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Concept of Career – According to E.H.schein,” A career is a sequence of positions

held by a person the course of a life time. It comprises of a series of a work related activity that
provide continuity, order and meaning to a person’s life”.
According to d.t.hall “a career consists the change in values attitude and motivation
occur as a person grows”.
Thus a person can shape his destiny through planning.
• Job vs. Career
– Job – “What can I do now to make money?”

– Career – Chosen Profession for your life. Requires a willingness to get the
training needed to build your skills for the future.

• A career is the work a person does. It is the sequence of jobs that an individual has held
throughout his or her working life E.g. occupation of nursing.
• Career is a sequence of positions held by a person during the course of a life time.
• Career Stages
• Exploration
• Establishment
• Maintenance
• Disengagement

FEATURES OF CAREER: - These characteristics also belong to present a career meaning:-

1. It is proper sequence of job-related activities.

2. It may be individual-centered organization-centered.
3. It is a sequence of career progression within an occupation.
4. It is lateral movement in an occupation of an individual over his employment span.
5. It is a sum total of the entire job occupied by a person during his working life.
6. It represents an organized path taken by an individual across time and space.
7. It develops over time.
8. It is the individual who ultimately judge the success of his career.
9. In career, one experiences psychological success. It provides a feeling of personal
accomplishment and fulfillment.
10. Every career path has a plateau slog from which and individual is likely to move a
higher level of work responsibility.

Careerism includes career planning, career life cycle and career management. Career
planning and career management helps an individual to think about his future, helps to think
about his life, helps to make use of his skills to the organization, to make growth of his
knowledge and use them to achieve the organization Goals. Career planning assist employees
to achieve better much between personal goal and the opportunities that are available in the
organization. Career planning is a process to gain insight into what a person is what is, where
he is and where he wants to go in his career. Career management emphasis on individual goal
or objective with strike a balance between needs and opportunities given the changes

therein whether foreseen or not.


It is the sequential pattern of jobs that form a career. And also they are the future
positions that an individual strives to reach as part of career. So we can say that career
life cycle is a presentation of an individual person to relate to his future life cycle. After we
explain the all stage of career lifecycle:-

Five aspects of Career Life cycle:-

i. Needs to make Technical / Functional Skill
ii. Guide + (Right Industry / Professional Learning Opportunities)
i. He / She demonstrate his competencies and begin to be notified
ii. This usually puts him into a certain carrier track and he begins to signal
his potential for Leadership or other roles
iii. Guide, Learning Opportunities, Opportunities to demonstrate Performance
i. He is fully matured at his role and is a critical part of them that drives
results and is an important influencer or decision maker in his area.
ii. Guide, Role Growth opportunities
i. He is able to build on all his competencies and experience to play the
maximum role he can in his career
ii. Guide, Role Opportunities to make noticeable impact
i. When individuals begin to think of life beyond just a professional career.
Personal views of success and satisfaction are more important
parameters in making career choices.
ii. Guide, Job Satisfaction

Compensation and Career growth are a function of the individual’s competencies
first and being in a right place that enables deploying those competencies
Planning a career therefore means first acquiring the competencies that
are relevant for the desired career path.
After we know that what is career planning


“Career planning consists of activities and actions that and individual take to
achieve individual career goals.” It is the process by which an individual selects career
goals and path to these goals.
1. Individual career planning
2. Organization career planning.
Deeper insight:-
• It is the life- long process a person goes through to learn about himself such as
– purpose,
– personality
– interests
– skills
– talents
• Develop a self- concept, learn about careers, and work situations
• Make a career choice, while developing and coping social skills

Career planning: An ongoing process
Here You… Explore your interests and abilities
• Strategically plan your career goals
• Create your future work success by
Designing learning and action plans
To help you achieve your goals.

• The major focus is matching personal goals and opportunities that are realistically
• Career planning is building bridges from one’s current job/career to next job/career.
• Well-conceived career plan is flexible to accommodate changing opportunities for

How important is career planning?

