Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol 663 (2014) pp 552-556

(2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland


doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.663.552

Online: 2014-10-08

Crashworthiness Determination of Side Doors and B Pillar of a Vehicle


Subjected to Pole Side Impact
A.H. Lilehkoohi1,a, A.A. Faieza1,b, B.B. Sahari1,c, A.A. Nuraini 1,d
and M. Halali2, e
1

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,


43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2

Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

lilehkoohi@gmail.com, bfaieza@eng.upm.edu.my, cbarkawi@eng.upm.edu.my,


d

nuraini@eng.upm.edu.my, ehalali@sharif.edu

Keywords: Crashworthiness, pole impact, simulation, NCAP, star rating, modeling, LS DYNA,
adult protection.

Abstract. Pole Side Impact Test is one out of three crash tests described by Euro NCAP standard
for star rating of a vehicle and is required for assessing the Adult Occupant Protection. In this paper
the goal is to determine the crashworthiness of side doors and B pillar in a Pole Side Impact Test
based on Euro New Car Assessment Program (Euro-NCAP) using computer and simulation
method. In this matter, a vehicle model has been prepared and meshed using Hypermesh and
CATIA. The velocity of 29 km/h has been assigned to the vehicle which was on top of a cart while
the pole has been assigned as a rigid static object based on Euro NCAP requirements specifically.
Results show that different amounts of energy will be absorbed by each part, such as the side doors
and the B pillar, and each part has a different effect on the crashworthiness of the vehicle in a Pole
Side Impact Test. It can be concluded that to increase the amount of absorbed energy in a Pole Side
Impact Test, the part which has more influence should be taken into greater consideration.
Introduction
Pole Impact Test is one out of three Impact Tests, aside from Side and Front Impact Tests,
described by Euro New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) in order to assess Adult Occupant
Protection. In this test Head, Chest, Abdomen and Pelvis are the criteria to be assessed and each of
them will be marked between 0 and 4. The point score in each area of assessment will be calculated
by those marks. Four areas of assessment are Adult Occupant Protection, Child Occupant
Protection, Pedestrian and Safety Assist. The weight factors reflect the relative importance of the
four areas of assessment in the final score and the overall rating will be composed of it. The Weight
Factor for Adult Occupant Protection, Child Occupant Protection, Pedestrian and Safety Assist are
50%, 20%, 20% and 10% respectively. The goal of this paper is to determine the crashworthiness of
side doors and B pillar in Pole Side Impact Test using computer simulation and LS DYNA solver.
Back-Ground Study
The response surface methodology (RSM) and its application and accuracy have been discussed
and shown that, without a change in vehicle mass, vehicle crashworthiness could be improved [1]. It
has been shown that a light weight design can be done without affecting crashworthiness using
structural optimization of a vehicle body [2]. A simulation of vehicle crash to the barrier and study
the behavior of the barrier safety as well as simulation validation has been performed [3]. A data
analysis for automotive crash simulation results has been performed and some algorithms has been
described to measure the scatter of parallel simulation results [4]. To employ more information from
time history, a time-based metamodeling technique is proposed [5]. A study of the effect of
materials on pedestrian head impact has been carried out using mathematical and numerical
All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of Trans
Tech Publications, www.ttp.net. (ID: 132.239.1.230, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, USA-05/06/15,05:53:02)

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 663

553

techniques [6]. An extremely good performance of carbon fibre composite on absorbing the energy
in front impact test has been shown [7]. Occupant safety has been investigated when compared with
out of position occupant using simulation [8]. The effect of material on side doors and B pillar of a
vehicle has been studied and the amount of energy absorbed by each part has been determined [9].
A high strength steel column and its dynamic behavior under impact has been studied using
nonlinear finite element modeling [10].
Material and Methods
A weight equivalent to an ES-2 test dummy (80 kg) is placed in the driver's seating position. The
angle between the vehicles longitudinal and the direction of movement of the carrier is assigned as
perpendicular. The pole is 254 mm in diameter and set off from any mounting surface. The speed of
the vehicle near to the point of impact is 29 km/h [11].
The configuration of pole side impact described by Euro NCAP is shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1: Pole side impact configuration [11]

Fig. 2: Pole side impact in perspective view

Fig. 2 shows the pole side impact test after collision in perspective view. Step one to performing
a validated simulation is taking into account all details described in Euro NCAP. As it can be seen in
Fig. 2, all details were perfectly considered in this study.
The whole vehicle model has been prepared using CATIA and meshed using Hypermesh as
shown in Fig. 3. All initial conditions are designed according to ECE R95 exactly. Velocity of
29 km/h has been assigned to the vehicle. LS DYNA processing has been run as a solver in order to
determine crashworthiness after model development and LS DYNA pre-processing.

Fig. 3: The meshed model of the vehicle


Results and Discussions
Fig. 4(a) shows the post-processing model of the vehicle and the pole before collision at the time
of 0 s. Fig. 4(b) shows the same post-processing model after collision at the time of 0.12 s. There
are 8 cameras, by the Euro NCAP requirement, in 8 different positions. Fig. 4(a) and (b) are the
viewpoint of the camera 1 position before and after collision respectively. Fig. 5 is the viewpoint of
the camera 8 position before and after collision respectively.

