Table 5.12 Required measures Undertaken to Attract More Tourists
# PAGEREF _Toc137393145 \h ##94### HYPERLINK \l "_Toc137393146" ##Table 5.13
Suggestions from the Tour Operators # PAGEREF _Toc137393146 \h ##95###

Glossary of AbbreviationsBPC: Bangladesh Parjatan CorporationGDP: Gross Domestic


ProductNTO: National Tourism OrganizationOECD: Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development PATA: Pacific Asian Travel AssociationSAARC: South
Asian Association for Regional Cooperation.TOAB: Tour Operators Association of
BangladeshUNSC: United Nations Statistical CommissionUSTTA: United States Travel
and Tourism Administration VTC: Virginia Tourism Corporation WTTC: World Travel and
Tourism Council

Chapter 1 Introduction1.1 IntroductionTourism is one of the fastest growing and


single largest industries in the world. The contribution of tourism industry in the
global as well as individual perspective is really amazing. Many countries in the
world depend upon tourism as a main source of foreign exchange earnings. According
to the World Tourist Organization (WTO), while 448.5 million tourists moved
throughout the world during the year 1991 (Quoted by Davidson, 1994)#, about 593
million tourist arrivals were recorded during 1996 registering a 4.6% increase over
1995 (Bhattacharya, 1997)# and 32.22 percent growth in five years. The World
Tourism Organization recorded a total number of 763 million international tourist
traffics in 2004 which is 10.58% higher than previous year and earned US$ 623.00
billion which shows an increase of 18.89% over 2003 (WTO, 2005).# Tourism continues
to surge as a world economic force, contributing nearly $5.5 trillion to the
worlds economy in 2004 (Wagner, 2005).# The increasing trend of tourist arrivals
and earnings is continuing. In 2005, the world tourist arrivals rose to 808
million. The World Tourism 2020 Vision forecasted that this figure will be 1,006.4
million in 2010 and the same will reach to 1,561.1 million in 2020. This continued
growth in tourism business through out the world is encouraging and nations are
becoming more concern to attract more tourists to their own destinations and trying
to promoting this sector as a major source for the economic development of the
nation. Bangladesh is of no exception from this. The country is trying from the
inception of this industry to attracting more tourists to its destinations and to
earn more foreign currency from this sector. The statistics on this sector shows
that both the arrivals and earnings from tourism in Bangladesh have increased over
the past. Statistically it may reflect an impressive profile but in a true sense
the picture is somewhat different. In terms of global increasing trend in both the
number of tourist arrivals and the earnings from tourism, the same in Bangladesh is
very insignificant. Even in consideration of the positions of the neighbouring
countries, Bangladesh is far behind in this respect. In 2004 about 271,270 foreign
tourists visited Bangladesh during the year and the country earned about Tk#.
3967.56 million (US$ 66.82 million) from this sector in the same year (BPC, 2005).#
Though tourism industry and its market have grown phenomenally worldwide, the
industry and its market have not grown in Bangladesh. Lack of proper/sufficient
promotion is one of the major reasons not for developing the industry in Bangladesh
up to the mark. Because, potential tourists need to know properly about the
attractions, services, facilities, etc. at the destinations and accessibility to
there through various forms of promotional measures. Besides, the expansion of
tourism business and the increased competition among destination countries
throughout the world have necessitated developing appropriate promotional
approaches by the tourism firms worldwide. Marketing promotion includes all means
of conveying the message about a product or service to potential customers by using
publicity or sales campaign or TV commercial or free gift etc (Ivanovic and Collin,
1996).# Promotion is regarded as one sub-category of the marketing mix elements.
According to Kotler et al (1999)# promotion consists of those activities which are
used to communicate the products or services and its merits to target customers and
persuade them to buy. One of the tools of marketing promotion is sales promotion
which consists of short-term incentives to encourage sales of a product or service
through samples, coupons, rebates, premiums, allowances, price-offs, contests, push
money, trade promotion, exhibits, premiums, sales rallies etc. Sales promotion
refers to a vast range of novelty items that can carry promotional messages or a
visual representation of the products or services. It includes in-store promotions
such as two-for-the-price-of-one, 10 percent off, free gifts, redeemable coupons,
competitions or money-back for returning so many bottle-tops or labels (Hackley,
2005).# Sales promotion can be used to dramatize the offers of BPC. Researcher
will specifically look for advertising, sales promotion, public relation and
publicity, personal selling and or direct marketing including direct sales for the
promotion of this industry. As Bangladesh tourism appears to have suffered mostly
due to inadequate and ineffective promotional activities and promotional activities
play an important role in the marketing of the same, it is necessary to study how
promotion can play the role in tourism industry in Bangladesh (Hossain & Hossain,

2002).# Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC), the only public sector tour operator
in Bangladesh spent Tk. 7.935 million in 1995-96 which rose to TK. 10.413 in 200405 for promotional activity which is only 0.71% and 0.23% of its earning
respectively. On the other hand the Virginia Tourism Corporation (VTC) generates a
return-on-investment of $4 for every dollar spent promoting Virginia's tourism and
for every one dollar spent in advertising returns almost four dollars in taxes to
Virginia (Tourism in Virginia, 2002-2003).# According to the latest Longwoods
International report Colorado Travel Year 2003, more than 3.8 million people
visited Colorado in 2003 as a direct result of the states tourism promotion,
resulting in a $65.5 million boost in state and local taxes and without aggressive
tourism promotion, the additional revenue would not have been realized (Tourism and
Advertising, undated).# In the face of stiff competition among the destination
countries, effective promotional measures are essential for the development of the
industry. Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation or Bangladesh tourism could not meet this
requirement due to lack of needed fund along with the absence of decision-makers
foresightedness. As a result, this sector and its market have failed to grow
properly not merely because it lacks enough attractions and facilities. But time
has not yet past over. Still there are lots of scopes and opportunities if
Bangladesh attempts to highlight it as a tourist destination to the potential
tourists properly through an effective promotional measure and can take some
initiatives to develop some infrastructural facilities, the country would be able
to earn many times higher than the present by attracting more tourists with in a
short time. Considering the time factor and limitation of other resources, only the
promotional aspects has been considered for the present study and it will be
attempted to examine the existing promotional approaches of both the public and
private sector tour operators, identify the problems and the limitations of their
promotional activities, and prescribe necessary policy measures for effective
promotional actions for the industry in Bangladesh. 1.2 Importance of the Study
Tourism is the fastest growing and single largest industry in the world. Tourism as
a multi-faced industry is playing pivotal role in the global as well as in the
individual economic perspective. In the year 1950, the international tourist
arrivals were 25.2 (Hossain and Firozzaman, 2003)# which rose to more than 800
million in the year 2005 and in 1950, the world tourism earning was US$ 2.1 billion
and the same stood at US$ 623 in 2004 (WTO, 2005).# The World Tourism Organization
forecasted that in the year of 2010, the total world tourist arrivals will be
1,006.4 million and it will increase to 1,561.1 million in 2020 and the figure of
the same for South Asia will be 10.6 million and 18.8 million in the year of 2010
and 2020 respectively and at the same time WTO forecasted that the number of
tourist arrivals in Indian Ocean destinations will be 91.544 million and 179.249 in
the year 2010 and 2020 respectively and the figure of the same in Bangladesh will
be 0.255 million and 0.415 million in the corresponding years (WTO, 2000).# Shamim
(2000)# showed according to WTO forecast that the earnings from tourism will rise
to US$ 2 trillion a year by 2020.The tourism industry of Bangladesh is of no
exception from this. It can play an important role to contribute in the national
economy of the country. In view of several holy shrines in the country there is the
prospect of attracting millions of tourists to the country. But full potential of
tourism could not be used largely due to inadequate and ineffective promotional
activities of the industry. Institutional framework for attracting tourists has
been in existence for more than three decades, but various institutions promote
Bangladesh tourism with little coordination. This is construed to be one of the
major hurdles adversely affecting the promotional activities and the resultant
growth rate of the tourism industry in the country. It is of utmost importance to
examine the special features of tourism firms' promotional activities and suggest
how to improve those activities in order to attract a reasonably good number of
foreign tourists to visit the country and take their services. So far the
researcher knows no comprehensive study addressing promotional aspects of the
industry in Bangladesh has been conducted yet by anyone. Even a very few studies
are available related to the issue of tourism marketing in Bangladesh. As tourism
industry in Bangladesh has failed to undertake adequate and effective promotional

activities due to policy guidelines, resource constraints, and they lack of


marketing orientation, hence, a study on this area is essential to uncover the
relevant facts. It is also expected that the findings and analysis of this study
will help formulate appropriate promotional measures and thus motivate effectively
more potential foreign tourists to visit Bangladesh
as well as to contribute the economy of the country. At the same time, this study
may be helpful for the policy-makers of the country to devote their attention to
the issue of the segments of the tourism market that they wish to attract. 1.3
Research AreasOn the basis of the research problem, the proposed study will mainly
attempt to concentrate on the following areas: A.
To study the current
development trends of the tourism industry in Bangladesh; B.
To examine the
promotional activities undertaken by the different tour operators and evaluate the
role of their activities for the development of this industry; C.
To identify
the problems and limitations of promotional activities undertaken by the above
mentioned tourism firms; andD.
To prescribe necessary policies and managerial
implications of the tour operating firms in Bangladesh in light of findings and
current theory in the field. 1.4 The Research ProblemsTourism marketing is gaining
importance all over the world. The marketing of tourism in Third World countries
is increasingly common and the fastest growing destinations are in these regions
and increasingly the focal points for development and marketing of new, adventurous
and exotic tourist destinations. As a result, most of the fastest growing tourism
regions are in the Third World countries which continue to grow and,
correspondingly, the promotion of these regions is increasingly popular and
important (Echtner and Prasad, 2002).# Currently, about 30% of all international
tourist arrivals are in the Third World and this proportion has nearly tripled over
the past 20 years (WTO, 1999).# However, over the last few decades, there has been
mounting criticism of the portrayal of these destinations and their people in
promotional materials (Britton, 1979; Mohamed, 1988; Cohen, 1989; Crick, 1989;
Selwyn, 1993; Silver 1993; Cooper, 1994; Wilson 1994; Dann, 1996a, b; Morgan and
Prichard, 1998; Sturma 1999 as cited in Echtner, 2002).# Major part of these
criticism trace to the unique marketing situation that characterises the promotion
of tourism in the Third World.Considerably less has been written on Third World
tourism marketing and there are a few notable articles that generally address the
issues of marketing Third World destinations (Britton, 1979; Silver, 1993)# as well
as several studies that critically examine specific sets of Third World tourism
promotion (Cohen, 1989; Cooper, 1994, Dann, 1996b; Mohamed, 1988; Morgan and
Pritchard, 1998; Oppermann and McKinley, 1997; Selwyn, 1993;).#Bangladesh as a
third world country has the lacking of proper study and attention on tourism
promotion. As a result, though the tourism industry of Bangladesh has a bright
prospect and could contribute to the economy to a greater extent, but the sector
could not flourish up to the mark due to lack of necessary and proper initiative of
the concerned firms/institutions. Patwari (1993)# emphasized to eliminate this
organizational problem and suggested for the coordinated efforts of the concerned
authorities, professional efficiency of the management, and pleasant behavior of
the service providers to present the products or services and develop tourism
fruitfully in a country like Bangladesh. Pannell Kerr Forster Associates Report
(1988)# blamed that the BPC for not playing its role completely as a national
tourism promotion agency and suggested preparing itself for playing its proper role
in this regard. These reveal that there remains ample scope for further expansion
and growth of the tourism industry if effective promotional activities are taken to
cater to the expectations of the tourists and motivate them to visit Bangladesh.
Hossain (1999)# pointed out that a very few studies have addressed the promotional
aspects even the marketing aspects of tourism in Bangladesh. Only a few articles
and a few research reports appear to have attempted to deal with the marketing
problems of the tourism industry in Bangladesh in a skin-deep and peripheral manner
(Hossain and Hossain, 2002).# Hasan (1988)# pointed out that the promotional
activities undertaken by the Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC) is awfully
inadequate to cover the main tourist generating countries and suggested for
developing more dynamic promotion tool. He also blamed in another study that the

BPCs present promotion strategy with folders and posters is not satisfactory and
would not produce any result (Hasan, 1990).# Review of literature on the
development of the tourism industry in Bangladesh also reveals that there remains
much to do in matching the supply side with what the tourists demand from the host
country.As noted by Adams (1984)# and Reimer (1990),# a remarkable marketing
situation characterizes Third World tourism promotion, that is, these destinations
are most often promoted by multinational tour operators, travel agencies, and other
intermediaries with origins in the First World. The primary targets of these
marketing efforts are also located in the First World, as the developed countries
are the main generators of tourists (Echtner & Prasad, 2003).# This situation
creates a marketing system whereby the majority of the images used to represent
Third World tourism destinations are selected by First World promoters in order to
cater to the needs of consumers in developed countries which results many of the
concerns aired by previous researchers focus on the images and stereo-types of the
Third World that are being created from a primarily First World perspective
(Echtner 2002).#In the face of worldwide stiff competition, intangible nature of
tourism services and need of pre-purchase information for potential tourists,
promotional measures in tourism industry play key role in the performance and
development of this industry. As Bangladesh tourism appears to have suffered mostly
due to inadequate and ineffective promotional activities, it is necessary to study
the strategic promotional approaches of the tour operators in Bangladesh and find
out the remedies to overcome the problems or limitations identified. 1.5 Research
QuestionsThe overall objective of the research is to increase the knowledge based
of the promotional activities. The empirical research questions are as defined: 1.
H( 0 ) : There have not been enough studies on the tourism industry in Bangladesh;
only a few literatures is available in this regard.2. H( 0 ) : The promotional
activities undertaken by different tour operators have not been sufficient; though
promotion can play a vital role for the development of the tourism industry.3. H(1)
: The promotional activities most suited in tourism industry in Bangladesh are NN;
an initiative will be taken through this research to find out what sorts of
promotional activities are suitable for the tourism industry of Bangladesh? 4. H(2 )
: The managerial implication of starting promotion activities NN# are likely to be
nn#. It will also be attempted if the best suited promotional activities are
undertaken, what impact it may have on the overall growth of the industry.

Chapter 2 Research Methodology and Techniques2.1 The Nature of the Study


Promotional activities can play the significant role for the development of tourism
industry. Tourism in Bangladesh is of no exception from this. Lack of promotional
activities is likely to affects the development of tourism in any country as well
as in Bangladesh. But the existing literature on the promotional aspects of
Bangladesh tourism is very rare and even on the literature covering the marketing
aspects of tourism industry in Bangladesh is very limited. As a result, the study
is exploratory in nature. It was assumed that promotion is a vital force for an
effective marketing strategy of tourism products and services. But Bangladesh is
far behind from the realization of the fact and due to that Bangladesh could not
take advantage of the full potential of the sector and which causes not to develop
the industry significantly and expectation which could be and failed to earn
sufficient amount of foreign currency. The present study on the use of promotional
activities in Bangladesh tourism industry is an attempt to highlight the issues
related to promotion and put forward some suggestions to what actual promotional
measures are best suited for attracting more tourists to Bangladesh and contribute
more positively to the economy of the country. It was also attempted to identify
the promotional approaches of the industry in Bangladesh.2.2 Source of Data and
Data Collection ProcedureThe research has been conducted based on both primary and
secondary data. As it was mentioned earlier that the existing literature on the
promotional aspects of Bangladesh tourism and even on the overall marketing aspects
is not adequate, the study was done on the primary data collected through
questionnaire on the use of promotional activities by Bangladesh tourism industry.
Secondary data was also used in this study. A survey questionnaire was used to
collect the primary data from the sample selected for this study. The five relevant
top executives from BPC and 15 private tour operators were interviewed for the
collection of the data. Again, the private tour operators were selected from the
members list of Tour Operators Association of Bangladesh (TOAB). To collect the
primary data, the researcher took the help from one of his friends working as an
Associate Professor, Marketing), University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. It is worth
mentioning here that most of the tour operators are located in Dhaka and an
insignificant number of them are located in other larger cities of the country. Due
to the lake of time and fund, all the tour operators for interview were selected
only from Dhaka- the capital city of Bangladesh. Secondary data was also used in
this study. To collect the secondary data, annual reports of BPC, related journals,
periodicals, newspapers, BPCs web page etc. were consulted. In addition to that
for literature review and for other theoretical analysis different journals,
periodicals, textbooks, newspapers, internet and other related materials were
consulted and used as references.2.3 Population and Sample Size of this Study
Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC) the only National Tourism Organization or
government owned tourism organization in Bangladesh, the private tour operators
(only the members of TOAB) were considered as the population for this study. It was
mentioned in the previous section that a total number of five top executives from
BPC and fifteen owners/top executives from the private tour operators were selected
as the respondents for collecting the data on the promotional aspects tourism in
Bangladesh. The responses of the respondents interviewed were analysed to gain
insights into both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the promotional
activities used by their firms. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the
collected data from the respondents firms has been made. In quantitative analysis
of the data, conventional statistical tool like percentage, simple averages etc
have been used. 2.4 Organization of the StudyThe research was conducted considering
the time frame allowed for the study. The whole discussion of the study has been
organized in a systematic way and has presented in six different chapters. The
first chapter includes an introductory discussion covering the justification of the
study, research areas, problems and questions. The second chapter is a presentation
of the research methodology or the procedure of conducting the study. The third one
is on the theoretical discussion on the different terms and issue like- defining
tourism and its related terms, different forms of tourism, literature review,
introductory discussion on promotion etc. Chapter four discusses the product

specification or the tourist attractions in Bangladesh, economic significance of


tourism, the perception of the international tourists to Bangladesh as a tourist
destination and the chapter ends with the analysis of statistics on tourist
arrivals and earnings from this sector which mainly focuses on the different
aspects like world tourism and its status, regional arrivals and earnings, position
of Asia and South Asia, tourist arrivals to Bangladesh and earnings from the same,
spending of Bangladesh tourism for promotional activities etc. Chapter five is
empirical analysis of the study which includes role of promotion in tourism
marketing, transportation, accommodation and food and drinks in tourism and also
the respondents attitudes, views and suggestions about promotion etc. The chapter
contains the conclusion and recommendations based the whole discussion of the
study. 2.5 Literature ReviewThough there are sufficient amount of literatures
highlighting the marketing aspects of tourism, but a few of them has emphasized on
the discussion of the promotional aspects of tourism marketing. At the same time,
the literature attempted to deal with marketing aspects of tourism is not available
enough especially, on the promotional issues of tourism marketing is much neglected
and the literature on the same is very limited. In this study, the literature
review includes the following: Hossain and Hossain (2002)# mentioned that tourism
industry has gained top priority in most of the destination countries and there
exist increased competition among the countries to attract tourists. In the face of
world-wide increased competition, Bangladesh lacks far behind in attracting
relatively larger number of foreign tourists mainly due to inadequate and
ineffective promotional strategies of the industry due to lack of sufficient funds,
low quality of promotional materials and its improper distribution, perceived
negative image of potential tourists about Bangladesh etc. The authors also
emphasized to face the competition and to attract potential tourists Bangladesh
needs to give priority to use effective promotional activities in order to attract
a significant number of foreign tourists to visit the country. In addition, tour
operating firms need to give proper attention in developing the promotional
materials and careful attention is required to incorporate the factors affecting
the choice of potential tourists. Without effective and sufficient promotional
activities in public and private sector of the industry, there is no possibility or
little possibility to emerge tourism as a major contributor to the national
economy. The first International Tourism and Media Conference held in November 2426, 2004 at Latrobe University in Melbourne, Australia addressed the relationships
between tourism and media and focused on the thematic areas including film and
literature induced tourism, decision making and risk perception, advertising and
marketing and tourism associated with events and activities (Gammack, 2005).# The
author claimed based on the discussion of the conference that various media help to
a great extent to convey the destination awareness among the tourists and with an
increasingly globally informed and media-savvy public, one key issue related to
understanding tourists motivation and expectation. He also concluded that
destination branding and promotion are supported by compelling propositions and
images and their aesthetic selections and media treatments generate portrayals
active in the public mind. Research concerning media and tourism relationships,
adopting mixed methods and cross-disciplinary designs allowed larger questions of
fact and imagination in touristic media to be addressed.Tourism researchers have
long been advocating the importance of tourist receiving destinations to perform
appropriate marketing strategies to promote the right tourism products and service
to specific traveller groups (Ahmed and Krohn, 1992; Mill and Morrison, 1985 as
cited in Law et. al, 2004).# The authors commented by visiting the official
Destination Marketing Organization Web sites of Korea (http://big5.chinese.tour
2korea.com) and Japan (http://jnto.go.jp/eng), two of the most visited destinations
by Hong Kong travellers that both of these destinations have developed their Web
sites in a way that promote Hong Kong travellers favourite activities such as
food, sightseeing and shopping. From the practical point of view, it is obvious for
an effective marketing strategy to target the appropriate market and plan product
positioning and sales. Bangladesh Tourism industry is far behind from this.Rita and
Moutinho (1992)# noted that National Tourism Organization (NTO) in any country is

responsible for expanding a countrys incoming tourism and NTOs main task is to
promote the destination country in the global tourism markets. As a result, NTO has
to identify the most attractive markets - the markets in which its countrys
products are most competitive, determine the appropriate amount of promotional
budgets, allocating the promotion budget in a way
so that the greater effectiveness can be achieved, what type of promotional
message is appropriate to convey for attracting the potential tourists. For
promoting tourism industry, marketers are expected to and consider the strategic
imperatives of making meaningful progress in the long run rather than short-term
sustainability. The authors also emphasized on the ideas that should be grown and
improved over a period of years to realize the full value of potential of
promotions rather than forcing the underlying concepts to stop and start over a
period of days, weeks or months. In addition to that NTO should have a well plan
for promotional activities for achieving the marketing objectives which requires
deciding on the priorities and goals before allocating money and resources for
promotion to have the better result of the promotional activities. Finally, they
recommended that money spend on promotion should depend the factors like:
disposable income, relative price, quality, attractiveness, product availability,
average annual percentage growth by market,, length of stay, per capita spending,
expenditure per visit,, buying habits, competitive pressure, travel distance and
costs, travel intensity, potential for getting non-government funding, political
factors, overseas staff resources and knowledge etc. Hasan (1992)# described the
present situation of Bangladesh tourism industry and present marketing strategies
in his research book Problems and Prospect of Bangladesh Tourism Industry has
blamed that Bangladesh tourism industry could not achieve the remarkable progress
in comparison to other neighboring (South Asian) countries though the country is
endowed with different tourism attractions. His criticism was concentrated mainly
on the failure of BPC to develop and lunch any dynamic and effective promotional
strategy and then he suggested creating an independent and different organization
for performing the marketing activities of BPC owned tourists spots. In addition to
that he strongly recommended for initiating and implementing the marketing plan and
strategy effecting for the potential markets and to avoid the aimless policies to
develop mass tourism at the present stage in Bangladesh.Ahmed (1996)# mentioned
that possessing outstanding tourism resources is not sufficient to lure the optimal
number of tourists to a tourist destination. According to the author, tourism
promotion plays an important role in enhancing the competitive edge of one tourist
destination over another because of tourists image of a destination and the
attitude of tourists toward that destination seem to be two of the most important
factors responsible for this variation. As a result, the aggressiveness of the
promotion campaigns launched by tourist destinations has added a new dimension to
competitiveness and has resulted in increasing numbers of image advertisements in
travel and tourism literature and in the mass media which leads the tourist
destinations to spend billions of dollars annually on image building and image
correction promotion programs. The author also concluded in his study to formulate
the promotional strategy, destinations promotion strategists should identify the
respective images of different constituents of total image, and not just one total
image and by determining those constituents of a destinations tourist image that
are most significant in the evaluation made by various segments of the target
market, the destinations promotion strategists should direct promotional efforts
toward inducing a more favorable image based on those constituents and the
appropriate positive image constituents then could be emphasized in the segmented
promotional programs which may help a destination to re-emerge from the effects of
negative image(s). Liu and Wall (2006)# mentioned that tourism is generally used as
a tool to stimulate marginal economies and to promote development through the jobs
and incomes that it can foster. Thus, tourism has emerged in many destinations as a
catalyst for socio-economic change. The authors emphasized that tourism planning
should be made in a way so that both the local residents and the visitors can be
benefited. The proper planning based upon local response, participation and support
can provide an opportunity to consider tourism as a positive force for the lives of

local residence. The authors also blamed that it is very unfortunate because of
many tourism plans for developing area destinations are made by giving insufficient
concentration to human resource development which do not fit well with existing
human resource capabilities and local people find it difficult to participate in
tourism which leads to achieve less benefit than what might otherwise be the case.
In addition to that the repeated appeals for more participation of local people in
directing, participating in and benefiting from the tourism that is taking place or
proposed for the destinations in which they live are testimony to deficiencies in
tourism planning, including its human resources development components. If tourism
plans are prepared appropriately through giving adequate attention to the
development of human resources for tourism so that local residents will be in a
better position to participate in and benefit from the development of tourism in
their area and then tourism can really be a passport to development and a means
to enhance the lives of destination residents. Siddqui (2005),# the Marketing
Communication Manager, Pan Pacific Sonargaon Hotel, Bangladesh claimed that though
Bangladesh has lots of things for tourism, but the country lacks in the initiatives
to expose it to the potential tourists. He added that marketing communication can
play an important role to let the people abroad to know what fantastic products
Bangladesh can offer to the tourists. He emphasized on the cooperative efforts of
the National Tourism Organization (NTO) with the private tour operators rather than
emerging as the competitor for the overall development tourism industry. He also
concluded that National airlines, hotels and the foreign missions of the country or
at least an officer in each mission abroad with the responsibility of encouraging
the potential tourists through providing necessary information and cooperation can
contribute to a great extent for promoting the tourism industry of any country.
Addressing the way to promote Bangladesh as a tourist destination, Chantarachoti
(2005)# described that in the eyes of foreigners Bangladesh is seen as a business
destination rather than as a tourist destination when in actual fact there are
potentials to explore in this country if properly promoted and promotion supported
by government to the outside world. He also blamed that though Bangladesh has its
abundant potential for growth of tourism industry could not utilized it properly
due to lack of government support as well as the right initiatives of the countrys
NTO to highlight Bangladesh to the eyes of foreigners as a tourist destination
instead of a business destination. Though there are lot of similarities between
India and Bangladesh and even with Nepal, Bangladesh is far behind from the
mentioned two other countries due to the ineffective and insufficient promotional
activities. Chantarachoti also claimed that the high foreign travel tax discourages
foreigners to visit Bangladesh. Finally, he also emphasized that governments
initiative can reduce the monopoly of the five star hotels by providing the
facilities of establishing more hotels of different start and improving the
infrastructure support, accommodation and land arrangements to promote and sell
packages.Mitra (2005)# described that Bangladesh does not have enough effort to
promote the country as a tourist destination. He argued that Bangladesh has to make
aware to the tourists about what to see, where to stay and what to eat. He
emphasized for the development of tourism industry, Bangladesh need to develop the
infrastructure like hotels, resorts, promoting more places and there should have a
link of the government tourism organization with the private sector to boost up the
promotional activities for the same. In another study Hasan (1990)# criticized that
the present promotional activities undertaken by BPC is limited with folders and
posters which does not produce any satisfactory result. He opined that folders,
posters, accommodation guide, maps, etc could only be effective promotion tools if
the market is established and emphasized that the industry needs to be more
concerned with promotion rather than tourism trade. According to his opinion, the
opening of its own offices at some of the major tourist generating countries to
perform the promotional activities, re-build or correcting the image of the country
and establish liaison with tour operators, professional clubs, tour wholesalers,
etc. may produce better result for the growth of the industry. Hossain and
Firozzaman (2003)# mentioned that Bangladesh tourism industry failed to grow
properly not merely because it lacks in enough attractions but suffering mostly due

to inadequate and effective promotional activities. They also claimed that the
limited promotional materials like souvenirs, brochures, travel guides,
accommodation guides, hand books, tourist maps, poster, folders, etc distributed by
BPC and some other private tour operators dont reach properly to the potential
tourists and in addition to that, the quality of these materials is not
satisfactory which causes not to create adequate curiosity among the potential
tourists. At the same time, there are lacks in government initiative to offset or
correcting the countrys present image prevailing to the outside of the country as
the country presently is suffering a lot from the image problem. The researchers
also blamed that BPC or other
private tour operators have little connection with the foreign tour operators and
travel agencies for promoting Bangladesh tourism abroad though they act as hidden
promoters of tourism activities in any tourist destination. According to the
authors, lack of coordination among the parties related to tourism sector e.g.
Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism, BPC, Biman Bangladesh Airlines, tour
operators, travel agencies, hotels, other provides, local authorities and host
population also causes for not developing the industry in Bangladesh. Finally, they
suggested devoting the proper attention of the policy-makers in this field of the
country to overcome the limitation of the promotional measures of this industry and
taking a coordinated effort among the parties involved in this industry. Hasan
(1988)# stated that though the promotion of tourism of a country is greatly depend
on the magnitude of publicity, the promotional campaign of BPC is awfully
inadequate to cover the main tourist generating countries. Due to sufferings for
fund crisis for promotion activities, BPCs promotional activities are limited to
producing and distributing different kinds of literatures, folders, booklets,
tourist maps, guide books, brochures, picture, post cards, view cards, posters,
leaflets, accommodation guide etc. to make potential tourists aware of the
interesting and important historical places, scenic beauties, adventurism, health
resorts, rich and ramified culture etc. He also mentioned that the theme used in
these promotional materials is not dynamic which fails to draw the attention of the
potential tourists. Then he emphasized to maintain a liaison and meaningful
cooperation among various governments, tourist organizations, travel agencies and
tour operators especially among the SAARC countries to promote the industry
effectively.

Chapter 3 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework3.1 Defining Tourism and its Related
TermsThere are some conceptual terms related to tourism industry which need to be
described here for a clear understanding. Among these terms, the most important
ones are tourism, tourist, tourist attraction, travelling, service, recreation and
leisure which can be stated briefly as:3.1.1 Tourism Meanings and ScopeTourism is
an important field of discussion which covers many interrelated areas. As a result,
important elements based on which tourism is built required special attention to
define tourism itself. It was observed from the World Conference on Travel and
Tourism in Rome in 1963 that tourism has both the positive and negative impacts on
economy, socio-cultural, political and environmental. For many nations especially
for the developing countries, tourism brings economic benefits by generating
employment opportunities in tourism related different sub-sectors, earning foreign
currency, while United Nations for example consider it as a strong way of
contributing to peace and understanding.In the old days tourism didnt exist. But
it was started to be known from the very beginning of human civilization. But most
popularly and widely tourism is an invention of the 19th century- a period of
history which sometimes seems to have stretched out to unnatural length. It is
important to define tourism itself for a clear understanding of the term itself.
But the fact is that there is no single definition of the term tourism which is
universally accepted. Academicians and practitioners feel that defining tourism is
not an easy task. Even there are some differences of the outlook among them. For
example, some prefer to consider tourism as an industry, others especially scholars
take a different approach. In addition, terms like tourist, visitor and
excursionist are used to describe people involve in tourism covering the various
purposes of travel, leisure, business and short stays. The Ottawa Conference on
tourism held in 1991 organized by the World Tourism Organization (WTO) put
forwarded some fundamental recommendations for a meaningful and acceptable
definition of tourism. Based on the recommendations, the definition of tourism
which one was endorsed by the WTO in 1992 and adopted by the United Nations
Statistical Commission (UNSC) in 1993 is as (Quoted by Middleton, 1994)#: Tourism
comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside
their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year of leisure, business
and other purpose. Another popular definition was quoted by Goeldner et al (2000)#
as: Tourism is the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the
interaction of tourists, business suppliers, host governments and host communities
in the process of attracting and hosting these tourists and other visitors.The
authors also stated that tourism is a composite of activities, services and
industries that delivers a travel experience: transportation, accommodations,
eating and drinking establishments, shops, entertainment, activity facilities and
other hospitality services available of individuals or groups that are traveling
away from home. This definition describes the full scope and covers the various
groups participating and affecting the tourism.Chris (1991)# mentioned the
definition of tourism provided by the British Tourist Authority as:a stay of one
or more nights away from home for holidays, visitors to friends or relatives,
business conferences or any other purpose except such things as boarding education
or semi-permanent employment.Recently, from the discussion at the University of
Westminster Third Annual Tourism Forum on Optimising Tourism Impacts
Implications for Planning and Management of Destinations held in December, 1999,
Dalakas (2001)# reported that the participants ranging from academicians and
industrial practitioners in the forum expressed their interests, concern and offer
solutions to various issues of tourism on economy, social, cultural, political and
environmental. The discussion were concentrated on the impacts of tourism both
positive and negative the experts emphasized that people involved in the tourism
should do the best of it through the coordination of economic, social and
geographic elements within a designated tourist area and at the same time doing the
best not to undermine the challenges so that the maximum benefits can be gained.
Wikipedia defined tourism as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation and
business, and the provision of services for this act. It also included a more
comprehensive definition which would be that tourism is service industry comprising

a number of tangible and intangible components. According to this definition, the


tangible elements include transport systems- air, rail, road, water and now space;
hospitality services- accommodation, foods and beverage, tours, souvenirs; and
related services such as banking, insurance and safety and security and the
intangible elements in include rest and relaxation, culture, escape, adventure, new
and different experiences. Basically, tourism is a whole interrelated and
interdependent industry. Sometimes tourism is also used pejoratively which implies
a shallow interest in the societies and place that the tourist visits. Though the
word tourism retains the idea of vacation; recreation in all these compounds,
another small group has come into use in which the word returns to its roots and,
as in business tourism, implies travelling for the purpose of with little or no
suggestion that the person is actually on holiday (Quinion, undated).#On the other
hand, in simple world, tourists are persons who travel from one place to another.
The United Nations Conference on International Travel and Tourism of 1963 provided
the generally accepted definition of the term tourist as (Sinclair, 1998)#:
Temporary visitors who spend more than 24 hours in destinations other than their
normal place of residence, whose journey is for the purpose of holiday- making,
recreation, health, study, religion, sport, visiting family or friends, business or
meetings and those who spend less than 24 hours in their destinations are defined
as excursionists.According to United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO),
the official definition is as (Wikipedia, undated)#:Tourists are persons who are
travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more
than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to
the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. The distance
between these two places is of no significance.The word tourist was coined in the
late eighteen century with the literal meaning of one who tours which was very
quickly this gained the related sense of one who tours for pleasure or recreation
that has dominated in the two centuries since (Quinion, undated).# Tours then were
for the wealthy, and were generally quite lengthy, in part because it took so long
to get anywhere interesting.Mill and Morrison (2002)# tried to link among travel,
tourism, recreation and leisure but their efforts do not seem to be clear thus
making the task of explaining tourism more complicated. They argue that describing
tourism is expected to include local communities, other business and other
organisations affected by tourism rather than limiting at listing the business
related to tourism such as hotels, airlines and resorts etc. But the basic notion
of tourism is the movement of people to their selected destinations. Again the
World Tourism Organization (WTO) defined the term tourism and classified the
various types of visitors as follows (WTO, 1995 as cited in Latham and Edwards,
1989)#: i. Tourism - The activities of persons travelling to and staying in places
outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure,
business and other purposes.ii. Tourist (overnight visitor)- Visitor staying at
least one night in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited.iii.
Same Day Visitor (excursionist)- Visitor who does not spend the night in a
collective or private accommodation in the place visited.iv. Visitor - Any person
travelling to a place other than that of his/ her usual environment for less than
12 consecutive months and whose main purpose of travel is not to work for pay in
the place visited.v.
Traveller - Any person on a trip between two or more
locations.The League of Nations in 1937 recommended the use of the term tourist
to explain a person who travels for a period of at least 24 hours in a country
other than his residential country (Holloway, 2002).# The purpose of the visit may
be either for pleasure, health, business or visiting a country on a cruise vessel
even if being on board for less than 24 hours. Again, in 1963 The United Nation
Conference on International Travel and Tourism approved to use the term visitor
recommended by The World Tourism Organisation which covers people who visit a
country other than his usual place of residence, for any reason other than paying
occupation. According to this recommendation, it covers:i. Tourists, who are
classified as temporary visitors staying at least 24 hours, whose purpose could be
categorised as leisure (whether for recreation, health, sport, holiday, study or
religion) or business, family, mission or meeting.Excursionists, who are

