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Antenna eciency

aperture illumination eciency for apertureantennas.

In antenna theory, antenna eciency is a loose term usually meaning radiation eciency, often abbreviated to
eciency. It is a measure of the eciency with which
a radio antenna converts the radio-frequency power accepted at its terminals into radiated power.

polarization eciency; polarization mismatch factor.

These are unconnected and should not be confused with
radiation eciency, which is the most commonly used
and implied term.


Radiation eciency is dened by IEEE Std 145-1993[1]

Standard Denitions of Terms for Antennas as The
ratio of the total power radiated by an antenna to the net
power accepted by the antenna from the connected transmitter. It is sometimes expressed as a percentage (less
than 100), and is frequency dependent. It can also be described in decibels.

4 Aperture eciency
This is applied to aperture antennas such as a parabolic
antenna and is a measure of the reduction in power gain
caused by non-uniform aperture illumination. In a typical situation the reector is illuminated with a reduced
power-density at the edge compared with the centre, in
order to reduce sidelobes and other eects. This causes
a reduction in gain: the ratio of the gain of the tapered
aperture distribution to the theoretical gain of a uniformly
illuminated aperture is the aperture eciency. [3]

For wire antennas which have a dened radiation resistance the radiation eciency is the ratio of the radiation
resistance to the total resistance of the antenna including ground loss (see below) and conductor resistance. [2]
In practical cases the resistive loss in any tuning and/or
matching network is often included, although network
loss is strictly not a property of the antenna.

5 References

For other types of antenna the radiation eciency is less

easy to calculate and is usually determined by measurements.

[1] IEEE Std 145-1993, Standard Denitions of Terms for

Antennas, ISBN 1-55937-317-2, IEEEXplore

The gain of an antenna is the directivity multiplied by the

radiation eciency, as described in Std 145-1993.

[2] Weelkes, W.J, (1968), Antenna Engineering, McGraw

Hill Book Company, p. 29
[3] Weelkes, W.J, (1968), Antenna Engineering, McGraw
Hill Book Company, pp. 256-258

Ground loss

For monopole and other ground-based antennas, ground

loss occurs due to ohmic resistance in the antennas connection to its ground plane/counterpoise, including its
mast or stalk and its bonding connections, as well as
the ohmic resistance encountered by radio-frequency currents in the ground plane in the vicinity of the antenna.

Other denitions of eciency in


The IEEE standard denes several other antenna parameters which include the word eciency, such as


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