554

Automotive Engineering and Mobility Research

(a)

(b)

Fig. 4: Pole impact test, camera 1 (a) before collision, (b) after collision

(a)
(b)
Fig. 5: Pole impact test, camera 8 (a) before collision, (b) after collision
A value of 1 10 J internal energy absorbed by the B pillar is the highest value among the B
pillar, front and rear door according to the Euro-NCAP pole impact test as shown in Fig. 6 and
Fig. 9. Meanwhile, the front door value is second with a value of 0.8 10 of internal energy
absorbed as shown in Fig. 7. The rear door value is least with 0.12 10 J as shown in Fig. 8.
Kinetic energy, which is a function of mass, differs from part to part. The B pillars kinetic energy is
less than 0.1 10 J as shown in Fig. 6 and the front doors kinetic energy is 0.15 10
J as
shown in Fig. 7. The rear doors kinetic energy is a bit more than 0.12 10 J. All these amounts
were before collision and it is obvious that after collision kinetic energy will decrease to zero as
shown in Fig. 10.

Fig. 6: Kinetic and internal energy of B pillar

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 663

Fig. 7: Kinetic and internal energy of front door

Fig. 8: Kinetic and internal energy of rear door

Fig. 9: Internal energy of B pillar and side doors

Fig. 10: Kinetic energy of B pillar and side doors

555

556

Automotive Engineering and Mobility Research

Conclusions
B pillars can absorb more energy in pole impact test when compared with side doors, because
internal energy of B pillar increases slightly more than the internal energies of side doors. Kinetic
energy of B pillars and side doors decreases to zero in around 0.08 seconds after collision;
meanwhile the front door loses kinetic energy faster than the rear door and the B pillar. This is
because of direct contact between front door and pole, so in the case of a side crash with a pole, the
front door has the main role of the control of kinetic energy rate of change.
References
[1] H. Fang, M. Rais-Rohani, Z. Liu,
M. F. Horstemeyer, A comparative study of
metamodeling methods for multiobjective crashworthiness optimization, Computers and
Structures. 83 (2005) 2121-2136.
[2] J. Forsberg, L. Nilsson, Evaluation of response surface methodologies used in crashworthiness
optimization, International Journal of Impact Engineering. 32 (2006) 759-777.
[3] M. Borovinek, M. Vesenjak, M. Ulbin, Z. Ren, Simulation of crash tests for high containment
levels of road safety barriers, Engineering Failure Analysis. 14 (2007) 1711-1718.
[4] L. Mei, C.A. Thole, Data analysis for parallel car-crash simulation results and model
optimization, Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory. 16 (2008) 329-337.
[5] H. Wang, G.Y. Li, Enying Li, Time-based metamodeling technique for vehicle crashworthiness
optimization, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering. 199 (2010) 24972509.
[6] A. Masoumi, Mohammad Hassan Shojaeefard, Amir Najibi, Comparison of steel, aluminum and
composite bonnet in terms of pedestrian head impact, Safety Science. 49 (2011) 1371-1380.
[7] J. Obradovic, S. Boria, G. Belingardi, Lightweight design and crash analysis of composite
frontal impact energy absorbing structures, Composite Structures. 94 (2012) 423-430.
[8] S.R.1. Potula, K.N. Solanki, D.L. Oglesby, M.A. Tschopp, M.A. Bhatia, Investigating occupant
safety through simulating the interaction between side curtain airbag deployment and an out-ofposition occupant, Accident Analysis and Prevention. 49 (2012) 392-403.
[9] A.H. Lilehkoohi, A.A. Faieza, B.B. Sahari, A.A. Nuraini, M. Halali, Effect of material on
crashworthiness for side doors and b pillar subjected to Euro NCAP side impact crash test,
Advanced Science Letters. 19 (2013) 359-362.
[10] F.S. Makarem, F. Abed, Nonlinear finite element modeling of dynamic localizations in high
strength steel columns under impact, International Journal of Impact Engineering. 52 (2013)
47-61.
[11]

Pole Side
Impact Testing Protocol, Version
5.1,
EuroNCAP,
http://www.euroncap.com/files/Euro-NCAP-Pole-Protocol-Version-5.1

(2011).

Automotive Engineering and Mobility Research


10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.663

Crashworthiness Determination of Side Doors and B Pillar of a Vehicle Subjected to Pole Side Impact
10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.663.552
DOI References
[1] H. Fang, M. Rais-Rohani, Z. Liu, M. F. Horstemeyer, A comparative study of metamodeling methods for
multiobjective crashworthiness optimization, Computers and Structures. 83 (2005) 2121-2136.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruc.2005.02.025
[2] J. Forsberg, L. Nilsson, Evaluation of response surface methodologies used in crashworthiness
optimization, International Journal of Impact Engineering. 32 (2006) 759-777.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2005.01.007
[3] M. Borovinek, M. Vesenjak, M. Ulbin, Z. Ren, Simulation of crash tests for high containment levels of
road safety barriers, Engineering Failure Analysis. 14 (2007) 1711-1718.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2006.11.068
[4] L. Mei, C.A. Thole, Data analysis for parallel car-crash simulation results and model optimization,
Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory. 16 (2008) 329-337.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.simpat.2007.11.018
[6] A. Masoumi, Mohammad Hassan Shojaeefard, Amir Najibi, Comparison of steel, aluminum and
composite bonnet in terms of pedestrian head impact, Safety Science. 49 (2011) 1371-1380.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2011.05.008
[7] J. Obradovic, S. Boria, G. Belingardi, Lightweight design and crash analysis of composite frontal impact
energy absorbing structures, Composite Structures. 94 (2012) 423-430.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2011.08.005
[9] A.H. Lilehkoohi, A.A. Faieza, B.B. Sahari, A.A. Nuraini, M. Halali, Effect of material on crashworthiness
for side doors and b pillar subjected to Euro NCAP side impact crash test, Advanced Science Letters. 19
(2013) 359-362.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/asl.2013.4749
[10] F.S. Makarem, F. Abed, Nonlinear finite element modeling of dynamic localizations in high strength
steel columns under impact, International Journal of Impact Engineering. 52 (2013) 47-61.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2012.10.006