classified as temporary visitors who are staying less than 24 hours, including
cruise travellers but excluding travellers in transit.It is noteworthy to mention
here, that the above definition does not cover the domestic tourist which was long
been acknowledged by scholars as the major part of the total tourist traffic and
contributor of this sector. Domestic tourism
includes those trips undertaken by residents of a country within the national
territory of that country. It was further attempted by The Tourism Society in 1976
to define the term Tourism which includes domestic tourist as:.the temporary
short term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they
normally live and work, and activities during their stay at these destinations; it
includes movement for all purposes, as well as day visits or excursions.The WTO
(1994a as cited in Latham and Edwards, 1989)# recommends the following definition
of domestic visitors:The term domestic visitor describes any person residing in
a country, who travels to a place within the country, outside his/ her usual
environment for a period not exceeding 12 months, and whose main purpose of visit
is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place
visited. The authors also mentioned that the above definition covers domestic
tourists, where an overnight stay is involved, and domestic excursionists where
the stay in the place visited is less than 24 hours and no overnight stay is
involved.Following an International Government Conference held in Ottawa, Canada in
1991, the WTO formularised a new definition in 1993 which was endorsed by the UN
Statistical Commission. The Organisation defines tourism as: Tourism comprises the
activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual
environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business or other
purposes.Information is increasingly important component in the tourism system but
it is important to distinguish the difference between information and promotion.
Promotion includes advertising, personal selling, publicity and public relation.
Advertising can play an important role in promotion to attract tourists to the
specific destination. In this regard maps, guidebooks, videos, tour guides,
magazines articles, brochure and internet can be used to provide the information
about the destinations and attractions to the potential tourists. In addition to
that modern technology in the communication like information communication
technology especially, internet and e-business can be used to promote tourism and
its related products and services.3.1.2 Tourist Attractions MeaningsDefining
tourist attraction is not an easy task. Even it is difficult to recognize a
definition of the term which is widely accepted. But an attempt can be taken to
define tourist attractions as places which draw or attract persons to visit a
place, attend an event, or travel to a location for the purposes like recreation,
enjoyment, education and information gathering or intellectual hobbies or searches.
In a simple word, it can be said that attractions are the reason of travelling
people. Harris and Howard (1996)# defined the term as a physical or cultural
feature of a particular place that individual travellers or tourists perceive as
capable of meeting one or more of their specific leisure-related needs. Such
features may be ambient in nature (e.g. climate, culture, vegetation or scenery),
or they may be specific to a location, such as a theatre performance, a museum or a
waterfall. On the other hand, Metelka (1990)# defined tourist attractions as
positive or favourable attributes of an area for a given activity or set of
activities as desired by a given customer or market, including climate, scenery,
activities, culture. In this definition, the author also included:a.
Man made
attractions are physical structure (Sydney Harbour Bridge) or events (Olympics).b.
Natural attractions are physical phenomena deemed unusual and/or beautiful
(Bungle Bungles).c.
Secondary attractions have tourist appeal, but are not the
primary reason for visiting a location.d. A negative attraction is an attribute of
an area that tends to make some customer or market choose not to visit as for
example pollution or crime.Tourist attractions may be either built or natural.
Whatever be the type of attractions, it is expected that it would be interesting
enough, affordable, nearby, accessible and appealing to a wide demographic or
potential touristsIn other words, tourist attractions can be termed as the central
aspects of tourism which have the ability to draw the attention of the potential

tourists to visit them. Mill and Morrison (2002)# described attractions are the
first and most important and a successful tourists destination have the blend of
certain elements. Again they concluded that while the attractions are needed to
bring people in, they must have adequate facilities, infrastructure, and
transportation alternatives to make their stay comfortable. A tourist attraction
is a place where tourists, foreign and domestic, normally visit. Some examples
include famous historical places, zoos, museums and art galleries, botanical
gardens, buildings and structures (e.g., castles, libraries, former prisons,
skyscrapers, and bridges), national parks and forests, theme parks and carnivals,
ethnic enclave communities, historic trains, cultural events and rare oddities
(Wikipedia, undated)#Goeldner et al (2000) classified attractions as: (i) Cultural
attractions which includes historical sites, archaeological sites, architecture,
cuisine, monuments, industrial sites, museums, ethnic, concert, theatre etc, (ii)
Natural attractions like landscape, seascape, parks, mountains, flora, fauna,
coasts, islands , (iii) Events covering mega-events, community events, festivals,
religious events, sports events, trade shows, corporate etc, (iv) Recreation like
sightseeing, golf, swimming, tennis, hiking, biking, snow sports and (v)
Entertainment attractions include theme parks, amusement parks, casinos, cinemas,
shopping facilities, performing art centers, sports complex and so on. It is found
that the owners and marketers of attractions usually advertise tourist attractions
on billboards along the side of highways and roadways, especially in remote areas
and the people can observe. Some tourist attractions have free promotional
brochures and flyers in information centers, fast food restaurants, motel lobbies,
and rest areas which serve as a road map promoting many businesses.In conclusion,
tourist attractions can be places of interest open to public offering recreation,
education or historic interest. It can be any theme parks, historic houses,
museums, zoos, art galleries, country parks, leisure complexes etc.3.2 TravellingMeaningsTravel is the act of going from one place to another. Sometimes tourism and
travel are used interchangeably. In this context travel has a similar definition to
tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. Travel is the transport of people
on a trip or journey. Reasons for travel include: Tourism-travel for recreation,
Visiting: friends and family; Trade; Commutinggoing to various routine activities,
such as work or meetings; Migration -travel to began life somewhere else;
Pilgrimages-travel for religious reasons (Wikipedia, undated).# In the importance
of travel, transport has always been the lifeblood of this industry. On the
occasion of World Tourism Day 2005 organized in Doha, Qatar, the Secretary General
of the WTO, expressed his views that travel enables us to enrich our lives with new
experiences, to enjoy and to be educated, to learn respect for foreign cultures, to
establish friendships, and above all to contribute to international cooperation and
peace throughout the world (Frangialli, 2005).# He also concluded that, today, as
ever more people journey for business or pleasure to play sports, attend
meetings, visit friends and relatives, or simply seeking excitement - we have come
to expect our transport to guarantee standards of efficiency, comfort and safety
that to a large extent determine the quality of that experience.The differences
between travelling and living away from home are sometimes very difficult to
differentiate. To determine whether an employee is living away from home or
travelling, a practical general rule, where the period does not exceed 21 days the
allowance will be treated as a travelling allowance rather than a living-away-fromhome allowance (NTAA, undated).# It also demands for longer periods to determine
the nature of the allowance with the guidance provided by the ruling.3.3 Service Meanings and CharacteristicsA service is a function which is supported by a subset
of endpoints in a region or sector. Service can be defined as an economic activity
that does not result anything in the ownership, and this is what differentiates it
from providing tangible goods. Different scholars defined the term service and
there are plenty of definitions of the term. According to Gronroos (1983 as cited
in Islam, 2005)# service means:
"An activity or series of activities of more or
less intangibles nature that normally, but not necessarily, take place in
interactions between the customer and service employees and/or physical resources
or goods and / or systems of service provider, which are provided as solutions to

customer problems".Islam (2005)# also cited another meaning of service given by


Sasser et al. (1978) and refined by Fitzsimmons and Sullivan (1982):"A service is a
package of explicit and implicit benefits performed with a supporting facility and
using facilitating goods".Most commonly used definition of service given by Kotler
et al. (1999)# is as: "Service is any activity or benefit that one party can offer
to another which is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of
any thing. He also claimed that the activities such as renting a hotel room,
depositing money in a bank, travelling on an aeroplane, visiting a doctor, getting
a hair cut, having a car repaired, watching a professional sport, seeing a movie,
having clothes cleaned at a dry cleaner and getting
advice from a solicitor all involving buying service."The definition of service
given by Kotler et al (1999)# also suggests that a marketer needs to know five main
service characteristics which are: (i) service intangibility- means that service
can not be readily displayed, so they can not be seen, felt, heard or smelled
before they are bought, (ii) service inseparability- means that service can not be
separated from their providers, whether the providers are people or machines, (iii)
service variability/ heterogeneity- indicates the quality of services depends on
who provides, them as long as when, where and how they are provided which makes
difficult to control the service quality, (iv) Service perishability- means that
services can not be stored for later sale or use, and (v) lack of ownership means
that the service products lack the quality of ownership. For example, a holiday is
an experience and, hopefully, enjoyed, but after the event, it remains ephemeral,
unlike a product in the hand and this lack of ownership which compelled the service
providers to make a special effort to reinforce their brand identity and affinity
with the consumer by one or more methods. Due to the distinct characteristics of
service, it creates some marketing problems and requires some special attention of
the marketer. The marketing problems related to distinct characteristics of service
are shown in the following table (Table 3.1):
Table 3.1 Service Characteristics
and Marketing ProblemsService Characteristics#Marketing Problems##Intangibility
PerishabilityHeterogeneityInseparability#- Services cannot be stored- Services
cannot readily be displayed, demonstrated or communicated- Processes are difficult
to set and keep adjusted- No patent protection is protection is possible for
services- Services cannot be inventoried - Services cannot be standardized- Quality
control is difficult - Customer interacts with service production and delivery
systems and the service environment- Customer may be part of the product,
production, and the delivery system.- No clear distinction between marketing, human
resource management and operations management can be made. ##
Source: Zeithaml,
Parasuraman and Berry, 1985 (as cited in Islam, 2005, p. 17)In marketing, a service
is non-material or intangible which is considered as equivalent to goods. For
example, airlines services, bank services, business services, financial services,
food, lodging and travel services, information, entertainment, insurance, real
estate, telecommunications, transport, utilities etc. are considered as services.
It is claimed to be a process that creates benefits by facilitating a change in
customers, a change in their physical possessions, or a change in their intangible
assets. Most services are personal or trade such as car wash, TV repairing,
tailoring, cloth-cleaning, ironing, hair dressing, medical services, legal advice,
and investment counselling and so on. However, there are also services which fulfil
peoples high level needs, i.e., self-actualization and status needs, and tourism
is included in this category of services (Kumar, 1994).# In consideration of the
characteristics of service, tourism service has those characteristics and both
quality and the marketing of products and services offered by tourist agencies have
received considerable attention in recent decades (Binge and Andreu).# It is worth
mentioning here that service quality make up a key factor in the development of
tourism especially in retail tourist agencies. Tourism can be considered as
combination of transport, accommodation, catering, entertainments, natural
resources and other facilities and services. In addition to that the nature of the
tourism product is that it cannot be examined prior to purchase, can not be stored,
and involves an element of travel.3.4 Recreation - MeaningsRecreation is any
activity that can refreshes and recreates, diverts or amuses or stimulates and can

renews health and spirits by enjoyment and relaxation. Recreation is the employment
of time in a non-profitable way, in many ways also therapeutic refreshment of ones
body or mind which is active and participatory, but in a refreshing and diverting
manner (Wikipedia, undated).# It is observed that the people in the world
wealthier regions lead increasingly sedentary life styles; the need for recreation
has grown. The weekend is typically a time for recreation especially, in JudeoChristian and Muslim cultures. Because the Sabbath falls on the weekend and the
Sabbath is the day of rest. In addition to that holidays are also common time for
recreation.Though music and dance serve as recreation in many cultures, but several
activities are considered as recreational among which some important are
conversing, hunting and fishing, shopping, sports and exercise, amusement parks,
recreational drugs usage etc. In addition to these, skiing, snowboarding, BASE
jumping, adventure tourism, rock climbing, sky diving, paint balling, bungee
jumping etc. are considered more exciting forms of recreation in the recent years.
Watching TV and listening to music are common forms of recreation in most of the
cultures in the world.Goodwin (undated, online)# claimed that the recreation
environment is one in which participants can come to be known not as a label, but
by name and recreational settings also provide an opportunity to get know something
about the person that reflects their individuality. There are also some
controversies about the productivity of recreation and some individual individuals
express their views that excessive recreation is not considered healthy and label
as escapism, but however, research has shown that recreation contributes to life
satisfaction, quality of life, health and wellness, and that the use of recreation
as a diversion may have clinical applications to individuals with chronic pain and
other health impairments. In addition to this, some cultures and religions,
recreation is encouraged on certain days and discouraged on others (Wikipedia,
undated).#Recreations provide several benefits to individual, family and community,
and economic level. To show the individual benefits, RAND Corporation (1993)#
claimed that for each additional mile walked or run by a sedentary person adds an
extra 21 minutes to his/her life. This would save U.S. society an average of 34
cents per mile in medical and other costs. A study of psychologists found that
pleasant events such as dinner with friends or a weekend hike in the woods gave a
boost to the immune system that lasted two to three days (Sachs and Segal, 1994).#
The study also concluded that Recreation brings meaning, purpose and pleasure to
people's lives. It contributes to both the years in one's life as well as the life
in those years. To show the family and community benefits of recreation, Club
Industry (1995)# expressed that people who are socially involved are two to five
times less likely to suffer from heart disease. According to the study conducted by
Brown University and as reported in "One Small Step for Mankind" in The Hartford
Advocate in 1995, that United States could save $20 billion per year if every
sedentary American walked an hour a day (Brown University, undated).#3.5 Meaning of
Leisure Leisure is an English word derived in the 14th century from the Latin word
licere meaning to be permitted or to be free. The word came to be also from the
French word loisir meaning free time. Leisure is time spent in non-compulsory
activities. In different time and in different societies, different scholars have
defined the term leisure from different angles. Leisure in the ancient Greek
society was defined as the contemplation of the supreme values of the world: truth,
goodness, beauty and knowledge and this contemplation demanded a life of leisure
(Juniu, 2000).# The Romans moved away from the Greek perception of leisure and
found in otium the time required to rest, recreate, and recuperate in order to go
back work (Munne, 1992, as cited in Juniu, 2000).# Again, the author mentioned
that leisure in the Middle Ages was not only time to rest and recreate but is
became a social exhibition among the higher social strata which contrasts to the
Greek philosophy leisure was the abstinence from work and the freedom to choose the
activity in which to participate.So, the term leisure is not a recent modern
phenomenon. But over the passage of time, the meaning and scope of leisure have
been changed. Leisure time is free from compulsory activities such as employment a
business, household, chores, education eating, and sleeping it is often referred to
as "free time" (Wikipedia, undated).# The common definition of leisure as "time off

work" or "time for play" points out an important aspect of leisure time which
specifies the nature of the freedom or opportunity which is involved in leisure:
leisure is time available for action (Miller, undated).# He also expressed his
views as: formally, leisure is an individual human life as measured by time and
informally leisure is the time of ones life. It may be either active leisure which
implies a desired exertion of energy like hobby, vacation, leisure sport- sport for
fun rather than for competition or passive leisure which implies a desire to
refrain from exerting energy- "doing nothing" the kind of leisure which implies
going into a near-sleep lounging state. The increasing instrumentalism of leisure
as a reflection of modernization produced culture consuming instead of culture
creating (Hemingway, 1996 as cited in Juniu, 2000).# The author also described
that leisure is conceived as culture creating has an element of communication and
interaction among individuals, while free time, and culture consuming leisure, is
a means to an end, making use of subjects and objects.Recreation
service agencies can benefit from having involved and loyal participants/clients
since these participants or clients appear to play an essential role in achieving
important organizational goals, including revenue generation, developing a
positives reputation, networking, community development, and promoting the quality
of life (Quoted by Iwasaki and Havitz, 2004).# Attraction is an important dimension
which refers to the perceived importance or interest in an activity or a product
and the pleasure value derived from participation or use. In addition to that the
centrality to life style also encompasses the central role in leisure activities.
3.6 Different Types of TourismTourism can be classified in a number of ways based
on the nature of activity, location type or duration of stay. A brief description
on major types of tourism can be presented as: 3.6.1 Adventure Tourism Adventure
Tourism is a type of niche tourism involving exploration or travel to remote areas,
where the traveller should expect the unexpected. C. M. Hall defined adventure
tourism as a broad spectrum of outdoor tourist activities, often commercialized
and involving an interaction with the natural environment away from the
participants home range and containing elements of risks in which the outcome is
influenced by the participant, setting, and management of the tourists experience
(Quoted by Sung, 2000)#. Sung considered the above definition as an incomplete one
based on own research findings and gave a new definition of adventure tourism as a
complete one like, A trip or travel with the specific purpose of activity
participation to explore a new experience, often involving perceived risk or
controlled danger associated with personal challenges, in a natural environment or
exotic outdoor setting (Sung, et al., 1997)#.It is rapidly growing in popularity
as tourists seek unusual holidays, different from the typical beach vacation and
typically involves traveling into remote, inaccessible and possibly hostile areas.
It may include the performance of acts that require significant effort and grit and
may also involve some degree of risk. Marketers need to formulate the proper
strategies to cater to their target segments effectively. 3.6.2 Agritourism A style
of vacation in which hospitality is offered on firms which may include the
opportunity to assist with farming tasks during the visit where the tourists have
the opportunity to pick up fruits and vegetables, ride horses, taste honey, learn
about wine, shop in gift shops and farms stands for local and regional produce or
hand-crafted gifts, and much more. Each farm generally offers a unique and
memorable experience suitable for the entire family. Some scholars defined the term
as any tourism or recreation enterprise on a working farm or form of rural
tourism whereby paying guests can share in farming life either as staying guests or
day visitors on working farms (Akpinar, et al, 2004).# They also recognised it as
a new income source for agricultural societies. People are more interested in how
their food is produced and want to meet the producers and talk with them about what
goes into food production and children who visit the farms often have not seen a
live duck, or goat, and have not picked an apple right off the tree.3.6.3
Ecotourism Ecotourism essentially means ecological tourism; where ecological has
both environmental and social connotations. The International Ecotourism Society
defines ecotourism as responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the
environment and improves the well-being of local people. Ecotourism refers to

tourism that is based on the natural environment but that seeks to minimise the
harmful impacts and better still, seeks to promote conservation. It focuses on
local cultures, wilderness adventures, volunteering, personal growth and learning
new ways to live on our vulnerable planet. Responsible ecotourism includes programs
that minimize the adverse effects of traditional tourism on the natural
environment, and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. Therefore, in
addition to evaluating environmental and cultural factors, initiatives by
hospitality providers to promote recycling, energy efficiency, water re-use, and
the creation of economic opportunities for local communities are an integral part
of ecotourism.The concept of ecotourism is widely misunderstood and, in practice,
is often simply used as a marketing tool to promote tourism that is related to
nature. Critics claim that ecotourism as practiced and abused often consists in
placing a hotel in a splendid landscape, to the detriment of the ecotourism.
According to them, ecotourism must above all sensitize with the beauty and the
fragility of nature. 3.6.4 Heritage Tourism The most hottest or recent trend in
todays tourism industry is heritage tourism or visiting historical sites of an
area. Now a day, people want to enrich their lives through travelling not to escape
rather than visiting a park or a mountain range. They want to experience unique
places, traditions and history and learn about their cultural roots. Heritage
tourism involves visiting historical or industrial sites that may include old
canals, railways, battleground etc with the purpose of gaining an appreciation of
the past. In addition to that education, fun, marriage, employment, etc can also be
the purpose of heritage tourism. It can also be attributed to historical events
that have been dramatized to make them more entertaining. Heritage tourism is
distinct from visiting a family member in a faraway place because the connection to
the original homeland is removed. 3.6.5 Sex Tourism Sex tourism is tourism,
partially or fully for the purpose of having sex or it can be defined as a purely
physical meet in which the associate is no more than an animated object. A good
definition, based on the kind of advertisements that appear in special magazines
and through word of mouth, is a man who is going through a mid-life crisis, who has
been disenchanted with his enjoyment of life due to feminism and womens liberation
rhetoric; a man who is tired of taking a politically correct position on his sexual
preferences because of social pressure (Rao, 1999).# The author also described that
a sex tourist can be a worker, a professional or a manager, but all of them have
one thing in common: they want to feel like real men and then noted that it is
interesting that sex tourism is often promoted in the same way as gastronomy, which
has become an important attribute of a tourist destination.Sex tourism is legal in
any country in the world where prostitution is also legal. A sex tourist is usually
defined as an adult who travels in order to have legal consensual sexual relations
with another adult often for the exchange of money or presents. Most sex tourists
are male, but sex tourists can be of either gender. Sex tourism is by a majority
considered the gloomy side of the global phenomenon of tourism. 3.6.6 Space Tourism
A recent concept in tourism is space tourism where individuals travel for the
purpose of personal pleasure and is only affordable to exceptionally wealthy
individuals and corporations. Among the primary attractions of space tourism is the
uniqueness of the experience, the awesome and thrilling feelings of looking at the
earth from the space. The professional and business interest in space tourism
commenced in Japan and continued to increase and the market studies made there, and
subsequently in the USA and elsewhere, during the past very few years suggest that,
when fully developed, space travel and tourism could become a new space-related
business with annual revenues of as much as $ 10 billion per year and already 10-12
million people visit our Air and Space Museum, the Kennedy launch site, space
camps, etc a terrestrial space tourism business probably some $1 billion per year
in size (Rogers, 1998).# Space is very much a reality in our lives; even we are not
always aware of it and it is likely to grow in importance in the future, with farreaching national and international implications. 3.6.7 Cultural TourismThe
cultural tourism has been around for a long time and is the oldest of the new
tourism phenomena. Cultural/culture tourism is the subset of tourism concerned
with a country or regions culture, especially its arts and includes tourism in

urban areas, particularly historic or large cities and their cultural facilities
such as museums and theatres. Ingram, Hadyn, (2003)# suggested from the book review
on The Partnership between Tourism and Cultural Heritage Management by
McKercher, Bob and Cros, du Hilary that cultural tourism represents tourism which
is derived (from special interests), motivational (aspirational) and operational
(participation in visiting cultural destinations) and cultural destinations can be
very diverse, including historical, artistic, scientific, lifestyle, heritage and
social offerings The reviewer also described that since 1970s, cultural tourism
has begun to be recognized as a tourism product category with potential, rather
than a niche and specialized activity and cited that the original authors venture
to suggest that between 35 and 70 percent of international travellers are now
considered cultural tourists, and this has started a tourism bandwagon on to which
many destinations would like to climb. It can also, less often, include tourism to
rural areas; for outdoor festivals, the houses of famous writers and artists,
sculpture parks and landscapes made famous in literature and is generally agreed
that cultural tourists spend substantially more than standard tourists do. 3.6.8
Alternative TourismTravellers rarely request "alternative tourism" by that specific
name; instead, they ask for what they are seeking - adventure, education, sports,
religion, gay
and lesbian events, experiences with communities, etc (Mader, undated).# He also
added that the problem with 'alternative tourism' is that it defines itself by what
it is not and travellers rarely describe themselves or their interests as
'alternative.' And the services or destinations they choose are those that motivate
and engage, not the 'other choice.' What is an alternative to some is a priority
for others.Some researchers have tried to define alternative tourism as a tourism
that gives emphasis to the contact and understanding between the hosts and the
tourist, as well as the environment (Smith & Eadington, 1992 as cited in Newsome,
Moore & Dowling, 2002).# The authors also cited that tourism which is consistent
with the natural, social and community values and that allows a positive
relationship among locals and tourists. 3.6.9 GeotourismGeotourism is defined as
tourism that sustains or enhances the geographical character of a place its
environment, culture, aesthetics, heritage, and the well-being of its residents. As
such, Geotourism supports these principles (Mader, undated).# Worldwatch Institute
reports that ecotourism, Geotourism, and pro-poor tourism are among the
increasingly popular niches in the travel industry that aim to address consumers
ethical concerns (Quoted by Wagner, 2005).# Wagner also mentioned that a growing
trend in travel is the desire of many tourists for non-typical tourist experiences,
such as ethical adventures and defined the term Geotourism as the travel that
sustains or enhances the geographical character of a place, including its
environment, heritage, aesthetics, and culture.3.6.10 Benefit TourismThe British
government has been troubled in recent years by what it calls benefit tourism, in
which individuals travel to Britain from other countries, usually from elsewhere in
the European Union, to obtain free medical attention or to take advantage of the
British welfare system to obtain what was until recently called unemployment
benefit (it is now officially the job-seekers allowance, but lets not delve into
the political implications of this change of terminology (Quinion)#. He also
mentioned that more benign term is health tourism, in which people travel to obtain
medical attention not available in their own countries, or which is obtainable more
cheaply, or accompanied by greater privacy which is a thriving business, with some
hospitals having links with hotels so that patients can have good attention and
facilities during convalescence. 3.7 Promotion Meaning and FormsPromotion is one
of the most important elements of modern marketing which includes the action plan
that basically intend to inform and persuade the potential customers or trade
intermediaries to make a specific purchase or act in a certain manner. Modern
marketing calls for more than developing a good product, pricing it attractively,
and making it available to target customers (Kotler, et al, 2006).# The authors
mentioned that companies must also communicate continuously with their present and
potential customers that lead every company inevitably cast into the role of
communicator and promoter. Promotion consists of those activities that communicate

the merits of the product or service and persuade target customers to buy it
(Kotler, et al, 2005).# For a marketer it is important (i) to determine what
promotion and marketing communication activities are supposed to achieve, (ii) how
the promotional activities will be conducted, (iii) media vehicles be used for the
purpose, (iv) how the effectiveness or success of a campaign be evaluated, and (v)
how much money should be spend in each of the areas of the promotional mix in order
to be successful in the competitive business environment. The process of resolving
these different demands that are placed upon organizations has made the setting of
promotional objectives very complex and difficult and has been termed a job of
creating order out of chaos (Kriegel, 1986).# Marketers need to be very careful to
anticipate the surrounding business environment, competitive strategies, and
require creative thinking in setting promotional objectives.
Setting realistic
promotional objectives is vital for any organization to compete successfully in the
face of stiff competition in the changing business environment. Fill (1999)# noted
that the setting of promotional objectives is important for three reasons.
According to the author it (i) provides a means of communication and coordination
between groups (e.g. client and agency) working upon different parts of a campaign,
(ii) acts as a guide for decision-making and provide a focus for decisions that
follow in the process of developing promotional plans, and (iii) provides a
benchmark so that the relative success or failure of a program can be determined.
These arguments state the importance for setting the promotional objectives in a
realistic way. The inability in this regard will obviously lead the organization to
an ultimate failure. It is worth mentioning here that the organizations
promotional objectives should not be rigid. Objectives should be flexible so that
it can be modify or change due to the change in the business environment. Deciding
on the promotion mix is an important task for the marketer. After setting the
promotional objectives the most important is deciding how the marketer will achieve
the promotional objectives through implementing the promotional activities. The
range of marketing communication method is known as the promotion mix and includes
advertising, sales promotion, personal selling and publicity (Norgan, 1994).# Then
the author noted that most organizations marketing products or services to the
general public would use a combination of at least two of these methods in order to
achieve marketing objectives and sales targets. Kotler, et al (2005)# mentioned
that a companys total marketing communication mix also called its promotion mix
consists of the specific blend of advertising, personal selling, sales promotion,
public relations and direct marketing tools that the company uses to pursue its
advertising and marketing objectives. The promotional mix is traditionally
perceived to consist of four elements: advertising, sales promotion, public
relations and personal selling (Fill, 1999).# The author also mentioned that in
response to changing market and environmental conditions, public relations is now
seen by some to have a marketing and a corporate dimension and on the other hand
direct marketing is now recognized as an important way of developing personal
relationships with buyers, both consumer and organizational. This discussion leads
to have an understanding about the elements of promotion mix and the major are:
Advertising# XE "Advertising" # is a non-personal form of mass communication and
offers a high degree of control for those responsible for the design and delivery
of the advertising message (Fill, 1999).# Then the author stated that the
flexibility of this tool is good because it can be used to communicate with a
national audience or a particular specialized segments and a vast number of people
can be reached with the message, so the cost per contact can be the lowest of the
tools in the mix. At the same time the author blamed that the ability of
advertising to persuade the target audience to think or behave in a particular way
is suspect and the effect on sales is extremely hard to measure and in addition,
the credibility in that audience is less likely to believe message delivered
through advertising than they messages received through some other tools. Personal
selling# XE "Personal selling" # is traditionally perceived as a communication tool
which involves face-to-face activities undertaken by individuals, often
representating an organization, in order to inform, persuade or remind an
individual or group to take appropriate action, as required by the sponsors

representative (Fill, 1999, p. 6).# According to the author, a sales person engages
in communication in a one-to-one basis where instantaneous feedback is possible and
the costs associated with interpersonal communication are normally very large.
Public relations# XE "Public relations" # is the art and social science of
analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counselling organizations
leadership, and implementing planned programs of action which will serve both the
organizations and the public interest (The Mexican Statement, 1978).# The
statement also indicates the necessity of public relation of being a part of the
wider perspective of corporate strategy. Third-party like magazines, newspapers,
news programs etc. disseminate the messages on behalf of a particular company or
organization. The increasing use of public relations and in particular publicity
is a reflection of the high credibility attached to this form of communication and
there is no charge for the media space or time but there are costs incurred in the
production of the material (Fill, 1999).# Press relations, product publicity,
corporate communications, lobbying and counselling etc. are the different tools
which can be used for public relation effectively.Sales promotion# XE "Sales
promotion" # includes those activities which provide an incentive, additional to
the basic benefits provided by a product or service, and which temporarily change
the perceived price/value relationship of that product or service (Shimp and
DeLozier, 1986).# Again, Kotler, et al (2005)# defined sales promotion as the
short-term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service.
According to the authors, samples, cash refunds, price packs, premiums, advertising
specialities, patronage rewards, point-of-purchase displays and demonstrations, and
contests, sweepstakes and games can be used for consumer promotion tools and
many of the tools used for consumer promotions- contests, premiums, displays can
be used as trade promotions or alternatively, the manufacturer may offer a straight
discount off the list price on each case purchased during a stated period of time
(also called a price-off, off-invoice or off-list whereas in business promotion
includes many of the same tools used for consumer or trade promotions but mainly
conventions and trade shows and sales contests are used for business promotions. It
is important to mention here that in deciding on the tools of sales promotion,
marketers need to consider the competition and cost effectiveness of each tool.
Direct Marketing# XE "Direct Marketing" # is defined as any activity which creates
and profitably exploits a direct relationship between the company and its prospect
(Bird, 1982, as stated in Norgan, 1994).# The author also mentioned that once the
relationship is initiated, it can be developed and maintained with a variety of
promotional techniques, from direct mail to personal selling. Direct marketing is a
term used to refer to all media activities that generate a series of communications
and responses with an existing or potential customer (Fill, 1999).# Telephone,
mail, fax, e-mail, the Internet etc can be used to communicate directly with
specific consumers and to create and sustain a personal and intermediary-free
dialogue with them. The above discussion leads to a conclusion that a marketer can
use any of the promotion tools or a combination of more than one tool for promoting
a product or service. But it depends on the nature of the product, price,
customers locations, prevailing competition, cost involved, availability of the
budget for promotion, companys overall objectives etc. It is worth mentioning
here, that the success of the promotional activities largely depends on the
realistic selection of the promotional tool(s) and the creativity in operating the
promotional activities.

Chapter 4 Product Specification: Tourist Attractions in Bangladesh4.1 IntroductionGeographical Location of BangladeshBangladesh is a developing country in South Asia
located between 2034 to 2638 north latitude and 8801 to 9242 east
longitude, with an area of 147,570 square km and with the boarder on the west,
north, and east with India, on the southeast with Myanmar, and the Bay of Bengal is
to the south (Environment and Bangladesh, undated).# The territorial waters of
Bangladesh extend 12 nautical miles, and the exclusive economic zone of the country
is 200 nautical miles. There is a large marshy jungle coastline on the Bay of
Bengal and popularly known as the Sundarbans - one of the largest mangrove forests
in the world, the home of Royal Bengal Tiger. Bangladesh located in the Ganges
Delta- the largest delta in the world having densely vegetated lands often called
the Green Delta. The densely populated delta is formed by the confluence of the
Ganges (Padma), Brahmaputra (Jomuna), and Meghna rivers and their tributaries as
they flow down from the Himalaya situated near the north-western frontier of the
country, creating the largest riverine delta in the world. On the south is a highly
irregular deltaic coastline of about 600 km, fissured by many rivers and streams
flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Standard Time in Bangladesh is GMT + 6 hours. Due
to the countrys geographical position, the country is remote from the major
tourist generating countries of Europe, North America and Japan, but at the heart
of some of the worlds major tourism destinations (Pannell Kerr Forster Associates,
1988)# of the South East Asia.4.2 Seasons and ClimateBangladesh has a subtropical
monsoon climate characterized by wide seasonal variations in rainfall, moderately
warm temperatures, and high humidity. The warmest month is April and January is the
coldest month in the country. Heavy rainfall is characteristic of the climate of
Bangladesh with only the exception of the relatively dry western region of
Rajshahi, where the annual rainfall is about 160 centimeters and the other regions
have at least average rainfall of 200 centimeters. Seasonclimatic type, at any
place, associated with a particular time of the year and which is changed mainly
due to the change in attitude of the earth's axis in relation to the position of
the sun at a particular place. Bangladesh is known as the land of six seasons
namely summer, rainy, autumn, late autumn, winter and spring. The duration of each
season is expected to be two months but some seasons flow into other seasons, while
others are short. As a result, three distinct seasons can be clearly identified
which are summer season lasting from March to May with maximum temperatures range
between 32C and 38C, rainy reason from June to October and winter season
continues from November to February when the average temperature for most of the
country is 10C and lingering around the 30C mark for most of the year. The best
period for foreign tourists to visit Bangladesh is the rainles#s# #d#r#y#
#s#e#a#s#o#n# #l#a#s#t#i#n#g# #f#r#o#m# #N#o#v#e#m#b#e#r# #t#o# #M#a#r#c#h#,#
#w#h#e#n# #t#h#e# #t#e#m#p#e#r#a#t#u#r#e# #r#a#n#g#e#s# #b#e#t#w#e#e#n# #1#3#.#3#
#a#n#d# #2#6#.#5# ##C# # # ##4#.#3# #T#o#u#r#i#s#m#
#A#t#t#r#a#c#t#i#o#n#s#/#S#p#o#t#s# #o#f# #B#a#n#g#l#a#d#e#s#h##T#h#e# #w#o#r#l#d#
#t#h#i#n#k#s# #o#f# #B#a#n#g#l#a#d#e#s#h# #a#s# #p#o#o#r#,# #f#l#o#o#d##r#a#v#a#g#e#d#,# #a#n#d# #m#o#r#e# #o#f# #a# #d#i#s#a#s#t#e#r# #z#o#n#e# #t#h#a#n#
#a# #t#r#a#v#e#l# #d#e#s#t#i#n#a#t#i#o#n#.# #In some respects, the world is right
but hiding behind these images is a country with a rich history, a strange beauty,
and some interesting attractions and it is not, however, a destination for everyone
(Roaming Around Bangladesh, undated).# Bangladesh is a country which has a rich
tradition, history and architecture. Incredible greenery, mighty rivers and
attractive river cruises, sunny beaches, colourful tribal life and attractive
cultural functions offer great tourist attractions. Bangladesh can offer to the
foreign tourists to satisfy their unquenchable needs by the artistic with bounty of
tourism resources like natural beauty, sea beaches, forests, lakes, hills, wild
lives, archaeological attractions, monuments, handicrafts, sanctuaries, religious
festivals, folklore, cultural heritage, way of life, tribal culture etc. The
Moorish traveller Ibn Batuta who visited Bengal in the fourteenth century described
Bengal as the wealthiest and cheapest land of the world and stated that it was
known as a hell full of bounties and in seventeenth century French traveller
Francois Bernie observed and stated Egypt has been represented in every age as the

finest and most fruitful country in the world, and even our modern writers deny
that there is any other land of peculiarly favoured by nature; but the knowledge I
have acquired of Bengal during two visits paid to that kingdom inclines me to
believe that pre-eminence ascribed to Egypt is rather due to Bengal (Ministry of
Information, GOB as cited in Hossain, 1999).# Hossain also added that with the
passage of time, Bangladesh has lost its glory and foreign tourists have lost their
interest to visit Bangladesh as a major attractive destination. Till the liberation
of Bangladesh in 1971, most tourists kept their visits to Dhaka and Agrabad,
however with limited satisfactory accommodation in the rest of Bangladesh at that
time, saw neighbouring Kolkata in West Bengal of India, who were well ahead with
their facilities, soar in popularity and which took until the middle of the
nineteen nineties for the improvement in accommodation started to show increased
numbers of tourist flow (Travel in Bangladesh, undated).# Presently, Bangladesh has
got improvement and has overcome some of the limitations regarding the facilities
of accommodation, transportation and other benefits required to attract foreign
tourists and swelling in numbers. Foreign tourists as well as the local nationals
are visiting some unique sights and places like Cox' Bazaar, Teknaf, the
Sundarbans, Kuakata, Paharpur and Tetulia etc. a large number of Bangladeshi
expatriates is coming to Bangladesh not only to visit their families, but for a
holiday and to experience the vibrant and culturally rich country of their
forbearers. All of these tourists require appropriate accommodation and the demand
in hotel beds and restaurants are now possible to meet for every taste and every
budget successfully. Bangladesh has many tourist attractions including beaches,
archaeological sites, historic mosques and monuments, resorts, forest and wildlife.
The major tourist attractions of Bangladesh can be presented in following sub
sections: 4.4 Sea Beaches as the Tourism Attractions in BangladeshBangladesh has
the world longest 120 km unbroken sea beach sloping here down to the blue water of
the Bay of Bengal in Coxs Bazar. Such a longest sea beach covering miles of
golden sands, soaring cliffs, surfing waves, rare conch shells, Buddist Temples,
Pagodas and enjoyable sea-food all of these make Coxs Bazar today, the tourist
capital of Bangladesh which is almost impossible to be found in any where of the
other tourist destination of the world. The warm shark free water is most suited
for bathing and swimming along with the opportunities for sun-bathing offered by
the sandy beaches. In addition to that the tourists can enjoy the charming beauty
of the sun-setting behind the waves of the sea. Its uniqueness also lies in the
natural beauty having an uninterrupted smooth-sandy sea shore along with silvery
waves and high tides on the one side and a chain of green deep forested hills,
artful pagodas, colourful tribal people, etc. running parallel to the beach and
making a picturesque background on the back side (Hossain, 1999).# All these
appeals made Coxs Bazar as one of the most attractive tourist spots in the world.
Kuakata is the second longest beaches in Bangladesh which is approximately 18 km
long and 2 km wide and is situated at a distance of 70 km from the district
headquarter of Pautuakhali. The opportunities of observing the scenic beauty of
both sunrise and sunset in a calm environment from the sea shore has made it a rare
and magnificent sea beach in the world (Hossain, 1999).# This beach slopping
quietly to the Bay of Bengal provides the pleasant opportunity of bathing. Talukder
(1997)# mentioned that the sound and glittering breaks of rolling water in the sea
seem to sparkle like diamond crowns at the tops of the gentle waves in the
moonlight nights. In addition, the blue sky, line by coconut trees, natural beauty,
green forest, migratory winter birds, the colourful sail boats, surfing, fishing or
walking on the beach etc have contributed to make the beach as an excellent and
unique spot for tourists. Parki beach is another attractive tourist spot in
Bangladesh located at Gahira and lies at Karnafuli river channel. This beach is
about 15 km long and 300 feet to 35o feet wide with 20km tamarisk forest. The
visitors can enjoy to view the Karnafuli river and the Bay of Bengal together and
can observe the big ships anchored at the outer dock, fishermen catching fish in
sea, sunset, various coloured crabs at the beach, and calm surroundings. In
addition to that, there are some other beaches like Inani beach in Ukhia, Coxs
Bazar, St. Martin Island also known as Naikel Jinjira (Coconut Island), Patenga