• People leave an organization due to lack of career growth

• Deeper focus on an employee’s aims and aspirations
• Degree of clarity
• Helps in identifying handicaps & the blind spots to overcome
• Significant motivator
• Key retention tool
• Critical human resource strategy.
• High-level vision and goals of company are clearly made known to employees
• Growth of an organization is intrinsically linked with the growth of an individual
• Matching organization vision & employees aspirations is must

A typical
Views a
career Win-Win Planning
situation As a
Planning For all retention
As a
path to
The top Tool
View it as a
Tool for

Who’s responsible for planning ones career??

Employee Organization

Only the individual and organization are responsible for planning employee’s career. Because
only an individual can explain what he wants in his life? Where he want to be in near future.
Organization helps employee to plan their career.

Self Assessment

Job Search Employee career Academic/ Career

Planning process

Relevant /Practical

1. Self- Assessment

• Aware of the interrelationship between self and occupational choice

• Start by:
– Learning interests, abilities, skills, and work values
– Listing accomplishments
– Understanding physical and psychological needs
– Assessing aspirations and motivation level
– Deciphering personal traits and characteristics.

Competency Areas Strategies for Gaining
• Gain self-awareness

• Improve self-confidence
• Take exploratory classes

• Understand time and stress

• Identify personality style

management • Identify work values

• Develop personal/professional • Demonstrate skills in overcoming self-

management skills defeating behaviors

• Identify symptoms of stress

2. Academic / Career options

• Investigate the world of work in greater depth, narrow a general occupational direction
into a specific one
• Start by:
– Learning academic and career entrance requirements
– Learning related majors and careers to one's interests
– Investigating education and training required
– Learning skills and experience required
– Planning academic and career alternatives
– Learning job market trends

Strategies for Gaining

Competency Areas Competencies
Gain research and investigative skills Read occupational resources

Practice decision-making, problem solving Get assistance from a counselor

and critical thinking skills
Talk to people who work in your areas of
Increase understanding of how abilities, interest
interests, and values match
career/academic requirements Attend Job/Career Fairs and/or Career

transferable skills should be gained

3. Relevant / Practical experience
• Gain practical experience through internships, cooperative education etc.

• Start by:
– Testing new skills and try diverse experiences
– Deciding the type of organization in which to volunteer or work
– Assessing likes and dislikes of work values, skills, work environments,
– Assessing if additional/different coursework or skills are needed for your targeted
career goals
Competency Areas Strategies for Gaining Competencies
• Gain an appreciation for working with • Attend relevant conferences and seminars
individuals from diverse cultures
• Become familiar with work settings
• Understand and practice ethical And job descriptions
• Practice making decisions by supervising
• Gain supervisory/leadership/ a group of people
Teamwork skills
• Talk to alumnus/a about your career goals
• Enhance self-management skills
• Work part-time or during summer
• Obtain work related, transferable skills
• Develop conflict resolution skills

4. Job Search
• Start by:
– Learning how to prepare resume and cover letters, and complete employment
– Learning and implementing job search strategies
– Learning and practicing interviewing skills
– Narrow your choices

Competency Areas Strategies for Gaining Competencies
• Ability correspondent in a coherent,
professional manner • Register with Career Planning &
Placement Services
• Communicate verbally in a clear, concise
manner • Review resume with a career counselor

• Effectively use networking, problem- • Receive referrals

solving, and decision making to reach
career goals

Organizational career planning process


Career planning

1. Direction
– Assessing employee wants and organizational needs
– common goal setting
2. Career time
– Relates to distance & speed of an employee
– How far & how fast can employee move on career path??
3. Transition
– Relates to changes expected to a career goal
– Analyzing transition factors
– Setting goals and a timetable

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4. Career planning options
– Advancement.
– Lateral
– Change to Lower Grade
– Mobility.
– Job Enrichment
– Exploratory Research
5. Projected Outcome
– Calculate the risks attached
– How well will it pay off?

