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Revamp and Upgrade Possibilities for

Sulphuric Acid Plants


COBRAS 2013

Jan Albrecht

Content

Outotec in a nutshell

Main Drivers for Revamps and Upgrades

Aspects to be observed during revamps and Upgrades

References and Examples

06/12/13

Outotec in a nutshell who we are ?


Provides leading technologies and services for the
sustainable use of natural resources
the global leader in minerals and

metals processing technology (84% of sales)


innovative solutions for the utilization
of alternative energy sources,
industrial water treatment and
chemical industry

Sales and service centers in 27 countries,


deliveries to 80 countries

89%
of the order
intake,
Environmental
Goods and
Services,
OECD

06/12/13

Outotec in a nutshell technology leadership


Year
2013
SCANALYSE
BACKFILL SPECIALISTS
TME Group, DEMIL MANUTENAO
NUMCORE
KILN SERVICES
VPF, ASH DEC
MILLTEAM, EDMESTON
AUBURN

2010

2006

Listing on the Helsinki Stock Exchange

OUTOKUMPU TECHNOLOGY

2001
BOLIDEN CONTECH
NORDBERG GRINDING MILLS
KHD ALUMINIUM
AISCO, SUPAFLO
WENMEC

1990

1970

OUTOKUMPU

AUSMELT

LURGI
METALLURGIE
LAROX

1950
1900

06/12/13

ENERGY
PRODUCTS
OF IDAHO

Outotec in a nutshell - numerous references


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650 sulfuric acid plants (> 1/3 of the


worlds sulfuric acid capacity)
130 non-ferrous smelters
1,100 grinding mills
10,000 flotation units
1,800 thickeners
3,500 filters
20 pelletizing and sintering plants for
chromites (ferroalloys), and 9
ferroalloy smelters
340 iron ore sintering plants
93 iron ore pelletizing plants
290 fluidized bed roasting plants
50 alumina calcination plants
109 fluidized bed energy systems for
biomass
06/12/13

Grinding mills LKAB


Sweden

Worlds largest
pellet plant
(7.5 million tpy)
Samarco; Brazil

Tankcell flotation units


FQM Kevitsa,
Sodankyl, Finland

Outotec in a nutshell - by the numbers


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Sales EUR 2,087 million with


EUR 476 million generated by
services (2012)

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Over 5,000 professionals

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Extensive IPR portfolio

Sales
EUR million

2200

2087

2000
1800
1600

Over 6,000 national patents or applications, 1400


660 patent families and 70 trademarks

R&D expenditure EUR 42 million (2012)


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Market capitalization ~ EUR 1.7 billion

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Listed on NASDAQ OMX Helsinki

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18 competence centers, presence in


27 countries, deliveries to 80
countries

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1386
1218

1200

1000

1000

878
740

800
556

600
400
200
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366

426

970

Outotec in a nutshell - life cycle solutions


Engineering and supply

Construction and commissioning

Basic engineering
Detail engineering
Supply of process and plant
equipment
Operability & maintainability
optimization
Spare parts

Plant construction
Equipment installation
Start-up and ramp-up services
Training

Operation and maintenance


Concept

R&D services
Modeling & simulation
Testwork
Feasibility studies

September 2013

Decommissioning
Refurbishment of equipment
for re-use
Plant decommissioning
Permanent shutdown of the plant
Land reclamation

Plant operation
Spare parts
Preventive maintenance
Auditing
Testwork
Shutdown services
Equipment life assessment
Upgrades
Process optimization
Modernizations
Training

Main drivers for Revamps and Upgrades

Environmental requirements
- lower emissions

Production requirements
- increased capacity
- reduction of OPEX
- changed feed stock (e.g. Changes in ore contents for metallurgical acid plants)
- additional products
(e.g. Oleum, SO3, liquid SO2, ultrapure acid, heat, electrical energy)

Reliability problems
- replacement of damaged equipment
- increased availability (less unplanned downtime, increased travel time)
- decoupling of connected operations
- operational aspects (training and responsiveness of staff)
06/12/13

Main drivers for Revamps and Upgrades


Sulphuric Acid Plant Revamps and Upgrades
Renewal of Equipment

Capacity-Increase

Identical Design

More Throughput

Minor Design Changes


to improve
Availability / Operability

Higher Gastenor and use


of Pure Oxygen

Add-on Tailgas
Scrubbing and / or add.
Catalyst Beds

Process and Mechanical


Design Changes to cope
with new
Production Patterns /
Energy Recovery

Change of Gas-Source
e.g.: Pyrites Sulphur

Conversion to
Double Catalysis

Virtual New Plant


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Reduction of
Environmental Impact

Influencing Factors on Revamp and Upgrade Projects

Project targets and their priority


- to be clearly defined and agreed as early as possible
- changes to be communicated as early and clearly as possible
- budget

Setup and capabilities of customers own and contracted experts


- refers to operational, engineering, fabrication, construction, project handling, etc.