beach which are also attractive to the foreign tourists as well as the local
tourists of the country.4.5 Archaeological SitesBangladesh is a country which is
significantly rich in archaeological wealth from the pre- Muslim as well as during
the Muslim rules. The major archaeological sites of Bangladesh include Mainamati,
Mahasthangarh, Buddhist relics of Paharpur and Sitakunda. A brief description of
these sites
can be presented as: Mainamati# XE "Mainamati" # - The low hills known as
Mainamati Lalmai ridge- a wide-ranging centre of Buddhist culture which is located
about 114 km south-east of Dhaka and 8 km to the west of Comilla town. The remnants
of the enormous Buddhist stupas and monastery disclose the information of previous
glorious history Buddhist civilization of the 8th to 12th centuries A.D. of this
region. A site museum housed the archaeological finds which include terracotta
plaques, bronze statues and casket, coins, jewellery, utensils pottery and votive
stupas stamped with Buddhist inscription. All these have made Mainamati renowned
and capable to attract the tourists.Paharpur# XE "Paharpur" # - The largest
Buddhist seat of learning located at Rajshahi. The most important and the largest
known monastery, help to recollect the glorious past of the then Bengal under the
Pala dynasty of 8th century A.D. and had been declared as a World Heritage Site by
UNESCO. Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation makes the arrangements of package tours for
the interested tourists to visit Bangladesh.Mahasthangarh# XE "Mahasthangarh" #
The oldest archaeological site of Bangladesh situated at a distance of 18 km to the
North Bogra town and is famous for its size and height of the tower and pavilion.
There are several isolated mounds which are locally well-known as Govinda Bhita
Temple, Khodai Pathar Mound, MankalirKunda, Parsuramer Bedi; Jiyat Kunda etc.
surround the fortified city. It is an archaeological site of the 3rd century B.C.
and till today held to be of immense holiness by the Hindus. It is also to be
mentioned here that the shrine of Shah Sultan Bulkhi Mahisawary and Gokul Medh in
the neighbourhood of Mahasthangarh.Sitakunda# XE "Sitakunda" # One of the oldest
temples in the Indian subcontinent which is famous for Chandranath Hindu Temple and
is located about 37 km far away from Chittagong, the 2nd largest city of
Bangladesh. In addition to that in Sitakunda, there is also Buddhist Temple with a
footprint of Lord Buddha and the places are considered as very scared by the Hindus
and Buddhist and attractive for both the local and foreign tourists4.6 Historical
Places and Cultural HeritageBangladesh is a country which has an ancient land full
of historical events and cultural traditions. Its ancient cultures, age-old
customs, wonderful traditions, religious vales, etc spiced and added to by
conquerors, adventures and powerful dynasties now represent a great wealth for
historical and cultural tourism (Hossain, 1999).# During more than five centuries
(1202 A.D. to 1757 A.D.) of the Muslim rule in Bengal, many new cities were built
and she was adorned with innumerable places, forts, free-standing victory towers,
mosques, madrashas, mausoleums, roads and bridges (BPC, as cited in Hossain,
1999).# The Bengal region has a multifaceted folk heritage, enriched by its ancient
animist, Buddhist, Hindu, and Muslim roots. Weaving, pottery and terracotta
sculpture are some of the earliest forms of artistic expression. Bangladesh has a
rich and diverse culture and her deep rooted heritage is amply reflected in her
architecture, literature, dance, drama, music and painting. Bangladeshi culture is
influenced by three great religions- Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam in successive
order, with Islam having the most pervading and lasting impact. The traditional
music, tribal dances, drama and theatre are old traditions and very popular in
Bangladesh. A brief description of which can be presented as:4.6.1 Historical
PlacesThere are some places in Bangladesh which are historically important in the
South Asia and many tourists are attracted to these places. Sonargaon is one of
them and is away about 30 km from Dhaka. It is one of the oldest capitals of
Bengal. This place is also famous for folk-arts and craft museum, the shrines of
Panjpirs and Shah Alia and the tomb of Sultan Giasuddin (1399-1499 A.D.) one of the
ancient monuments still intact of that region. Another one is Natore, an old seat
of the Maharajah of Dighapatiya presently known as the Uttara Ganabhaban - the
official residence of the President of the Republic of Bangladesh in Northern
region, Sagordari, Jessore, the birth place of poet Michael Modhusudan Dutta - the

first modern poet of Bangla Literature. Mujibnagar Memorial, Meherpur - the


beautiful memorial dedicated to the first revolutionary government of Bangladesh
that was declared here on 14 April, 1971 during the liberation war of Bangladesh.
Trishal, Mymensingh - the place where innumerable boyhood memories of our national
poet Kazi Nazrul Islam are found around and bears the memory of the Rebel poet Kazi
Nazrul, the Shelley of Bangladesh. Gandhi Asram at Jayag in Noakhali was built in
the memory of historic visit of the Mahatma Gandhi to that place in 1946-47 and
devoted to his ideology and deep respect to the unique memories of the great soul.
4.6.2 MonumentsMonuments - Among the different monuments, the major ones include:
National Memorial - located at Savar, Dhaka , dedicated to the sacred memory of
millions of unknown martyrs of liberation war of 1971 that brought Bangladesh into
being an independent country; Central Shahid Minar - bears the symbol of Bengali
nationalism and is dedicated to the honour of martyrs of the historical language
movement of 1952 to establish the right of Bengali as the state language; Lalbagh
Fort - the scene of bloody battle during the first war of independence and the
fort also includes the Tomb of Pari Bibi ( Fait lady daughter of Nawab Shaista
Khan who succeeded Prince Mohammad Azam), mosque, Hammam Khana (bathing place) of
Nawab Shaista Khan presently housing a museum; Monuments of Bangabandhu Sheikh
Mujib located at Tungi Para, Gopalgonj in the memory of our great national leader
and the father of the nation; Martyred Intellectual Memorial to commemorate the
intellectuals killed in 1971; National Poets Graveyard - In the memory of
revolutionary poet Kazi Nazrul Islam; World War II Cemetery, Chittagong where over
700 soldiers burried from Commonwealth countries and Japan, who died during the
Second World War; Tomb of Sultan Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah at Sonargaon; Mausoleums of
the National Leaders, War Memorial at Mujib Nagar, Meherpur; Mausoleum of Atish
Dipankar, Bikrampur; Mausoleum of Shah Ali Bagdadi at Mirpur; Bahadur Shah Park
Monuments- dedicated in the memory of the martyrs of 1857 war against the British
rule etc are the most famous monuments in Bangladesh . 4.6.3 Historical Buildings
There are some prominent buildings which are the symbols of history and have the
attractiveness to the tourists. Some of them are: Lalbagh Fort- built in 1678 A.D.
by prince Mohammad Azam, son of Mugal Emperor Aurangazeb, The National Parliament
building known as Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban designed by the will-known architect Louis
I Kahn and is famous as a distinctive architectural features throughout the region,
Banga Bhaban the official residence of the President, Old High Court Building
the residence of the British Governor which carries combined symbol of European and
Mughal architectures, Curzon Hall, Chota Katra built in 1663 A.D. by Nawab Shaista
Khan, Baro Katra built in 1664 A.D. by Subadar Shah Shuja, Nonakanda river port,
Indrapukur river port at Munshiganj, Kazi Nazrul Academy etc. All these bear the
epitome of the nation's rich cultural tradition.4.6.4 MuseumsAmong the different
museums in Bangladesh, the major ones include National Museum established in 1913
and which has four main departments, namely: National History, History and Cultural
art, Ethnography and Decorative art, and Contemporary art and Civilization. Each
department is enriched with rare collections; Bangabandhu Memorial Museum in the
memory of the father of the Nation who was killed by few misled army personnel and
anti-freedom force on the night of 15 August, 1975 with most of his family members;
Mukti Juddho (Liberation War) with rare photographs of our liberation war and items
used by the freedom fighters and martyrs of our glorious war; Zia Memorial Museum
in Chittagong; Ahsan Manzil Museum, Dhaka - today's renovated Ahsan Manzil a
monumentof immense historical beauty and displaying of traits, furniture and
household articles and utensils used by the Nawab; Folk Art Museum established in
1975 to fulfill the dream of the celebrate painter Shilpacharya Zainul Abedin with
a rich collection of different folk objects of aesthetic and utilitarian values
reflecting the temperaments, skills and expertises of the artists and artisans who
made them; Science Museum located at Agargaon, Dhaka a museum of modern learning
centre related to the latest scientific discoveries; Shilaidaha Kuthibari Museum,
Kustia which carries memories of Nobel Laureate poet Rabindranath Tagore (18611941) and preserves many of his short stories songs and poem in this house, and
some special and rare attractions like: Rabindranath Tagores photographs of
childhood, youth and old age are exhibited here. Some paintings painted by Tagore

display here. The paintings named Nisorgo (Nature), Nissobdo (Silence), Sonali
Sondya (Golden Evening) etc. are available here; Ethnological Museum at Chittagong
with full of extensive facilities for ethnological research of objects associated
with the ethnic tribes of Bangladesh, tribes of Australia, India and Pakistan;
Court Building Museum located on the Fairy Hill in Chittagong with the commands of
magnificent view of the port city and witness to many activities and during the war
of liberation in 1971; Tribal Museum established a tribal cultural museum located
at Rangamati and established in 1978 for the preservation of valuable objects and
articles of different tribes depicting their socio-economic, cultural and
historical traditions which include typical tribal dresses, ornaments, arms,
ammunitions, coins, statues made of gold, bronze and other metals, musical
instruments, ivory products, handicrafts and paintings on tribal life, etc;
Varendra Research Museum at Rajshahi, this museum has a rich collection of objects
from Mohenjodaro and also from 16th to 19th centuries with a rich collection of
interesting objects of Hindu, Buddhist and Muslim heritage; Mainamati Site Museum,
Paharpur Site Museum and Mahasthangarh Site Museum.4.6.5 Dances, Art and Music
Bangladesh is rich with the heritage of classical dances, arts and music covering
both traditional Bengali artists and the various hill tribes. The convention of
dance in Bangladesh includes classical dance, indigenous and folk dance, ethnic
groups dance traditions etc. All of these widely practiced and reflect the rich
culture and history of Bangladesh. The Bangladeshis on an average have a profound
relationship with nature and the music of Bangladesh is therefore emotional,
thrilled and romantic. Some of them are: classical and semi-classical songs and
music, palli geeti or folk song, Rabindra sangeet (songs by Nobel Laureate in
Literature 1913, Rabindranath Tagore), Nazrul geeti (songs by the Rebel and
national poet of Bangladesh), band music or rock music, pop songs, inspirational
songs for the masses, Adhunik Gaan or modern Bangla songs etc.4.7 Forest, Gardens
and ParksForests, gardens and parks can be the suitable sites for the marvellous
potentialities of eco-tourism development in the country, as there are numerous
sites for the same and can be attracted numerous tourists. The brief description of
the major forests, gardens and parks of the country has been presented in the
following sections: 4.7.1 ForestsForest is considered as renewable resource in
every country. Bangladesh is no exception from this. The major forest of Bangladesh
includes: Sundarban# XE "Sundarban" # The worlds largest mangrove forests is
formed at the delta of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers on the Bay of
Bengal. Total area of the entire Sundarbans is about one million ha, 60% of which
is found in Bangladesh and the rest in India (Sundarban Wildlife Sanctuaries,
Bangladesh, undated).# This mangrove forest is a cluster of islands with an
approximate area of 6216 Sq. kms within the Bangladesh territory and further
extended to the south-west in the Indian Territory which includes as area of 4800
sq kms (Kamal, 1992).# The Sundarbans - the home of world famous Royal Bengal tiger
inhabited by varieties of beautiful trees and is criss-crossed by a network of
rivers and creeks. It is named as Sundarban due to the Sundari tree is a common
species of this forest. Considering the exceptional natural value of Sundarban
mangrove forest, the World Heritage committee of UNESCO acknowledged the Sundarban
of Bangladesh in the World Heritage list by their 21st session in 1997 and
Bangladesh government declared the Sundarban as World Heritage Site in 1999 that it
offers fabulous opportunities for tourism. For foreign visitors and for the
expatriate community there are two principal attractions: firstly, the peace and
tranquillity of an unspoiled wilderness which is free from noise and commercial
exploitation and also which is very often in immediate contrast with the cities
they inhabit; and secondly, a relatively unknown and unexplored destination with a
reputation for wildlife to be able to indulge in recreational activities such as
wildlife watching, jungle walks and exploration (Moss, 1994).# There are three
wildlife sanctuaries in Sundarbans heritage site like Sundarban East Wildlife
Sanctuary, Sundarban South Wildlife Sanctuary and Sundarban West Wildlife
Sanctuary. A complex network of tidal waterways, mud flats and small islands of
salt tolerant mangrove forests has interconnected these three sanctuaries. In
addition to that, the region also includes the wildlife of cheetahs, spotted deer,

crocodiles, monkeys, pythons, wild bears and hyenas. Sundarban is the forest of
endless mystery. The Royal Bengal Tiger, spotted deer, monkeys, birds, beehives,
imaginary gods, and demons have made the forest mysterious (Gazi, undated).#
Tourists have the opportunities to observe the tides flowing in two directions in
the same creek and often tigers swimming across a river or huge crocodiles basking
in the sun. Hiron Point known as Nilkamal, Katka and Tri Kona Island provide the
best vantage points for watching tigers, deer, monkeys, crocodiles and birds.
Dublachar of Sundarban is a major point of a fishing village and where groups of
spotted deer often come to graze there.Hossain (1999)# mentioned that Sundarbans
have much potentials of being the most attractive and resourceful attraction in the
world and can be one of the most highly visited tourist-spots for the eco-tourists
in the world if suitable accommodation, proper facilities and necessary transport
networks are developed. He also added that by ensuring these arrangements , the
unspoiled wilderness of the mysterious Sundarbans will attract a huge number of
local and foreign tourists for seeing sights, watching wild lives and birds, seeing
colourful forests, walking in the jungles, enjoying short-day excursions, meeting
special interests and doing other activities.There are some other forests like Sal
forest in Mymensingh, Gazipur, Comilla region and lush green forest of Sylhet,
Mymensingh and Chittagong Hill-tracts have the capabilities of attracting tourists
from all over the world. 4.7.2 Gardens and ParksGardens and parks are considered
the tourists products. The tourists can enjoy the natural beauty of the gardens and
parks. The following are the important gardens and parks in Bangladesh: Suhrawardy
Uddayan# XE "Suhrawardy Uddayan" # - Formerly known as the Race Course Maiden
surrounded by Dhaka University, Mausoleum of National poet Kazi Nazrul Islam,
National Museum, Dhaka Shishu Park, The Engineers Institution of Bangladesh, High
Court and Supreme Court Building, Bangladesh Shishu Academy, Curzon Hall, Bangla
Academy etc which are also attractive tourist attractions of the city. This Uddayan
is historically famous because Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declared the
programs of non-cooperation movement on 7 March, 1971 against the Pakistani ruler
which is basically the declaration of independence of Bangladesh and also the
commander of the Pakistani occupation forces surrendered at this Uddayan on 16
December 1971.National Park# XE "National Park" # Bhawal national park, 40 km
away to the north of Dhaka is located at Gazipur district with an area of over
16,000 acres of land. Bhawal National Park offers serenity from the bustle of the
city for the city dwellers. There is a 1000 metre long meandering man-made lake
having angling and rowing facilities in side the park. The main plants of this
recreational forest is Garjan (Assam Sal) and fauna includes small tigers,
leopards, small bears, monkeys, porcupine, foxes and pythons, lizards and many
local birds. The closeness of the park from the capital city creates the park as a
promising one to be developed as eco-destination with developed services and
recreation facilities.Modhupur National Park# XE "Modhupur National Park" #
Located in Tangail district which was established in 1962 with an area of 8436
hector of land. Once upon a tine the park was very rich in wild fauna like
elephant, buffalo, tiger, leopard, peafowl etc. but these are died out now with a
rest of 21 species of mammals, 140 species of birds and 29 reptiles. The park seems
to be a very suitable destination of future eco-tourist because of its unique
biodiversity, cultural heritage of local tribal communities and wilderness of the
park.Kaptai National Park# XE "Kaptai National Park" # Established in 1999 with a
total area of 5464 hectare of land which is located in Rangamati Hill District. The
green hills, vast Kaptai lake, Tribal Cultural Museum, Rajbon Bihar, Hanging Bridge
adjacent of Tourism complex, Soubolng, Kaptai Hydro-Electric Project, numerous
springs as well as the unique life style of tribal people, wildlife like Deer,
Elephant, Jungle cat, Monkey etc. in the park have made it as one of the tourist
place of Bangladesh and attracting a huge number of tourists.Ramna Park# XE "Ramna
Park" # The largest park in Dhaka and popularly known as Ramna Green with trees,
flowers, gardens and walking, boating and restaurants facilities for the
recreationists. A large number of indigenous and foreign varieties of plants and
trees are available in the park.Himchari National Park# XE "Himchari National Park"
# Established in 1980 with an area of 1729 hectare of land in Himchari, Coxs

Bazar. Evergreen and semi-ever-green tropical forests are found in this area with a
large number of species. A large waterfall along with a unique place comprising the
scenic beauty of green hills and blue waves of huge sea is considered as the heaven
of tourists which attracts a huge number of tourists.Ramsagar National Park# XE
"Ramsagar National Park" # A famous tourist spot with an area of 27.76 hectare of
land at Tejpur about 8 km away to the south of Dinajpur and was extended in 2001
over 69.16 acres of land . It is basically the biggest man-made water tank of
Bangladesh which bears some exceptional historic events of national heritage. The
tank was named after Raja Ram Nath who excavated it on the eve of the battle of
Palashi. During winter huge number of migratory birds visits this lake which added
some recreational charms of visitors.Baldha Garden# XE "Baldha Garden" # - One of
the oldest botanical garden in this part of the Indian subcontinent founded by
Zamindar Narendra Narayan Roy Chowdhury in 1909 at Wari, Dhaka. There are about
1500 indigenous and exotic plants which cover of 672 species and 87 families in the
garden. Some of these plants are collected from different countries
during the last one century. The garden is prominent for its floristic splendour
and a huge collection of rare and exotic plant speciesNational Botanical Garden# XE
"National Botanical Garden" # - Established in 1961 and is located to the eastern
side of National Zoological Garden in Mirpur with a total area of 84 hectare of
land. The garden has a collection of about 100 species of local and foreign
plants. About 100 varieties of roses, in the bamboo grove 100 varieties of bamboo,
varieties of sandal wood are some notable attractions of the garden along with
about 60 species of different rare and exotic plants like Anthurium (Anthurium
crystallinum), Sambucuas (Sambucus nigra), Dambia (Dombeya spectabilis), African
Tulip (Spathodea campanulata), white 'Rangan' (Ixora superba), Amazon Lily
(Victoria amazonica), Camphor (Cinamomum camphora), Rabbit Fern (Davallia
canariensis), Harhjora' (Vitis quadrangularis), white 'Chandan' (Santalum album),
etc.National Zoological Garden # XE "National Zoological Garden" # is also known
as Mirpur Zoo which is established on about 230 acres of land. This Zoo is rich
with collection of nearly 1500 animals and birds including 128 species like: Lions,
Royal Bengal Tiger, panthers, Kangaroo, Tapir, Deer, Monkeys, Chimpanzees, Pythons,
and Crocodiles, Elephants, Colourful Birds and other animals. There is a zoological
museum inside the Zoo. Approximately two million people visit the zoo in a year.
Sitakunda Botanical Garden and Eco-park# XE "Sitakunda Botanical Garden and Ecopark" # a reserved forest block with unique natural beauty established in 1998 at
the foothill of historically renowned Chandranath Hill at Sitakunda, Chittagong
with a total area of 808 hectare. It is a promising site for developing habitat of
wild flora and fauna, blooming eco-tourism and developing research and education
for scientists of home and abroad.Madhabkunda Eco-park# XE "Madhabkunda Eco-park" #
established in 2001 with an area of 265.68 hectare of land and located in
Madhabkunda, Moulavibazar. The park has been declared as Eco-park to conserve the
Madhabkunda waterfall and surrounding biodiversity which has widen a new facet of
developing eco-tourism, biodiversity conservation and development of education and
research in the areas.Dulahazra Safari Park# XE "Dulahazra Safari Park" # a
promising park for eco-tourism established in 1999 with an area of 600 hectare of
land and is located near Chakaria. An amazing park where the visitors can watch
animals in natural state moving freely in large areas4.8 SanctuariesIn Bangladesh,
there are some beautiful and ancient sanctuaries which have special appeal to
attract tourists in Bangladesh. According to Hossain (1999)# visitors from the
Middle East, Pakistan, India, Korea, Thailand and Japan can be attracted to the
historically important sanctuaries like mosque, shrines, tombs, temples, churches
and Buddhist monasteries which can be presented in the following sections:4.8.1
MosquesIn Bangladesh there are so many ancient and beautiful mosques which have the
capabilities to attract tourists especially for religious tourism because of their
arts, designs, and historical importance. Specially, Dhaka has several hundred
historic mosques and is known as the city of mosques. Some of the major notable
mosques in the country includes Seven Domed Mosque built in 17th century, Baitul
Mukarram - National mosque of the country which was built after the pattern of the
Kaba Sharif, Star Mosque (a five-dome mosque) built in 18th century, Chawkbazar

Mosque, Huseni Dalan Mosque, Shait-Gambuj Mosque (160x108), Bagerhat built by


Ulugh Khan Jahan - the earliest torchbearer of Islam in the South who laid the
nucleus of an affluent city during the reign of Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah
(1442-59), Chota Sona Mosque at Chapai Nababgonj - one of the most graceful
monuments of the Sultanate period, Small Golden Mosque at Gaur in Rajshahi built in
Sultan Alauddin Husain Shah (1493-1519), Bagha Mosque and Kusumba Mosque at
Rajshahi, Mosque of Baba Adam in Rampal near Dhaka a six domed mosque erected by
one Malik Kafur during the reign of the last llyas Shahi Sultan in 1483 A.D., the
Shahi Jama-e-Masjid and Qadam Mubarak Mosque in Chittagong, Begum Bazar Mosque- a
five domed mosque built by Nawab Murshid Kuli Khan, Khan Muhammad Mirdha Mosque,
Mosque and Tomb of Hazi Khawaja Shahab near High court, mosque of Rasti Khan at
Hathazari, Saat Gambuj Mosque - a seven domed mosque at Mohammadpur, etc.4.8.2
Tombs and Shrines and ChurchesThere are several places of historical interest in
Bangladesh. Among these, the most noteworthy ones are: the shrine of Hazrat Shah
Jajal (R) in Sylhet - the shrine which is visited by innumerable devotees of every
caste and faith everyday, the shrine of Hazrat Shah Paran (R) in Sylhet, the
shrine of Sultan Bayazid Bostami in Chittagong - the shrine which attracts a large
number of visitors and pilgrims, the shrine of Shah Amanat is an another place of
religious attraction which attracts hundreds of people daily, Tomb of Chisti
Behesti near High Court, Mirpur Mazar the Tomb of Hazrat Shah Ali Bagdadi, Kadam
Rasul Shrine in Nabiganj, Narayangonj, Tomb of Khan Jahan Ali in Bagerhat etc.4.8.3
Temples and Monastery# XE "Temples and Monastery" # The Bangladesh region contains
relics of the finest specimens of different temples and Buddist monastic
architecture. The most important temples include Dhakeshwari Temple (11th century),
Ramkrishna Mission, Kantaji Temple of Dinajpur built by Maharaja Pran Nath in 1752
- the most metaphorical among the late medieval Hindu temples of Bangladesh, Sri
Chaitanya Temple- 500 years old famous temple, Wooden Buddhist Temples at Ramu in
Coxs Bazar, Chandranath Temple and the Buddhist Temple at Sitakund with the
footprint of Lord Buddha, Khodar Pathar Moud, Maniklir Kunda, Parasuramer Bedi in
Bogra, Gokul Medh in Mahastangarh, Kamalapur Buddhist Monastery, International
Buddhist Monastery, Merul Badda, Dhaka, Pyramidal Cruciform Temple the largest
monastery in the South of Himalayas at Paharpur, Vasu- Vihar at Mahastangarh,
Salban Bihar at Mainamati etc., Vihara of Deva dynasty at Mainamati are some
prominent temples and monastery in Bangladesh and some extraordinary sculptures of
ancient Bengal like stone figures of Buddha from Ujani in Faridpur district, Varaha
avatara from Bogra of 10th century, the Vishnu Stela from Comilla of 11th century
and Chandi image from Dhaka district of 12th century etc. which are considered as
outstanding products for religious tourism and can attract the tourists if it can
be marketed properly.There are some famous and ancient churches in Bangladesh which
are considered as important attractions to the tourists. These include St. Mary's
Cathedral at Ramna the centre of all Roman Catholic Churches in Bangladesh,
Church of Bangladesh or former Holy Rosary Church built in 1677 A.D. at Tejgaon,
Bangladesh Baptist Sangha at Sadarghat, Portuguese Church, the American Church
built in 1781 A.D. etc.4.9 Fairs and FestivalsFair and festivals are the part and
parcel of Bangalee culture and tradition and have played a significant role in the
life of the people in Bangladesh. These are the main ways of joy, entertainment and
color for life. It is important to mention here that most of the festivals have
sprung from religious ritual and the fairs have their roots in the very heart of
the people of Bangladesh irrespective of religion, caste or creed.Some of the
major and important fairs and festivals are:Pahela Baishakh# XE "Pahela Baishakh" #
- The beginning of Bengali New Year is cheerily observed throughout the country.
The first day of Bengali New Year is 14th April and is observed as a govt holiday.
The day-long colourful gathering, fairs, cultural shows, tournaments, boat races,
discussion etc. are arranged throughout the country. National Mourning Day &
International Mother Language Day# XE "National Mourning Day & International Mother
Language Day" # - 21st February of each year is observed as a national mourning day
throughout the country stated at the 1st moment (12:01 a.m.) of the day with a
silent processions, with the song amar vaier raktay rangano ekushay February to pay
homage to the martyrs of language Movement, 1952 by placing flora wreaths at the

Shahid Minar. It was a movement participating from all corners of people of


Bangalees to establish the right of Bengali as one of the state languages instead
Urdu as only the state language of Pakistan. The right of Bengali was
established through the blood shed which is also the inspiration for all movements
against the Pakistani including the liberation war of Bangladesh in 1971. In 1999,
UNESCO declared the day as International Mother Language Day and is observed the
day though out the world. The day is also a public holiday in Bangladesh.
Independence Day# XE "Independence Day" # - One of the main state festivals in
Bangladesh is Independence Day. The day is observed on 26 March in every year. In
this day in 1971, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declared the independence of
Bangladesh. In this day, the country wears a celebratory look especially in capital
city and other major cities of the country. People from all corners of the society
including government leaders, socio-political organizations and freedom fighters
place, cultural organizations, students, intellectuals, journalists, Head of the
foreign missions, floral wreaths at the National Martyrs Monument at Savar. Bangla
Academy, Bangladesh Shilpakala Academy and other socio-cultural organizations hold
cultural functions, discussions, meetings, tournaments all over the country. For a
dazzling look, all public and private buildings and establishments are illuminated.
The day is also a public holiday. Victory Day# XE "Victory Day" # - Another
important
state-festival is observed on 16 December in every year as the Victory Day of
the country. Different programs are initiated on this day like the Independence
Day through out the country. The commander of the Pakistani occupation forces
surrendered on 16 December 1971 at Suhrawardy Uddayan formerly known as the Race
Course Maiden in Dhaka and Bangladesh became as an independent country.Eid-eMiladunnabi# XE "Eid-e-Miladunnabi" # - Eid-e-Miladunnabi is the birth and death
anniversary of the great Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (s) which is very important day to
the Muslim community. He was born and died the same day on 12th Rabiul Awal (Lunar
Month). The Muslim community offers special prayers, milad mahfils, munajats and
the discussions are arranged on the Islamic ideals, way of life and teaching of the
prophet (s). The day is national a holiday.Edi-ul-Fitre# XE "Edi-ul-Fitre" # - The
largest Muslim festival observed by the Muslims in Bangladesh. This is held on the
day following the Ramadan or the month of fasting. In Dhaka big congregations are
held at the National Eidgah and many mosques as well as all over the country. Its
a day of Eid prayers in the morning, attiring in the new clothes, having improved
diet and meeting friends and relatives on the Eid day.Eid-ul-Azha# XE "Eid-ul-Azha"
# - The second largest festival of the Muslim community is Eid-ul-Azha and also
observed in Bangladesh on the 10th of Zilhaj (the lunar month). Its a day of
sacrifice. After the Eid congregations are held throughout the country in the
morning and people sacrifice animals like cows, goats, sheep camels etc. according
to their ability in reminiscence of Hazrat Ibrahim's (AM) preparedness for the
supreme sacrifice of his beloved son to Allah. It is a public holiday.Muharram# XE
"Muharram" # - The Day is observed through a ceremonial mournful procession of
Muslim community which is observed in 10th Muharram in (Arabic month) in memory of
the awful martyrdom of Imam Hussain (RA) on this day at Karbala in Iraq.Bishwa
Istima# XE "Bishwa Istima" # - A three-day long biggest congregation during
December-January is held in every year at Tongi, Gazipur near the capital city
Dhaka. It is the second biggest Muslim gathering in the world followed by the Holy
Hazz at Mecca. About 15 to 20 lac Muslim devotees from the different part of the
world gather there and hold the discussion on the ideal of Muslim, the way of life
directed by the great Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (s), offer a special prayer for the
peace of Muslim Ummah as well as for the well-being of the world at the end of the
congregation.Rabindra and Nazrul Jayanti# XE "Rabindra and Nazrul Jayanti" # Birth anniversary of the noble laureate Rabindranath Tagore on 25th Baishakh (May)
and same of the National Poet Kazi Nazrul Islam on 11th Jaystha (May) are observed
throughout the country. Different cultural programs are arranged and discussions
are held on those occasions.Durga Puja# XE "Durga Puja" # - The Hindu community
observe their biggest religious festival popularly known as Durga Puja through out
the country for ten days and the last three days being culmination with the idol

immersed in rivers. Another very attractive festival of Hindu community which is


known as Langalbandh Mela is observed by them every year near Sonargaon on the last
day of Chaittra (last Bengali month).Christmas# XE "Christmas" # - The main
festival of Christmas community popularly known as "Bara Din (Christmas Day)," is
celebrated in 25th December including illumination of churches, decorating
Christmas tree and other Christian festivities and it is also a govt holiday.
Several day-long large gatherings are held at St. Mary's Cathedral at Ramna,
Portuguese Church at Tejgaon, Church of Bangladesh (Protestant) on Johnson Road and
Bangladesh Baptist Sangha at Sadarghat Dhaka.Buddha Purnima# XE "Buddha Purnima" #
- The main and important religious festival of Buddhist community is observed
through out the country. They also celebrate Baishakhi Purnima and Maghi Purnima
through out the country. In addition to that, various other festivals are
habitually observed by Bangalees all the year round.4.10 Hills, Rivers, Lakes and
IslandIn Bangladesh there are some attractive hilly regions which are considered as
the beautiful tourism spots and attract a large number of tourists. These hilly
regions keep significant differences from the rest of the country on a number of
points because of its indigenous inhabitants belong to different ethnic indigenous
minorities who have a distinctive lifestyle from the majority of the population.
The most of the hilly regions are located in greater Chittagong district among
which Khagrachari (known as the hilltop town), Bandarban (known as the roof of
Bangladesh) and Rangamati (also known as the Lake District) are famous ones. There
are some other attractive hills in Khasia and Jaintia in Sylhet territory.
Bangladesh is a land ofrivers that crisscrossed throughout the mostly flat
territories of the country. Rivers are the most important geographical features in
Bangladesh. The Padma, Jamuna, Brahmaputra etc, the most important rivers along
with other hundreds of rivers have created breath-taking riverine beauty for the
tourists. In addition to that there are also some attractive islands and lake which
can draw the attention of the recreationists and are considered as the tourism
products for the tourists. Moheshkhali- an island off the coast of Cox's Bazar
with an area of 268 square km. In this island there is a low hill of about 300 feet
high. Here the mangrove forest Atop Moinak Hill lays the old temple of Adinath,
dedicated to Shiva, Sonadia Island - another small island with an area of only 9
square km near Coxs Bazar, Kaptai Lake- the largest Man-made lake in the world
provides the numerous opportunities for the visitors like: rowing, boat cruising,
swimming etc., Rangamati is popularly known as the Lake District. Its scenic
beauty, lakeside location, colourful tribes, homespun textile products, ivory and
jewellery, speed boat cruising, water skiing, bathing or merely enjoying nature
have attracted the eyes of adventurous tourists, Foys Lake - surrounded by small
hills and green deep forests in the suburbs of Chittagong, an ideal spot for outing
and picnics, swimming and boating for hundreds of visitors every day.4.11 Economic
Importance of TourismTourism is now considered as one of the largest and fastest
growing industries in the world. This industry has potential economic impacts on
the destination countries. Most often tourism is considered as the single largest
industry in the world and both the developed and developing countries have started
to realize the economic importance of this sector and striving to maximizing the
benefit from this sector as much as possible. Frechtling (1994)# described that an
economic benefit is best understood as a gross increase in the wealth or income,
measured in monetary terms, of people located in an area over and above the levels
that would prevail in the absence of the activity under study. Goeldner et al
(2000)# described that tourism contributes to gross domestic product (GDP), capital
investment, employment, foreign exchange, and export earnings; the job creation
capacity of tourism is its most significant feature.Bangladesh tourism industry
with its enormous potentials is striving to reach at a satisfactory level in order
to play the expected role in the economy of the country. A major sector of the
services economy, tourism is increasingly recognized as contributing to social and
economic development as well as a beneficial activity for host countries and local
communities to combat unemployment by creating direct and indirect jobs and
contributing significantly to rural development, especially in depressed rural
areas threatened by the decline of traditional agricultural activities and it is

precisely in rural areas of developing countries where most poor people live
(Siddiqi, 2006).# He also added that the world tourism is booming and almost
imperceptibly it has become one of the fastest growing biggest industries in the
world. The General Assembly of United Nations recognized the important dimension
and role of tourism as a positive instrument for the alleviation of poverty and the
improvement of the quality of life for all people, its potential to make a
contribution to economic and social development, especially of the developing
countries, and its emergence as a vital force for the promotion of international
understanding, peace and prosperity (Morena, 2004, p.1).# The importance of tourism
can be considered as a major source of revenue and can play an important role in
the economic development of Bangladesh. Tourism is widely seen as an important
potential contributor to economic and social development in Third World countries
and there are also opportunities in post-communist countries which are in great
need of investment and advanced technology. Tourism is also relevant to strategies
for sustainable development and environmental rehabilitation in areas with great
landscape and cultural values (Mazurski, 2000).# According to the World Tourism
Organization, a total number of 763.25 million international tourist traffics were
recorded during 2004 and received US$ 622.68 billion from this sector (WTO, 2005)#
and making the tourism as one of the largest industries in the world. Tourism
business is essential to economies because of the direct effect on employment, the
balance of payment and society in terms of educational and cultural benefits
(Gilbert, 1989).# Another scholar Sinclair (1998)# claimed that the problems of
declining terms of trade for agricultural products and high levels of protection
against manufactures, many developing countries have turned to tourism as a
possible alternative source
of growth and devoted resources for the development of this sector and thus, the
sector has become a major economic activity with in developing countries often
contributing more foreign currency than traditional primary commodity exports. He
also noted that foreign currency receipts from tourism have provided an important
means of economic development by financing imports of capital goods necessary for
the growth of manufacturing sector. Tourisms appeal to developing countries is
based, in large part, on its provision of foreign currency earnings and
corresponding alleviation of the balance of payments constraint (Thirlwall, 1979;
Thirlwall and Nureldin-Hussein, 1982 as cited in Sinclair, 1998).# As Bangladesh is
facing the constraints in foreign currency as well as the adverse position in the
balance of payment account, the proper policy and strategy for the development of
tourism industry can contribute positively to overcome the situation. Promotion of
the tourism industry of Bangladesh is necessary for the over all growth of the
sector as well as to contribute to the national economy of the country. Sinclair
(1998)# again argued that the promotion of domestic tourism is necessary, not
only as an important objective in its own right, but also owing to the relatively
high local content of the products which domestic tourists consume and
international tourism has the advantage of providing considerable amounts of
foreign currency to support the growth of manufacturing activities, and
appropriately planned spatial expansion can ensure that the development of the two
sectors is complementary. Kale and Katherine (1986)# recognized tourism as the life
blood of the developing nations by bringing foreign exchange and promoting local
employment, while exploiting a countrys resources without depleting them. Tourism
is considered as an important economic sector not only from national perspective
but also from an international perspective. The number of international tourist
arrivals recorded worldwide grew by 5.5% and exceeded 800 million for the first
time ever and it is expected for the year 2006 that the same will grow between 4 5% in 2006 (WTO, 2006).# Tourism is one of the growth sectors of the global
economy and world-wide it is predicted to more than double from 2000 figures by
2020, when World Tourism Organization calculates there will be 1.6 million
international travellers (Kastelein, 2005).# There is every reason to suppose
Bangladeshs tourism will participate in this growth if necessary policies and
measures are taken and can contribute to the national economy to a greater extent.
Economic activity is not only becoming more internationalized, but, more

significantly, it is becoming increasingly globalized which is always regarded as


the product of the liberalization that has been the hallmark of economic policy
throughout the world during the past decade. Tourism is no doubt exception from
this. Because the internationalization of services is at the core of today's
economic globalization and tourism has become one of the most important industries
in the world, and its economic impacts are vital for many countries (Fayed &
Fletcher 2002).#Tourism not only helps the national development but also contribute
to regional development. As a result, tourism is increasingly seen as a catalyst
for regional development, and a number of studies and projects have investigated
how tourism could support development in peripheral regions (Briedenham and
Wickens, 2004; Murphy and Williams, 1999 as cited in Becken, 2005).# Zhang and
Murphy (2003 as cited in Becken, 2005)#, for example, discussed four different
models for regional tourism development in Victoria, Australia, and Yunnan, China,
concluding that government policies have considerable influence on how stakeholders
in the regions perceive growth, the dispersion of development, metropolitan control
and major factors for development. The concept of rural tourism is not new; what is
new is the recent policy focus on rural tourism as an economic development tool in
the overall strategic planning for rural revitalization (Edgell and Cartwright).#
Tourism helps in the process of generating foreign exchange, creation of employment
and encouragement of local economics especially nature tourism which occurs in
rural areas, it can lead to localized economic development in these often neglected
areas. According to Antonio Enriquez Savingnac, Secretary General of the World
Tourism Organization, the opportunity that tourism offers for positive economic and
social benefits for tomorrow will depend on decisions made today (Quoted by Edgell,
1990).# Tourism is an exchange process, an experience which has value to tourists
(Calantone and Mazanec, 1991).# The tourism provides values to the tourists it has
some social and cultural significance. Tourism is the temporary movement of people
to destinations and during their stay in the destination, tourists act together
with local people which provide the opportunity to have an understanding to the
host individuals' and host community's quality of life, value systems, labour
division, family relationships, attitudes, behavioural patterns, ceremonies and
creative expressions and return home with some new outlooks on life, habits and
added experiences. At the same time, the local community or individuals can also
get some knowledge and ideas from the tourist which may help to enrich their
cultural values. Tourism industry has a great importance not only as a generator of
income but also for creating employment opportunities. Tourism which is now most
often considered as the more labour-incentive sector than any other industry and
has emerged as the worlds largest generator of jobs. Tourism is a lobour-incentive
industry provides the scope of creating direct and indirect employment
opportunities for a large number of skilled and unskilled persons. Goeldner et al
(2000)# stated that firms such as hotels, restaurants, airlines, cruise lines, and
resort provide direct employment because their employees are in contract with
tourists providing the tourist experience and on the other hand employees of firms
providing goods and services to the direct employment firms such as aircraft
manufacturers, construction firms, and restaurant suppliers create indirect
employment. By supporting in a same way Morena (2004)# claimed that tourism brings
economic development and the creation of direct and indirect jobs in hotels, travel
agencies, transport companies, restaurants, guides, show and entertainment
business, monuments, parks and other related sectors like insurance, health,
housing, human resources and training institutions. The author also added that
tourism might be a rare opportunity for development in the face of the decline of
their traditional economic activities especially for coastal areas and island
territories and to vulnerable rural or mountain regions. Economic Review of World
Tourism (WTO, 1986 as cited by Pannell Kerr Forster Associates, 1988)# has shown
that in the developed countries of the world, two-thirds of the workforce had been
working in the service sectors and as much as 25 percent of these workers were in
tourism-related jobs. Tourism has become the single largest employer in the world.
As we know that tourism an industry with multi-faceted activities and it has a
multiplier effect in the economy. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and