Some important guidelines

• Employees
– Discuss any concerns regarding career or professional development with
– Its your career, take all necessary initiative
• Supervisors/ Managers
– Make career planning an ongoing process
– Explain employees importance of growth, need for change
– Personal commitment
– Give essential feedback to employees
– Acquire skills to be a good developer
– Provide a work environment that is conducive
– Supportive and motivational atmosphere

• Organizational
– Existence of supportive organizational structure suitable to employees needs
– Provide resources dollars and time

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 1. Ensures availability of resources for future.
 2. Enhances organization stability to attract and retain talent.
 3. Ensures growth opportunity for all.
 4. Handles employee frustrations

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The process of designing and implementing goals plans and strategies that enable the
organization to satisfy the workforce needs and allows individuals to achieve career objectives.
According to Michele Armstrong “career management is concerned with providing
opportunities for people to progress and develops their careers and ensuring that the
organization has the follow up talent it needs. The aliments of career management are the
provision of learning and development opportunities, career planning and management
succession planning”.



• Accept responsibility for your own career
• Assess your interest skills and values
• Seek out career information and recourses
• Utilize development paternities
• Establish goals and career plans
• Talk with you a manager about career
• Follow through on realistic career plan.
• Provide timely performance feed back
• Provide developmental assignment and support
• Participate in career development discussion
• Support employee development plan
• Communicate mission policies and procedures
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• Provide development and training opportunities
• Provide career information and career programmed
• Offer a variety of a career option


If you haven’t been on the career fast track, chances are you really haven’t thought much
about career management. Career management is much like preventive medicine. Preventive
medicine calls for you to take care of yourself by eating right, exercising, drinking in
moderation, and if so inclined, taking in the Pamplona Bull Run or skydiving only once every
couple of years rather than regularly. Career management uses the same proactive approach
and just like preventive medicine, there’s no time like the present to start.

Career management is actually investing in you and in your career aspirations. It is something
you’ll do over the course of your lifetime. By committing to lifelong learning and taking charge
of your career, you’ll be well ahead of your competition. Here are a couple of easy ways to get

Ways to shape Career

How do you measure up to your competition in the workforce?

Assess your current resources and your skill set to determine your level of expertise. .job
openings and job descriptions similar to yours to see what employers are looking for in terms
of skills and education. You’ll know where you stand and whether or not you have work to do if
this is the career path you want to remain on. If you are heading down another career path,
that’s another story obviously.

Do you have a positive self image?

If you appear confident, comfortable, and open when interacting with others, wonderful! If not,
work on building self esteem by practicing and role playing either with a friend or career coach.
You’ll get a clearer understanding of your strengths, be able to tackle your fears, and more apt
to reach your goals if you feel good about yourself and present yourself well.

How well do you interact with your peers? How about with leadership?

If you have a collaborative approach and demonstrate your interest in meeting team driven
organizational objectives, then great. If you are engaging and willing to break out of your job
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description to take on additional challenges along with others, more than likely you’ll do just
fine. If you dig in your heels and stringently adhere to your job description, you might want to
consider working on your team building skills. Don’t be afraid to ask for help from a friend,
coach, or colleague.

Are you focused on lifelong learning?

Does the education track you’ve taken align with your life and work objectives? What
resources do you need to realize your future goals? What education do you need to remain
current – what new technologies/trends are emerging you could benefit from?

Remember, it is your career. Your lifelong learning goals may or may not be aligned to your
current employer’s objectives. The important thing to consider is your future learning focuses
on fulfilling your sense of purpose and paying the bills. The key here is your interests because
in most cases there is no contract for lifelong employment with your current employer.

Have you developed a comprehensive network of associates?

If not, you really should put this on your to do list. Although your network includes your family
and friends, it is not just a list of friends on Face book or Twitter. Your list of contacts should
include individuals from your specific field or industry. Join organizations and groups that allow
you to forge ties with professionals who can help you make a difference in your future and
career. Remain in contact with these individuals to establish a professional bond.

Are you accountable for your career?

If you are then you’ve got the education, the ability to interact comfortably with anyone, the
technical expertise, and a comprehensive list of contacts. Get your resume ready along with a
solid list of references and you’re set.

Managing your career effectively will put you right where you belong – in the driver’s seat.
Take control and drive.