Setup of existing facility


- status of existing equipment and infrastructure
- available space for new or temporary equipment and execution of site works

Scheduling aspects
- targeted start and end date
- milestones and fixed periods/steps (e.g. staged revamp during shut downs)

Other aspects
- surrounding infrastructure and accessibility
- established supplier and contractor network, availability of sufficient cranage

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Outotecs service categories

Audits and
Inspections
Trouble shooting
Installation / Commissioning support
Training
Research & analysis
services

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November
2013

Process upgrades
Equipment upgrades
Plant upgrades
Plant modernisations
Upgrade installation
and start-up services

Outotec - Services directly from the technology source

Preventive maintenance planning/


implementation
Shut-down services
Operation and
maintenance
packages

Spare parts
Wear parts
OEM components
Component repair
service
Stock planning
consultation

Outotec modernization services Turnkey solution


Audits and studies for

Process evaluation
Process modifications
Equipment inspection in terms of
wear and consumption levels
Increasing capacity

Engineering services

Process engineering
Plant and mechanical engineering
Civil and steel structural engineering
Construction engineering

Construction and commissioning

Erection and installation


Supervision
Advisory Services
(Shut-down) Planning

Reliability, availability and maintainability equipment

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Optimized drying- and absorption tower


Reliable heat exchanger
Optimized acid distribution system.

06/12/13

Outotec modernization services - Audits


Audits target on the analysis of current plant performance with the development of
strategic alternatives
Fact finding visit e.g.

Collection of plant operating data (DCS) and plant documents with comparison to
design process data including analysis of deviations
Inspection of plant with client with identification of equipment status
Preliminary identification of bottlenecks and potential of the plant

Elaboration of an audit report e.g.

Analysis of findings including list of the problems


Description of the recommended solutions/modifications for plant operation and
maintenance.
Propositions for improvements on operational and environmental topics
List of the equipments to be modified/replaced.
Proposal for a study and/or engineering package

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Outotec modernization services - Studies


Flexible scopes for studies in every project phase
In accordance to a projects phase and the specific requirements set by the client
the scope of a study can be customized to meet the objectives:
From Feasibility study including e.g:

Evaluation of technical feasibility


Budget pricing for CAPEX
Budgetary determination of OPEX
To Engineering study including e.g:

Engineering documents for a fast project implementation

(e.g. procurement specifications for critical path/long delivery items)

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Outotec modernization services Turnkey solution


Project development support services from Outotec throughout all phases

Fact finding:
as a basis for project
identification

Clients
trigger
event

Evaluate options:

Project execution

as a basis for project


decisions

Inspection or Audit

Feasibility study

Engineering...

Project implementation

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06/12/13

Outotec modernization equipments and solutions


For a clients target setting Outotec offer customized
equipment and process solutions:
New equipment e.g.:

Optimized Bricklined and SX Towers


Reliable heat exchanger
Optimized Acid distribution system
Outotec process solutions for gas cleaning and sulphuric
acid plant
New process technologies e.g.:
HEROS
LUREC

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Outotec modernization services - Clients benefits


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Turnkey Solution from one source


Expertise thanks to experience throughout the world
Efficient project management and implementation with expertise in
engineering and construction management
Optimal cost/performance ratio
Increased environmental protection and optimized process for
efficient production with well-designed solutions

06/12/13

Outotec Service Portfolio for Sulfuric Acid Plants


Highlights from Service Product Portfolio
RAM
q SX Replacements:
q Piping
q Acid cooler
q Tower

q FIDITM irrigation System (SX)


q OTOVent
q Heat Exchanger Revamp
q LURO2TM Burner

Expert Services
q Training
q Remote Diagnostic Services
q Audits and Studies
q Shut down and operational
Support
q Refractory Services
q Spare Part Supply Services

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Capacity
q LUREC
q Debottlenecking Capacity
Revamp
q LURO2TM Burner Revamp
q Wet ESP Revamp

Quality / Diversification
q Gas cleaning revamps:
q Wet ESP Revamp
q Mercury removal
q NOx removal

Environment / Safety
q Single to Double Absorption
Revamp
q PERACIDOX
q LUREC
q Wet ESP Revamp

Energy Efficiency
q HEROS
q LUREC

Examples typical revamps for sulphuric acid plants


LUROTM
Sulphur Burner

CORDTM Heat
exchanger

Vertical wire
mesh

SX Solutions

HEROSTM
Heat recovery

PORS
Sulphur
Melter

PORS
OK
PORS
ALARM

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06/12/13

Example replacement and capacity increase


The need to replace aged equipment offers also
the opportunity to remove bottlenecks and
improve the overall plant performance.
Newest developments in every detail e.g.
state-of-the-art converter design with:

Symmetrical design, all welded stainless steels


Radial gas distribution Excellent gas distribution

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with low pressure drop


Eliminates converter hot gas nozzles and reduces
gas ducts, expansion joints, duct supports etc.
Minimises heat loss, reduced insulation
High heat capacity allows longer hot shut-downs
Good accessibility for inspection & maintenance

06/12/13
2011

Services for Sulfuric Acid Plants

Examples replacement and capacity increase


After 30 years of operation the Converter suffered:
Deterioration of brickwork
Increased SO2-emissions due gas slippage
between brickwork and shell
No additional spare capacity in flow velocity
and catalyst load
Scope of Revamp Project:
New Converter (stainless steel)
New Heat Exchanger (internal)
Adaption of further equipments for the new
capacity
Demolition of old Converter and construction of new converter within 23 days
(annual maintenance shut-down), including purging/cooling down, and
preheating
=> Capacity increased from 1700 tpd to 2200 tpd
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06/12/13

Examples replacement and capacity increase


Main features:

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4 bed-converter (prefabricated)
One internal heat exchanger
Material of construction: 304H
Outside diameter: 11,2 m

06/12/13

Examples replacement and capacity increase


Demolition of old Converter

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Examples replacement and capacity increase


Construction features

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Construction of new converter


next to old converter.
New converter pulled
in on the existing
foundation

06/12/13

Examples replacement and capacity increase


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AURUBIS (Norddeutsche Affinerie) Hamburg / Germany

Exchange of various equipment for the capacity increase of three

parallel sulphuric acid plants during a shut-down period of six weeks

Removal of the old


drying tower
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Installation of prefabricated
new drying tower
including brick lining

Installation of prefabricated
new converter

Examples reliability improvements


The need to replace aged equipment offers also
the opportunity to improve reliability, availability or
maintainability of equipments including newest
developments in every detail e.g.:
State-of-the-art CORD heat exchanger with:
Vertical and horizontal section with different tube layout
Horizontal section in stainless steel
Significant less corrosion and blocking
Significant extended life time

Vertical section in carbon steel


Horizontal section in stainless steel
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06/12/13

Services for Sulfuric Acid Plants

Examples reliability improvements


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Boliden Rnnskr (Sweden)


Gas/Gas Heat Exchanger
replacement with Outotec patented
CORD design
Vertical section with 6200 mm
diameter and the horizontal section
with 2900 mm diameter
Delivery at place within 6 months

06/12/13

Equipment and plant upgrades - LUREC


The LUREC-technology as add-on unit
Situation:

Strong gases (30 60 %-vol. SO2) from smelter processes available


Use of oxygen enriched air strategy for smelter capacity increase
Processing Strong Gases

Smaller equipment reduced investment cost


Lower gas flow less energy demand
Higher SO2-content higher energy rec. potential
Limitations

Thermostability of catalyst (approx. 630 640C)

requires dilution with air to 13.5 14 vol.-% maximum


Existing plants: Design

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06/12/13

Equipment and plant upgrades - LUREC


Process patented by Outotec
Temperature controlled by
recirculation of SO3-containing
gas

420 C

635 C

Technical application for gas


containing 15-30 %-vol. SO2 and
a O2/SO2-ratio of 0.75
Only use of proven equipments/units

Drying
Tower

Final
Absorber

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445 C

550 C
435 C

489 C
410 C

Inter
Absorber

460 C
410 C

412 C

18 vol.-% SO2
13 vol.-% O2

Equipment and plant upgrades - LUREC


LUREC as Add-on Unit solution
Basis:
Expansion:

50.000 Nm/h; 30 %-vol. SO2; 2 %-vol. O2


55.000 Nm/h; 45 %-vol. SO2; 2 %-vol. O2

141.000 Nm/h
17,6 %-vol. SO2
O2/SO2: 0,8
205.000 Nm/h
12 %-vol. SO2
O2/SO2: 1.3
125.000 Nm/h
12 %-vol. SO2
O2/SO2: 1.1
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119,000 Nm/h
8,8 %-vol. SO2
O2/SO2: 1,3

102.300 Nm/h
1611 tpd
c_SO2: 160 ppm

108.000 Nm/h
2688 tpd
c_SO2: <100ppm

Equipment and plant upgrades - LUREC


Application of LUREC technology as add-on module:

Lower operation cost


Lower plant emissions
De-bottlenecking of existing

plant equipment
(lower gas flow, lower SO2-content,
favourable O2/SO2-ratio,
less thermal cycles)
Minimised interactions to the
operation of the existing plant
High flexibility to fluctuations
in the SO2-content
No interference during
construction with the operating
of the existing plant