Development (OECD) has estimated that within member countries, each $ 1 billion of
additional tourism spending creates 33,000 new jobs through a multiplier effect
(Palmer, 1995).# The author also mentioned that as a means of generating local
economic prosperity, tourism has often come to play a role previously attributed to
manufacturing. Tourism also serves to attain the social objectives like in
improving the physical environment of the tourism related area. In terms of world
statistics, The world Travel and Tourism Council projected in 1994 travel and
tourism would generate direct and indirect employment for more than 200 million
people one of every nine workers in the world economy and in the United States,
the projection was that travel and tourism supported one of every 10 workers
directly and indirectly (Gatty 1993 as cited in Tooman, 1997).# Goeldner et al
(2000)# mentioned that according to World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC)
estimates, in 1998 there are that tourisms economic activity generated about 231
million jobs in 1998, or about one in nine workers worldwide and expects 328.4
million jobs being created in the tourism sector with in 2010 and will increase
faster than traditional industries by as much as 59 percent. They also added that
the contribution of tourism in employment creation for South Asia was 33.7 million
in 1998 and will increase to 57.8 million in 2010 and the contribution to Gross
Domestic Product (GDP) was US$ 40.9 billion in 1998 and US$ 156.4 billion in 2010
while the contribution to World GDP was US$ 3564.3 billion in 1998 and it is
expected to be increased to US$ 8008.4 billion in 2010. As Bangladesh is suffering
from a huge unemployment problem, the development of the tourism sector can provide
an ample opportunity for the country to generate the employment opportunities at
the different sectors related to tourism. As the same time, if Bangladesh can
promote this industry successfully, then it will provide an opportunity to increase
the GDP as well as the foreign exchange earnings. Tourism not only facilitates the
creation of jobs but also contributes to the distribution of wealth among regions
of different income. Edgell and Cartwright (1990)# pointed out that tourism
redistributes income through out the nation, and from foreign countries to host
countrys rural communities. They also added that Tourism generated income
circulates
from hand-to-hand through such communities, and creates and supports jobs, not
only in those businesses which directly serve the traveller, but also in firms
which supply the local travel industry. Bangladesh tourism is not an exception from
this. A long-term strategy for the development of the tourism sector of Bangladesh
can uplift the sector to contribute to promote the tourism related services like
hotel/ accommodation services, transport services and other related business which
will intern generate the employment opportunities in the country.At the end of
eighties by recognizing the dire state of rural America and also travel and tourism
importance as a tool for rural economic growth and diversification, Congress
directed the United States Travel and Tourism Administration (USTTA) to undertake a
two-part national study for the purpose of determining : (i) the ways in which
small business in rural area can be promoted through travel and tourism: and (ii)
whether there is a need for federal policy concerning the development and promotion
of small businesses in rural communities through travel and tourism, and whether or
not there should be a federal program to support such policy (Edgell and
Cartwright, 1990)# They also stated the committee concluded the need for federal
policy on rural tourism; travel and tourism could be an important tool for rural
economic revitalization, and it should be an essential component of broader rural
economic development strategies and based on the recommendations of the committee,
White House recognized the importance of tourism as an important policy tool in
rural revitalization efforts came on January 22, 1990.It was the time that tourism
and travelling were considered as a means of pleasure only for the wealthy people.
Because the lower income group people didnt have the time and money to spend for
the pleasure of travelling and tourism. But todays labour-saving devices, improved
transports, easy communication, short-working hours, relatively longer paidholidays, increased disposable-income, upliftment in standard of living, changes in
personal and family outlook, etc have led people to enjoy through tourism (Hossain,
1999).# Moreover, the recent surge in business and pleasure travel represents an

unparalleled demand for tourism-related service (Rao et al, 1999).# As a result, if


due attention is given for the development of the industry, people from all level
can participate to enjoy through travelling and tourism which will again contribute
for related to the industry and ultimately to the nation.Tourism as an invisible
sector especially international tourism, as one of the most vibrant
indistinguishable export sectors, get significant amount of foreign exchange to the
balance of payment and makes very important contribution to the economic growth of
a country. Tourism is regarded as an invisible export because it has the potential
to bring foreign exchange to a country, through the provision of services to
overseas visitors (Davidson, 1994)#. Talukder (1984)# described that today tourism
industry has assumed special importance in underdeveloped countries because
promotion of tourism is being considered as a means of narrowing the gap of balance
of payment of underdeveloped countries through increased foreign exchange earnings
for it does not demand as much technical sophistication as other industries do. In
an another study, Hasan (1992)# claimed that tourism has emerged as one of the top
foreign exchange earners and now occupies the second position, next to petroleum,
among the foreign exchange earners and during the period 1960-79, the growth rate
of international tourism was found almost equal to that of the world exports. In
addition to that, he also claimed that tourism creates friendship among the people
of different nations and different culture; the bond which goes long way to
consolidate international peace and cooperation. From an international angel,
therefore, the tourism and travel industry helps in bringing about better
understanding and peace in the world (Singh, 1987).# Tourism has a noticeable
impact on the balance of payments of many countries. If Bangladesh can utilize the
full potential of its tourism then it will help to earn a large amount of foreign
currency from this industry which can be utilized to fulfill the disfavourable gap
of the countrys balance of payment account.Goeldner et al (2000)# described that
tourism as a powerful economic force providing employment, foreign exchange, income
and tax revenue and its multiplier effect for a city, a state, a province, a
country, is becoming increasingly competitive as more and more destinations look at
tourism to become the new economic generator replacing declining activity in
agriculture, mining, and manufacturing. The above discussion implies that tourism
can influence in different ways like in earning foreign currency, generating
employment, exchanging cultural views, making friendships among different
nationals, contribute international peace keeping and cooperation and lastly as a
whole for the economic development of country especially for the developing and
underdeveloped countries. Tourism is a multifaceted industry with a diversity of
long-term consequences, one that is being pursued on a global basis as a remedy for
underdevelopment (Tooman, 1997).#Considering the economic importance of tourism
industry, the Bangladesh government has initiated some steps for the development of
the countrys tourism industry. One of the noteworthy initiatives is the
preparation of Strategic Master Plan by Pannell Kerr Forster, an international
consulting firm which was sponsored by the World Tourism Organization (WTO) and
funded by the United Nation Development Programme (UNDP). Siddiqi (2006)# pointed
out that the plan was intended to identify long-term tourism policies and formulate
a development programme for a specific period by evaluating the country's
resources, defined types of tourism to be developed with targets set to be
achieved, to plan for an integrated development of accommodation, attractions and
supporting infrastructures and also to work out marketing and promotion guidelines.
He also added that during its long life, no effort from the government was made to
implement even a small part of the master plan. The government also initiated the
National Tourism policy in 1992 where the tourism was recognized to contribute in
poverty alleviation and in the Industrial Policy of 1999 tourism was considered as
an industry and identified as Thrust Sector. All the governments from the
independence of Bangladesh in 1971, showed their seriousness for the development of
the tourism industry to secure some benefits for the country of current worldwide
tourism boom. But no government was cordial and release fund for the real
development of this sector and all their commitments and initiatives are remaining
as the paper work. As a result, Bangladesh is at the bottom of the list of SAARC

countries in terms of tourism development. In terms of number of tourist arrivals


and earnings from this sector is far less than that of India, Sri Lanka, Nepal or
Pakistan and even to our neighbouring small Maldives, both the number of arrivals
to Bangladesh and income from tourism is far behind through according to the
statistics there is a rising trend in both the number of arrival and the amount of
earnings from the promising sector. Due to the stiff competition among the
destinations countries, Bangladesh needs to formulate and implement the long-term
policy in developing the tourism facilities in its main tourist destination and
should promote the sector among the potential markets both in local and
international level and should concentrated on the implementation of realistic
policies and strategies rather than any verbal commitment or paperwork, so that
tourism industry can emerge as a major contributor in the economy in the years to
come.4.12 Perception or Image of Bangladesh as a Tourist Destination The perception
toward a tourist destination is the sum total of beliefs, ideas, impressions, and
expectations that a tourist holds about a destination. Engel et al. (1986)# stated
that image refers to the consumers subjective perceptions of how an alternative
performs on important evaluation criteria. The promotional activities undertaken by
the tourism industry can play an important role in providing competitive advantages
to one tourist destination over another. Tourists perceive many images of their
destinations and these images in turn influence their behavior, attitude, and
predispositions as consumers (Ahmed, 1996).# The author also pointed out that
merely possessing outstanding tourism resources are not sufficient to attract the
optimal number of tourists to a tourist destination rather tourists image of a
destination and the attitude of tourists toward that destination seem to be two of
the most important factors responsible for this variation. The author consider this
behind the aggressiveness of the promotion campaigns lunched by tourist
destinations has added a new dimension to competitiveness and has resulted in
increasing numbers of image advertisements in travel and tourism literature and in
the mass media and collectively the tourist destinations are spending billions of
dollars annually on image building and image correction promotion programs.Briton
(1979, as cited in Echtner 2002)# in his article The Image of the Third World in
Tourism Marketing pointed out the inability of the tourism industry to represent
destinations as real places and noted that the Third World destinations are
portrayed as paradise, unspoiled, sensuous, mystical and /or exotic and these types
of representation affect tourists expectations and behavior. In addition to that
when tourists perceive of places as less
than real their behavior is less than acceptable. Culture is an important
dimension to attract tourists to a particular destination. The strengthening of
cultural links is important to overcome the often negative perception of India and
South Asia in general among Southeast Asian countries (Yahya, 2003).# Bangladesh as
a South Asian country can develop the cultural link with its surrounding regions to
overcome the image problem and can attract more tourists from other South Asian and
Southeast Asian countries.Image or perception toward a particular destination is an
important consideration in designing the promotional strategy for attracting the
tourist to a given tourist destination. Bangladesh has many tourist attractions
including archaeological sites, historic mosques and monuments, resorts, beaches,
forest and wildlife (Shahid, 2004).# But the world thinks of Bangladesh as poor,
flood-ravaged, and more of a disaster zone than a travel destination (LenR, 2005).#
The author also mentioned that though in some respects the world is right but
hiding behind these images, Bangladesh is a country with a rich history, a strange
beauty, and some interesting attractions. Pannell Kerr Forster (1988, as cited in
Hossain and Hossain, 2002)# expressed a similar opinion in the project findings and
recommendation for Strategic Master Plan for Bangladesh Tourism. The comment is
like that the international media so often project Bangladesh as a desperately
poor country ravaged by war, flood, pestilence, political unrest, meaning it does
nothing to be a destination country or even a stop over point for prospective
tourists, which creates a very bad image of the country as a tourist destination.
The report also found that very few of the overseas tour operators feature
Bangladesh as a main or secondary destination within their brochure. It also blamed

the BPC for not playing its role completely as a national tourism promotion agency
and suggested preparing itself for playing its proper role in this regard. The
intermittent political turmoil also often leads tourists disinterested to travel
Bangladesh. When a country is besieged with regular disturbance and if hunger,
disaster, and illiteracy are its constant companion foreigners will be least
interested to visit that country and spend their leisure there (Shamim, 2000).#
Many foreigners still know Bangladesh as a country of poverty, beggars, floods, and
political unrest (Hossain and Firozzaman, 2003).# The authors also mentioned that
desperate projection in the international media has also turned the destination as
a country of poverty, a place densely populated by poor people, a nation with
political unrest, and a low lying deltaic region regularly affected by flood and
cyclone. If a country is presented in this way to the potential tourists, no body
will be interested to visit the destination. The authors again noted that some more
negative aspects including sanitation problems, uncomfortable ground level
transports, insufficient accommodations at the destination areas, insecurity of
movements, lack of pure drinking water and hygienic food, etc. have also affected
the image of the country as a tourist destination. But the people who have visited
Bangladesh (though it is very few) are pleased with and satisfied with the
countrys magnificent natural beauty, eye-catching attractions, rich cultural
heritage, cheap services and facilities, and friendly simple people. But we have
miserably failed to create a correct and original image about the special
attractions in our country (Das, 1999).# The promotional activities are not
directed or failed to correct the perceived misconception of most of the potential
foreign tourists and its resultant effect is less tourists are choosing or
selecting Bangladesh as a destination to visit. But the fact is that Bangladesh is
one of the few countries in South Asia with a total area of 144,000 square km which
remains to be discovered. The country has enormous beauty, hundreds of serpentine
rivers, lakes of crystal clear water, ever green hills, luxuriant tropical rain
forests, beautiful green tea gardens, Sundarban forest (the forest of endless
mystery)- the world's largest mangrove forest and one of the World Heritages in the
UNESCO list, home of the Royal Bengal Tiger and the wild lives, Hill Tracts
Districts/Tribal people/Trekking, Tiger Trails Dolphin, Bird, wildlife watching
cruises, warbling of birds in green trees, wind in the paddy fields, plenty of
sunshine, world's longest and unbroken (120 km long) natural sea beach in Coxs
Bazar sloped gently down to the blue waters of the Bay of Bengal, Kuakata sea
beach- a truly a virgin beach offering a full view of both the sunrise and sunset,
rich cultural heritage, relics of ancient Buddhist civilizations and colourful
tribal lives, an old and eventful historic place and home of an ancient
civilisation, rich archaeological sites with numerous historical monuments
representing Hindu, Muslim and British period scattered all over the country,
comparatively a cheap country of food, accommodation and travel - Bangladesh
creates an unforgettable impression of a land of peace. These could be reasons why
Bangladesh should be highlighted in the world's tourist maps. For those with
interest in knowing an unknown and fascination for unspoiled beauty of nature
rivers, forests, sea beaches, lakes, hills etc - a visit to Bangladesh, just
opening up to the tourists, is bound to be a rewarding experience (Editorial note,
2006).#Despite of the above facts, Bangladesh has not taken appropriate measures to
counter its negative image abroad as a country that faces abject poverty, floods
and cyclones. Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC) the National Tourism
Organization (NTO) is far behind to play the appropriate role to create the
favourable or positive image by eliminating the negative perception of the
potential tourists toward Bangladesh as a main or secondary destination. Even there
are some drawbacks in the government policy to over come the situation. Building
Image of Bangladesh posted by Rezwan (2006)# pointed out Incredible India- this
type of advertisements is all over in Germany, in buses, newspapers, billboards to
promote tourism to India. And I am sure this program runs in many countries. But
where is Bangladesh in this regard? I had to mention India's name to several people
while trying to explain the location of Bangladesh, whose name they have seldom
heard. This indicates that Bangladesh is suffering from not only image problem but

also from the point of identity to some extent.


Muqbil (2005)# mentioned that
Bangladesh has taken little measures to counter its "negative image abroad" as a
country that faces "abject poverty, floods and cyclones" and blamed that in 200304, the Tourism Corporation, which is responsible for marketing, was given only 10
million taka (about US$158,000) and for the fiscal years 2004-05 and 2005-06, "no
funds have been allocated" making it impossible to conduct marketing campaigns in a
highly competitive market. He also commented that complicated visa formalities and
irritating attitudes of the employees in most of the Bangladesh missions abroad
discourage many tourists. Though the number of foreign visitors in not large, but
who visited the country returned with a good feeling with good-looking attractions
of the country, rich cultural heritage, magnificent natural beauty, cheap service
and facilities and above all the friendly reception and cordial acceptance and
hospitality of the local community. But the county or the National Tourism
organization could not reverse the existing image of the country by highlighting
the real atmosphere and situation suitable for the tourists. It is expected that
the BPC along with other private tour operators will prioritize the issue of
correcting the image by undertaking aggressive promotional measures in order to
develop tourism in Bangladesh. The government should also extend the cooperation in
this regard by playing the major role in building the positive image so that the
industry can play it proper role to the economy of the country. 4.12.1 Tourists
Impressions on the Price of Some Important Tourism ComponentsTourists impressions
toward the tourism service(s) are important for the marketers. The positive
impression obviously will result the repeat visit by the same tourist as well as it
will serve the purpose of word of mouth advertisement for the destination. Buyers
judge whether a product or service is fairly priced by asking themselves whether it
represents value for money (Holloway and Chris, 1995).# It is expected that the
tourists will receive more value or at least equal to their perceived value after
visiting the destination or tourist spot. Any change in price or quality at a
particular point of time will also change consumers perception on the value
(Hossain, 19990).# The author attempted to show in his study about the
reasonableness of prices on some selected components of tourism arrangements in
Bangladesh which is presented in the following table (Table 4.1): Table 4.1
Tourists Impressions on the Prices of Some Important Tourism ComponentsTourism
Components#Dont Know Frequency#Highly Reasonable(5)#Quite Reasonable(4)#Fairly
Reasonable(3)#Quite Unreasonable(2)#Highly Unreasonable(1)#Mean Score##Food &
Drinks#6(5.94)#7(6.93)#23(22.77)#48(47.52)#16(15.84)#1(0.99)#3.2##Accommodation#13
(12.87)#5(4.95)#16(15.84)#41(40.59)#18(17.82)#8(7.92)#2.91##Transport#12(11.88)#5
(4.95)#46(45.54)#32(31.68)#6(5.94)#00(00)#3.56##Guided Packaged Tours#62(61.38)#4
(3.96)#7(6.93)#13(12.87)#12(11.88)#3(2.97)#2.92##Information materials#48(47.52)#21
(20.79)#19(18.81)#9(8.91)#4(3.96)#00(00)#4.08##Shopping Items#26(25.74)#27
(26.73)#25(24.75)#20(19.80)#3(2.97)#00(00)#4.01##Source:
Hossain, Md. Afjal, Marketing of Tourism Industry in Bangladesh: An Empirical
Study of Performance and Strategy, 1999, Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of
Pune, India, p. 101The table shows that the tourists impressions on most of the
arrangements of tourism in Bangladesh are below the scale of quite reasonable (mean
score is below 4:00). The information materials and shopping items have considered
to them as quite reasonable (mean score is above 4.00). It indicates that the
tourism authority and the marketer of the same need to devote their attention in
such a way so that it can satisfy the visitors in a more positive way. 4.12.2
Effectiveness of Promotional Measures of Bangladesh Tourism IndustryIt was
mentioned earlier that promotional measures play a vital role in tourism marketing
like other products or services which needs the marketers to conduct the same in an
effective way. Effectiveness in this regard means how the promotion can produce the
positive result by influencing the tourists to visit the promoters destination.
So, effectiveness is important rather than how much the promoter has spent for this
purpose or how many times he has advertised or even which media he has used. The
ultimate goal is to reach the advertisers message to the potential tourists and to
influence them positively to visit the destination of the advertiser. The following
table (Table 4.2) shows the effectiveness of various forms of promotional measures

of Bangladesh tourism industry:


Table 4.2 Effectiveness of Various Promotional
Measures of Tourism Industry in BangladeshForm of Promotion#Dont Know Frequency
(%)#Highly Effective(%)(5)#Quite Effective(%)(4)#Fairly Effective(%)(3)#Quite
Ineffective(%)(2)#Highly Ineffective(%)(1)#Mean score##Advertisement#86(85.14)#00
(00)#1(0.99)#10(9.90)#2(1.98)#2(1.98)#2.67##Publicity#81(80.19)#00(00)#5(4.95)#9
(8.91)#5(4.95)#1(0.99)#2.90##Information Materials (Brochures, Guides, Souvenirs,
Folders, Handbooks.)#48(47.52)#4(3.96)#14(13.86)#18(17.82)#11(10.89)#6(5.94)#
2.98##Posters and View Cards#74(73.26)#2(1.98)#5(4.95)#8(7.92)#10(9.90)#2
(1.98)#2.81##Cable TV Highlights#86(85.14)#2(1.98)#2(1.98)#4(3.96)#43.96()#3
(2.97)#2.73##Internet#93(92.07)#00(00)#2(1.98)#5(4.95)#1(0.99)#00(00)#3.13##Word of
Mouth (WOM)#53(52.47)#17(16.83)#18(17.82)#12(11.88)#1(0.99)#00(00)#4.06##Motivation
by Foreign Tour Operators#62(61.38)#5(4.95)#22(21.78)#9(8-91)#2(1.98)#1
(0.99)#3.72##Motivation by Foreign Travel Agencies#81(80.19)#00(00)#7(6.93)#6
(5.94)#5(4.95)#2(1.98)#2.90##Bimans Overseas Offices#83(82.17)#00(00)#2(1.98)#5
(4.95)#4(3.96)#7(6.93)#2.11##Bangladesh Mission Abroad#65(64.35)#2(1.98)#5(4.95)#11
(10.89)#11(10.89)#7(6.93)#2.56##Source: Hossain, Md. Afjal and Firozzaman, M.
(2003) Strategic Promotional Approaches to Developing Tourism in Bangladesh: An
Empirical Study of Some Selected Tour Operators, Bureau of Business Research,
University of Dhaka, p. 51It is found from the above table (Table 4.2) that only
word of mouth is quite effective with a mean score of 4.06. Tourists rely more on
personal source of information and, hence, personal selling will be the most
effective promotional tool in tourism marketing (Kumar, 1994). The mean score of
Internet is 3.13 and motivation by foreign tour operators is 3.72 which indicate
that these two forms of promotional measures are fairly effective. Though the
national airlines can play an active and vital role for countrys tourism industry,
but the image of Biman Bangladesh Airline is not good and the Bimans overseas
offices failed to contribute in this regard. The mean score of Bimans overseas
offices is 2.11 which indicate that as a form of promotion, it is ineffective. The
researchers also mentioned that the overall mean score of effectiveness of all the
promotional forms accounted to 3.10 with a standard deviation of 0.53 which is
slightly higher than the mid-value of the scale. This overall mean effectiveness
score 3.10 can be considered that the promotional measures of Bangladesh tourism
industry is fairly effective.4.13 Statistics on Tourist Arrivals and EarningsThe
overall picture of the present status of the tourism industry of any country can be
considered in terms of the number of tourist arrivals and the earning from this
sector. Any one can measure the position of any countrys tourism and its share to
the world market or to any regional or even to sub-regional markets. The
statistical data and its trend is one of the major indicators by which any one can
have an idea on the sector. Here, the researcher attempted to focus on position of
the same sector based on the statistical data on the number of tourist arrivals and
the earnings from the sector. 4.13.1 World Tourist Arrivals and ReceiptsThe
mobility of tourism market is booming. Now it is one of the fastest growing and the
single largest industry in the world and is now considered as a vital force for the
economic development of any country. The contribution of tourism is multidimensional like: to foreign exchange earnings, employment generation, exchanging
cultural views, peace keeping and as a whole for the economic development
especially for the developing countries like Bangladesh. As a result, every country
is trying to attract more tourists to its destination in order to earn more foreign
currency which results an increasing trend both in tourist arrivals and earning
every year. The following table (Table 4.3) shows the picture of world tourist
arrivals and the earnings from this sector:

Table 4.3 World Tourist Arrivals & Receipts (1990, 1995 and 2000-2005)Year
#Arrivals (Million)#Change#Receipts#(Billion US$)#Change(%)##1990#441#-#280###1995#538#-#423#-##2000#681#-#496#-##2001#680#0.15%#482#2.82%##2002#700#2.94%#482#00%##2003#690#1.43%#524#8.71%##2004#763#10.58%#623#18.89%##2005#808#5.90%#NA#
NA##Source:
UNWTO Tourism Highlights, Edition 2005, World Tourism Organization, available from:
http://www.world-tourism.org/facts/menu.html (accessed 18.5.06)NA Not available
The above table indicates that the total world tourist arrivals in 1990 were 444
million and in 2005 it increased to 808 million which is about doubled in the last
fifteen years. On the other hand the earning from the same was US$ 280 in 1990 and
it increased to US$ 623 which 223% of base year 1990. The growth rate of the
earnings is more than the same of the tourist arrivals. The overall trend of both
arrivals and earnings form this sector is very amazing.4.13.2 International Tourist
Arrivals and Earnings by RegionsIt was revealed from the previous discussion that
the worlds tourism is performing very well at least in-terms of the number of
tourist arrivals and the earnings from the industry. But it does not provide any
guarantee that every region has the same picture. Some regions have more upward
trend and other do not have. Considering this view, researcher attempted to find
out the scenario of the industry and the following table (Table 4.4) presents the
regional performance of tourist arrivals: Table 4.4 International Tourist Arrivals
(in 1000) by Regions and Share of each RegionYear#Regions#Total World
Arrivals###Africa #The America#Asia and the Pacific#Europe #Middle East
###1990#15,160#92,803#57,740#265,290#10,040#441,033###(3.44)#(21.04)#(13.09)#(60.1
5)#(2.28)#(100.00)##1995#20,438#108,994#85,024#309,306#14,300#538,062###(3.80)#(20
.26)#(15.80)#(57.49)#(2.66)#(100.00)##2000#28,154#128,160#114,863#384,147#25,238#68
0,562###(4.14)#(18.83)#(16.88)#(56.45)#(3.71)#(100.00)##2002#29,492#116,637#131,10
8#394,034#29,156#700,427###(4.21)#(16.65)#(18.72)#(56.26)#(4.16)#(100.00)##2003#30
,763#113,093#119,255#396,579#29,999#689,689###(4.46)#(16.40)#(17.29)#(57.50)#(4.35
)#(100.00)##2004#33,222#125,757#152,503#416,362#35,391#763,235###(4.35)#(16.48)#(1
9.98)#(54.55)#(4.64)#(100.00)##Source: Compiled from Tourism Market Trends, 2005
Edition Annex, World Tourism Organization (WTO), and available from:
http://www.world-tourism.org/facts/menu.html (accessed 13.04.06)It is clear from
the above table that Europe captured the major share of the world tourism market
and attracted 265, 290,000 tourists in 1990 which increased to 416, 362,000 in 2004
and the share in total world tourist arrivals was 60.15 percent and 54.55 percent
respectively for the same period. America had 21.04 percent share in 1990 and 16.48
percent in 2004 though the number of tourist arrivals increased to 125,757, 000
from 92,160,000 in the same period. It is important to note that both the Europe
and the America lost its market share by 5.60 percent and 4.56 percent during the
period. On the other hand, the position of Asia and the Pacific is attracting. This
region gained its position during the period under consideration both in terms of
the number of tourist arrivals and its share to total world arrivals. The data
shows that the number of arrivals increased to 152,503,000 in 2004 from 57,740,000
in 1990 and the share of which increased to 19.98 percent from 13.09 percent in the
same period. The growth rate in tourist arrivals in Asia and the Pacific is
accelerating than any other regions of the world.The number of tourist arrivals is
not only the indicator to have a clear picture of the industry. To consider the
performance, financial earning is one of the major determinants of any industry.
The researcher attempted to show the financial contribution that each of the
regions have gained from the tourism sector. The table (Table 4.5) given below
shows the foreign currency earned by each region from tourism: Table 4.5
International Tourism Receipts (US$ million) by Regions and Share of each Region
Year#Regions#Total World Receipts###Africa #The America#Asia and the Pacific#Europe
#Middle East
###1990#6,402#69,320#46,667#145,631#5,134#273,154###(2.34)#(25.38)#(17.08)#(53.31)
#(1.88)#(100.00)##1995#8,544#98,447#81,988#211,863#10,465#411,307###(2.08)#(23.94)
#(19.93)#(51.51)#(2.54)#(100.00)##2000#10,608#130,960#90,383#231,597#15,631#479,179
###(2.21)#(27.33)#(18.86)#(48.33)#(3.26)#(100.00)##2002#11,843#113,749#99,069#241,
238#15,660#481,559###(2.46)#(23.62)#(20.57)#(50.10)#(3.25)#(100.00)##2003#15,494#1

14,104#94,855#282,913#16,836#524,202###(2.96)#(21.77)#(18.10)#(53.97)#(3.21)#(100.
00)##2004#18,335#131,682#124,960#326,693#21,005#622,675###(2.94)#(21.15)#(20.07)#(
52.47)#(3.37)#(100.00)##Source: Compiled from Tourism Market Trends, 2005 Edition
Annex, World Tourism Organization (WTO), and available from: http://www.worldtourism.org/facts/menu.html (accessed 14. 04. 06)In term of foreign currency
earnings, Europe is at the top most position in the world. This region earned US$
145,631 million in 1990 and US$ 326,693 in 2004 which constitutes 53.31 percent and
52.47 percent respectively of the total world earnings from tourism for the same
period. The analysis on the number of tourist arrivals section shows that Europe
lost 5.60 percent market share during the period but this section shows that the
share of earnings in the world context remain almost same. The share of the America
decreased to 21.15 percent in 2004 from 25.38 percent in 1990. Both the earnings
and its share for Asia and the Pacific have increased during the period. Asia and
the Pacific earned US$ 46,667 million in 1990 and it increased to US$ 124,960
million in 2004 and the share of which is 17.08 percent and 20.07 percent for the
same period. It is noteworthy to mention that the achievement of Asia and the
Pacific region is increasing in terms of the share and the amount earned, but it
can be said that the growth in the share of earning is much slower than that of
arrivals. Because of this period, the share of earnings was increased by 3.01
percent though the share of arrivals increased by 6.89 percent for the same period.
4.13.3 International Tourist Arrivals and Earnings in Asia by Sub-RegionsThe data
and discussion of the previous section shows that the growth rate in terms of
tourist arrivals, earnings from tourism by Asian region is accelerating in compare
to any other regions of the world. Again the analysis can be made on the sub-region
of Asia and the Pacific to show the position of each sub-region. The following
table (Table 4.6) presents the tourists arrivals in different sub-regions of Asia
and the Pacific:Table 4.6 International Tourist Arrivals in Asia and the Pacific
(in 1000) by Sub-Regions and Share of Each Sub-RegionYear#Regions#Total in Asia and
the Pacific###North-East Asia#South-East Asia#Oceania #South Asia
###1990#27,969#21,469#5,152#3,150#57,740###(48.44)#(37.18)#(8.92)#(5.46)#(100.00)#
#1995#44,115#28,592#8,085#4,233#85,024###(51.89)#(33.63)#(9.51)#(4.98)#(100.00)##2
000#62,525#37,006#9,247#6,086#114,863###(54.43)#(32.22)#(8.05)#(5.30)#(100.00)##20
02#74,127#42,015#9,133#5,833#131,108###(56.54)#(32.05)#(6.97)#(4.45)#(100.00)##200
3#67,595#36,189#9,045#6,427#119,255###(56.68)#(30.35)#(7.58)#(5.39)#(100.00)##2004
#87,576#47,252#10,175#7,501#152,503###(57.43)#(30.98)#(6.67)#(4.92)#(100.00)##Sour
ce: Compiled from Tourism Market Trends, 2005 Edition Annex, World Tourism
Organization (WTO), Available from: http://www.world-tourism.org/facts/menu.html
(accessed 13.04.06)The above table shows that among the four sub regions of Asia
and the Pacific, the position of North-East Asia is at the top followed by SouthEast Asia and then Oceania. The position of South Asia is at the bottom of the four
sub-regions. The amazing growing trend is observed in North-East Asia. During the
period from 1990 to 2004, North-East Asia not only receipts the increased number of
tourists from 27,969,000 to 87,576,000 but also increased the share in this region
from 48.44 percent to 57.43 percent. On the other hand, though the number of
tourist arrivals in South East Asia increased to 47,252,000 in 2004 from 21,469,000
in 1990, the share decreased to 30.98 percent from 37.18 percent in the same
period. The scenario of Oceania is same. The number of tourist arrivals increased
in this sub-region though the shares of which decreased 6.67 percent in 2004 from
8.92 percent in 1990. The position of South Asia is more or less unchanged in the
share which remains close to 5 percent in most of the years though the number of
tourist arrivals increased. In terms of arrival, North-East Asia could gain the
most benefit of more growing trend of tourism in Asia and the Pacific by exploiting
its potentials. But South Asia could not achieve the remarkable growth which could
be attained if there were proper policies and coordinated efforts among the
countries falling in that sub-region.
The earning is also an indicator to
consider the success of this sector. The researcher also took the initiative to
compare financial performance by analysing the data for the past few years. The
following table (Table 4.7) shows the earnings of the sub-regions of Asia and the
Pacific:Table 4.7 International Tourism Receipts (US$ million) in Asia and the