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Balancing Individual and Organizational Needs

Also we explain careerism between individual and organization both are balancing. We easily
understand by this diagram.

Careerism management learns that how to balancing individual and organization in a same
firm or a company and some factor also show in this diagram to see that how to balance them.
But if an employee wants to growth in same company so mostly balancing is most compulsory.

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Careerism: moral and economical implications for employee and
a company
Today every individual or any employee wants only growth by any conditions but how a
employee growth in a same company in continuous he work long time in this company but
every employee when he growth then they will fight their computers employees and pay their
moral and economical conditions and understand what is their moral duties in a company.
All of us understand that both employees as well as employers have duties towards each other
and towards the organization. It is a mutual thing. You must have heard that if you want
respect and love from somebody then even you have to give that person love and respect.
Nothing comes just like that. In this lecture we are going to study the employee’s obligation to
the firm and the ways in which employees fail to live up to the duty to pursue the goals of the
Or, more simply, conflicts of interest arise when the self-interest of employees in positions of
trust leads them to discharge their offices in ways that may not be in the best interests of the
firm. An official of a corporation, for example, is involved in a conflict of interest if he holds
stock in one of the companies submitting bids for a construction con-tract. His interest in
seeing the value of the stock improve may tempt him to give the contract to the building
company in which he holds stock, even though it did not offer the best terms to the corporation
for which he works.

Conflicts of Interest between the Employee and the Firm In the rational view of the firm, the
employee’s main moral duty is to work toward the goals of the firm and to avoid any activities,
which might harm those goals. To be unethical, basically, is to deviate from these goals in
order to serve one’s own interests in ways that, if illegal, are counted as a form of “white collar
crime.” As administrator of the company’s finances, for example, the financial manager is
entrusted with its funds and has the responsibility of managing those funds in a way that will
minimize risk while ensuring a suitable rate of return for the company’s shareholders. Financial
managers have this contractual duty to the firm and its investors because they have contracted
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to provide the firm with their best judgment and to exercise their authority only in the pursuit of
the goals of the firm and not for their own personal benefit. Financial managers fail in their
contractual duty to the firm when they misappropriate funds, when they waste or squander
funds, when they are negligent or fraudulent in the preparation of financial statements, when
they issue false or misleading reports, and so on. There are several ways in which the
employee might fail to live up to the duty to pursue the goals of the firm: The employee might
act on a “conflict of interest,” the employee might steal from the firm, or the employee might
use his or her position as leverage to force illicit benefits out of others through extortion or
commercial bribery. We will turn now to examine the ethical issues raised by these tactics.

Conflicts of interest need not be financial. Conflicts of interest can also arise when officers or
employees of one company hold another job or consulting position in an outside firm with
which their own company deals or competes: a conflict of interest would be created if an
accountant working for an insurance company also provides “independent” auditing services
for some of the firms the insurance company insures: The accountant might be tempted to
pass on to the insurance company some of the private information gathered when auditing the
books of those other firms. Conflicts of interest may be actual or potential: An actual conflict of
interest occurs when a person actually discharges his or her duties in a way that is prejudicial
to the firm and does it out of self-interest. A potential conflict of interest occurs when a person
is merely motivated or tempted by self-interest to act in a way that is prejudicial to the firm.

If we accept the view that agreements impose moral duties, then actual conflicts of interest are
unethical because they are contrary to the implied contract that a worker freely accepts when
taking a job with a firm. The administrative personnel of a firm are hired to use their un-biased
judgment to advance the goals of the firm. By accepting the position within the firm, the
employee contracts to administer the assets of the firm in accordance with these goals and in
return takes the salary connected with fulfilling this administrative task. To break this
contractual relation violates the rights and duties created by the contract. Potential conflicts of
interest mayor may not be ethical depending on the probability that the employee’s judgment
will be affected by the conflicting interest or will appear to be affected. Obviously, there are no

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general rules for determining whether or not an employee’s private and conflicting interests are
significant enough to affect his or her judgment: Much depends on the employee’s personal
psychology and intentions, on the employee’s position in the firm and the nature of the
employee’s job, on how much he or she stands to gain from the transactions involved, and on
the impact the employee’s actions will have on others inside and outside the firm.

