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The AC induction motor

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The AC induction motor


The squirrel cage induction motor is most common because of :

Simplicity.

Rugged construction.

And low manufacturing cost.

Diagram of Induction Motor

The induction motor is made up of two major components:


1] The rotor - consists of a structure of steel laminations mounted on a shaft.
2] The stator - consist of steel laminations (coils of wire or bars) mounted on a
manner that slots are formed on the inside diameter of the assembly.

frame in such a

Operation
q

The stator coils when energized create a rotating magnetic field.

This rotating magnetic field cuts through the rotor.

This induces a voltage in the rotor bars.

This voltage creates its own magnetic field in the rotor.

The rotor magnetic field will attempt to line up with the stator magnetic field.

The stator magnetic field is rotating.

The rotor magnetic field trying to line up with the stator magnetic field causing the rotor to rotate.

The rotor magnetic field, never catches up, but follows slightly behind.
Essentially, this is motor action.

Operation is due to Magneto Motive Force (MMF) produced by stator windings when fed from a 3-phase
supply-giving rise to a rotating magnetic field. This field reacts with the rotor conductors to produce a
torque.
Let us assume a sinusoidal mmf distribution. We let the mmf produced by three coils be separated in space
and time by 120 degrees.

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The AC induction motor

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fres = fh + jfv
Frequency ......... f in Hz
Time ......................T in sec.

= 2pf rad/sec

Motor characteristics
The poly-phase alternating current flowing in the stator winding, creates north and south poles. The
machine will always have at least two poles and a rotating magnetic field. The speed (in rpm) at which the
induction motor rotates is dependent on the speed of the stator rotating field and is equal to 120 * f / P where
f is the frequency of the source (Hz) and P is the number of poles.

Slip and its affect on other motor parameters


Slip is the difference between the speed of the stator magnetic field and the speed of the rotor. Under
load, the rotor slows down and the speed adjusts itself to the point where the forces exerted by the magnetic
field on the rotor are sufficient to overcome the torque requirements of the load. The resulting speed is
slightly less than the stator-rotating field. The slip necessary to carry full load depends on the motor
characteristics.
In general, the higher the inrush current, the lower the slip, at which the motor can carry full load, and
the higher the efficiency. The lower the inrush current, the higher the slip, at which the motor can carry full
load and the lower will be the efficiency.
An increase in line voltage decreases the slip. A decrease in line voltage increases the slip. An increase in line
voltage decreases the heating of the motor.
A decrease in line voltage increases the heating of the motor.
Note:
With an increase in line voltage the machine can carry a larger load.
The slip at rated load may vary from 3% to 20% for different types of motors. Voltages higher than normal
will increase the current at a rate of about 12% for every 10% voltage increase. The starting torque will

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increase at a rate of 20% for every 10% voltage increase. The reverse takes place if the voltage is lower than
normal.
{SLIP} s = (NS - N) / NS

Analysis
The Induction motor, when stationary, is a transformer.

The equivalent circuit for an induction motor is the same as the equivalent circuit of a transformer.
At rotor speed of n rpm

flux cutting rate is reduced.

Therefore V2` = sV2


N.B. Voltage V2 is dependant on direct transformer action.
Rate of flux cutting = NS - N

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V2 would be the full voltage if we have full flux cutting. sV2 is V2 due to flux cutting.

Next step : refer rotor values to stator.


Where Rr` = a2Rr
and Xr` = a2Rr

=> a = turns ratio.

Per Phase Equivalent Circuit

Torque and Rotor Resistance

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Pag = Power across the air gap

Pmech_gross = (1-s) Pag per phase

Note

is the

Pcu_losses_in_rotor

and

is the

Pmech_gross

P ag : P cu : P mech = 1:s:(1-s)

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Slip is variable and affects only rotor circuit

Ignoring Stator values

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Simple Algebraic manipulations yield

Since the above calculations was derives as power per phase, then the total torque for all three phases would
be three times the gross mechanical torque for each phase calculated above.

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To find the value of slip at which we could get the maximum torque we need to differentiate the expression
above and set it equal to zero.

The maximum torque is obtained when:

This would result in the determination that the maximum torque is obtained when the slip, s, equals
the ratio R2`/X2`. Or s = a.

As the rotor resistance increases, the starting torque also increases, up to a certain point, beyond which a
further increase in resistance causes the torque to decrease.
The torque is also affected by the flux in the air gap, the disposition and shape of the rotor slots and bars.
Speed-torque characteristics
Modifications in the design of the squirrel-cage motors permit a certain amount of control of the starting
current and torque characteristics.
These designs have been categorized by NEMA Standards (MG1-1.16) into four main classifications.
1. Normal-torque, normal-starting current motors (Design A)
2. Normal-torque, low-starting current motors (Design B)
3. High-torque, low-starting-current, double-wound-rotor motors (Design C)
4. High-slip motors (Design D)
There are other variations, such as low-resistance motors with starting currents 8 to 10 more times normal
full-load current. These have a very high running efficiency and often find application where loads are driven
continuously.