Pacific by Sub-Regions and Share of each Sub-RegionYear#Regions#Total in Asia and


the Pacific#######North-East Asia #South-East Asia #Oceania #South Asia
###1990#23,001#14,479#7,158#2,029#46,667###(49.29)#(31.03)#(15.34)#(4.35)#(100.00)
##1995#38,017#26,696#13,871#3,405#81,988###(46.37)#(32.56)#(16.92)#(4.15)#(100.00)
##2000#46,030#26,004#13,844#4,505#90,383###(50.93)#(28.77)#(15.32)#(4.98)#(100.00)
##2002#51,721#27,643#14,461#5,243#99,069###(52.21)#(27.90)#(14.60)#(5.29)#(100.00)
##2003#47,104#24,335#17,605#5,811#94,855###(49.66)#(25.65)#(18.56)#(6.13)#(10
0.00)##2004#63,565#31,752#22,311#7,332#124,960###(50.87)#(25.41)#(17.85)#(5.87)#(1
00.00)##Source: Compiled from Tourism Market Trends, 2005 Edition Annex, World
Tourism Organization (WTO), Available from: http://www.worldtourism.org/facts/menu.html (accessed 14.04.06) It is depicted from the above table
that the share of North-East Asia was 50.87 percent in 2004 and which was 49.29
percent in 1990. It also indicates that the share of this sub-region in earnings
has decreased by 1.58 percent though the share of tourist arrivals has increased by
8.99 percent. The share of South-East Asian sub-region in earnings was decreased by
5.62 percent where the share in tourist arrivals decreased by 6.20 percent. The
opposite picture is found that the share in tourist arrivals in Oceania decreased
by 2.25 percent from 1990 to 2004 but the same in earning increased by 2.52
percent. The position of South Asia in tourist arrivals remained more or less
unchanged but there is an increase in earnings from 4.35 percent in 1990 to 5.87
percent in 2004.4.13.4 International Tourists Arrivals and Earnings in South Asian
CountriesIn the past few years, though there is no remarkable progress in the share
of South Asia among Asia and the Pacific region but in terms of the number of
tourist arrivals have increased to an outstanding level. Even some of the South
Asian countries are performing well and have achieved a remarkable progress. The
following table (Table 4.8) shows the international tourist arrivals in South Asian
countries and share of each country: #Table 4.8 International Tourists Arrivals in
South Asia (1000) and Share of Each CountryCountry
Year#Bangladesh#Bhutan#India#Iran#Maldives#Nepal#Pakistan#Sri
Lanka#Total##1990#115#2#1707#154#195#255#424#298#3150###(3.65%)#(0.06%)#(54.19%)#(4
.89%)#(6.19%)#(8.10%)#(13.46%)#(9.46%)#(100%)##1995#156#5#2124#489#315#363#378#403#
4233###(3.69%)#(0.12%)#(50.18%)#(11.55%)#(7.44%)#(8.58%)#(8.93%)#(9.52%)#(100%)##20
00#199#8#2649#1342#467#464#557#400#6086###(3.27%)#(0.13%)#(43.53%)#(22.05%)#(7.67%)
#(7.62%)#(9.15%)#(6.57%)#(100%)##2002#207#6#2384#1585#485#275#498#393#5833###(3.55%
)#(0.10)#(40.87%)#(27.17%)#(8.31%)#(4.71%)#(8.54%)#(6.74%)#(100%)##2003#245#6#2726#
1546#564#338#501#501#6427###(3.81%)#(0.09%)#(42.41%)#(24.05%)#(8.78%)#(5.26%)#(7.80
%)#(7.80%)#(100%)##2004#271#9#3371#1659#617#360#648#566#7501###(3.61%)#(0.12%)#(44.
94%)#(22.12%)#(8.23%)#(4.80%)#(8.64%)#(7.55%)#(100%)##Source: Compiled from Tourism
Market Trends, 2005 Edition Annex, World Tourism Organization (WTO), and
available from: http://www.world-tourism.org/facts/menu.html (accessed 10.04.06)It
is apparent from the above table that the number of tourist arrivals has increased
in every country of this region but there is significant variation and growth in
the share of each country. For example, during the last fifteen years the number of
arrivals increased to 7.50 million in 2004 from 3.15 million in 1990 in which India
has the major market share in this region. Among the eight countries, India had the
market share of 54.19 percent in 1990 and 44.94 percent in 2004 and the total
number of tourist arrivals was 1,707,000 and 3, 371,000 respectively. But the fact
is that India lost 9.25 percent from its share in 2004 from the same of 1990 though
the number of tourist arrivals almost doubled at that time. The second top position
is now holding by Iran and the country has increased its share to 22.12 percent in
2004 from only 4.89 percent in 1990 which can be considered a very positive growth
for tourism in Iran. The share of Maldives in 2004 increased to some extent compare
to that of 1990. In 1990, the share of Maldives was 6.19 percent which increased to
8.23 percent in 2004. At the same time, the share of Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka
has decreased in 2004 compare to that of 1990. The share of Bangladesh which one is
under study of the present researcher almost remained same during the period.
Bangladesh had 3.65 percent share in 1990 and the same was 3.61 percent in 2004 and
the position of Bangladesh remained the same (7th out of eight countries) and just
above the position of Bhutan which have very insignificant or negligible number of

tourist arrivals.
The World Tourism Organization forecasted that in the year of
2010, the total world tourist arrivals will be 1,006.4 million and it will rise to
1,561.1 million in 2020 and the figure of the same for South Asia will be 10.6
million and 18.8 million in the year of 2010 and 2020 respectively.# WTO also
forecasted that the number of tourist arrivals in Indian Ocean destinations will be
91.544 million and 179.249 in the year of 2010 and 2020 respectively and the figure
of the same in Bangladesh will be 0.255 and 0.415 million in the corresponding
years#. This estimate shows that in the Indian Oceans destinations, in 2020 the
total tourist arrivals will be doubled than the number of 2010 and in Bangladesh
the number will increase by 63 % in 2020 from the same of 2010. But the data shows
that in Bangladesh the total tourist arrivals in 2004 is 0.271 million which is
higher than the forecasted figure of WTO for the year 2010 which indicates that
Bangladesh will receive more tourists than the forecasted figure in the years 2010
and 2020. The expectation and estimates made by BPC shows that Bangladesh will
receive 0.9 million tourists in 2020. But the trend analysis by using the data on
the tourist arrivals during 1991 to 2004 which has been shown in the following
section does not support this expectation and estimates made by BPC. It was also
attempted to judge the position of each country in terms of the foreign currency
earnings. Because of the initial result of tourism industry is measured by taking
into the consideration of the earnings. The following table (Table- 4.9) presents
foreign currency earnings by each country and share of them of the aforementioned
region:

Table 4.9 Foreign Exchange Earning from Tourism in South Asian Countries (US$
million)Country#Year#Bangla-desh #Bhutan #India #Iran #Maldives #Nepal #Pakistan
#Sri Lanka
#Total##1990#11#2#1513#61#89#64#156#132#2029###(0.54)#(0.10)#(74.57)#(3.01)#(4.39)#
(3.15)#(7.69)#(6.51)#(100%)##1995#25#5#2582#67#211#177#110#226#3405###(0.73)#(0.15)
#(75.83)#(1.97)#(6.20)#(5.20)#(3.23)#(6.64)#(100%)##2000#50#10#3168#467#321#158#81#
248#4505###(1.11)#(0.22)#(70.32)#(10.37)#(7.13)#(3.51)#(1.80)#(5.50)#(100%)##2002#5
7#8#2918#1357#337#103#97#363#5243###(1.09)#(0.15)#(55.66)#(25.88)#(6.43)#(1.96)#(1.
85)#(6.92)#(100%)##2003#57#8#3533#1033#402#199#136#441#5811###(0.98)#(0.14)#(60.80)
#(17.78)#(6.92)#(3.42)#(2.34)#(7.59)#(100%)##2004#67#12#4769#1074#479#230#186#513#7
332###(0.91)#(0.16)#(65.04)#(14.65)#(6.53)#(3.14)#(2.54)#(7.00)#(100%)##Source:
Compiled from Tourism Market Trends, 2005 Edition Annex, World Tourism
Organization (WTO), and available from: http://www.worldtourism.org/facts/menu.html (accessed 10. 04.06)It can apparently be seen from the
above table that the amount of earnings has increased in every country, but in real
sense, the scenario is not like that. For example, India the top most tourist
attracting country in that region had 54.19 percent market share in 1990, but the
country earned 74.57 percent of the total earnings which is 20.38 percent above of
its market share in terms of arrivals. In 2004, India with its 44.94 percent market
share in arrivals earned 65.04 percent of the total earnings which is also 20.10
percent higher than the share of arrivals. Iran with its second position in
tourists attracting is also far behind in the share of earnings. In 2004, Iran
earned only 14.65 percent of the total earnings of the region with a share of 22.12
percent share in arrivals. The same case is for Pakistan which produced only 2.54
percent earnings with 8.64 percent share in arrivals. The situation of Maldives and
Nepal is also the same but not so bad. In consideration of earnings, only Sri
Lankan position can be considered as a good sign which earned 6.51 percent in 1990
and 7.00 in 2004 with a share of 9.46 percent and 7.55 percent in arrivals for the
same time. The real situation of the same for Bangladesh is not also good.
Bangladesh with a share of 3.65 percent in 1990 and 3.61 percent in 2004 in the
arrivals earned only 0.54 percent and 0.91 percent respectively. Only the progress
of Bangladesh tourism is that in the share of arrivals has not increased at all but
there is a minor increase in the share of earnings. 4.13.5 Total Tourist Arrivals
in BangladeshEarlier it has been discussed the situation of the tourist arrivals by
different regions and sub-regions along with its share as well as the situation
prevailing in the South Asian countries. Attempts were also made to highlight
details of the same for Bangladesh. The following table (Table 4.10) shows the
tourist arrivals in Bangladesh in different years and the rate of growth of the
same: Table 4.10 Year-Wise Total Tourist Arrivals in BangladeshYear#Tourist
Arrivals###Number#Growth Rate (%)##1991#113242###1992#110475#(-)
2.44##1993#126785#(+) 14.76##1994#140122#(+) 10.52##1995#156231#(+)
11.50##1996#165887#(+) 6.18##1997#182420#(+) 9.97##1998#171961#(-)
5.73##1999#172781#(+) 0.48##2000#199211#(+) 15.30
##2001#207199#(+)
4.01##2002#207246#(+) 0.02##2003#244509#(+) 17.98##2004#271270#(+) 10.94 ##Average
Growth Rate#+7.79 %##Source: Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation The table shows that
the number of tourist arrivals in Bangladesh has increased to 271,270 in 2004 from
113,242 in 1991 which shows an average annual growth rate of 7.79 percent. The
tourist arrivals increased in 2003 by 17.98 percent and 10.94 percent in 2004 over
its preceding year. In general, the statistics shows a very good and positive
trend. But the fact is that the overall scenario is not good. This rate can be
considered very accelerative for those countries that have already matured in the
market. But for the initial level of market entry, the above growth rate is not a
positive one. By using the above data (Table 4.10) the projected number of tourist
arrivals for the year 2010 and 2020 can be calculated with the help of regression
analysis where, the model:y = mx + bHere, x is independent variable (year) and y is
dependent variable (total number of tourist arrivals)# EMBED Equation.3 #### EMBED
Equation.3 ###By interpreting and solving this we get the value m = 10873.734 and
b = 94828.35 and then the model stands as: y = 10873.734(x) + 94828.35 and the
projected tourist arrivals is 312303 and 421040 for the year 2010 and 2020

respectively subject to remaining the present trend unchanged, whereas the BPC
forecasted that Bangladesh will receive 0.9 million tourists in 2020 which seems
very unrealistic forecast. 4.13.6 Foreign Exchange Earnings from Tourism and
Travels in BangladeshThe marketing performance of any tourism organization can be
evaluated based on the earnings by the organization. So, it was attempted to focus
on the earnings of BPC and the growth rate of the same for the last couple of years
to have a clear picture of the sector in terms of financial performance. The
following table (Table 4.11) is shows the earnings and growth rate of the same of
BPC, the only government owned tourism organization in Bangladesh:Table 4.11
Foreign Exchange Earnings from Tourism and Travels in BangladeshYear#Earnings from
Tourism###Amount (Million Tk*)#Growth Rate (%)##1990-91#267.7###1991-92#391.3#(+)
46.17##1992-93#448.3#(+) 14.57##1993-94#1607.1#(+) 35.4##1994-95#823.6#(+)
35.66##1995-96#1125.4 #(+) 36.64##1996-97#1799.7 #(+) 59.92##1997-98#3086.9 #(+)
71.52##1998-99#2370.1 #(-) 23.22##1999-00#2582.7 #(+) 8.97##2000-01#2638.1 #(+)
2.15##2001-02#3087.1 #(+) 17.02##2002-03#3207.4 #(+)3.90##2003-04#3782.7 #(+)
17.94##2004-05#4203.25#(+) 11.12##Average Growth Rate#(+) 24.12##Source: Bangladesh
Bank and BPC Web page, available from: http://www.bangladeshtourism.gov.bd
/resource_center_wtar9904_03_sh2.php (accessed 30.03.06)Though the foreign exchange
earnings through mobilizing domestic resources by the host countrys tourism
industry can play an important role in the economy, the earning of BPC is very
insignificant in terms of the overall earnings of the said industry in the world
and even in the Asian region. The earnings from tourism in Bangladesh was Tk. 267.7
million in 1990-91 which increased to Tk. 4,203.25 million in 2004-2005. There is
also a very positive sign that every year from 1990-01 to 2004-2005 has a positive
growth rate except 1998-99. The year 1998-99 is exceptional and achieved a negative
growth rate over its preceding year may be due to devastating flood in all over the
country and which lasted about 2 months. The highest growth rate was achieved in
1997-98 which is 71.52 percent over the previous year. From the above table,
comment can be made that though Bangladesh does not have a good position in world
tourism, but the trend of growth rate in the earnings is encouraging. 4.13.7
Tourists Arrivals from SAARC Countries to BangladeshThere are seven countries of
South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) including Bangladesh. As it
was clear from the discussion made in the earlier sections that the position of
Bangladesh in world tourist arrivals and even is not amazing through the industry
is growing faster than in any other industry. It was also observed that in the
South Asian countries, the position of Bangladesh is very insignificant. It was
attempted to see the picture of the tourist arrival in Bangladesh from the SAARC
countries and which can be shown in the following table (Table 4.12):
Table 4.12
Tourists Arrivals from Member Countries of SAARC (1995-2004)##CountryYear
#Bhutan#India#Maldives#Nepal#Pakistan#Sri Lanka#SAARC Total#Total Arrivals#Share of
SAARC Countries##1995#415(0,65)#46015 (72.10)#94(0.15)#2995(4.69)#12903(20.22)#1395
(2.19)#63817(100,00)#156231#40.85##1996#568(0.86)#53007(80.45)#97(0.15)#3628
(5.51)#7070(10.73)#1522(2.31)#65892(100,00)#165887#39.72##1997#959(1.18)#61606
(75.92)#123(01.5)#5296(6.53)#11481(14.15)#1686(2.08)#81151(100,00)#182420#44.49
##1998#441(0.57)#57937(75.26)#63(0.08)#4799(6.23)#12087(15.70)#1563(2.15)#76980
(100,00)#171961#44.77##1999#730(0.93)#62935(80.50)#53(0.07)#4733(6.05)#7894
(10.10)#1839(2.35)#78184(100,00)#172781#45.25##2000#1010(1.09)#74268(79.85)#189
(0.20)#4481(4.82)#10637(11.44)#2427(2.61)#93012(100,00)#199211#46.69##2001#1263
(1.35)#78090(83.25)#129(0.14)#4280(4.58)#7010(7.47)#3026(3.23)#93798(100,00)#207199
#45.27##2002#1241(1.28)#80415(82.74)#150(0.15)#4159(4.56)#8703(8.95)#2524
(2.60)#97192(100,00)#207246#46.90##2003#1228(1.20)#84704(82.97)#182(0.18)#3904
(3.82)#9238(9.05)#2831(2.77)#102087(100,00)#244509#41.75##2004#874(0.88)#80469
(80.95)#98(0.10)#3144(3.16)#11997(12.07)#2826(2.84)#99408
(100.00)#271270#36.65##Source: Special Branch, Bangladesh, available from:
http://www.bangladeshtourism.gov.bd/statistics_saarc_ visitors.php (accessed
25.3.06)It can be noted that a large number of tourist visited Bangladesh is from
SAARC Countries. It is almost half of the total tourist arrivals in Bangladesh. The
share of the tourist arrivals from SAARC countries to Bangladesh was more than 40
percent from 1995 to 2003 which was decreased to 36.64 percent in 2004. Another

important issue to observe here is that most of the tourists of SAARC countries are
from India. The share of Indian tourists travelled Bangladesh constituted 72.10
percent in 1995 which increased to 80.95 percent in 2004. The second highest number
comes from Pakistan which was 12.07 percent in 2004 followed by Nepal by 3.16
percent.

Chapter 5 Empirical Analysis of the Study5.1 Introduction- Promotion in Tourism


Marketing The main purpose of using promotion in tourism marketing is to link the
potential tourists and market destinations harnessing interest in smaller,
individual attractions to promote the area as a whole. Tourists opinion about a
country frequently are based on what they have heard or read about that country and
they have definite country-specific attracting and repelling factors affecting
their decisions regarding travel to that country (Kale and Weir, 1986).# Generally,
consumers like to know in advance what they are buying what the product features
are and what the service will do for them (Lovelock, 1983).# In the same way, the
potential tourists want to know properly in advance about the attractions,
services, facilities, etc. at the destination and accessibility to there. Various
forms of promotional activities can serve this purpose and leads the marketers
undertaking several promotional measures by using the different promotional tools
in order to provide the related information to the potential tourists and influence
their decisions to visit the destination and enjoy the attractions. Again the level
of the tourists satisfaction may be interrupt by some diversified, unpredictable
and unstable factors such as seasonal, political, social, economic, etc which
necessitate the stronger demand for pre-purchase information so that the tourist
can avoid the risk of any sort of uncertainty.Unlike durable goods, intangible
tourism services cannot be physically displayed or inspected at the point of sale
before purchasing and they are bought before the time of their use and away from
the place of consumption (Buhalis, 1998).# Then the author also stated that as
information is the lifeblood of the travel industry, because of they depend
exclusively upon representations and descriptions, provided by the travel trade,
(e.g. information in brochures), for their ability to attract consumers and timely
and accurate information, relevant to consumers' needs, is often the key to
satisfaction of tourist demand. The industry directs various forms of promotion at
a relatively larger number of people in different countries of heterogeneous socioeconomic and cultural background, diversified needs and expectations, various
consumption patterns, and different leisure-spending behaviours (Hossain, 1999).#
The main purpose of the promotional activities is to draw the attention and grow
interest among the potential tourists to select the sponsors destination over the
competitors destinations.A National Tourism Organization (NTO) is the officially
recognized expert body on tourism matters in any country and is in charge of
expanding a countrys incoming tourism (Jefferson as cited in Rita and Moutinho,
1992).# The authors then stated that to achieve this goal it must promote the
destination in the international travel markets which led the NTO of a country to
accomplish the promotion of its stake in the international markets. So, the policymakers and industry leaders of the destination country need to formulate and launch
effective promotional measures to strengthen the competitive position so that goal
of developing this industry can be achieved by attracting more tourists.As service
is more difficult to evaluate than goods and that, as a consequence, consumers may
be forced to rely on different cues and processes when evaluating services
(Zeithaml, 1981).# Promotional activities play a vital role in presenting these
cues and processes to the tourists, helping them to evaluate tourism products and
services and making the right purchase decisions (Hossain, 1999).# Every tourist
destination country should attempts to the needs or what they are seeking to coming
there rather to force what they consider the usual tourist attractions on them.
Since, tourism is an important component with strong linkage with all other
components of tourism system, it is considered as a major policy and program
activity of many nations, provinces, states, governmental developments and
businesses (Gunn and Var, 2002).# On the other hand, Mill and Morrison (2002)#
described that the goals of behavior modification are more effectively achieved by
matching the three types of promotion with the stages of the visitors buying
process. These types are: (i) informative promotions are most effective at the
earlier buying process stages of attention and comprehension, (ii) promotion
messages must grab the visitors attention, while providing enough information and
convincing arguments to assist with comprehension and (iii) persuasive promotions
are used to change attitudes, develop intensions to buy, and to initiate purchases.

These arguments clearly state that promotion is pivotal for marketing any products
or service and can help to modify the tourists behavior by having them switch to
another destination, package or service or it can help to reinforce tourists
existing behavior by having the repeat visitor continue to purchase the same
destination, package or other service. Tourism industry of a destination country
extends its efforts to uncover these factors and accordingly, on the basis of these
factors it develops necessary promotional strategies to draw attention and grow
substantial interest among the potential tourists. While designing promotional
strategies, the industry also requires making decisions about which promotional
tools, media, images and formats to use (Hossain and Firozzaman, 2003).# Thus,
promotion intends to attract the tourists by informing, persuading, or reminding
the visitor about the promoters services.Promotion in tourism is a vital force for
the marketing of tourism products or services and play an important role in draw
the attention of the tourists, modify it to a positive was and grow attention of
the potential tourists and influence them to visit a sponsors destination. As
tourism industry is highly fragmented and diversified consisting of many
organizations like National Tourism Organization, private tour operators, airlines,
travel agencies, hotels, restaurants, transport companies and other service related
firms, so well-coordinated efforts among these organizations are required in
conducting an effective promotional measure. 5.2 Promotional Activities Used in
Bangladesh for Tourism MarketingBPC is the only National Tourism Organization (NTO)
in Bangladesh and acts as the public sector tour operator and there are a few
number of private tour operators. But most of the private tour operates established
newly and lack the sufficient amount of funds. Instead of the lacks of sufficient
amount of funds, both BPC and private tour operators are trying to conduct the
promotional activities in order to attract more tourists to its destination and
thus, develop the tourism industry in Bangladesh. As we know that marketing
promotion includes advertising, Personal selling, sales promotion and publicity.
All these tools of promotion are used in promoting Bangladesh tourism. As it was
mentioned that BPC is only the public sector tour operator in Bangladesh and most
of the private tour operators have started their operation recently, the major
promotional activities are undertaken by BPC. BPC uses all traditional techniques
to perform the responsibility of stimulating tourism demands among the markets and
promoting Bangladesh as a tourist destination through a variety of promotional
forms and activities (Hossain and Hossain, 2002).# One of the major attempts of
BPCs promotional measure is to producing and distributing printed materials
including brochures, souvenirs, booklets, guides, leaflets, posters, folders etc.
for disseminating information among the prospective markets. Including these
printed materials, a special brochure featuring its package tour and corresponding
prices, BPC distributes these with the help of different foreign tour operators,
Bimans overseas offices, Bangladesh mission offices abroad. On the other hand BPC
produces some tourist maps, view cards, and picture post cards and distribute
through those offices at a minimum price. These printed materials are distributed
in order to disseminate the key information highlighting the tourism attractions of
Bangladesh. BPC has the arrangement for the same in its own information centre in
home country in order to provide the information among the local people, domestic
resident foreigners, and visiting foreigners.Personal selling is the most expensive
element of the promotion mix. Contact employees represent the organization,
physically embody the product, directly influence customer satisfaction, and act as
walking billboards from a promotional standpoint (Zeithaml and Bitner, 2003).#
Therefore, BPC also trains its contact personnel and employees to ensure better
interactions with the tourists and maintain effective relations with the tour
operators and travel agencies in the tourist generating countries and thus motivate
them to sell its package programs (Hossain and Firozzaman).# BPC also maintains
contact with some selected tour operators and travel agencies in some important
tourist-generating countries and sometimes organizes complementary tours for the
selected foreign tour operators to familiarize them with the tourism installations
and facilities in Bangladesh. The main objective of such arrangement is to motivate
the potential tourists to visit Bangladesh. Thus, it serves as both the personal

selling and publicity for the tourism industry of Bangladesh.Sales promotion


activity cost money whether through the additional cost of printing, free gifts,
extra product, samples or competition prizes; or through the loss of contribution
caused by discounting price (Norgan, 1994).# BPC uses different kinds of sales
promotion techniques to persuade the visitor to
choose Bangladesh as a tourist destination. The techniques used by BPC include
quantity discount, children discount, off-season price rebate and improved service
packages for it package tours, cruise programs and accommodations. Responding to a
question, BPC executives mentioned that they normally offer 15 to 30 percent
discount during its service week and also in the off-season. In addition, BPC
offers extra services, improved services and improved food at the existing price.
With in marketing promotion mix elements, publicity appears to be the most useful
form of promotional measures of the BPC (Hossain and Hossain, 2002).# BPC also
participate in international tourism exhibitions like the ITB at Berlin through
which attractive package tours are sold to international tour operators and a large
number of individual visitors in the fair. During tourism month (16 October 15
November) different cultural night shows, food festivals, seminars, symposiums,
audio-visual presentations etc are arranged mainly locally. Hasan (1992)# mentioned
that BPC also attempts to publish articles featuring Bangladesh tourism in
different reputed professional magazines and tourism related journals which also
serve as publicity for the industry in Bangladesh.BPC also uses a web page for
disseminating the information to the potential tourists. But the fact is that the
web page does not contain the complete information of Bangladesh tourism and it
related facilities. As a result, it is tough for a potential tourist to have the
required information from the said page.In the local market, BPC advertise in
different newspapers, magazines, television and radio. BPC also sometime advertises
in some specialized and special interest magazines. Hossain and Hossain (2002)#
described that BPC does not use any international TV channels, foreign news papers,
or world-class general newsmagazines to promote Bangladesh as a tourist
destination. The authors stated the reasons of not using those media because of
mainly Bangladesh tourism products/services and facilities still require further
development of the needs of the international tourist and lack of fund to meet the
cost of those expensive media. This inability leads BPC to use the local media even
though it is very limited in scale.
During the tourism season, BPC with the
help of Bangladesh Mission offices and cooperation of foreign tour operators and
film clubs arranges the audio-visual presentations on some important tourist
attractions and facilities of the country among the potential tourists in some
popular tourist generating countries.BPC has taken steps for mutual cooperation
through different international organizations and maintaining liaison with various
tourism and travel trade organizations like WTO, SARTC, ASTA, PATA etc. BPC as an
active member of those organizations is attending in different seminars, workshop
in order to extending the mutual cooperation among the member countries and trying
to disseminate information for the development of tourism industry for each
country. At the same time, the mutual cooperation among the SAARC countries has
been initiated by forming a technical committee in 1991 and adopted an action plan
on tourism development. Hasan (1988)# stated that BPC has undertaken steps for
mutual cooperation with neighbouring countries, especially Nepal, for joint
publicity campaign, joint production of tourist publicity materials, joint
marketing, group tours, exchange of travel agents, travel writers, tour operators,
and joint training facilities in various services including hotels. The above
discussion describes that promotion plays an important role in marketing of any
product or service. Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation is trying at its utmost level
by using the different form and techniques of promotional tools. But BPC lacks
seriously for sufficient funds and it limits the promotional activities in a very
limited scale. The following table (Table 5.1) shows the year-wise foreign exchange
earnings of BPC and promotion expenditure:Table 5.1 Foreign Exchange Earnings,
Promotion Budget and Actual Promotion Expenditure of Bangladesh Parjatan
Corporation (BPC)Year#Earnings from Tourism (TK. in Million)#Promotion Expenditures
(TK. in Million)#% of Promotion Expenditures on Earnings##1991-

92#391.3#2.965#0.76%##1992-93#448.3#5.363#1.20%##1993-94#607.1#8.065#1.33%##199495#823.6#7.143#0.87%##1995-96#1125.4 #7.935#0.71%##1996-97#1799.7
#10.391#0.58%##1997-98#3086.9 #9.058#0.29%##1998-99#2370.1 #8.096#0.34%##199900#2582.7 #10.147#0.39%##2000-01#2638.1 #10.834#0.41%##2001-02#3087.1
#7.399#0.24%##2002-03#3207.4 #10.06#0.31%##2003-04#3782.7 #-#-##200405#4203.25#10.413#0.25%##Source: Bangladesh Bank and BPC Web page(-) Figures are
not availableIt is apparent from the table 5.1 that BPC spend a small percentage of
its total income for promotional activities. In 1991-92, BPC spent only TK. 2.965
million which in only 0.76 percent of its total earnings. The spending for the same
purpose increased to Tk. 10.413 in 2004-05 but the percentage on total earnings
decreased to only 0.25 percent. Tk. 10.413 million is equivalent to about US$
158,000 only can not meet the demand for the need of expenditure of an effective
promotional measure. Because of the diverse location of the potential tourists and
the increasing competition among the different competitive destination countries,
tourism sector needs undertake vigorous promotional activities at the national and
international levels. Again, the promotion for tourism needs to have the
international coverage which requires using international media. To use the
international media for promoting any product or service needs a hand some amount
of money to spend. But it is clear that the amount spend by BPC is not sufficient
enough to use international media covering a vast area of the potential tourist
attracting regions. As a result, Bangladesh fails to highlight its tourist
attractions to the potential tourists as well as to draw the attention and
influence them to select Bangladesh as a tourist destination. The insufficiency of
the fund for conducting promotional activities, BPC has to depend on the local
media, posters, folders, brochures, tourist maps etc.
The private tour operators
also lack of sufficient fund to operate an extensive promotional activities. As a
result, they also conduct some promotional activities in a traditional form by
distributing the brochures, leaflets, making advertisements in the local
newspapers, participation of different exhibitions arranged locally. But a limited
number of private tour operators prints and distributes their brochures in Bengali
(local language), English and Japanese languages and some other operators do the
same either in Bengal or in English or in both. There are some operators who
participate in the international tourism fairs to attract the attention and
encourage the potential tourists and try to sell package tours to the foreign tour
operators as well as to the individual tourist. This sort of participation helps to
get the media coverage in the international level. But most of the private tour
operators try to attract the local nationals and the foreign residents already
living in Bangladesh or visiting Bangladesh. The private tour operators also use
some sorts of sales promotion like off-season price discounts, free distribution of
printed materials; organize live music programs for the visitors in destinations
spot, extra service offers, group tour discounts for the packages offered and river
cruise programs. Hardly two or three operators are using the web page for the
promotion of the tourism in Bangladesh. 5.3 A Brief Overview/Profile of Some
Selected South Asian Countries There are some similarities and dissimilarities
among the countries considered in the study from the South Asian regions. To have a
general idea, the researcher attempted to make a comparison on some specific
factors like location, geographical coordinates, language, population, religion,
GDP, GDP real growth rate, per capita income and so on. The appendix- II shows a
short description of eight South Asian countries by which any one can get a short
idea about the overall condition of each country. In most cases there are
similarities among those countries and also there is some dissimilarity. Before
choosing a destination, the information shown in the appendix II may be helpful
for a tourist to make the decision. At the same time, those factors also affect the
capacity to attract the number of tourist to a particular destination of any of
those countries.

5.4 Transportation, Accommodation, Food and DrinksTransportation, accommodation,


food and drinks or beverage are the important elements of tourism system. A tourist
wants to be ensured about cheap, comfortable, and easy access transportation and
accommodation available for the destination place so that he/she can reach and stay
safely and can enjoy the attraction of the destination. In addition, food and
beverage are considered as partial tourist products and the tourists want to be
satisfied with these products qualitatively, quantitatively, esthetically,
ethnologically and in any other sense. These elements also incur the major costs
for a tourist. As a result, before deciding about a destination to travel, its a
major consideration for a tourist along with the attraction(s) of the destination.
The researcher attempted to highlight on some of the aspects regarding these issues
in the following subsections:
5.4.1 Transportation in TourismPassenger
transportation is one of the vital components of the tourism system which virtually
connects the visitor to their choice and helps to reach the attraction of the
destinations. Transports, making the destination accessible to the tourists, act as
the sinews and blood vessels for the tourism industry of the country concerned
(Hossain, 1999).# The overall competitiveness of a destination is also related to
the mode of transport to the destination chosen by the tourist and is determined by
the time and the cost to reach the destination. The transportation provides a
critical linkage between market source and destination (Gunn and Var, 2002).# The
authors also stated that transportation between cities and attractions within urban
areas and within attraction complexes demands special attention and planning
consideration. For the overall development of tourism industry, it is important to
develop and maintain the right and efficient transportation links as it affects the
destination greatly. Hasan (1992)# argued that the arrangement of convenient and
cheap travel system from the origin-markets to destination must exist or must be
created. A good transportation network can help to increase the possibility of
attracting more tourists toward a specific destination and the absence of which may
weaken the competitiveness of a destination to the tourists and may put off them
from travelling to enjoy the attractions. Tourists can normally travel by land, sea
or air. Mill and Morrison (2002)# stated that people generally travel either by in
their own private mode of transportation or alternatively use a group travel mode
offered by a common carrier.Different modes of transport provide varying functions,
facilities and operating characteristics. In travel on land, the travellers can
choose any one among private cars, buses or trains while choices for long distance
air travels are limited to commercial airlines. Ships or cruises can be considered
as another interesting option for transportation because a cruise does not only
carry passengers it also provides them the opportunity with vacation atmosphere as
soon as they are on board with facilities tailored at holidaymaker market. Mill and
Morrison (2002)# also stressed that there should have the coordination among the
different types of transportation modes for example air, rail, bus and cruise to
facilitate transfer between modes.For the long distance travel among different
continents, commercial airlines are more suitable for the travellers. The cost of
the air travel depends on the airline chosen, time of travelling and also the easy
availability of the airlines for the chosen destination(s). The researcher
attempted to show the air fare from some selected origin like New York, USA;
Heathrow, UK; Stockholm, Sweden; Brussels, Belgium and Frunkfurt, Germany to some
of the destinations countries of South Asia like Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran,
Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka (For detail of the cost of air ticket,
please see appendix III). It is apparent from the data collected that some airlines
are expensive to travel to Bangladesh compare to the cost of travelling to India,
Pakistan or Maldives. Again some airlines are expensive to travel to Maldives or
Sri Lanka compare to travel to Bangladesh from the same destination. In most cases,
the difference is negligible but in few cases there are significant differences.
The cost of internal travel in Bangladesh is very inexpensive. LenR (2005)#
commented that most internal transport within Bangladesh is incredibly cheap though
on airlines, foreigners pay higher fares but they are still cheap by most standards
and a passenger can travel from Dhaka to any available destination by air paying
only $50. The author also added that the thing which distinguishes Bangladesh from

most countries is the presence of a well-developed and much-used system of river


boats which can be quite an experience.5.4.2 Accommodations/ Hotels in Tourism
Accommodation is one of the most significant factors to have contributed to the
development of tourism world-wide and the absence of which may put off the tourists
from travelling to enjoy the attractions. The overall competitiveness of a
destination is related to many factors, not least being the tourist product
consisting of three components, usually the access, which is the mode of transport
to the destination chosen by the tourist and is determined by the time and the cost
to reach the destination; attractions, which underpin the choice of the tourist to
visit one destination rather than another; and amenities, which are the facilities
available at the destination visited (Dieke and Karamustafa, 2000).# The authors
also described that in a generic sense, amenities include accommodation which needs
to be emphasized that for countries to survive in the international tourism
marketplace they must provide internationally acceptable facilities, which also
must be marketable and the price charged for accommodation has to be right;
needless to say, the quality of the provision should not be compromised. Because
the travellers want good services regarding their accommodation so that they can
get relief from travel hassle. So, customer satisfaction is an important factor
that needs to be considered carefully. Dawn et al, (1994)# mentioned that customer
satisfaction has emerged as an important component in the bottom-line success of
service businesses. Satisfying customer is especially important because it
encourages repeat business and fosters word-of-mouth advertising (Spinelli and
Canavos, 2000).#A tourist destination country needs to provide the secured
accommodation facilities to the foreign tourists as well as to the local tourists
to ensure the comfortable tours for the visitors if it wants to attract a
sufficient number of tourist arrivals. Goeldner et al (2000)# mentioned that
accommodation refers to the facilities for the lodging of visitors to a destination
and the most common forms of which are hotels, motels, campgrounds, bed & breakfast
(B & Bs), dormitories, hostels and the homes of friends and relatives. Sleeping
accommodation can range from hotels of an international standard and condominiums,
to campground and the homes of friends and relatives (Mill and Morrison, 2002).#
Tourists need to stay in the destination. Therefore, arrangements for the
convenient, cheap and secured accommodation systems at the destination places need
to be existed or must be arranged. Since the visitors or tourists are away from
their place of origin, they need to stay and sleep. It is vital for the success for
a tourist region to provide sufficient quantity or right quality accommodations at
a competitive price compare to its competitive destinations countries to fulfill
the visitors needs. The following table (Table 5.2) shows the accommodation/hotel
cost in Bangladesh and its competitive neighbouring countries: Table 5.2 Average
Hotel/ Accommodation Cost (in US$) in South Asian CountriesName of the
country#Hotel Ranking###5 Star #4 Star #3 Star ##Bangladesh#1 Adult: 1772
Adults:177#1 Adult: 1142 Adults: 138#1 Adult:
902 Adults: 100##India#1 Adult:
2792 Adults:291#1 Adult: 1092 Adults: 117#1 Adult:
912 Adults: 100##Iran#1
Adult: 1072 Adults:139#1 Adult:
942 Adults: 112#1 Adult:
802 Adults:
107##Maldives#1 Adult: 3192 Adults:334#1 Adult: 1842 Adults: 223#1 Adult: 1322
Adults: 149##Nepal#1 Adult: 1512 Adults:164#1 Adult:
872 Adults: 100#1 Adult:
542 Adults: 63##Pakistan#1 Adult: 2252 Adults:241#1 Adult:
942 Adults: 109#1
Adult:
622 Adults: 75##Sri Lanka#1 Adult: 1342 Adults:138#1 Adult:
752
Adults:
84#1 Adult: 732 Adults: 82##
Note: For details, please see appendix IV
Here, the researcher has considered only the star hotel ranging from 3 stars to 5
stars to provide a brief overview of the accommodation cost for the tourists in the
South Asian region. In addition to the above every country has many other cheap
hotels, motels, guest houses etc. Even every countrys National Tourism
Organizations has also some sorts of hotels, motels or guest houses facilities.
Here, the researcher has attempted to mention the accommodation facilities provided
by the Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (the only govt. owned tourism organization
in Bangladesh) to fulfill the visitor needs. The cost of these hotels, motels and
cottages are extra ordinarily very cheap. The list of which with the rent can be
seen from appendix V.Besides, the accommodation facilities for the tourists