Conflicts of Interest
Conflicts of interest in business arise when an employee or an officer of a company is engaged
in carrying out a task on behalf of the company and the employee has a private interest in the
outcome of the task: a. That is possibly antagonistic to the best interests of the company, and
b. That is substantial enough that it does or reasonably might affect the independent judgment
the company expects the employee to exercise on its behalf.
Do either is to take or use property that belongs to another (the employer) with-out the consent
of its rightful owner. Employee theft is often petty, involving the theft of small tools, office
supplies, or clothing. At the managerial level, petty theft sometimes occurs through the
manipulation or padding of expense accounts, although the amounts involved are sometimes
substantial. Other forms of managerial theft, sometimes referred to as “white collar crime,” are
embezzlement, larceny, and fraud in the handling of trusts or receiverships, and forgery. The
ethics of these forms of theft, however, are relatively clear. Not always as clear are some
particularly modem kinds of theft: thefts involving various forms of information. Computer Theft
what are the ethics of using a computer to gain entry into a company’s data bank? Of copying
a company’s computer programs? Of using or copying a company’s computerized data? Of
using a company computer during one’s own time? Unless authorized explicitly or through a
company’s formal or informal policies, all such activities are unethical forms of theft since they
all involve taking or using property that belongs to someone else without the consent of its
rightful owners. Of course, the information contained in a data bank and the programs provided
by a company are not tangible property, and the employee who examines, uses, or copies
such information or programs might leave the original information or programs un-changed
(the company might never even realize what the employee did). Nevertheless, unauthorized
examination, use, or copying of computer information or programs constitutes theft. It is theft
because information gathered in a computer bank by a company and computer programs
developed or purchased by a company, are the property of that company. Such theft is best

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understood by considering the nature of property: Property consists of a bundle of rights that
attach to some identifiable asset. The most important of these rights are the right to exclusive
use of the asset, the right to decide whether and how others may use the asset, the right to
sell, trade, or give away the asset, the right to any income generated by the asset, and the
right to modify or change the asset. (The rights of others, such as the right not to be harmed, of
course, limit these rights) All of these rights can and do attach to those computers, computer
data, and computer pro-grams that a company used its own resources to develop or which the
company purchased with its own resources. Such information or programs consequently are
the property of the company and only the company has the right to its use or benefits. To
usurp any of the rights that attach to property, including the rights pertaining to use is a form of
property theft and is, therefore, unethical.

Trade Secrets

Businesses often rely on confidential information — inventions, strategies and processes — to

keep their competitive edge. If such information is improperly disclosed — for example, by a
former employee — or otherwise illegally acquired by a competitor, a business owner can turn
to trade secret law for help. Here, you’ll learn what qualifies as a trade secret and how to
protect your sensitive business information.
“Proprietary information” or “trade secrets” consist of nonpublic information:

That concerns a company’s own activities, technologies, future plans, policies, or records,
and which, if known by competitors, would materially affect the company’s ability to
compete commercially against those competitors; 2. That is owned by the company
(although it might not be patented or copyrighted) because it was developed by the
company for its private use from resources it owns or it was purchased for its private use
from others with its own funds; and 3. That the company indicates through explicit
directives, through security measures, or through contractual agreements with employees
that it does not want anyone outside the company to have that information.
For Example

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if a company, using its own engineering and laboratory re-sources, develops a
secret process to manufacture computer “diskettes” that can carry more computer data
than any other company’s disks, and it takes explicit measures to ensure that process is
not known to anyone else, detailed information about that process is a “trade secret.”
Similarly, lists of suppliers or customers, research results, formulas, computer programs,
computer data, marketing and production plans, and any other information that is
developed by a company for its own private use from its own resources, can all constitute
“trade secrets.” Since employees, especially those involved in company research and
development, often have access to trade secrets which the company must entrust to them
if it is to carry on its business, they often have the opportunity to use such secrets for their
own advantage by dealing with competitors. Such use of trade secrets by employees is
unethical because it is using the property of another agent for a purpose not sanctioned
by that other agent, and because the employee has an implied (or even, in some cases,
an explicit) contract not to use company re- sources for purposes not sanctioned by the