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06/12/13

Equipment and plant upgrades Wet gas cleaning


The Gas Cleaning section is one of the key area to define product quality, reliability
and availability of the sulfuric acid plant.
Outotecs Expertise in Wet Gas Cleaning support customer to identify its efficiency
and offers solutions in case of deviations
Additional to a typical wet gas cleaning system process steps for removal of e.g.:

Halides (Cl, F) (Sodium Silicate Dosing, Fluoride Tower)


Hg (Boliden Norzink Process, Selenium Filter, Thiosulphate Porcess)
Cu
Smelter
Off gas

Quench
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06/12/13

Services for Sulfuric Acid Plants

Conturi

Cooling
Tower

Wet ESP

to
Acid
Plant

Equipment and plant upgrades Peracidox scrubber


Peracidox Revamp
To cope with increasing environmental requirements Outotec
provides the Peracidox off-gas cleaning solution for SO2
offering the following benefits:
No additional chemicals
sulfuric acid as product,
no waste water,
no residues
Low opacity
High conversion efficiency

(virtually stoichiometric)
High reliability
Low investment cost
High flexibility with respect to
various SO2 contents of the gas
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06/12/13

Equipment and plant upgrades Heat recovery


Heat recovery in a sulfuric acid plant
main blower

atmosphere

HP STEAM GENERATION
High Level
Heat Recovery

sulfur

combustion
furnace

air

waste heat
boiler

drying tower

superheater
evaporator

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economizer

converter

intermediate
heat
exchanger

Low Level
Heat Recovery

stack
product acid

intermediate
absorption
tower

final
absorption
tower

Equipment and plant upgrades Heat recovery


Increase plant efficiency with low level heat recovery
Typical starting point for sulfuric acid plant absorber operation
Heat available ~1,900 MJ/tonne acid (~500,000 kcal/t)
All transferred to cooling water (using additional energy)
Typical acid temperature level 70 120C
Potential plant efficiency improvement through use of:
Hot water preparation, e.g. P2O5-concentration, district
heating
Boiler feed water pre-heating
Potable water production (multiple stage distillation of
sea water)
LP steam generation, requiring 160 220C acid
temperature at Intermediate Absorber
HP steam production rate boosting proprietary
process

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06/12/13

Equipment and Plant Upgrades LURO2TM Burner


The Outotec LURO2TM burner gives numerous benefits
compared to the conventional lance firing:
Operational
Excellent sulfur distribution and atomisation reduces
furnace size and minimises thermal shocking
high pressure pumps for sulfur feed not required
Sulfur feed rate setting online for 20 to 110 % of load
Maintenance
Designed for longest maintenance intervals
Minimum of wear parts
Single burner configuration (preheating and sulfur
burning with one equipment)
No manual adjustments for different load conditions
No steam heating/cooling inside furnace
Easy access to and removal of burner for maintenance
Online monitoring system optional
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Equipment and plant upgrades SX solutions


Since April 2010 Edmeston supplies as a member of the Outotec Group
SX Solutions to the sulfuric acid industry.
Edmeston, located in Gothenburg, Sweden, is a well-known
engineering company established 1984, specialized in industrial equipment for corrosive, high temperatures environments
SX Pipings offering benefits through low corrosion
and low erosion with:
clean acid and no contamination from corrosion products
reduced pipe size resulting in light weight design
easy installation
Further advantages gained by the welded system:
flanges replaced by welds reducing
potential leaks
prefab possibilities
field modifications easy
eliminate spare inventory
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06/12/13

Equipment and plant upgrades FiDiTM System


With the Outotec FiDiTM Irrigation System a modern
improved solution can be offered
Benefits:

Simplified design manufactured from SX Alloy


Reduced investment costs
Minimum requirements for maintenance
Long lasting
Reduction of carry over of sulfuric acid
Optimized acid distribution by fluid dynamic analysis
Improved free gas flow area with new FIDITM Irrigation System (from
45-60 % with common systems up to 65 to 75 %)

References:
Evonik Marl (IAT)
Kayalekera
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Noracid
Pequiven

Ravensdown (FAT)
Cajamarquilla (IAT)

References - Turnkey tower replacement


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Aventis
(Hchst AG)
Frankfurt / Germany

Exchange of a converter
during a shut-down period
of 17 days:
The picture shows the installation
of the completely prefabricated
new converter inclusive insulation!

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References - Turnkey Tower Replacement


Evonik (Degussa Rhm GmbH)

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Worms / Germany

Demolition of the existing


tower within five days
The completely
prefabricated tower
is pulled on steel
tracks onto the
existing foundation
within one day

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Summary nothing new !?


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Set clear targets and limits for the project

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Consider options and latest developments at early stage

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Define timeframe and observe critical milestones

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Select the right setup and partners

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Joint and coordinated effort of all involved parties

HOW CAN WE HELP YOU ?


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Thank you for your attention!

Sustainable use
of Earth's
natural resources.

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06/12/13

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