mentioned in the appendix V, there are many other private owned hotels in most of
the tourist spot in the country. The international standard hotels are available in
Dhaka, Chittagong, and Coxs Bazar - the major tourist spots in the country. The
rest houses of different government, semi-government, autonomous organizations can
also be
hired by the tourist with a minimum cost.5.4.3 Food and DrinksThe provision or
arrangement of food and beverage is vital for tourism and hospitality and has a
strategic importance to this industry. Because of a tourist product is considered
as a total comprising goods and services. Food and beverage are considered as
partial tourist products and the tourists wants to be satisfied with these products
qualitatively, quantitatively, esthetically, ethnologically and in any other sense.
For a tourist consumer, the satisfaction of nutritional needs is not any more a
mere act, but increasingly a culinary-gastronomic experience, more or less
adjusted to the system of values established by the nutritional culture of an
individual tourist consumer (Meler and Cervic, 2003).# The authors emphasized on
the campaign that needs to be launched by the subjects of a tourism industry offers
are a diversification of foodstuff vending programs. The contemporary tourism
industry should have the sufficient arrangements to the tourist destinations to
offer a high-quality and relatively standardized foodstuff in order to fulfill the
tourists needs. Meler and Cervic (2003)# again mentioned that one should bear in
mind that the foreign tourist consumers are very demanding and simultaneously
dainty, primarily thanks to their relatively greater purchasing power. A search for
high-quality highly diversified, healthy, natural and biologically specially
selected food, preferably bearing a renowned trademark as a guarantee of quality,
begins to prevail.But in Bangladesh, the food choices by foreign tourists are to
some extent limited. Western, Chinese and Thai foods are available in all main
hotels and most of the large restaurants located in the large cities and major
tourist spots. Except the large cities, the choice of food for the foreign visitors
is limited and it was supported by LenR (2005).# LenR also stated that outside the
larger cities, the choice of food and restaurant will be quite restricted and in
Dhaka city there are some excellent restaurants serving Thai, Chinese, Italian, and
other cuisines, but in the countryside one will only find basic restaurants and
local food which has been influenced by history, geography, and religion - the
Mughals, the Indians, and the Muslims. In addition to that, the tourists can have a
taste of varieties of local dishes cooked with spices and hot powders. The main
local dishes includes Rezala, Bhoona and Masala Gosht, Chicken, mutton, beef, fish
and prawns, Chicken Baghdadi, Chicken Kashmiri, Chicken Afghani, Chicken Tikka,
Korma, shutli kabab, boti kabab, and a variety of fish curries. Rice like: pulao,
biriani-with rice and mutton or chicken and khichuri are available in most of the
restaurants. Naan, mughlai parata, plain parata etc are available for those who
dont like rice.Different kind of international soft-drinks and some local brands
such as Coca Cola, Pepsi, 7up, Sprite, Mirinda, RC Cola, Virgin, etc and local
drinks like: Lachi the refreshing yogurt drink, sweet milky tea etc are available
everywhere. Local green coconut water is a fine, safe and refreshing drink.
Drinking water may be a problem to some extent though the bottled water is usually
available with no guarantee of purity in most cases. In addition to that hard
drinks are only available in the large hotels and bars and are allowed in that
restricted places not in the open/public places.5.4.4 Estimated Cost for a
Visit/TravelIn selecting a destination, the cost of travelling and staying there is
also an important determinant. To attract tourists, destination must respond to
travel basics of cost, convenience, and timeliness, because of like other consumers
tourists weigh costs against the benefits of specific destinations and investment
of time, effort, and resources against a reasonable return in education,
experience, fun, relaxation, and memories (Kotler et al, 2006).# As a result,
travellers or tourists need to have an idea before deciding on the destination. The
researchers attempted to estimate the total cost of a tour for 10 days from
different places of origin to the several destination of South Asian countries. The
estimated total cost for an individual and for a couple can be seen from the
appendix VI.To calculate the total, the researcher tried to concentrate on the

three (e.g. transportation, accommodation, and food & beverage) major cost
incurring elements of tourism system. But due to the lack of information on the
cost of food and beverage, the researcher considered only transportation and
accommodation cost- the major two cost incurring elements for the tourists. The
researchers personal experience says that the cost of food and beverage in south
Asian countries is relatively cheap. The details on food cost and the comparison of
total cost of travelling in South Asian region with other regions may be an
interesting topic for further study. The mentioned appendix shows only the cost for
an individual and for a couple but not for a standard family. Normally a standard
family consists of husband, wife and two kids and the total cost depends on the age
of the kids. For example, the cost of air ticket for a kid largely depends on the
age of that kid. In addition, whether a standard family needs two double beds or an
extra bed in one double room depends on the age of the kids. 5.5 Important
Findings from the Existing Literature and Experience Presented as Syllogisms
Syllogism 1Premise1 (P1): To attract the tourists to any particular destination
needs to have some distinctive attractions or icons (Becken, 2005).#Premise 2 (P2):
Bangladesh has some delicate and distinctive attractions of its own to offer the
tourists (t 2 Bangladesh, undated).#Conclusion (C2): Bangladesh has the potentials
to attract a large number of tourists to its attractions.Syllogism 2P1:
The
development of tourism industry helps to generate employment opportunities in the
tourism related sector of the country (Sinclair, 1998).#P2:Every nation wants to
create some employment opportunities in the economy.C:
The development of
tourism industry in Bangladesh will obviously help to create the employment
opportunities in different sector like hotel, transportation, restaurant and other
tourism service related fields for the unemployed people. Syllogism 3P1:
People
want to enjoy the vacation with entertainment and recreation through the activities
like conversing, hunting and fishing, shopping, sports and exercise, amusement etc
for the refreshment of body or mind (Wikipedia, undated).#P2:
Tourism is a field
where the people can have the opportunity of enjoying the entertainment and
recreation (Goeldner, et al, 2000).#C:
Bangladesh Parjatan (Tourism) Corporation
(BPC) can attract more tourists by offering entertainment and recreation facilities
to the incoming tourists. Syllogism 4P1: Top most tourist attractive destinations
have no image problem to attract the tourists.P2:
The world thinks Bangladesh
as a country of poor, flood-ravaged, and more of a disaster zone than a travel
destination (LenR, 2005).#C: The initiatives of Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation
(BPC) as well as the govts initiatives are required to eliminate the negative
images and to build the positive image of the country so that it can be a
destination for the potential tourists.Syllogism 5P1: The world wide tourist
arrivals and foreign exchange earnings from this sector is growing day by day
(Incredible India, 2004).#P2: The scenario of growing trend of tourist arrivals and
earnings in Asia and the Pacific particularly in the South Asia is very emerging
(Incredible India, 2004).#C: Bangladesh tourism has the great potential if it can
adopt and implement the appropriate policies and strategies and can promote it
destinations effectively.Syllogism 6P1: Sufficient and easy access to information
enables the development of tourism industry (Buhalis, 1998). #P2:
Bangladesh
does not have these.C: Bangladesh needs to develop these in order to increase the
number of tourists.Syllogism 7P1: Consumers like to know in advance about the
features, quality, price, availability etc. what they are planning to purchase
(Lovelock, 1983).#P2:
Potential tourists also want to know in advance about the
attractions, services, and facilities etc at the destination and accessibility to
there through various forms of promotional measures (Hossain and Hossain, 2002).#C:
Bangladesh Tourism industry needs to take necessary promotional activities to
inform the potential tourists in advance regarding the tourism products and
services available in Bangladesh.Syllogism 8 P1:
More promotional activities
like advertising, sales promotion, pricing, and packaging of tourism services can
help to alleviate some negative images toward a specific destination (Ahmed,
1991).#P2: In implementing the more promotional activities, more promotion budget
is needed.C:
Bangladesh tourism industry needs to implement more promotional
activities which need to allocate more funds for conducting promotional activities.

Syllogism 9P1:
Through exchange process and experience, people can enrich their
knowledge and self realization.P2: Tourism is an exchange process through which
the tourist can gather knowledge about host community's quality of life, value
systems, family relationships, attitudes, behavioural patterns, ceremonies and
creative expressions and return home with some new outlooks on life, habits and
added experiences (Calantone, and Mazanec, 1991). #C: The tourism in Bangladesh has
the values to the tourists which has some social and cultural significance and can
be an opportunity to exchange the social and cultural values among themselves and
the tourists and may in turn help to enrich their cultural values of the tourists
as well as the local communities. Syllogism 10P1:
There
is stiff competition among the tourist destination countries (Ahmed, 1991)# to
attract the significant number of tourists. P2: Tourism industry, in most of the
destination countries is considered to have the top priority to face the
competition and gain the more expected result from the industry.C:
Bangladesh
tour operators should have to give the top priority to develop the industry and to
attract more tourists to its destination.Syllogism 11P1:
Lobour-incentive
industry provides more opportunities of creating employment generation for a large
number of people.P2:
Tourism as a lobour-incentive industry can be a better
source of employment generation for a large number of skilled and unskilled persons
in tourism related different sectors and sub-sectors (Morena, 2004).#C:
Bangladesh is supposed to pay due attention for creating more employment
opportunities through developing tourism industry.Syllogism-12P1:
Services
have some distinct characteristics like intangibility, inseparability,
perishability and heterogeneity (Zeithaml, et al, 1985)# which are different from
tangible products. P2: Tourism is also a service which posses the special and
distinct characteristics from the tangible products.C:
Due to special
characteristics of tourism service from those of tangible products, tourism product
is that it cannot be examined prior to purchase, can not be stored, and involves an
element of travel which requires special attention of the marketer.Syllogism 13P1:
Proper distribution of income to all regions is essential for the development
of all regions of a country.P2:
Tourism redistributes income through out the
nation, and from foreign countries to host countrys rural communities (Edgell and
Cartwright, 1990).#C:
Bangladesh tourism is not an exception from this.Syllogism
14P1: Participation of local community is necessary for the development of tourism
industry (Tosun and Jenkins, 1998). #P2: In developed counties, the active
participation of local community in tourism planning is extensively observed (Tosun
and Jenkins, 1998).#C: Bangladesh should take appropriate steps to involve local
community actively for the development of the tourism sector of Bangladesh.
Syllogism 15P1:
A product is a bundle of benefits rather than a simple tangible
one and a consumer purchases that bundle of benefits.P2:
Tourism is also a
composite of activities, services and industries that delivers a travel experience:
transportation, accommodations, eating and drinking establishments, shops,
entertainment, activity facilities and other hospitality services available for
individuals or groups that are travelling away from home (Goeldner, et al, 2000).#
C:
To satisfy the tourists in relatively a better way requires the coordinated
and integrated efforts among the parties involved in tourism industry.Syllogism 16
P1:
Tourism is an industry with a diversity of long-term consequences (Tooman,
1997, p. 930). #P2:
Airlines, local transportation, hotels, restaurants etc are
interrelated to tourism business.C: To develop tourism industry needs to develop
other interrelated sub-sector of this industry. Syllogism 17P1: The
internationalization of services is at the core of today's economic globalization
(Fayed and Fletcher, 2002).#P2:
Activities related to tourism are also
considered as economic ones (Sinclair, 1998).#C:
Tourism activities and
services are operated in the global context and has become one of the most
important industries in the world.Syllogism 18P1:
The economic development of a
country depend not only national development but also regional development. P2:
Tourism is increasingly seen as a catalyst for regional development, and can
support development in peripheral regions (Briedenham and Wickens, 2004).# C:
Tourism helps not only national development but also contribute to regional

development.Syllogism 19P1:
Every nation has some unemployment.P2:
Developing
nations have more unemployment rate which needs to be solved.C: Bangladesh is a
developing nation with serious unemployment problems and the development of the
tourism industry can contribute to solve some of the part of this problem.Syllogism
20P1: Small businesses contribute to employment generation as well as to the
national development.P2:
Travel and tourism can be used to promote the small
businesses in the rural areas and rural economic development (Edgell and
Cartwright, 1990).#C:
Travel and Tourism contribute in rural development as well
as national development.Syllogism 21P1: Proper policy is needed for the
development of any industrial sector of the economy.P2:
Tourism is also an
important industry. C: Government policy support is required for the development
of tourism industry.Syllogism 22P1: Cost effectiveness in promotional activities
strengthens the marketing competitiveness of a company (Rita and Moutinho, 1992).#
P2:
Internet has got the immense popularity as a medium of promotion of any
product or services in the world-wide market at comparatively low cost (Tierney,
2000).#C:
Internet can be an effective tool for the promotion of tourism products
and service by any country.Syllogism 23P1:
Positive image toward a destination
is important to attract the tourists from the different parts of the world. P2:
Destination marketing requires focusing in conveying a positive image of a
destination to the potential tourist groups (Ahmed, 1996).#C:
Bangladesh as it
is suffering the image problems needs to change the image to its destination among
the potential tourist segments.Syllogism 24P1: Some destinations have gained a
negative image in the minds of travellers (Ahmed, 1991).#P2:
Bangladesh as a
destination has some negative image in the mind of potential tourists (Pannell Kerr
Forster Associates, 1998).# C:
Bangladesh needs to take some corrective steps
to build positive image to prospective tourist segments.Syllogism 25P1:
Many
businesses are using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for the
improvement of its services and effectiveness of the overall activities (OECD,
2004).#P2: Tourism business is changing rapidly which need to improve its services
and effectiveness to satisfy the tourists (Robinson, 2003).# C: Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) can contribute to improve the tourism business,
particularly in research, communicating and gather information as required by the
tourists in addition to booking airlines tickets and hotel seats etc. Syllogism 26
P1:
Tourism has emerged as an important force for the promotion of international
understanding, and peace (Singh, 1987).#P2:
The creation of international
friendship and peace are now in the top priority of all nations.C:
Bangladesh
tourism and travel industry can create friendship among the people of different
nations and different culture which in turn helps to contribute in the
international peace and cooperation.5.6 Important Remarks Based on Existing
Literature and Empirical StudyRemark 1: Bangladesh is suffering with negative image
because of the international media most often highlight Bangladesh negatively
rather an attractive tourist destination which leads the tourists not to chooses
Bangladesh to visit. This indicates that the concern authority needs to undertake
proper initiatives from the government level to correct the present image and needs
to have the international media coverage in a positive way. Remark 2: Data shows
that Bangladesh has the potential of receiving a large number of tourists and a
handsome amount of earnings from this sector. In 2004, an increase in tourist
arrivals of 10.94 percent, to 271,000, an increase of 11.12 percent in receipts to
Tk. 4203.25 million in the year 2004-05 marked as a very positive growth for
tourism in Bangladesh. The average growth rate in tourist arrivals in Bangladesh
from 1991 to 2004 is 7.19 percent and the same in earnings from 1990-91 to 20042005 is 24.12 percent whereas the WTOs forecast is average annual growth rate is
6.10 percent between 1995 to 2020 for South Asia. The effective measures can uphold
the present growth rate or even can be useful to accelerate the growth rate and can
contribute to earning more from this sector.Remark 3: Bangladesh lacks the required
infrastructural facilities like sufficient number of standard hotels, motels,
transportation, security of the potential tourists, new products and services etc
in the destination for developing the tourism sector at an expected way. So, due
attention and initiatives are essential for a significant growth of this sector.

Remark 4: For a real sense, the promotional activities for tourism products or
services need to undertake and launch at the national level and also at the
international levels. It is a must to attract foreign tourists to earn foreign
currency from this sector which needs to conduct the marketing promotion at the
international level especially to those countries or destinations from where the
host county wants to attract or receive the tourists. To conduct any promotional
measure or campaign for any product or service in the international level needs to
use the media which has the international coverage like international Newspapers,
Internet, Cable TV, participation in the international tourism fairs etc and these
media are also expensive. But the total promotion budget of BPC was Tk. 10.413
million in 2004-05 (at present market price this amount is equivalent to US$
150,000, where US$ = TK. 69.4) which is only 0.25 percent of the total earnings
Bangladesh tourism. In consideration of the amount spent for promotion in the year
2004-05 is the highest amount since the inception of BPC. It can easily comment
that this amount for promotional activities for a vital sector like tourism is
quite insufficient in conducting any promotional campaign at the national and
international levels.
This leads BPC not to take any vigorous promotional effort for tourism. If
Bangladesh tourism wants to undertake any extensive promotional campaign more
promotional budget is required to allocate for the same.Remark 5: Promotional
activities undertaken by Bangladesh tourism sector is not effective and is limited
to traditional activities like distributing brochures, hand book, advertising in
national news papers, local TV channels etc. Both the existing literature and the
data collected show that the promotional measures taken by Bangladesh tourism are
not effective. The existing literature shows that the promotional activities
undertaken by this sector is very traditional in form and are limited to folders,
posters, accomodation guide etc. and again it is not well distributed and
publicized. The empirical data shows that the mean score of the effectiveness is
3.75 where the average score for effectiveness is 4.00 (average score indicates
neither effective nor effective). It indicates that the promotional measures
undertaken by BPC can affect the potential tourists in a very limited scale which
causes not to attract the expected number of tourists and earning from the sector.
If Bangladesh wants to attract a large number of tourists for earning more foreign
currency by using the full potential of this sector, there is no alternative of
taking rigorous promotional activities at least to some major tourists generating
destinations or countries.Remark 6: The WTO Tourism 2020 Vision forecasts that the
average growth rate in tourism industry for South Asia will be 6.1% during 19952020. The present trend in tourist arrivals in Bangladesh indicates that the
average annual growth rate in tourist arrivals to Bangladesh 7.19% which is above
the WTO estimates. Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation forecasted that if the present
growth rate continues, Bangladesh will receive 900,000 tourists in 2020 and the
earning from this sector will increase accordingly (BPC, 2004)# though it is not
suggested by the projected valued of the regression model. Remark 7: Most of the
private tour operators started their activities recently. Out of the 20
respondents, 5 were from Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC), the only National
Tourism Organization in Bangladesh started its operation in 1973 and the remaining
15 were from private tour operators. Among the private tour operators, seven out of
fifteen constituting 46.46% started their activities during 2001 to 2005, five
operators constituting 33.33% started the same with in the period of 1996 to 2000,
one in 1991-1995, one in 1986-1990 and the remaining one has started the same in
1976-1980. As most of the tour operators are new in this area of marketing, they
lack the experience and capital to run the business as most of them expressed their
sufferings due to lack of fund for conducting the necessary promotional activities
for the marketing of tourism services. It also indicates that the government should
extend the cooperation to provide some training to enhance the skills of the
operators and should provide some extra opportunities to the tour operators to get
long-term loan at a minimum interest so that they can meet their financial
requirements. Remark 8: The international tourist arrivals in South Asian
countries# was 3,150,000 in 1990 which increased to 7,501,000 in 2004 and the same

in Bangladesh increased from 115,000 to 271,000 in the same period. Though the
number of arrivals in Bangladesh increased during this period (1990 to 2004), there
is a minor decrease from 3.65% to 3.61% in the share of Bangladesh. The foreign
exchange earnings from international tourist arrivals in SAARC countries was US$
2029 million in 1990 which increased to US$ 7332 million in 2004 and the same in
Bangladesh increased from US$ 11 million to US$ 67 million in the mentioned period.
The share of Bangladesh in foreign currency earnings among SAARC countries
increased from 0.54 percent in 1990 to 0.91 percent in 2004. These can be again
increased by taking the proper measures and attracting more tourists to the
destination of Bangladesh.Remark 9: Out of the 20 respondents, 17 constituting 85%
respondents realize that promotional activities need to increase but they fail to
do that due to lack of funds. But if the tourism destination and it facilities is
not properly highlighted to potential tourists, no destination can expect more
tourists to visit same. Because the capability of any destination not only depends
on the destinations attractiveness but also how effectively marketers can present
it to the prospective tourists and can draw their attention and grow interest to
that particular destination.Remark 10: Both the local and potential international
tourists face the problem of easy access to information related to Bangladesh
tourism and its facilities. Though BPC uses its web page, but it is not capable to
highlight the Bangladesh tourism attractions and the necessary related information
properly. Bangladesh National Tourism Organization needs to develop a well designed
shopsticated web page so that the potential tourists can get all the necessary
information related to Bangladesh tourism from any corner or part of the world and
thus, can make their queries and bookings through online easily. 5.7 Analysis of
Respondents ResponsesTo have clear understanding about what is happening in
promoting Bangladesh tourism, its limitation and steps necessary for the
development of the same, it was attempted to interview some tour operators in
Bangladesh. The respondents responses can be analyzed in the following subsections: 5.7.1 Tour Operators To collect the primary data, 20 respondents were
collected from the tour operators. The following table (Table 5.3) shows the
distribution of the respondents:Table 5.3 Distribution of the SampleSample
Categories#No. of Respondents##Top executives of Bangladesh Parjatan
(Tourism)Corporation#05##Private tour operators#15##Total#20##The private tour
operators were selected from the list of Tour Operators Association of Bangladesh
(TOAB). It is important to note here that the private tour operators were selected
only from Dhaka (the capital of Bangladesh) because most of them are Dhaka based.
Out of the 20 respondents, 5 were from Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC), the
only National Tourism Organization in Bangladesh established in 1973 and the
remaining 15 were from private tour operators. The year of establishment of the
private tour operators are as: Table 5.4 Year of Establishment of Private Tour
OperatorsYear of establishment#No. of respondents#% of the respondents##1976-1980
1981-19851986-19901991-19951996-20002001-2005#010001010507# 6.67 0.00 6.67 6.67
33.3346.46##Total#15#
100.00##It is apparent from the above table that most
of the tour operators have started their marketing activities recently. Though the
tourism marketing was started in Bangladesh after the immediate of the independence
of the country in 1971 and Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation- the only government
owned tourism marketing organization in Bangladesh was started its operation from
1973. But among the private tour operators, seven out of fifteen constituting
46.46% started their operation during 2001 to 2005, five operators constituting
33.33% started the same with in the period of 1996 to 2000, one in 1991-1995, one
in 1986-1990 and the remaining one has started the same in 1976-1980. As most of
the tour operators are new in this area of marketing, they lack the experience and
capital to run the business as most of them expressed their sufferings due to lack
of fund for conducting the necessary promotional activities for the marketing of
tourism services. It also indicate that the government should extend the
cooperation to provide some training to enhance the skills of the operators and is
expected that government should provide some financial assistance or opportunities
to the tour operators to get long-term loan at a minimum interested so that they
can meet their financial requirements. 5.7.2 Type of Promotional Activities

Undertaken in Bangladesh TourismAll most all the tour operators use all the tools
of promotion mix in order to promote the industry. They make the advertisements in
local newspapers, magazines and televisions. In addition to that they also use the
printed materials like brochures, souvenirs, booklet, guides and posters, folders
in disseminating information among the potential tourists in order to draw their
attention and grow interest among the potential tourists. But they dont use any
international medium to advertise its products or services. BPC has the
arrangements to train up their employees and contact personnel to ensure the better
interactions and maintain good relationships with the prospective tourists and to
motivate them in visiting Bangladesh. BPC and some of the larger private tour
operators maintain contact with the foreign tour operators to influence them
highlight Bangladesh tourism and its facilities to the foreign tourists. Both the
private tour operators and BPC uses the techniques of sales promotion which include
quantity discount, children discount, off-season price rebate and improved service
packages for it package tours, cruise programs and accommodations to persuade the
local tourist as well as the foreign tourists. In addition to that BPC and some
private tour operators participate at the tourism exhibition/fair arranged locally
and internationally. Occasionally, BPC arranges different cultural night shows,
food festivals, seminars, symposiums, audio-visual presentations etc. at the
popular tourism destination of the country. BPC has a web page to provide the
information of Bangladesh tourism and its facilities among the prospective tourists
though the page is not well designed. 5.7.3 Methods of
Determining Promotion BudgetResponding to a question on the method(s) of
determining promotion budget, some respondents express that they use more than one
method in doing so. It was found that 9 respondents use the affordable method
rather than the existing market demands in determining the promotion budget
followed by 8 respondents who uses percentage of revenue earning method. It was
revealed that only 2 respondents use objectives and task method. The following
table (Table 5.5) shows the distribution of the respondents and the method used in
determining the promotion budget: Table 5.5 Methods Used to Determine the Promotion
BudgetMethods#No. of Respondents#percentage##Affordable amount methodPercentage of
revenue earning methodBased on previous years expenseObjectives and task method
Fixed amount method6. Other#090801020101#56.2550.006.2512.506.25
6.25##Total#22#137.50##Note: Total number of organizations surveyed = 16. Some
respondents responded that they use more than one method.5.7.4 Comment on the
Amount Spend on PromotionWhen the respondents were asked to express their opinion
whether the amount spent on promotion on is enough or not, only 3 respondents
constituting 15% strongly agreed that the amount is sufficient. Whereas 11
respondents constituting 55% was neutral which indicate that it is neither
sufficient nor insufficient or it may happen that the respondents have not enough
idea to express their view on this specific areas like promotion. Only 5
respondents strongly agreed that the amount presently spend on promotion is not
sufficient to conduct an effective promotional campaign on tourism in the national
and international levels. The following table (Table 5.6) shows the distribution of
respondents against each scale and their percentage: #Table 5.6 Opinion on the
Amount Spend for Promotion
ScaleRespondents#Highly Sufficient
(7)#Sufficient(6)#Fairly Sufficient(5)#Neither Sufficient nor insuf-ficient
(4)#Fairly insufficient(3)#Insufficient(2)#Highly insufficient(1)#Total##No. of
respondentsPercentage of Respondents#0315#015#0000#1155#0000#0000#0525#20
100##5.7.5 Effectiveness of the Promotional Activities UndertakenIn replying to a
question on the effectiveness of the promotional activities that they undertake,
only 1 respondent (5%) strongly argued that their promotional activities are
effective and 4 respondents (20%) strongly opined that the same is ineffective. But
8 respondents which is the majority constituting 40% scored the same as average.
They opined that the promotional activities presently undertaken are neither
effective nor ineffective. The following table (Table 5.7) presents the opinion of
the respondent on the effectiveness of promotional activities undertaken and
implemented by Bangladesh Tourism industry: Table 5.7 Effectiveness of Promotional
Activities Undertaken #
ScaleRespondents#Strongly Effective(7)#Effective

(6)#Fairly Effective(5)#Neither effective nor ineffective (4)#Fairly ineffective


(3)#Ineffe-ctive(2)#Strongly Ineffective(1)#Total##No. of respondentsPercentage of
Respondents#0105#0210#0315#0840#015#0105#0420#20100##In an overall comment on the
promotional activities, most of the respondents opined that they can not lunch an
extensive promotional measure due to lack of sufficient fund for this purpose and
have to depend on the local media rather than using any international medium. At
the same time some of the international media highlight Bangladesh negatively
rather than a tourist destination. The initiative from the government to correct
that negative image is not sufficient. This negative image also influences the
foreign tourists not select and visit Bangladesh.5.7.6 Attitude toward the Role of
Promotional Activities Whatever be the present status of the promotional activities
of Bangladesh tourism and its effectiveness, most respondents (70%) think that
promotion has a strong role in marketing tourism services followed by 4 respondents
(20%) were neither agreed nor disagreed and no one was below the scale of
neutrality.Table 5.8 Promotional Activities can Play any Role to Tourism Industry#
ScaleRespondents#Strongly Agreed(7)#Agreed(6)#Fairly Agreed(5)#Neither agreed nor
disagreed(4)#Fairly Disagreed (3)#Disag-reed(2)#Strongly Disagreed(1)#Total##No. of
respondentsPercentage of Respondents#1470#015#015#0420#0000#0000#0000#20100##The
above table also shows that only one respondent is agree to this point and no one
is fairly disagree, disagree or strongly disagree about the role of promotion in
tourism.5.7.7 Attitude toward the Promotional Activities to Develop the Tourism
IndustryIn responding to a question whether Bangladesh tourism needs more
promotional activities or the respondents expressed their view which can be shown
in the following table (Table- 5.9): Table 5.9 More Promotional Activities are
Needed to Develop the Tourism Industries in Bangladesh#
Scale
Respondents#Strongly Agreed(7)#Agreed(6)#Fairly Agreed(5)#Neither agreed nor
disagreed(4)#Fairly Disagreed (3)#Disa-greed(2)#Strongly Disagreed(1)#Total##No. of
respondentsPercentage of Respondents#1785#0000#0000#0210#0000#0000#0105# 20100##The
majority of the respondents constituting 85 percent agreed that to develop the
tourism industry of Bangladesh, more promotional activities are needed, two (10
percent) were neither agreed nor disagreed and only one respondent disagreed to
this issue.5.7.8 Tourism Season and Promotional Activities Undertaken by the tour
OperatorsAll most all around the year there are tourists in every tourist
destination. But there is a peak season and off peak season. In Bangladesh, the
most suitable season for tourism is rainless dry season starting from November and
ends in February or mid- March and most of the foreign tourists visit Bangladesh
during this period. Since, the tourists need to know about the destination or they
need to remind the tourism facilities of a particular destination, the proper time
to advertise is supposed to be the earlier of the most suitable season. The
following table (Table 5.10) shows when the operators undertake the promotional
activities:Table 5.10 Promotional Activities Undertaken by the OrganizationTime#No
of Respondents#% of the respondents##All around the yearDuring the tourism seasons
Before the tourism seasonOther#12 ( 5 from the BPC)0206-#601030-##Total#20#100##It
is apparent from the above table that the majority of the operators constituting 60
percent undertake the promotional activities all around the year while only 6
operators constituting only 30 percent do the same before the season which can be
considered as the timely effort. Because the tourists have to be informed before
their decision, so the advertisement before the season is seemed to be the right
time.5.7.9 Overall Opinions of the Respondents on Promotional Activities of
Bangladesh Tourism The promotional efforts of any product or service by any
organization are intended to achieve the better performance in achieving the goal
of the organization. Considering the same, it was attempted to evaluate the overall
promotional activities undertaken and launched by the tourism industry in
Bangladesh to have a clear understanding whether tour operators including BPC are
performing in an expected way or not. This evaluation may help to find out whether
the promotion activities have any role or not in tourism marketing, are the tour
operators are spending the sufficient amount on promotional activities or not,
whether they need to spend more money to promotion or not and finally, is the
promotional measures undertaken and launched by the same industry is effective or

not. The following table (Table- 5.11) shows the respondents comments selected from
the top executives of BPC and private tour operators regarding the issues on the
promotional activities of Bangladesh tourism:Table 5.11 Respondents Opinion on
Promotional Activities of Bangladesh TourismFactors#Number of frequency#Mean
score###Strongly Agree(%)(7)#Agree(%)(6)#Fairly Agree(%)(5)#Neither agreed nor
disagreed (%)(4)#Fairly Disagree(%)(3)#Disagree(%)(2#Strongly disagree(%)
(1)###Promotional expenditure is sufficient#03(15)#01(5)#00(00)#11(55)#00(00)#00
(00)#05(25)#3.80##Promotion can play strong role in tourism#14(70)#01(05)#01(05)#04
(20)#00(00)#00(00)#00(00)#6.25##Effectiveness of promotion undertaken#01(05)#02
(10)#03(15)#08(40)#01(05)#01(05)#04(20)#3.75##Need more promotional activities#17
(85)#00(00)#00(00)#02(10)#00(00)#00(00)#01(05)#6.40##It apparent from the above
table that the mean score of the promotional activities needed is 6.4 which
indicates that most of the respondents (17 out of 20) strongly feel that they
should take more promotional activities in marketing the tourism products or
services of Bangladesh. At the same time, 70% of the respondents strongly believe
that promotional measures can play strong role to attract tourists to the tourist
destination and the mean score of which is 6.25. The mean score on the point
whether the promotional expenditure is sufficient or not is 3.8 which is close to
4.00 or a minor below the average mean score. It is interesting to note that only
one respondent (5%) consider that their promotional activities launched is
effective. The mean score (3.75) indicates that their promotional measures are not
effective. But the mean score of respondents responses regarding the sufficiency
of the promotional expenditure is very close to the scale of neutral and at the
same time again they argued that more promotional efforts are needed for the
tourism of Bangladesh and its mean
score is 6.40 which is very contradictory. Because when the promotion expenditure
is close to sufficient there may not have the need of more promotional measures or
otherwise the budget is not sufficient.5.7.10 Suggestions from the Tour Operators
The respondents were requested to express their opinion about the steps those
should be undertaken to attract more tourists. The summary of their suggestions are
as:Table 5.12 Required measures Undertaken to Attract More TouristsMeasures
undertaken to attract foreign tourists#Measures undertaken to attract local
tourists##1.
Participate in international tourism fairs2. Uses Bangladesh
mission abroad3. Contracting international tour operators4. Distributing
brochures and tourist hand books5. Uses of well-designed website#Advertises in
local Newspapers and Bangladesh TelevisionArranges tourism fairsDistributes tourism
publications to the potential tourists ##The respondents both from the National
Tourism Organization (BPC) in Bangladesh and from the private tour operators in
Bangladesh were requested to put forward some suggestions for the Development of
Bangladesh Tourism. Their suggestions can be presented in a summarised form in the
following table (table 5.13):Table 5.13 Suggestions from the Tour Operators
Suggestion from Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation#Suggestion from Private Tour
Operators##1. Need to develop new attractions/ products or services in the
destinations.2. More promotional activities should be undertaken3. Should develop
and update an attractive web site to provide the required information to the
potential tourists.4. Government should priotize this sector for development plan.
5.
Security of the tourists should be ensured.6. BPC should have full autonomy
to take necessary decision timely#Infrastructural development is needed.Developing
new products or services in the destinations.Well designed website is neededForeign
mission should be involved in promotional activities.Law and order situation should
be developed.Need coordinated promotion activities by NTO and other parties
involved.Govt support to the private tour operators is necessary for the
development of this sector.8. Tax holiday for vehicles is necessary for minimizing
cost of operation. ##