A female engineering employee, for example, who is hired to oversee the

development of a secret manufacturing process that gives her company a competitive edge
over others, acts wrongly if she decides to leave that company to work for a competitor who
promises her a higher salary in exchange for setting up the same process she developed
while being paid to do so by her former employer. However, skills that an employee
acquires by working for a company do not count as trade secrets since trade secrets
consist of information and not skills. The skills that an employee develops are considered
part of his or her own person and are not the property of an employer like proprietary
information is. Unfortunately, it is not always easy to distinguish skills from trade secrets.
Some companies have tried to avoid the problem of trade secrets by having employees
sign contracts agreeing not to work for competitors for one or two years after leaving the
company, but courts have generally rejected the validity of such contracts. Other
companies have dealt with these problems by agreeing to provide departing employees
with continuing remuneration or future retirement benefits in exchange for their not
revealing proprietary information. The ethical issue of misusing proprietary information has
become much more prominent in the last decade as new “information technologies” (such

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as the computer) have increasingly turned information into a valuable asset to which
employees have regular access. As information technologies continue to develop, this
issue will continue to grow in importance. Before leaving the subject of proprietary
information, it is worth recall-in that a company’s property rights over proprietary
information are not un-limited. In particular, they are limited by the rights of other agents,
such as the rights of employees to know the health risks associated with their jobs. A com-
pony’s right to keep information secret is not absolute but must be balanced against the
legitimate rights of others. Insider Trading Insider trading” is a term that most investors
have heard and usually associate with illegal conduct. But the term actually includes both
legal and illegal conduct. The legal version is when corporate insiders—officers, directors,
and employees—buy and sell stock in their own companies. Illegal insider trading refers
generally to buying or selling a security, in breach of a fiduciary duty or other relationship of
trust and confidence, while in possession of material, nonpublic information about the
security. Insider trading violations may also include “tipping” such information, securities
trading by the person “tipped,” and securities trading by those who misappropriate such
information. Insider trading as the act of buying and selling a company’s stock on the basis
of “inside” information about the company. “Inside” or “insider” information about a
company is confidential or proprietary information about a company that is not available to
the general public outside the company, but which would have a material or significant
impact on the price of the company’s stock.

So finally we can say that we understand what Today Company and individual policy
is and how to they fight competitions and use their employees so that we easily understand

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In the below diagram, Employee working for a particular company. Since employee
is working with good faith, he is very responsible in his work he is achieving his target as well
as the organization Goal. But now he wants to get the fair remuneration for his work,
because he has done a good work for the organization. That is where the Morals come into

Second organization

First Organization

10K 12K 14K 16K 18K

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So if the employee is working in a particular organization for a long time (3-4 yr.) and
he is not getting the remuneration of his desire or capability, his moral will affect his work or
his thinking
Now the employee will thin about the switch of the organization, because he know
that now I am having a healthy experience in the field and other organization can pay me
more than what he is getting now from his current organization. Employees Moral suggest
that when a organization is spending a big amount on employee for the training, knowledge
management and also on the learning organization process, there are some responsibility or
moral duty arises out of that like work for organization for specific time, give everything to
work, make some good Idea for growth of organizations etc.
Since an organization work for economic growth, employee must understand this
aspect from the organization point of view. An organization also wants that employee also
get some economic growth from the organization. Thus an employee must think about the
economic growth of the organization and of himself too. Employee must think that an
organization is investing his money to increase employee’s knowledge, organization runs
various programmed to make understand the work procedure, understand the industry. Now
in above diagram if an employee is working for an organization for 3-4 years. N he is not
getting what he can be from the other organization. Then an employee think about the
change of organization where he can get 16,000 P.M. as compared to 12,000 P.M. From his
first organization.
That is where the Moral and economic growth comes face to face. There is, an
employee must be very career oriented, and must take a good moves for his career. And
about the organization, should keep a dog eye on employee performance, employee
personal duties, employee’s needs & wants.

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