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Design A Motor
Hp range 0.5 500 hp.
Starting current 6 to 10 times full-load current.
Good running efficiency (87% - 89%).
Good power factor (87% - 89%).
Low rated slip (3 5 %).
Starting torque is about 150% of full load torque.
Maximum torque is over 200% but less than 225% of full-load torque.
Typical applications constant speed applications where high starting torque is not needed and high
starting torque is tolerated.
Design B motor
Hp range 0.5 to 500 hp
Higher reactance than the Design A motor, obtained by means of deep, narrow rotor bars.
The starting current is held to about 5 times the full-load current.
This motor allows full-voltage starting.
The starting torque, slip and efficiency are nearly the same as for the Design A motor.
Power factor and maximum torque are little lower than class A,
Design B is standard in 1 to 250 hp drip-proof motors and in totally enclosed, fan-cooled motors, up to
approximately 100 hp.
Typical applications constant speed applications where high starting torque is not needed and high
starting torque is tolerated.
Unsuitable for applications where there is a high load peak
Design C motor
Hp range 3 to 200 hp
This type of motor has a "double-layer" or double squirrel-cage winding.
It combines high starting torque with low starting current.
Two windings are applied to the rotor, an outer winding having high resistance and low reactance and
an inner winding having low resistance and high reactance.
Operation is such that the reactance of both windings decreases as rotor frequency decreases and speed
increases.
On starting a much larger induced currents flow in the outer winding than in the inner winding, because
at low rotor speeds the inner-winding reactance is quite high.
As the rotor speed increases, the reactance of the inner winding drops and combined with the low
inner-winding resistance, permits the major portion of the rotor current to appear in the inner winding.
Starting current about 5 times full load current.
The starting torque is rather high (200% - 250%).
Full-load torque is the same as that for both A and B designs.
The maximum torque is lower than the starting torque, maximum torque (180-225%).
Typical applications constant speed loads requiring fairly high starting torque and lower starting
currents
Design D motor
Produces a very high starting torque-approximately 275% of full-load torque.
It has low starting current,
High slip (7-16%),
Low efficiency.
Torque changes with load
Typical applications- used for high inertia loads
The above classification is for squirrel cage induction motor there is also another motor winding for induction
motor the wound-rotor motor
Wound-rotor
Hp 0.5 to 5000hp
Starting torque up to 300%
Maximum torque 225 to 275% of full load torque
Starting current may be as low as 1.5 times starting current
Slip (3 - 50%)
Power factor high
Typical applications for high starting torque loads where very low starting current is required or

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where torque must be applied very gradually and where speed control is needed.
Current and its effect on the motor
Induction motor current consists of reactive (magnetising) and real (torque) components.
The current component that produces torque (does useful work) is almost in phase with
voltage, and has a high power factor close to 100%

The magnetising current would be purely inductive, except that the winding has some small
resistance, and it lags the voltage by nearly 90.
The magnetizing current has a very low power factor, close to zero.
The magnetic field is nearly constant from no load to full load and beyond, so the magnetising portion
of the total current is approximately the same for all loads.
The torque current increases as the load increases.
At full load, the torque current is higher than the magnetising current.
For a typical motor, the power factor of the resulting current is between 85% and 90%.
As the load is reduced, the torque current decreases, but the magnetising current remains about the
same so the resulting current has a lower power factor.
The smaller the load, the lower the load current and the lower the power factor. Low power factor at
low loading occurs because the magnetising remains approximately the same at no load as at full load.
Methods to vary speed of the induction motor
An induction motor is a constant-speed device. Its speed depends on the number of poles in the stator,
assuming that the voltage and frequency of the supply to the motor remain constant.
One method is to change the number of poles in the stator, for example, reconnecting a 4-pole winding
so that it becomes a 2-pole winding will double the speed. This method can give specific alternate
speeds but not gradual speed changes.
Another method is to vary the line voltage this method is not the best since torque is proportional to the
square of the voltage, so reducing the line voltage rapidly reduces the available torque causing the
motor to stall.
An excellent way to vary the speed of a squirrel-cage induction motor is to vary the frequency of the
applied voltage. To maintain a constant torque, the ratio of voltage to frequency must be kept constant,
so the voltage must be varied simultaneously with the frequency. Modern adjustable frequency controls
perform this function. At constant torque, the horsepower output increases directly as the speed
increases.
Sometimes it is desirable to have a high starting torque or to have a constant horsepower output over a
given speed range. These and other modifications can be obtained by varying the ratio of voltage to
frequency as required. Some controllers are designed to provide constant torque up to 60 Hz and
constant hp above 60 Hz to provide higher speeds without overloading the motor.

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