Chapter 6 Recommendations and Conclusion6.1 IntroductionTourism is now a fastest


growing industry in the world. The growth of the same in the Asia and the Pacific
region is more accelerating than any other region. The ever increasing growth of
this industry and its market has increased the competition among the tourists
importing countries. As a result, the success of any destination country depends on
how well it can initiate and adopt the competitive marketing strategy over its
competitors. Promotion is one of the most important elements of the marketing mix
through which the attractions of the destinations and its facilities are focussed
to the potential tourists to draw their attention and grow interest among them to
visit the sponsors destination. It sates that the destination country needs to
take the effective promotional measures so that they can gain the positive result
through attracting more tourists to its destination. The present study revealed
that Bangladesh is also trying to attract more tourists to its destination through
different measures. But the country lacks far behind to conduct the appropriate and
sufficient measures regarding the promotional measures. The resultant effect is
that Bangladesh could not achieve significant progress to develop the industry
though the number of tourist arrivals and the earnings from this industry show a
positive growth rate. The position of Bangladesh tourism in world context is very
negligible even the countrys position is at the bottom line in the South Asian
region. Among the seven countries of SAARC in this region, Bangladesh holds the 6th
position just above the position of Bhutan. But the country has some unique
attractions like worlds longest and unbroken sea beach, worlds largest mangrove
forest with a variety of wildlives, historical cultural heritage, tribal culture,
captivating beauty of the nature etc. One of the reasons of not succeeding
Bangladesh tourism is insufficient promotional measures undertaken for marketing
the said sector. So, it is essential for the policy makers of the concern industry
to consider the issue very carefully and on the priority basis for the expected
development of the industry.6.2 Recommendations for Managerial ImplicationsBased on
the findings of the study and the researchers experience the following suggestions
can be put forwarded for the managerial implication to improve the promotion of
this industry in Bangladesh:I. Correcting the Image of the CountryThe image of the
destination plays a vital role to attract tourists to that particular destination.
But Bangladesh is suffering from the image problem because of some international
media. These media highlight Bangladesh negatively which results to create
misconception among the potential tourists. Even some Non Government Organizations
(NGOs) do the same thing in order to collect funds by highlighting the country as a
dreadfully poor, flood ravaged, pestilence and means there is nothing to be in a
country to consider as a tourist destination. As a result, many foreigners do not
choose Bangladesh as a tourist destination because of either they dont have enough
idea about the country and its tourism attractions and facilities or what they have
is negative. To some extent, it may be partially true but is not the fact as a
whole. Once someone visits the country his/her perceived image is changed. So,
Bangladesh tourism should emphasize first on its promotional measures to correct
this negative image. But it is not only the issue to be solved by Bangladesh
tourism authority; it requires the governments initiative as a whole and the
Bangladesh Mission offices abroad have a major role in this regard. As Bangladesh
tourism industry has not enough funds to use to international media for correcting
this negative image, it should emphasize on the printed materials and to distribute
it to the potential tourists through different airlines, foreign tour operators and
foreign mission abroad etc. II. Ensuring the Security of the TouristsSecurity at
the destination place is considered as one of the major factors for the foreign
tourists. Because of every tourist gives the high priority on security to select a
foreign country as a tourist destination. Therefore, the question of adequate
security to the tourists during their visit is also very important (Nurunnabi,
1995).# The tourists need to be fear free in visiting a place especially when it is
outside their home country. The government of Bangladesh should improve the
security in the major tourist areas with a view to correct Bangladeshs tarnished
image. Any sort of risk and uncertainty related to the destination will lead the
tourists not to select that particular destination. Promotional measures can remove

these sorts of fear, risk, harassment or cheating. III. Use of Information


Technology in Promotional in Promotional ActivityThe recent change and progress in
information technology have a revolutionary impact on tourism industry. Because of
travel and tourism-related products and services are highly compatible with the
Internet and the rapid growth of the Internet is having an impact on the
distribution of travel services and has heightened speculation about the potential
for disintermediation of the travel agent (Bennett and Lai, 2005).# Again, the
international tourism system is dependant on information technology for its future
growth, competitiveness and long-term survival - particularly in terms of tourism
marketing and distribution (Morgan et al, 2001).# It is considered that who are
able to access more information and make use of it are likely to be the winner in
the competitive environment. In promoting the tourism industry of any country, the
Internet can play the leading role to facilitate information exchange
internationally. In addition to that World Wide Web (WWW) is the most popular
application on the Internet which can be used effectively for the many purpose of
tourism marketing including direct sales, advertisement, customer support, etc.
Bangladesh tourism authority must consider the effective use of this technology for
the promotional activity of this industry. It is worth mentioning here that though
BPC has it own web page, it should be well designed containing all the necessary
information. IV. Promoting to Some Specific RegionsAs Bangladesh tourism is at the
early development stage, the country should target a specific number of countries
from where the country can generate more tourists rather than targeting the whole
market areas. At least by targeting five more prospective tourist generating
countries, the country can undertake more promotional activities to those countries
so that a larger number of tourists can be attracted. Even to those countries,
Bangladesh can launch heavy promotional activities by using different tools of
promotion. If the industry wants to attract more foreign tourists, it needs to
publish some creative advertisement in some specific travel guides, magazines, and
specialized professional journals that the potential tourists, overseas tour
operators, travel agents, and travel writers read (Hossain and Firozzaman, 2003).#
The authors described that tourist customers are more likely to respond to the
creative advertising message projected through specialized and appropriate media
vehicles. Then they urged that that the extent of success in appealing to a
particular market segment or encouraging them to visit the destination(s) depends
upon the right choice of advertising media and thus the choice of media is an
important decision for the marketers of the tourism industry.V. Allocation of more
Promotional FundsBangladesh dont have that level of capability to compete with the
worlds top tourist generating countries, but it has the capability to compete with
the member countries of SAARC or at least some other small countries of SAARC
except India. To compete with these countries, needs to conduct more promotional
measures. But what the amount is allocating presently for this purpose is not
sufficient. Though the country has not enough financial capabilities, but it can
easily increase it promotional budget up to 4 or 5 percent of it total earnings
from this sector. In addition to that the authority should have a plan for the
effective use of the promotional budget. Because of it will again help to increase
the earnings by attracting more tourists.
VI. Use of Foreign Tour Operators to
Promote Bangladesh as a tourist DestinationForeign tour operators can play an
important role to in motivating the potential tourists to a specific tourist
destination. BPC and the private tour operators of Bangladesh can maintain the
contact and liaison with the foreign tour operators and to influence them to send
more tourists to Bangladesh. Even foreign tour operators can be used to distribute
the brochure, souvenirs, and tourists maps of Bangladesh tourism. For this purpose
they need to have some incentives. Bangladesh can sell package tours through
foreign tour operators where they receive a handsome amount of discount.
VII.
More Discounted Offer for a Group Tour and Long StayBangladesh can attract more
tourists by offering more discounts on group tours and long stay visits. For
example, discount on air tickets, hotel rents, discounted price of local transport
arranged by the tour operators etc. National airlines have a major role in this
regards. Since the position of the national airlines of Bangladesh is not so good,

the country can make the mutual arrangement on some selected international
airlines. In addition to that the tourism authority should offer more off-season
discounts, students discount, SAARC tour rebate etc to motivate the potential
tourists to visit Bangladesh. At the same time, steps should be taken to attract
the local tourists to travel more
in a number and frequent visit of different tourism spots of the country. VIII.
Cooperation among the Neighbouring Countries is needed The SAARC countries can cooperate each other for the development of tourism in this region. Each country can
be benefited through building and maintaining a meaningful cooperation among the
SAARC countries tour operators, travel agencies, tourist organizations etc. This
region can undertake the promotional activities jointly to identify and highlight
the tourist spot of the SAARC countries. Again the bi-lateral co-operation between
any two countries of the same region can help both the participants in developing
the sector.
IX. Developing Infrastructure Facilities and Diversified
Products/ServicesThe present infrastructural facilities of tourism in Bangladesh
are not up to the standard of international level. There need to develop more
hotels, motels, restaurants, and internal transport for the easy access to the
spots. At the same time, the tourism authority needs to take the necessary steps
for diversify the products or services. For example, introducing new river, lake
and sea cruising, Bangladesh can have a bonanza in tourism industry. Before going
to advertise in the international media, the country needs to develop these
facilities. X. Encouraging More Private Sector InvestmentBangladesh tourism
industry needs for heavy investment in order to develop infrastructure facilities
and promotional measures. Since the government is not in a position to fulfill the
needs of this heavy investment due to resource constraint, the government should
consider promoting private sector investment both from domestic and foreign
investors in order to develop and promote the tourism industry in Bangladesh. To
encourage the private investment, the government should declare some incentives to
the private investors. The incentives like tax holiday for a certain period on
their return, tax free import of vehicles for using in tourism, arrangement of
loans at a lower rate of interest, providing physical facilities etc. can be
considered favourably for this purpose. A revised tax holiday for the hotel
industry will provide incentives for the construction of new units and motivate the
tourists to stay longer period (Hossain and Firozzaman, 2003).# The authors
emphasized that tax holiday for accomodation units is necessary as the room rent in
Bangladesh is very high. In addition to this, the professional tourism institution
of learning should be expanded if possible and the private sector should be
encouraged to operate with concessions from the government of Bangladesh.XI.
Coordination among the Different Related SectorsBangladesh tourism industry needs
the coordinated efforts and promotional activities among the parties involved in
this industry. Both the government sector and private sector tour operators should
take the joint programs in developing the industry. As tourism is a multifaceted
industry, there should have some coordination among the tour operators, hoteliers,
airlines, local transport authorities and other service provider so that their
coordinated efforts can be fruitful. Again, there should have the necessary
coordination among the concerned ministries like ministry of Tourism and Civil
Aviation, Home, Foreign Affairs, Transport and Health so that the visit of the
tourists can be made more safer, healthier and enjoyable. 6.3 Conclusion The
significance of tourism is viewed from many angles like economic, social, cultural,
political, etc. Tourism is now the fastest growing and single largest industry in
the world. The industry has attained the impressive growth in the world-wide in
terms of tourist arrivals and foreign exchange earnings which has led the ever
increasing competition among the destination countries and gained the top priority
in most of the destination countries. Every destination country is trying to
attract more tourists by drawing the attention and growing the interest among the
potential tourists through adopting effective marketing strategies. Promotion is an
important element of marketing mix and plays a vital role in developing marketing
strategies. Because of tourism is a field where the customers/tourists want to know
in advance about the attractions and facilities of the destination. Marketers need

to provide such necessary information to the prospective tourists through different


promotional measures and thus, try to motivate and attract them to the sponsors
destination. Though the growth of tourism is impressive world-wide, the same in
Bangladesh is not so. It is not because of lack of eye-catching tourists
attraction to the destination of Bangladesh, rather it is the result of inadequate
promotional measures. Bangladesh failed to market its incredible tourist
attractions like world longest unbroken sea beach, covering miles of golden sands,
soaring cliffs, surfing waves, rare conch shells, Buddhist Temples, Pagodas and
enjoyable sea-food all of which are almost impossible to be found in any where of
the other tourist destinations of the world; the worlds largest mangrove forests
is formed at the delta of the Ganges, cultural heritage, pristine beauty of the
nature etc. and leads to attract an insignificant number of tourists to its
destination. The contribution of Bangladesh tourism to the world tourism is very
negligible. Even the position of the country among the SAARC countries is at the
bottom line. It holds the position just above the position of Bhutan. As a result,
the contribution of tourism in the economy of Bangladesh is very insignificant.
The existing literatures also show that Bangladesh tourism fails to attract more
tourists and not succeeded in developing the sector up to its expectation mainly
due to inadequate promotional activities. Though the international media can be
effective for drawing the attention of the potential foreign tourists but it is
expensive to use the same for promoting the tourism in Bangladesh. As the country
has the fund constraint, it has to depend on the local media and on some low
qualitative printed materials to promote the sector which do not result positively
to achieve the goal from this industry. The use of information technology in
promoting Bangladesh tourism is very negligible. The web page presently used by
Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation is not well-designed and attractive and can not
disseminate all the necessary information to the prospective tourists.
Bangladesh tourism also needs to attempt more promotional activities to cope up
with the present competition among the destination countries. The country can
arrange the more tourist fairs with in the country to attract local tourists and
also the foreigners who are already living in Bangladesh. Advertisement in the
local newspapers and the distribution of different printed materials related to
Bangladesh tourism may help to serve the purpose. In addition, participation in the
international tourism fairs, distribution of different types of high quality
printed materials among the potential foreign tourists; advertisement in some of
the international newspapers covering at least the major tourists generating
countries to Bangladesh etc. can be more fruitful for the promotion of the same in
Bangladesh. The foreign mission offices abroad of Bangladesh can take the
initiatives for encouraging the people to visit Bangladesh. The mutual arrangements
with some selected foreign tour operators and providing them incentives can produce
more positive result in attracting tourists to the destination of Bangladesh.Since
the potential tourists need the information regarding the destinations attraction
and facilities in advance, uses of information technology can help to a greater
extent to disseminate the information among the prospective tourists. Bangladesh
tourism can take the initiatives to update its present web page in a well-designed
form so that the prospective tourists can get all the necessary information from
the page easily. There should have sufficient online facilities so that all
bookings related to tourism can be made through online. There should have some
attractive offers like discounted air tickets, discount on hotel rent etc for a
group visit and for a longer period visit. All these will play the motivational
role for the potential tourists to select Bangladesh as a tourist destination.
The survey revealed that the main reason of not succeeding Bangladesh tourism is
that the concern authority failed to realize the importance of this sector initiate
the proper measures in undertaking effective promotional measures to attract the
potential tourists. The allocation of promotion fund is inadequate for the sector
which was only Tk.10.413 (US$150 thousand) in 2004-05 constituting only 0.25
percent of the earnings for the same year. The allocated fund is quite unreasonable
to conduct any necessary promotional activity for tourism in the international
level. Due to fund constraints, the operators of tourism now are using the local

media which has no effect on the foreign tourists except those who are already
living in Bangladesh. The operators also depend on the printed materials like
brochures, souvenir, post cards, tourists maps, folders etc. which have also
little impact on foreign tourists because of its low quality and attractivity. It
is necessary to develop the quality of these printed materials to have a positive
impact on the prospective tourists and need to lunch effective promotional measures
by using media which have international coverage in order to attract the attention
of the foreign tourists and persuade them to select Bangladesh as a tourist
destination. At the same the effective use of promotion budget is also essential.
The country also suffers from the negative images those have already been created
through some international media need to be corrected by lunching extensive and
effective promotional measures which again demands more fund allocation for the
purpose. Again, the participation of the private sector in a large scale along with
the government sector is necessary for the promoting this backward sector. The
private sectors investment in promoting and developing this will be an added wing
in the overall efforts of achieving the target from this sector.So, the concern
authority needs to give priority and adopt necessary effective promotional measures
in order to attract a significant number of foreign tourists to visit the country.
In developing strategic promotional approaches, tour-operating firms should examine
and uncover carefully the factors which affect prospective tourists choice in
selecting a destination country and which repel them in their selection process.
With the present state of attractions, services, facilities, and accessibility, the
promotional activities of the firms are now mainly restricted to some prospective
countries of the South Asia, the resident foreigners in the country, and the
domestic affluent people. With the expansion of the base of services and
facilities, improvement of existing services, development of new services, and
development of the infrastructure, the firms should plan to direct its promotional
activities at other new market segments. These include North America, Europe,
Australia, New Zealand, Japan and Korea depending upon the potentials of the
markets and the extent to which the industry can serve them. The government has
already declared tourism as an industry in 1991, formulated National Tourism Policy
in 1992 and undertaken some development projects. The GOB (Govt. of Bangladesh)
has also considered undertaking steps to establish Exclusive Tourist Zone (ETZ) and
offered some incentives for both local and foreign investors with a view to
encourage the private sector participation in the development and promotion of
tourism in Bangladesh. It has also started implementing by phases the
recommendations of the Strategic Master Plan formulated by the World Tourism
Organization (WTO) with the assistance of the UNDP. The effective implementation of
all these steps will help Bangladesh tourism industry to experience development to
a greater extent and will emerge as a major contributor to the national economy
with in a very short period of time. 6.4 Direction for Further ResearchThis
research was carried out to find out the use of promotional activities in tourism
by emphasizing on the context of Bangladesh. It is tough to conduct the research on
a vast area like tourism with the time frame allocated for the study. As a result,
the tourist opinion from the field survey could not be used. There remains further
scope to conduct the study as the replication of the present study. For example, to
have in depth picture of the tourists opinion they can be interviewed. A
comparative study can be done among the cost of visiting the destinations of
different regions from the same place of origin. Because of in addition to
attractions, the cost for travelling is an important element in choosing the
destination place or it can be compared the promotional strategies used by the
successful destinations especially the countries in the Asian regions to prescribe
the more suitable strategy for the same of Bangladesh.

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Index# INDEX \h "A" \c "2" \z "1053" #AAdvertising, 30BBaldha Garden, 40Bishwa


Istima, 44Buddha Purnima, 45CChristmas, 45DDirect Marketing, 31Dulahazra Safari
Park, 41Durga Puja, 45EEdi-ul-Fitre, 44Eid-e-Miladunnabi, 44Eid-ul-Azha, 44H
Himchari National Park, 40IIndependence Day, 43KKaptai National Park, 40M
Madhabkunda Eco-park, 41Mahasthangarh, 35Mainamati, 35Modhupur National Park, 40
Muharram, 44NNational Botanical Garden, 41National Mourning Day & International
Mother Language Day, 43National Park, 40National Zoological Garden, 41PPaharpur, 35
Pahela Baishakh, 43Personal selling, 30Public relations, 30RRabindra and Nazrul
Jayanti, 45Ramna Park, 40Ramsagar National Park, 40SSales promotion, 30Sitakunda,
35Sitakunda Botanical Garden and Eco-park, 41Suhrawardy Uddayan, 39Sundarban, 38T
Temples and Monastery, 42V,WVictory Day, 44

#AppendicesAppendix I Questionnaire(Please take 10 minutes to fill in this


quest#i#o#n#n#a#i#r#e#)###A#b#o#u#t# #t#h#e# #R#e#s#p#o#n#d#e#n#t# ###N#a#m#e#:#
#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_# # #
#D#e#s#i#g#n#a#t#i#o#n#/# #P#o#s#i#t#i#o#n#:#
#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_# ##G#e#n#d#e#r#:# # # # #o #o
#M#a#l#e# # # # # # # #o #F#e#m#a#l#e#;# # #A#g#e# #:#
#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_###A#b#o#u#t# #t#h#e# #O#r#g#a#n#i#z#a#t#i#o#n# #
##N#a#m#e# #o#f# #t#h#e# #O#r#g#a#n#i#z#a#t#i#o#n#:#
#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_##Y#e#a#r# #o#f#
#E#s#t#a#b#l#i#s#h#m#e#n#t#:# #
#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#
#O#w#n#e#r#s#h#i#p#:# #o #G#o#v#e#r#n#m#e#n#t# # # #o #P#r#i#v#a#t#e# #o
#O#t#h#e#r#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_###P#r#o#m#o#t#i#o#n#a#l#
#A#c#t#i#v#i#t#i#e#s# #U#n#d#e#r#t#a#k#e#n## # #(#P#r#o#m#o#t#i#o#n#a#l#
#a#c#t#i#v#i#t#i#e#s# #l#i#k#e# #a#d#v#e#r#t#i#s#i#n#g#,# #s#a#l#e#s#
#p#r#o#m#o#t#i#o#n#,# #p#u#b#l#i#c#i#t#y#,# #p#e#r#s#o#n#a#l# #s#e#l#l#i#n#g#
#etc.)What type of promotional activities is undertaken by your organization to
attract the tourists? (Please mention names according to their priority).
1.
4.
2.
5.
3.
6.2. Which media (TV, Radio Newspaper, Online, Brochure and others) do
you use for the promotional activities? (Please mention the name according to
priority)
1.
4.
2.
5.
3.
6.Which method do you follow to determine the promotional budget?
###############################################################o
#A#f#f#o#r#d#a#b#l#e# #a#m#o#u#n#t# #m#e#t#h#o#d#
#
#o
#P#e#r#c#e#n#t#a#g#e# #o#f# #r#e#v#e#n#u#e# #e#a#r#n#i#n#g# #m#e#t#h#o#d##
#o
#B#a#s#e#d# #o#n# #t#h#e# #p#r#e#v#i#o#u#s# #y#e#a#r## s# #e#x#p#e#n#s#e#
#o
#O#b#j#e#c#t#i#v#e# #a#n#d# #t#a#s#k# #m#e#t#h#o#d## #o #F#i#x#e#d# #a#m#o#u#n#t#
#m#e#t#h#o#d#
## # # #o #O#t#h#e#r# #(#p#l#e#a#s#e# #s#p#e#c#i#f#y# #t#h#e#
#m#e#t#h#o#d#)#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#
##A#m#o#u#n#t# #s#p#e#n#t# #f#o#r# #p#r#o#m#o#t#i#on is enough? (For
questions 4 to 7; 7 = strongly agree, 4 = neutral and 1 = strongly disagree)
####### #######The promotional activities undertaken by your organization is
effective?
Do you think that the promotional
activities can play any role to tourism industry? #######
More promotional
activities are needed to develop the tourism industry in Bangladesh#######
What
measures do your organization undertakes to attract foreign tourists? (Please
mention according to their importance)
1.
4.
2.
5.
3.
6.What measures do your organization
undertakes to attract local tourists? (Please mention according to their
importance) 1.
4.
2.
5.
3.
6.Would you please mention the weaknesses of the promotional activities
undertaken by your organization? ( Please mention strongest one to weakest one)
1.
4.
2.
5.
3.
6.11. When is most suitable season for tourism and travelling in Bangladesh?
(Please specify the month/duration) (i) Most suitable season
:_______________#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#(#i#i#)# #S#u#i#t#a#b#l#e#
#s#e#a#s#o#n#:#################_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_# ##W#h#e#n#
#d#o#e#s# #y#o#u#r# #o#r#g#a#n#i#z#a#t#i#o#n# #u#s#e# #p#r#o#m#o#t#i#o#n#a#l#
#a#c#t#i#v#i#t#i#e#s#? ##o #A#l#l# #a#r#o#u#n#d# #t#h#e# #y#e#a#r# #o
#D#u#r#i#n#g# #t#h#e# #t#o#u#r#i#s#m# #s#e#a#s#o#n##o #B#e#f#o#r#e# #t#h#e#
#s#e#a#s#o#n# #(#p#l#e#a#s#e# #s#p#e#c#i#f#y# #t#h#e# #m#o#n#t#h# #o#r#
#d#u#r#a#t#i#o#n#)#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_#_##o
#O#t#h#e#r#_#_#_#_#____________________________Please briefly put forward your
personal comment(s) on the use of promotional activities to tourism industry in
Bangladesh.# Thank you for your sincere cooperation.

Appendix II Comparison on Some Selected Factors among the South Asian Countries
Factors of comparison#Bangladesh#Bhutan#India#Iran#Maldives#Nepal#Pakistan#Sri
Lanka##Official Name#The Peoples Republic of Bangladesh#The Kingdom of Bhutan#The
Republic of India#The Islamic Republic of Iran#The Republic of Male#The Kingdom of
Nepal#The Isla-mic Rep-ublic of Pakistan#The Dem ocratic Socialist Republic of Sri
Lanka##Location#Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and
India#Southern Asia, between China and India#Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian
Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan#Middle East bordering the
Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea betwn Iraq and
Pakistan#Southern Asia, South-Southwest of India#Southern Asia, between China and
India#Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, India on the east and Iran &
Afghanistan on the west, China in the north#Southern Asia, Island in the Indian
Ocean, south of India##Geographical coordinates#24000N, 90000E#27030N,
90030E#20000N, 77000E#32000N, 53000E#3015N, 73000E#28000N, 84000E#30000N,
70000E#7000N, 81000E##Climate#Tropical; mild winter; humid summer, humid, warm
rainy monsoon#Tropical in southern plains, cool winters and hot summers in central
valleys.#Tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north#Mostly arid or semiarid,
subtropical along Caspian coast#Tropical: hot, humid; and dry#Summers and severe
winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south#Mostly hot, dry
desert, temperate in northwest.#Tropical monsoon, northeast monsoon (Dec- March)
and southeast monsoon (Jun- Oct)##Area (in km2 )
#144,000#47,5000#3,287,590#1,648,195#300#147,181#880,254#65,610##Year of
Independence#1971#1949#1947 #N/A#1965#1768#1947#1948##Capital City#Dhaka23042 N
90022 E#Thimpu28028 N 89035 E#New Delhi28034 N 77012 E#Tehran35040 N
51025 E#Male4010 N 73030 E#Kathmandu27042 N 85019 E#Islamabad33040 N
73010 E#Sri Jayewardenepura6054N 79054
E##Nationality#Bangladeshi#Bhutanese#Indian#Iranian#Maldivian#Nepalese#Pakistani#Sr
i Lankan##Official Language#Bangla#Dzongkhaand English#Hindi, English and 21 other
Languages#Persian#Dhivehi#Nepali#Urdu and English#Sihala and Tamil##Total
Population (in million)#144.32
(2005 est)#2.23(2005 est)#1,192.23(2006 est)#68.47
(2005 est)#0.35(2005 est)#27.68(2005 est)#163.99(2006 est)#20.06(2005
est)##Density#1,002/km2#45/km2#329/km2#41/km2#1,171/km2#196/km2#186/km2#305/km2##Po
sition in terms of Population#7th#139th#2nd#18th#166th#40th#6th#53rd##Population
Growth Rate#2.09%#2.1%#1.38%#0.86%#2.82% #2.17 % #2.09%#0.78%##Sex
Ratio#1.05m/f#1.05m/f#1.05m/f#1.05m/f#1.05m/f#1.05m/f#1.05m/f#1.05m/f##Main
Religion#Muslim (83%)#Lamaistic Buddist (75%)#Hindu (80.5%)#Muslim
(99%)#Muslim#Hindu (80.6%)#Muslim (97%)#Buddhist (69.1%)##Literacy Rate#43.1% (2003
est)#47% (2003 est)#59.5% (2003 est)#79.4% (2003 est)#97.2% (2003 est)#45.2%
(2003 est)#48.7% (2003 est#92.3% (2003 est##GDP (PPP)#$280 billion (2005
est)#$2.913 billion (2005 est)#$ 3.678 trillion (2005 est)#$ 560.35 billion (2005
est)#$ 1.25 billion (2002 est)#$ 42.17 billion (2005 est)#$ 385.2 billion (2005
est)#$ 86.72 billion (2005 est)##GDP- real growth rate#5.4% (2005 est)#5.3% (2005
est)#7.6% (2005 est)#6.3% (2004 est)#2.3% (2002 est)#2.5% (2005 est)#7.8% (2005
est)#5% (2005 est)##GDP per capita (PPP) in US$#$1875 (2005 est)#$3,330 (2005
est)#$ 3,400 (2005 est)#$8.065 (2005 est)#$ 3,900 (2002 est)#$ 1,500 (2005 est)#$
2388 (2005 est)#$ 4,300 (2005 est)##HDI (2003 est)#0.520 (139th) - medium#0.536
(134th) - medium# 0.602 (127th) - medium#0.736 (99th) - medium# 0.745 (96th) medium#0. 526 (136th) - medium #0.527 (135th) - medium#0.751 (93rd) medium##Currency#Taka (BDT)#Ngultrum (BTN)#Rupee (INR)#Rial (IRR) #Rufiyaa
(MVR)#Rupee (NPR)#Rupee (PKR)#Rupee (LKR)##Exchange rate ( 1US$ =)#BDT 64.32(2005
est)#BTN 44.10 (2005 est) #INR 44.10 (2005 est)#IRR 8.61 (2004 est)#MVR 12.8(2004
est)#NPR 71.37 (2005 est)#59.52 (2005 est)#LKR 100.50(2005 est)##Inflation Rate#6.7
% (2005 est)#3 % (2002 est)#4.6% (2005 est)#15.5% (2004 est)#1% (2002 est)#7.8%
(2005 est)#9.2% (2005 est)#11.2%##No. of Airports#16#2#334#305#5#48#134#16##Main
Ports and Terminals#Chittagong and Mongla#-#Chennai, Haldia, Kolkata, Mumbai, New
Mangalore#Assaluyeh, Bushehr#Male#NA#Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Quasim#Colombo,
Galle##Time Zone#BDT (UTC+6)#BTT (UTC+6)#IST (UTC+5:30)#(UTC+3:30)# (UTC+5)#NPT
(UTC+5:45)# PST (UTC+5)# (UTC+6)##Calling
Code#+880#+975#+91#+98#+960#+977#+92#+94##Source: Compiled from the World

Factbook, available from: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/ (accessed


11.04.06); and Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, available from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page (aacessed11.04.06)

Appendix III Details of Air fareAir Fare from UK to Some Selected Destinations
From#To#Name of the Airlines#Departure Date December 10, +- 7 days#Return Date
December 15 +- 7 days#Price (Economy Class)##UK (Heathrow)#Dhaka,
Bangladesh#British Airways#Dec 9#Dec 18#$1212.70 or 643.60##UK (Heathrow)#Bombay,
India#British Airways#Dec 10#Dec 20#$1008 or 535.20##UK (Heathrow)#Kolkata,
India#British Airways#Dec 9#Dec 20#$1055.40 or 560.20##UK (Heathrow)#Islamabad,
Pakistan#British Airways#Dec 09#Dec 19#$1101.20 or 584.50##UK (Heathrow)#Tehran,
Iran#British Airways#Dec 10#Dec 20#$930.88 or 494.10##UK
(Heathrow)#Bhutan#*#*#*#*##Manchester, UK #Male, Maldives#Charter Flight#Dec 10#Dec
18#$$1033.52##UK (Heathrow)#Nepal#Qatar Airways#Dec 10#Dec 20#$1225.33 or
650.39##Manchester, UK #Sri Lanka#Charter Flight#Dec 06#Dec 20#$1241.68 or
659.00##*. Flight is not available
http://www.charterflights.co.uk/flights/maldives/male/ (accessed 7.05.06)
http://www.britishairways.com/travel/fx/public/en_gb (accessed 25.04.06)Note:
Currency was converted in 11 May, 2006Air Fare from Heathrow, UK to Some Selected
DestinationsFrom#To#Name of the Airways#Departure Date December 10, +- 7
days#Return Date December 15 +- 7 days#Price (Economy Class)##UK (Heathrow)#Dhaka,
Bangladesh#Etihad Airways#Dec 10#Dec 20#$951.77 or 505###Mumbai (Bombay),
India#Swiss Airways#Dec 10#Dec 20#$744.31 or
395###Kolkata, India#Emirates
Airways#Dec10#Dec 20#$1055.35 or 560###Islamabad, Pakistan#Etihad Airways#Dec
09#Dec 19#$829.26 or 440###Tehran, Iran#Turkish Airways#Dec 10#Dec 20#$603.10 or
320###Bhutan (Bhuj, India)#BMI#Dec 10#Dec 17#$1102.58 or 585###Male,
Maldives#Martinair Airways#Dec 10#Dec 20# $951.80 or 505###Kathmandu,
Nepal#Australian Airlines#Dec 10#Dec 20#$ 1119.54 or 594###Colombo, Sri
Lanka#Etihad Airways#Dec 10#Dec 20#$ 944.11 or 501##* Fare is not available online
http://www.dialaflight.com/flightsearch.asp? source=miva (accessed 6.5.06)
http://www.uknetguide.co.uk/Travel/Flight_Search/ (accessed 04.05.06)Note: Currency
was converted as on 10th May, 2006Calculation of Average Cost of Air Ticket (Two
ways) from Heathrow, UK to Some Selected DestinationsFrom#To#Amount #Average ( 1
person)#Two persons##Heathrow, UK#Dhaka, Bangladesh#$
(1212.70+951.77 )/2#$1082.24#$2164.50###Bhutan (Bhuj, India)#$ (* +1102.58)/2#$
1102.58#$2205.16###Bombay, India#$ (1008+744.31)/2#$876.16#$1752.32###Kolkata,
India#$ (1055.40+1055.35)/2#$1055.38#$2110.76###Tehran, Iran#$
(938.88+603.10 )/2#$771.00#$1542.00###Islamabad, Pakistan#$ (1101.20+829.26 )/2#$
965.23#$1930.46###Maldives#$ (1033.52+ 951.80)/2#$992.66#$1985.32###Kathmandu,
Nepal#$ (1225.33+1119.54 )/2#$1172.44#$2344.88###Colombo, Sri Lanka#$
(1241.68+944.11)/2#$1092.90#$2185.80##*. Flights not availableAir Fare from
Stockholm to Some Selected DestinationsFrom#To#Name of the Airlines#Departure Date
December 10, +- 7 days#Return Date December 15 +- 7 days#Price (Economy Class) 1
Adult#Price (Economy Class) 2 Adults##Stockholm, Sweden#Dhaka, Bangladesh*#British
Airways#Dec 9#Dec 18#$1313.94 or 697.31 #$ 2627.92 ###Mumbai (Bombay),
India*#British Airways#Dec 10#Dec 20#$1143.38 or 606.81#$2286.76###Kolkata,
India*#British Airways#Dec 11#Dec 20#$1206.27 or 640.22#$2412.54###Islamabad,
Pakistan*#British Airways#Dec 11#Dec 19#$1086.96 or 576.9#$2173.92###Tehran,
Iran*#British Airways#Dec 10#Dec 20#$930.63 or 493.90#$1861.26###Bhutan*#Air
France (BBI, India)#Dec 10#Dec 20#$1243.67 or 9060
SEK#$2487.34###Maldives**#Malaysian Airlines#Dec 10#Dec 20#$1859.20 or 13543
SEK#$3718.40###Nepal**#Thai Airways#Dec 10#Dec 20#$1896.82 or 13,817 SEK#$
3793.64###Sri Lanka**#KLM Royal Dutch Airlines and Martinair#Dec 14#Dec 21#$1276.41
or 9297 SEK#$2552.82##*. http://www.britishairways.com/travel/fx/public/en_gb
(accessed 25.04.06)**. http://www.saveflights.com/timetable/index.html (accessed
07.0506)Note: Currency was converted as on 10th May, 2006Air Fare from New York,
USA to Some Selected DestinationsFrom#To#Name of the Airlines#Departure Date
December 10, +- 7 days#Return Date December 15 +- 7 days#Price (Economy Class) for
1 Adult#Price (Economy Class) for 2 Adults##New York, USA#Dhaka,
Bangladesh*#British Airways#Dec 9#Dec 21#$1605 or 852.58#$3210###Mumbai (Bombay),
India*#British Airways#Dec 10#Dec 20#$1349.20Or 716.69#$2698.40###Kolkata,
India*#British Airways#Dec 11#Dec 20#$1737.91 or 923.17#$3475.82###Islamabad,
Pakistan*#British Airways#Dec 11#Dec 19#$1416.77 or 752.58#$2833.54###Tehran,

Iran*#British Airways#Nov 15#Dec 05#$1369.53 or 727.49#$2739.06###Bhutan**#Indian


Airlines#Dec 10#Dec 20#$1910 or 1024 #$ 3820###Maldives***#Emirates
Airlines#December 10#December 20#$1853 or 993.25#$3706###Nepal***#KLM#December
10#December 20#$1540 or 825.45 #$3080###Sri Lanka***#Emirates Airlines#December
10#December 20#$1311 or 702.70 #$2622###*.
http://www.britishairways.com/travel/fx/public/en_gb (accessed 25.04.06)**.
http://www.cheapflights.com/book-flights-online.html?
from=John+F+Kennedy&to=Bhubaneswar (accessed 08.05.06)***.
http://www.cheapflights.com/? source=cfuk_manual (accessed 08.05.06) Note: Currency
was converted as on 10th May, 2006Air Fare from Brussels, Belgium to Some Selected
DestinationsFrom#To#Name of the Airways#Departure Date December 10, +- 4
days#Return Date December 15 +- 4 days#Price (Economy Class) for 1 adult#Price
(Economy Class) for 2 adults##Brussels (BRU)#Dhaka, Bangladesh#Lufthansa and Gulf
Air Airways#Dec 14#Dec 21#$ 1850#$ 3700###Mumbai (Bombay), India#Lufthansa Airways
#Dec 14#Dec 21#$ 1890#$ 3780###Kolkata, India#Air India#Dec 14#Dec 21#$ 1271#$
2542###Islamabad, Pakistan#Emirates#Dec 14#Dec 21#$ 1878#$ 3756###Tehran,
Iran#*#*#*#*#*###Bhutan#*#*#*#*#*###Maldives#Emirates#Dec 11#Dec 18#$ 1930#$
3860###Nepal#Lufthansa Airways#Dec 14#Dec 21#$ 2346#$ 4692###Sri Lanka#SriLankan
Airlines#Dec 11#Dec 18#$ 1928#$ 3856##*. Flight not available to this destination
http://www.expedia.com/pub/agent.dll? qryt=1&tovr=-1294727294&ps3u= (accessed
07.05.06)Air Fare from Frankfurt, Germany to Some Selected DestinationsFrom#To#Name
of the Flight#Departure Date December 10, +- 7 days#Return Date December 15 +- 7
days#Price (Economy Class) for 1 adult#Price (Economy Class) for 2
adults##Frankfurt, Germany#Dhaka, Bangladesh#Emirates#Dec 10#Dec
20#$1713#$3426###Mumbai (Bombay), IndiaKolkata, India#LufthansaLufthansa#Dec 10Dec
10#Dec 20Dec 20#$ 913$ 1541#$ 1826$ 3082###Karachi, Pakistan#Lufthansa#Dec 11#Dec
19#$ 2826#$ 5652###Tehran, Iran#-#Nov 15#Dec 05#-#-###Bhutan#-#-#-#-#-###Male,
Maldives#Austrian Airlines#Dec 10#Dec 20#$ 2468#$ 4936###Kathmandu, Nepal#Gulf
Air#Dec 10#Dec 20#$ 4244#$ 8488###Colombo, Sri Lanka#Lufthansa#Dec 10#Dec 20#$
1736#$ 3472##* Flight not available to this destination
http://www.expedia.com/daily/home/default.asp? rfrr=-1065 (accessed 07.05.06)-.
Flights are not availableAppendix IV Details of Accommodation Cost Rates are per
Room per Night##Bangladesh##Name of the Hotel#Rank of the Hotel#Room
Description#Rent Per Night#Rent Applicable##Sheraton Hotel, Dhaka1#* * * * *#Deluxe
1 AdultDeluxe 2 Adults#US$ 160US$ 160#October 01, 2005 - December 30, 2006October
01, 2005 - December 30, 2006##Pan Pacific Sonargaon, Dhaka1#* * * * *#Deluxe 1
AdultDeluxe 2 Adults#US$ 177US$ 177###Radisson Water Garden Hotel, Dhaka2#* * * *
*#Queen Bed DeluxeTwin Bed Deluxe#US$ 195US$ 195#NA########Hotel Swiss Park ,
Dhaka1#* * * *#Deluxe 1 AdultDeluxe 2 Adults#US$ 90US$ 100#October 01, 2004 December 30, 2006##Lake Shore Hotel & Apartment, Dhaka3#* * * *#Deluxe 1 Adult
Deluxe 2 Adults#US$ 105US$ 105#Oct. 01 2005 Dec. 30 2006##Hotel Agrabad4#* * *
*#Executive RoomRoyal Twin Room#US$ 147US$ 210#NA########Best Western La Vinci
Hotel, Dhaka1#* * *#Deluxe 1 AdultDeluxe 2 Adults#US$ 105US$ 105#October 01, 2005 December 30, 2006October 01, 2005 - December 30, 2006Oct. 01, 2005 Dec. 30, 2006
NAOctober 01, 2005 - December 30, 2006##Hotel Lake Castle, Dhaka1#* * *#Deluxe 1
AdultDeluxe 2 Adults#US$ 105US$ 105###Hotel Sweet Dream, Dhaka5#* * *#Queen Bed
Deluxe Twin Bed#US$ 85US$ 95###Hotel Purbani International6#* * *#Standard Room
Deluxe - Double#US$ 70US$ 100###Hotel Sweet Dream, Dhaka1#* * *#Superior Queen Bed
Deluxe Twin Bed#US$ 85US$ 95###############1.
http://www.southtravels.com/asia/bangladesh/index.html (accessed 20.04.06)2.
http://www.tripadvisor.com/ShowUserReviews-g293936-d603313-r4722138Radisson_Water_Garden_Hotel_Dhaka- Dhaka.html (accessed 20.04.06)3.
http://www.southtravels.com/asia/bangladesh/lakeshore/index.html (accessed
20.04.06)4. http://hotelbangladesh.epb.gov.bd/hotels%20page/hotel_agrabad.html
(accessed 20.04.06)5.
http://www.southtravels.com/asia/bangladesh/sweetdreamdhaka/index.html (accessed
20.04.06)6. http://hotelbangladesh.epb.gov.bd/hotels%20page/purbani.htm (accessed
20.04.06)Rates are per Room per NightIndia##Name of the Hotel#Rank of the
Hotel#Room Description#Rent Per Night#Rent Applicable ##The Taj Mahal Palace &

