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ECRIF: Error and mistake correction

Stages of
learning

What do learners DO in different


stages of learning?

ENCOUNTER
I realize that there is a skill or idea
that I dont know about and/or dont
understand.
CLARIFY
I am asking my own questions to try
and figure out the technique or
knowledge.

REMEMBER

INTERNALIZATION

FLUENT USE

What might a teacher


be doing in this stage
of the learners
learning?

Create opportunities
for students to
encounter target
language and skills
Create opportunities
for students to need
to clarify the target
language and skills

I am working on remembering the


skills and/or knowledge and trying to
move it from short-term memory to
long-term memory. I have to focus
on the information or skill.

Create opportunities
for students to focus
on the target
language and skills
and really work to
remember target
language and skills
Typical activities:

I am in the process of connecting


these new skills and knowledge to my
prior experiences. I am trying them
out in different contexts. I am
working on becoming faster and more
accurate with them. I dont have to
plan as much; I am gradually able to
be more spontaneous as I access the
knowledge and/or do the skill.
I can use this knowledge or skill
accurately and quickly in a variety of
contexts. It feels automatic to me. I
dont even realize that I am not
thinking about it!

Create opportunities
for the students to
use the target
language and skills in
a semi-controlled
context

Create opportunities
for students to use
target language and
skills in a free way

Is it a
mistake or
an error?

How might a learner experience


errors/mistakes?

error

I dont even know if I make a


mistake, if I am right it is pure
luck

error

mistake

mistake

mistake

How might a teacher


respond to the inaccuracy
at stage of the learning?

Ignore the inaccuracy but


begin to create
opportunities for the
learner to clarify

Sometimes I can feel that I am


not right but I dont know what
to do about it. It helps me if
someone or something tells me
the correct answer and helps
me become aware of it

Answer the learners


questions or create the
opportunity for the learner
to discover a questions
about accuracy

If you give me the right answer


I can recognize it is right. It
helps me if I am given some
space to see if I know it and
some hints that help me to
think about what I have already
seen. If I get too frustrated it
helps for someone to give me
the direct correction.

Provide direct hints or the


answer so that the learner
can self-correct if at all
possible

If you give me a hint I can


usually self-correct. Sometimes
I get frustrated when someone
gives me direct correction
because I feel like it is
something I already know.

Provide slight /indirect


hints that really give the
learner the chance to selfcorrect

I can usually correct myself


without hints. When I make a
mistake it is just a slip and not
because I dont actually know
the correct answer or way of
saying it.

Ignore them but note that


student is self-correcting