Tower, Mumbai1#* * * * *#Deluxe City Facing Single Deluxe City Facing Double#US$
270US$ 286#January 01, 2006 - April 15, 2006January 01, 2006 - April 15, 2006
##Oberoi Raj Vilas, Jaipur1#* * * * *#Deluxe Room 1 AdultDeluxe Room 2 Adults#US$
536US$ 536###Ramada Hotel Palm Grove, Mumbai1#* * * * *#Standard Single Room
Standard Double Room#US$ 153US$ 170#October 01, 2005 - March 31, 2006##Cidade De
Goa1#* * * * *#Deluxe Room 1 AdultDeluxe Room 2 Adults#US$ 232US$ 232#January 06,
2006 - March 31, 2006##Hotel Holiday Inn Surat1#* * * * *#Deluxe Suite 1 Adult
Deluxe Suite 2 Adults#US$ 205US$ 229#January 01, 2006 - March 31, 2006
########Hotel Ritz, Mumbai1#* * * * #Standard Room 1 AdultStandard Room 2
Adults#US$ 90US$ 99#October 01, 2005 - March 31, 2006##Hotel Jaipur Ashok,
Jaipur1#* * * *#Standard Room 1
AdultStandard Room 2 Adults#US$ 52US$ 52#January 01, 2006 - March 31, 2006##Cama
Park Plaza, Ahmedabad1#* * * *#Deluxe Single RoomDeluxe Double Room#US$ 125US$
140#October 01, 2005 - March 31, 2006##Ramee Guestline, Mumbai1#* * * *#Superior
Room 1 AdultSuperior Room 1 Adult#US$ 112US$ 124#Oct. 01 2005 - March 31
2006##The Orchid Hotel, Mumbai1#* * * *#Deluxe Room 1 AdultDeluxe Room 2 Adults#US$
168US$ 168#October 01, 2005 - March 31, 2006 ########Mansingh Palace, Agra2#* *
*#SingleDouble#US$ 98US$ 98#December 2006##Publas International Hotel, New Delhi3#*
* *#SingleDouble#US$ 76US$ 76#December 2006##Comfort Inn Herutage, Mumbai4#* *
*#SingleDouble#US$ 120US$ 136#December 2006##White House Hotel, New Delhi5#* *
*#SingleDouble#US$ 92US$ 114#December 2006##Pradeep Hotel Varanasi, Varanasi6#* *
*#SingleDouble#US$ 68US$ 76#December 2006########1.
http://www.southtravels.com/asia/india/index.html (accessed 20.04.06)2.
http://www.asiahotels.com/hotelinfo/Mansingh_Palace/ (accessed 22.04.06)3.
http://www.asiahotels.com/hotelinfo/Pablas_International_Hotel/( accessed 22.04.06)
4. http://www.asiahotels.com/hotelinfo/Heritage_Hotel_Mumbai/ (accessed 22.04.06)5.
http://www.asiahotels.com/hotelinfo/WHITE_HOUSE_HOTEL_NEW_DELHI/( accessed
22.04.06)6. http://www.asiahotels.com/hotelinfo/Pradeep_Hotel_Varanasi/( accessed
22.04.06)

Rates are per Room per Night Iran##Name of the Hotel#Rank of the Hotel#Room
Description#Rent Per Night#Rent Applicable ##Azadi Grand Hotel, Tehran1#* * * *
*#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard Room - 2 adults#US$ 110US$ 149#until March 15,
2007until March 15, 2007##Laleh International, Tehran1#* * * * *#Standard Room - 1
adult Standard Room - 2 adults#US$ 135US$ 157###Abbasi Hotel, Isfahan1#* * * *
*#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard Room - 2 adults#US$ 99US$ 142#Till March 15,
2007##Esteghlal Grand Hotel, Tehran1#* * * * *#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard
Room - 2 adults#US$ 110US$ 149#until March 15, 2007##Kowsar Hotel, Isfahan1#* * * *
*#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard Room - 2 adults#US$ 83US$ 98#until March 15,
2007########Simorgh Hotel, Tehran1#* * * *#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard Room 2 adults#US$ 127US$ 137#until March 15, 2007##Evin Hotel, Tehran1#* * * *#Standard
Room - 1 adult Standard Room - 2 adults#US$ 112US$ 135#until March 15, 2007##Tehran
Grand Hotel, Tehran1#* * * *#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard Room - 2 adults#US$
81US$ 96#until March 15, 2006##Enghelab Hotel, Tehran2#* * * *#SingleDouble #US$ 80
US$ 105#NA##Kowsar Hotel, Tehran2#* * **#SingleDouble#US$ 70US$
86#NA##############Iranshahr Hotel, Tehran1#* * *#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard
Room - 2 adults#US$ 48US$ 68#until March 15, 2007##Alborz Hotel, Tehran2#* *
*#SingleDouble#US$ 50US$ 75#NA##Hovaizeb Hotel, Tehran2#* * *#SingleDouble#US$ 65
US$ 88#NA##Melal Hotel Apartment, Tehran2#* * *#SingleDouble#US$ 185US$ 240#NA
##Rudaki Hotel, Tehran2#* * *#SingleDouble#US$ 50US$ 65#NA########1.
http://www.southtravels.com/middleeast/iran/index.html (accessed 20.06)2.
http://www.irantravelingcenter.com/iran_hotel.htm (accessed 20.06)

Rates are per Room per Night Maldives##Name of the Hotel#Rank of the Hotel#Room
Description#Rent Per Night#Rent Applicable ##Bandos Island Resort, North Male
Atoll*#* * * * *#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard Room - 2 adults#US$ 174US$
189#Sep. 1, 2006 till Oct. 31, 2006January 09 2006 - April 30 2006##Velavaru Island
Resort, Dhaalu Atoll*#* * * * *#Deluxe Beach Bungalow -1 adult Deluxe Beach
Bungalow-1 adults#US$ 274US$ 304###Paradise Island Resort, North Male Atoll*#* * *
* *#Super Deluxe Room - 1 adult Super Deluxe Room - 1 adult#US$ 265US$
275#September 01, 06 - October 31, 06 ##One & Only Kanuhura Resort, Lhaviyani,
Atool*#* * * * *#Deluxe Vila - 1 adultDeluxe Vila - 2 adults#US$ 605US$ 617#July
24, 06 - December19, 06##Kurumba Village Resort, North Male Atoll*#* * * * *#Deluxe
Room - 1 adult Deluxe Room - 2 adults#US$ 276US$ 286#Sep. 1, 2006 until Oct. 31,
2006 ########Angaga Island Resort, South Ari Atoll*#* * * *#Superior Room - 1 adult
Superior Room - 2 adults#US$ 206US$ 254#April 01 2006 - April 30 2006##Bathala
Island Resort, North Ari Atoll*#* * * *#Standard Room - 1 adultStandard Room - 2
adults#US$ 252US$ 298#March 5, 2006 - April 30, 2006##Embudu Village Resort, South
Male Atoll*#* * * *#Superior Room (A/C)- 1 adult Superior Room (A/C)- 2 adults#US$
141US$ 187#April 16, 2006 - April 30 ,2006 ##Biyadhoo Island Resort, SouthMale
Atoll*#* * * *#Beach Front Room - 1 adultBeach Front Room - 2 adults#US$ 191US$
201#Oct. 1, 2006 till Oct. 31, 2006##Ellaidhoo Tourist Resort, North Ari Atoll*#* *
* *#Superior Room - 1 adult Superior Room - 2 adults#US$ 130US$ 173#Oct. 1, 2006
till Oct. 31, 2006########Halaveli Holiday Village Resort, North Ari Atoll#* *
*#Beach Bungalow 1 AdultBeach Bungalow 2 Adults#US$ 167US$ 188#Feb 1, 2005 April 30 2006##Kai Lodge Hotel, North Male Atoll#* * *#Standard Room - 1 adult
Standard Room - 2 adults#US$ 55US$ 55#Feb. 1, 2006 - April 30 2006 ##Abalone
Tourist Inn Resort, North Male Atoll#* * *#Standard Room - 1 adultStandard Room - 2
adults#US$ 83US$ 105#Winter 2005 - 2006##Summer Island Village, North Male Atoll#*
* *#Air Conditioned Room - 1 adultAir Conditioned Room - 2 adults#US$ 199US$
215#April 11, 2006 - April 30, 2006##Giravaru Island Resort, North Male Atoll#* *
*#Standard Deluxe Room - 1 AdultStandard Deluxe Room - 2 Adults#US$ 158US$
184#January 11, 2006 - April 30, 2006########*.
http://www.southtravels.com/asia/maldives/index.html (accessed 20.04.06)Rates are
per Room per NightNepal##Name of the Hotel#Rank of the Hotel#Room Description#Rent
Per Night#Rent Applicable ##The Fulbari Resort & Spa Nepal1#* * * * *#Deluxe Room SingleDeluxe Room - Double#US$ 87US$ 98#Valid till 30th September, 2006##Dwatika
Hotel Kathmandu, Nepal1#* * * * *#Deluxe Room- SingleDeluxe Room- Single#US$ 201US$
219#January 1 - 30 April / Oct. 1 - 31 2006##Club Himalaya Resort, Nepal1#* * * *
*#Standard Room - SingleStandard Room - Double#US$ 69US$ 85#NA##Soaltee Crown
Plaza, Kathmundu2#* * * * *#Deluxe Room - SingleDeluxe Room - Double#US$ 200US$
210#NA##The Everest Hotel, Kathmandu2#* * * * *#Deluxe Room - SingleDeluxe Room Double#US$ 200US$ 210#NA########Hotel Vaishali, Nepal1#* * * *#Single RoomDouble
Room#US$ 51US$ 61#July 01, 2005 - 30 Sep 2006##Fish Tail Lodge, Nepal1#* * *
*#Standard Room 1 AdultStandard Room - 2 Adults#US$ 80US$ 85#July 01, 2005 - 30
Sep 2006##Park Village Hotel, Nepal1#* * * *#Standard Room - SingleStandard Room
-Double#US$ 51US$ 56#NA##The Malla Hotel2#* * * *#Deluxe Room - SingleDeluxe Room Double#US$ 150US$ 182#NA##Hotel Woodlands2#* * * *#Single RoomDouble Room#US$ 105
US$ 115#NA########Marshyangdi Hotel Nepal1#* * *#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard
Room - 2 adults#US$ 45US$ 52#July 01, 2005 - 30 Sep 2006##Buddha Maya Garden Hotel,
Nepal1#* * *#Standard Room - SingleStandard Room -Double#US$ 51US$ 56#NA##Hotel
Harati2#* * *#Deluxe Room - SingleDeluxe Room - Double#US$ 60US$ 80#NA##Hotel
Gangjong2#* * *#Deluxe Room - SingleDeluxe Room - Double#US$ 80US$ 90#NA##Nivana
Garden Hotel, Nepal3#* * *#Single RoomDoule Room#US$ 34US$ 38#NA########Island
Jungle Resort, Nepal4#* *#Standard Room 1 AdultStandard Room - 2 Adults#US$ 80US$
140#July 01, 2005 - 30 Sept 2006##1.
http://www.southtravels.com/asia/nepal/index.html (accessed 21.04.06)2.
http://www.hotelnepal.com/(accessed 21.04.06)3.
http://www.southtravels.com/asia/nepal/nirvanagardenkathmandu/index.html (accessed
21.04.06)4. http://www.southtravels.com/asia/nepal/islandjungleresort/index.html
(accessed 21.04.06)Rates are per Room per Night Pakistan##Name of the Hotel#Rank of
the Hotel#Room Description#Rent Per Night#Rent Applicable ##Serena Hotel

Islamabad1#* * * * *#Deluxe Room- SingleDeluxe Room- Double#US$ 230US$ 230#till


December 31, 2006till December 30 2006.##Marriott Hotel, Islamabad1#* * * *
*#Executive Room - Single Executive Room - Double#US$ 293US$ 293###Avari Hotel,
Lhore1#* * * * *#Deluxe Room- 1 AdultDeluxe Room- 2 Adults#US$ 200US$ 252#Sept.
01, 2005 Dec. 31, 2006##Pearl Continental Hotel, Bhurban Murree1#* * * * *#Deluxe
Room- 1 AdultDeluxe Room- 2 Adults#US$ 175US$ 175#June 01, 2005 - March 30,
2006##Sheraton Karachi Hotel & Tower1#* * * * *#Classic- 1 adult Classic- 2
adults#US$ 225US$ 256#till December 31 2006.########Holiday Inn, Islamabad1#* * *
*#Standard Room 1 AdultStandard Room - 2 Adults#US$ 87US$ 107#till December 30,
2006##Shalimar Hotel, Rawalpindi1#* * * *#Standard Room - SingleStandard Room Double#US$ 75US$ 90#Dec. 21, 2005 to Dec. 31, 2006##Sunfort Hotel Lahore1#* * *
*#Standard Room 1 AdultStandard Room - 2 Adults#US$ 112US$ 125#Dec. 20 2005
Dec. 31, 2006##Regent Plaza Hotel & Covention Centre, Karachi1#* * * *#Standard
Room 1 AdultStandard Room - 2 Adults#US$ 125US$ 145#Oct. 29 2005 Dec. 31,
2006##Shangrila Resort Hotel, Murree1#* * * *#Standard Room 1 AdultStandard Room
- 2 Adults#US$ 72US$ 78#Oct. 22, 2005 Dec. 31, 2006########Pak Palace Hotel,
Islamabad1#* * *#Standard Room 1 AdultStandard Room - 2 Adults#US$ 75US$ 85#till
December 31, 2006##Hotel Crowne Plaaza, Lahore1#* * *#Standard Room 1 Adult
Standard Room - 2 Adults#US$ 85US$ 96#Oct. 22, 2005 Dec. 31, 2006##Indus Hotel,
Hyderabad1#* * *#Standard Room 1 AdultStandard Room - 2 Adults#US$ 38US$ 60#till
December 30 2006.##Hotel taj Palace, Sialkot1#* * *#Standard Room 1 AdultStandard
Room - 2 Adults#US$ 41US$ 50#till December 30, 2006.##Days Inn Hotel, Karachi1#* *
*#Standard Room 1 AdultStandard Room - 2 Adults#US$ 70US$ 83#till December 30,
2006##Source : http://www.southtravels.com/asia/pakistan/index.html (accessed
21.04.06)Rates are per Room per Night
Sri Lanka##Name of the Hotel#Rank
of the Hotel#Room Description#Rent Per Night#Rent Applicable ##Galandi Hotel,
Colombo#* * * * *#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard Room - 2 adults#US$ 78US$
80#Nov. 01, 2005 - April 30, 2006Nov. 01, 2005 Dec. 30, 2006##Taj Samudra Hotel#*
* * * *#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard Room - 2 adults#US$ 65US$ 80###Eden Resort
and Spa Beruwela#* * * * *#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard Room - 2 adults#US$ 100
US$ 120#Jan 11, 2006 - Feb 28 2006##Lighthouse Hotel#* * * * *#Standard Room - 1
adult Standard Room - 2 adults#US$ 254US$ 254#Sept. 01, 2005 Oct. 31, 2005##Hotel
The Blue Water, Wadduwa#* * * * *#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard Room - 2
adults#US$ 175US$ 185#March 16, 2006 - April 30, 2006########Riverina Hotel,
Beruwela#* * * *#Superior Room - 1 adult Superior Room - 2 adults#US$ 65US$
75###Induruwa Beach Hotel#* * * *#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard Room - 2
adults#US$ 30US$ 42#Oct. 01, 2004 Oct. 31 2006##Hotel brown Beach, Negombo#* * *
*#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard Room - 2 adults#US$ 57US$ 62#Nov. 01, 2005 April 30, 2006##Mount Livinia Hotel#* * * *#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard Room 2 adults#US$ 80US$ 85#Feb 22, 2006 - Mar 31, 2006##Hotel Club Palm Bay Marawila#* *
* *#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard Room - 2 adults#US$ 144US$ 156#Jan 21, 2005 Mar 31 2005Hotel The Reef########Lihiniya Surf Hotel, Bentota#* * *#Single Standard
Room Double Standard Room #US$ 67US$ 73#July 01, 2004 - October 31, 2004##Holiday
Inn, Colombo#* * *#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard Room - 2 adults#US$ 82US$
95#Nov. 01, 2005 - April 30, 2006##Hotel Closenberg, Galle#* * *#Standard Room - 1
adult Standard Room - 2 adults#US$ 67US$ 83#Jan 16, 2006 - April 30, 2006##Hotel
Tangerine Beach#* * *#Standard Room - 1 adult Standard Room - 2 adults#US$ 90US$
95#Jan 11, 2006 - Apr 30 2006##Grand Oriental Hotel, Colombo#* * *#Standard Room
Gov. Wing - 1 adult Standard Room Gov. Wing - 2 adults#US$ 61US$ 65#November 01,
2005 - April 30, 2006########Source:
http://www.southtravels.com/asia/srilanka/index.html (accessed 22.04.06)

Calculation of Average Cost in US$Name of the country#Hotel Ranking###5 Star #4


Star #3 Star ##Bangladesh#1 Adult: (160+177+195)/3 = 1772 Adults: (160+177+195)/3 =
177#1 Adult: (90+105+147)/3 = 1142 Adults: (100+105+210)/3 = 138#1 Adult:
(105+105+85+70+85)/5 = 902 Adults: (105+105+95+100+95)/5 = 100##India#1 Adult:
(270+536+153+232+205)/5 =2792 Adults: (286+536+170+232+229)/5 = 291#1 Adult:
(90+52+125+112+168)/5 = 109 2 Adults: (99+52+140+124+168)/5 = 117#1 Adult:
(98+76+120+92+68)/5 = 912 Adults: (98+76+136+114+76)/5 = 100##Iran#1 Adult:
(110+135+99+110+83)/5 =1072 Adults: (149+157+142+149+98)/5 = 139#1 Adult:
(127+112+81+80+70)/5 = 94 2 Adults: (137+135+96+105+86)/5 = 112#1 Adult:
(48+50+65+185+50)/5 = 802 Adults: (68+75+88+240+65)/5 = 107##Maldives#1 Adult:
(174+274+265+605+276)/5 = 3192 Adults: (189+304+275+617+286)/5 = 334#1 Adult:
(206+252+141+191+130)/5 = 1842 Adults: (254+298+187+201+173)/5 = 223#1 Adult:
(167+55+83+199+158)/5 = 1322 Adults: (188+55+105+215+184)/5 = 149##Nepal#1 Adult:
(87+201+69+200+200)/5 =1512 Adults: (98+219+85+210+210)/5 = 164#1 Adult:
(51+80+51+150+105)/5 = 872 Adults: (61+85+56+182+115)/5 = 100#1 Adult:
(45+51+60+80+34)/5 = 542 Adults: (52+56+80+90+38)/5 = 63##Pakistan#1 Adult:
(230+293+200+175+225)/5 = 2252 Adults: (230+293+252+175+256)/5 = 241#1 Adult:
(87+75+112+125+72)/5 = 942 Adults: (107+90+125+145+78)/5 = 109#1 Adult:
(75+85+38+41+70)/5 = 622 Adults: (85+96+60+50+83)/5 = 75##Sri Lanka#1 Adult:
(78+65+100+254+175)/5 = 1342 Adults: (80+80+120+254+185)/5 = 138#1 Adult:
(65+30+57+80+144)/5 = 752 Adults: (75+42+62+85+156)/5 = 84#1 Adult:
(67+82+67+90+61)/5 = 732 Adults: (73+95+83+95+65)/5 = 82##Note: Figures have been
rounded upCalculation of Total Costs of Hotel/Accommodation for a 10 Days Tour (in
US$) in Some Selected South Asian CountriesName of the country#Visitor
Category#Hotel Ranking####5 Star#4 Star#3 Star##Bangladesh#Individual#177 x 1 x 10
= 1770#114 x 1 x 10 = 1140#90 x 1 x 10 = 900###Standard Family#177 x 2 x 10 =
3540#138 x 2 x 10 = 2760#100 x 2 x 10 = 2000##India#Individual#279 x 1 x 10 =
2790#109 x 1 x 10 = 1090#91 x 1 x 10 = 910###Standard Family#291x 2 x 10 = 5820#117
x 2 x 10 = 2340#100 x 2 x 10 = 2000##Iran#Individual#107 x 1 x 10 = 1070#94 x 1
x10 = 940#80 x 1 x 10 = 800###Standard Family#139 x 2 x 10 = 2780#112 x 2 x 10 =
2240#107 x 2 x 10 = 2140##Maldives#Individual#319 x 1 x 10 = 3190#184 x 1 x 10 =
1840#132 x 1 x 10 = 1320###Standard Family#334 x 2 x 10 = 6680#223 x 2 x 10 =
4460#149 x 2 x 10 = 2980##Nepal#Individual#151 x 1 x 10 = 1510#87 x 1 x 10 = 870#54
x 1 x 10 = 540###Standard Family#164 x 2 x 10 = 3280#100 x 2 x 10 = 2000#63 x 2 x
10 = 1260##Pakistan#Individual#225 x 1 x 10 = 2250#94 x 1 x 10 = 940#62 x 1 x 10 =
620###Standard Family#241 x 2 x 10 = 4820#109 x 2 x 10 = 2180#75 x 2 x 10 =
1500##Sri Lanka#Individual#134 x 1 x 10 = 1340#75 x 1 x 10 = 750#73 x 1 x 10 =
730###Standard Family#138 x 2 x 10 = 2760#84 x 2 x 10 = 1680#82 x 2 x 10 = 1640##*.
Standard Family includes husband, wife and two kids and they need two double beds
Calculation of Total Costs of Hotel/Accommodation for a 10 Days Tour (in US$) in
Some Selected South Asian CountriesName of the country#Visitor Category#Hotel
Ranking####5 Star#4 Star#3 Star##Bangladesh#Individual#177 x 10 = 1770#114 x 10 =
1140#90 x 10 = 900###Couple #177 x 10 = 1770#138 x10 = 1380#100 x 10 =
1000##India#Individual#279 x 10 = 2790#109 x 10 = 1090#91 x 10 = 910###Couple#291 x
10 = 2910#117 x 10 = 1170#100 x 10 = 1000##Iran#Individual#107 x 10 = 1070#94 x 1
x10 = 940#80 x 10 = 800###Couple#139 x 10 = 1390#112 x 10 = 1120#107 x 10 =
1070##Maldives#Individual#319 x 10 = 3190#184 x 10 = 1840#132 x 10 =
1320###Couple#334 x 10 = 3340#223 x 10 = 2230#149 x 10 =
1490##Nepal#Individual#151 x 10 = 1510#87 x 10 = 870#54 x 10 = 540###Couple#164 x
10 = 1640#100 x 10 = 1000#63 x 10 = 630##Pakistan#Individual#225 x 10 = 2250#94 x
10 = 940#62 x 10 = 620###Couple#241 x 10 = 2410#109 x 10 = 1090#75 x 10 = 750##Sri
Lanka#Individual#134 x 10 = 1340#75 x 10 = 750#73 x 10 = 730###Couple#138 x 10 =
1380#84 x 10 = 840#82 x 10 = 820##Total Costs of Hotel/Accommodation for a 10 Days
Tour (in US$) in Some Selected South Asian CountriesName of the country#Visitor
Category#Hotel Ranking####5 Star#4 Star#3 Star##Bangladesh#Individual#1770#1140#
900###Couple #1770#1380#1000##Bombay, IndiaKolkata, India#Individual#2790#1090#
910###Couple#2910#1170#1000###Individual#2790#1090#
910###Couple#2910#1170#1000##Iran#Individual#1070# 940#
800###Couple#1390#1120#1070##Maldives#Individual#3190#1840#1320###Couple#3340#2230#

1490##Nepal#Individual#1510# 870# 540###Couple#1640#1000#


630##Pakistan#Individual#2250# 940# 620###Couple#2410#1090# 750##Sri
Lanka#Individual#1340# 750# 730###Couple#1380# 840#820##*. Couple means husband and
wife and needs one double bedAppendix V Hotel and Motel owned by BPCName of the
Hotel and Category of the Room#Location#Tariff in Bangladeshi TK. #Name of the
Hotel and Category of the Room#Location#Tariff in Bangladeshi TK. ##Hotel ShaibalAC
Twin Bed W/O (Belcony)AC Twin BedRoyal AC SuiteConference Hall#Coxz Bazar#1,600
2,0003,0005,000#Hotel AbakashAC Twin Bed EconomyAC Twin DeluxeAC SuiteAC Conference
Hall#Dhaka#1,2001,8002,5005,000##Motel UpalNon AC Twin BedAc##6501,000#Parjatan
MotelNon AC Twin BedAC Twin BedEconomy BedAC Conference Hall#Bogra#400800100
1,500##Motel ProbalNon AC Twin BedEconomy Room##600500 (without Geyser)250#Parjatan
MotalNon AC Single RoomNon AC Twin BedAC SingleAC Twin BedNon AC SuiteAC Suite
Economy BedAC Conference Hall#Rajshahi#3504508001,0008001,400603,000##Motel Labonee
Non Ac RoomConference Room##600700 (with TV)550 (1st and 2nd Floor)1,200#Parjatan
MotalNon AC Twin BedAC Twin BedVIP AC SuiteEconomy BedAc Conference Hall- 1st Hour
Ac Conference Hall- 2nd Hour#Rangpur#6001,2002,00060500250##Honeymoon CottageNon Ac
Cottage (2 bed)Ac Cottage (2 bed)##7501,000#Parjatan MotalNon AC Twin BedAC Twin
BedConference Hall#Sylhet#5001,0004,000 (Half day)5,500 (Full day##Old CottageNon
AC Cottage##1,500#Parjatan MotelNon AC Twin BedAC Twin Bed#Dinajpur#600
1,200##PanthanibasPer BedPer room (2 Bed)##50120#Parjatan MotalNon AC Twin BedAC
Twin Bed#Rangamati#650550 (Gr. Floor)1,000##Parjatan MotalNon AC Twin BedAC Twin
BedDormitory (per Bed)#Kuakata#5001,250150#CottageNon AC Cottage ( 4 Bed)AC Cottage
(8 Bed)Auditorium(Capacity 200 persons)Per HourMaximum##1,2002,0001,000
4,000##Source: http://www.bangla2000.com/Travel/hotels.html (accessed 16.04.06)
Note: 1 US$ = TK. 69 approximately (May, 2006)

Appendix VI Total Cost of a Tour for 10 Days from Selected Destinations to some
Selected South Asian CountriesFrom and To#Visitor Category#Air fare and 5 star
Hotel cost#Air fare and 4 star Hotel cost#Air fare and 3 star Hotel cost####Air
fare (1)#Hotel cost (2)#Total(3) = (1)+(2)#Hotel cost (4) #Total(5) = (1) +
(4)#Hotel cost (6)#Total(7) =
(1) + (6)##Heathrow to Dhaka,
Bangladesh#Single#1082#1770#2852#1140#2222#900#1982###Couple#2165#1770#3935#1380#35
45#1000#3165##Heathrow, UK to Bombay, IndiaHeathrow, UK to Kolkata,
India#Single#876#2790#3666#1090#1966#910#1786###Couple#1752#2910#4662#1170#2922#100
0#2752###Single#1055#2790#3845#1090#2145#910#1965###Couple#2111#2910#5021#1170#3281
#1000#3111##Heathrow, UK to Tehran,
Iran#Single#771#1070#1841#940#1711#800#1571###Couple#1542#1390#2932#1120#2662#1070#
2612##Heathrow, UK to Male,
Maldives#Single#993#3190#4183#1840#2833#1320#2313###Couple#1985#3340#5325#2230#4215
#1490#3475##Heathrow, UK to Kathmandu,
Nepal#Single#1172#1510#2682#870#2042#540#1712###Couple#2345#1640#3985#1000#3345#630
#2975##Heathrow, UK to Islamabad,
Pakistan#Single#965#2250#3215#940#1905#620#1585###Couple#1930#2410#4340#1090#3020#7
50#2680##Heathrow, UK to Colombo, Sri
Lanka#Single#1093#1340#2433#750#1843#730#1823###Couple#2186#1380#3566#840#3026#820#
3006############Stockholm, Sweden to Dhaka,
Bangladesh#Single#1314#1770#3084#1140#2454#900#2214###Couple#2628#1770#4398#1380#40
08#1000#3628##Stockholm, Sweden to Bombay, IndiaStockholm, Sweden to Kolkata,
India#Single#1143#2790#3933#1090#2233#910#2053###Couple#2287#2910#5197#1170#3457#10
00#3287###Single#1206#2790#3996#1090#2296#910#2116###Couple#2413#2910#5323#1170#358
3#1000#3413##Stockholm, Sweden to Tehran,
Iran#Single#930#1070#2000#940#1870#800#1730###Couple#1861#1390#3251#1120#2981#1070#
2931##Stockholm, Sweden to Male,
Maldives#Single#1859#3190#5049#1840#3699#1320#3179###Couple#3718#3340#7058#2230#594
8#1490#5208##Stockholm, Sweden to Kathmandu,
Nepal#Single#1897#1510#3407#870#2767#540#2437###Couple#3794#1640#5434#1000#4794#630
#4424##Stockholm, Sweden to Islamabad,
Pakistan#Single#1087#2250#3337#940#2027#620#1707###Couple#2174#2410#4584#1090#3264#
750#2924##Stockholm, Sweden to Colombo, Sri
Lanka#Single#1276#1340#2616#750#2026#730#2006###Couple#2553#1380#3933#840#3393#820#
3373############New York, USA to Dhaka,
Bangladesh#Single#1605#1770#3375#1140#2745#900#2505###Couple#3210#1770#4980#1380#45
90#1000#4210##New York, USA to Bombay, IndiaNew York, USA to Kolkata,
India#Single#1349#2790#4139#1090#2439#910#2259###Couple#2698#2910#5608#1170#3868#10
00#3698###Single#1738#2790#4528#1090#2828#910#2648###Couple#3476#2910#6386#1170#464
6#1000#4476##New York, USA to Tehran,
Iran#Single#1370#1070#2440#940#2310#800#2170###Couple#2739#1390#4129#1120#3859#1070
#3809##New York, USA to Male,
Maldives#Single#1853#3190#5043#1840#3693#1320#3173###Couple#3706#3340#7046#2230#593
6#1490540#5196##New York, USA to Kathmandu,
Nepal#Single#1540#1510#3050#870#2410##2080###Couple#3080#1640#4720#1000#4080#630#37
10##New York, USA to Islamabad,
Pakistan#Single#1417#2250#3667#940#2357#620#2037###Couple#2834#2410#5244#1090#3924#
750#3584##New York, USA to Colombo, Sri
Lanka#Single#1311#1340#2651#750#2061#730#2041###Couple#2622#1380#4002#840#3462#820#
3442############Brussels, Belgium to Dhaka,
Bangladesh#Single#1850#1770#3620#1140#2990#900#2750###Couple#3700#1770#5470#1380#50
80#1000#4700##Brussels, Belgium to Bombay, IndiaBrussels, Belgium to Kolkata,
India#Single#1890#2790#4680#1090#2980#910#2800###Couple#3780#2910#6690#1170#4950#10
00#4780###Single#1271#2790#4061#1090#2361#910#2181###Couple#2542#2910#5452#1170#371
2#1000#3542##Brussels, Belgium to Tehran, Iran#Single#*#1070#-#940#-#800####Couple#*#1390#-#1120#-#1070#-##Brussels, Belgium to Male,
Maldives#Single#1930#3190#5120#1840#3770#1320#3250###Couple#3860#3340#7200#2230#609
0#1490#5350##Brussels, Belgium to Kathmandu,
Nepal#Single#2346#1510#3856#870#3216#540#2886###Couple#4692#1640#6332#1000#5692#630

#5322##Brussels, Belgium to Islamabad,


Pakistan#Single#1878#2250#4128#940#2818#620#2498###Couple#3756#2410#6166#1090#4846#
750#4506##Brussels, Belgium to Colombo, Sri
Lanka#Single#1928#1340#3268#750#2678#730#2658###Couple#3856#1380#5236#840#4696#820#
4676############Frankfurt, Germany to Dhaka, Bangladesh
#Single#1713#1770#3483#1140#2853#900#2613###Couple#3426#1770#5196#1380#4806#1000#44
26##Frankfurt, Germany to Bombay, IndiaFrankfurt, Germany to Kolkata,
India#Single#913#2790#3703#1090#2003#910#1823###Couple#1826#2910#4736#1170#2996#100
0#2826###Single#1541#2790#4331#1090#2631#910#2451###Couple#3082#2910#5992#1170#4252
#1000#4082##Frankfurt, Germany to Tehran,
Iran#Single#*#1070#*#940#*#800#*###Couple#*#1390#*#1120#*#1070#*##Frankfurt,
Germany to Male,
Maldives#Single#2468#3190#5658#1840#4308#1320#3788###Couple#4936#3340#8276#2230#716
6#1490#6426##Frankfurt, Germany to Kathmandu,
Nepal#Single#4244#1510#5754#870#5114#540#4784###Couple#8488#1640#10128#1000#9488#63
0#9118##Frankfurt, Germany to Islamabad,
Pakistan#Single#2826#2250#5076#940#3766#620#3446###Couple#5652#2410#8062#1090#6742#
750#6402##Frankfurt, Germany to, Colombo, Sri
Lanka#Single#1736#1340#3076#750#2486#730#2466###Couple#3472#1380#4852#840#4312#820#
4292##*. Flight is not available# Davidson (1994), p. 10# Bhattacharya, H. K.
(1997), pp. 54-69# WTO (2005), UNWTO Tourism Highlights (online), accessed 18.05.06
# Wagner, Cynthia G (2005), p. 14# Presently $1= Tk. 69# BPC (undated), online,
accessed 27.02.06# Ivanovic, A. and Collin, A. H. ( (1996), p. 166# Kotler, Philip;
Wong, Veronica; Saunders, John; and Armstrong, Gary (2005), p. 34# Hackley,
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302# Tourism in Virginia (2002-03), online, accessed 25.03.06# Tourism and
Advertising (undated), online, accessed 25.03.06 # Hossain, Md. Afjal and
Firozzaman, M. (2003), p. 4# WTO (2005), online, accessed 18.05.06# WTO (2000), p.
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WTO (1999), Madrid# Echtner, C. M. (2002), p. 413# Briton, R. (1979), pp. 318-319
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International: Wallingford, pp. 117-127 and Selwyn, T. (1993, Routledge: London,
pp. 117-137# Patwari, Col (Rtd) Bazlul Gani (1993), pp. 28-29# Pannell Kerr
Forster Associates (1998), Chapter-3, p. 1 and Chapter 12, p. 9# Hossain, Md.
Afjal (1993), p. 13# Hossain, Md. Afjal and Hossain, Md. Jakir (2002), p. 303#
Hasan, Syed Rashidul (1988), pp. 19-32# Hasan, Syed Rashidul (1990, a), pp. 1-4#
Adams, K. (1984), pp. 469-485# Reimer, G. (1990), pp. 501-502# Echtner, C. M. and
Prasad (2003), p. 661# Echtner, C. M. (2002), p. 414# To be filled in, will be the
result of further research. # Idem.# Hossain, Md, Afjal and Hossain, Md. Jakir
(2002), pp. 301-316# Gammack, John (2005), pp. 1148-1149# Law, Rob; Cheung,
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