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Centrifugalpump
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Centrifugalpumpsareasubclassofdynamic
axisymmetricworkabsorbingturbomachinery.[1]
Centrifugalpumpsareusedtotransportfluidsbythe
conversionofrotationalkineticenergytothe
hydrodynamicenergyofthefluidflow.The
rotationalenergytypicallycomesfromanengineor
electricmotor.Thefluidentersthepumpimpeller
alongorneartotherotatingaxisandisaccelerated
bytheimpeller,flowingradiallyoutwardintoa
diffuserorvolutechamber(casing),fromwhereit
exits.
Commonusesincludewater,sewage,petroleumand
petrochemicalpumping.Thereversefunctionofthe
centrifugalpumpisawaterturbineconverting
potentialenergyofwaterpressureintomechanical
rotationalenergy.

Warmancentrifugalpumpinacoalpreparation
plantapplication

Contents
1 History
2 Howitworks
3 Fluiddynamicprinciples
3.1 Thenewdescription
3.1.1 Dynamicheadpressure
3.1.2 Staticheadpressure
3.1.3 Headpressurecreatedbystraightvanesimpeller
3.1.4 Rotarytransferfactor
3.1.5 Headpressurecreatedbybackwardcurvedvanesimpeller
3.1.6 Thenecessityofthenewtheory
3.2 Theolddescription
3.2.1 Conservationofmomentum
3.2.2 Euler'spumpequation
3.2.3 Trianglevelocity
3.3 Efficiencyfactor
4 Verticalcentrifugalpumps
5 Frothpumps
6 Multistagecentrifugalpumps
7 Energyusage
8 Problemsofcentrifugalpumps
9 Centrifugalpumpsforsolidscontrol
10 Magneticallycoupledpumps
11 Priming
12 Seealso
13 References
14 Sources
15 Externallinks
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History
AccordingtoReti,thefirstmachinethatcouldbecharacterizedasacentrifugalpumpwasamudlifting
machinewhichappearedasearlyas1475inatreatisebytheItalianRenaissanceengineerFrancescodi
GiorgioMartini.[2]Truecentrifugalpumpswerenotdevelopeduntilthelate17thcentury,whenDenis
Papinbuiltoneusingstraightvanes.ThecurvedvanewasintroducedbyBritishinventorJohnAppoldin
1851.

Howitworks
Generalexplanation:Likemostpumps,acentrifugalpump
convertsrotationalenergy,oftenfromamotor,toenergyina
movingfluid.Aportionoftheenergygoesintokineticenergyof
thefluid.Fluidentersaxiallythrougheyeofthecasing,iscaught
upintheimpellerblades,andiswhirledtangentiallyandradially
outwarduntilitleavesthroughallcircumferentialpartsofthe
impellerintothediffuserpartofthecasing.Thefluidgainsboth
velocityandpressurewhilepassingthroughtheimpeller.The
doughnutshapeddiffuser,orscroll,sectionofthecasing
deceleratestheflowandfurtherincreasesthepressure.

Fluiddynamicprinciples
Applyingclassicalmechanicstheory,assumingviscosityofthe
liquidequal0andnoenergylossfortheworkof
energytransferringfromimpellertothestreamlines
whichmeansthat,allseparateflowwillbeuniforms
(thisapproximationsofphysicalrealitytogetthe
simplerassolidstatemechanismthanhydraulic
mechanism)

Cutawayviewofcentrifugalpump

Thenewdescription
Observeamassgoingalongastraightvaneimpeller
(theoldestandsimplestimpeller),therearethese
forcesimpactonit:
1TheimpellervanepushonitaforceFc,itreflect
anantiforceF'onthevane

Figure2.1theforcesaffectonamassgoing
alonganimpellervane.

2ThecentrifugalforceFcpullitflyout(followcentrifugaldirection)
Dynamicheadpressure

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ApplyingBernoulliprinciple:Thefirstforcecauses
theabsolutevelocityoftheobjectascircumferential
speedwhichmeansdynamicheadpressure

Staticheadpressure
Thesecondforcecreatesthestaticpressure.Ifa
massmovesradiallyoutwardalongavaneofthe
impeller,itsorbitwillbeaspiralshapedcurve.One
caneasilycalculateitsangularspeed.Intwo
dimensionstheangularvelocityisgivenby

Figure2.2trianglevelocityofacurvedbackward
vanesimpeller(a).

SoduringitsmovementthecentrifugalforceFcis
alwayspresentas

Thecentrifugalaccelerationincreaseslinearlyonthe
radiusofrotationR(variable).Inconstant
gravitationalaccelerationg,staticpressureofa
columnofwaterhis

Inthecentrifugalaccelerationincreaselinearlyfrom
theR1positiontotheR2positionstaticpressureofa

Figure2.2trianglevelocityofaradialstraight
vanesimpeller(b).

columnofwaterR2R1is

Inthecasethedischargeofthepumpis0,staticpressuresaveitsoriginalvalue.Intheoutletofthe
pumpisopenairofstaticpressurecreatedbytheimpellerdropto0staticpressuretransferalltothe
dynamicpressureinvectorwhichishighestvalue.
Forexample:R1=2cm=.02mR2=8cm=.08m=50.2

Applysimilarcalculationonewillhave

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6cmcolumnofwaterpresentinthatareawillgivethestaticpressure=3bar(10mcolumnofwaterin
gravitationalaccelerationggive1barstaticpressure)
Headpressurecreatedbystraightvanesimpeller
Dependonthislogictheheadpressurecreatedbythestraightvaneimpelleris

theheadpressurecreatedbythebackwardcurvedvaneimpelleris
Rotarytransferfactor

rotatingimpeller1

fractionrotaryangularspeedoftheflowandrotaryangularspeedoftheimpeller
callrotarytransfercoefficient
f=1forthestraightvaneimpeller
f<1itvariablefrom0to1dependonthedischargeofthepumpforthe
backwardcurvedvaneimpeller
Rotatingimpeller2
Figurerotatingimpeller1showsablockmmovedthroughtheimpeller.During
theimpellerrotateaquarterofaroundelementmgoingfrominneredgetothe
outsideedgeoftheimpeller.Itseemtheyworkseparately,exactlyinthiscasetheimpellernotrotate
elementmatall.Meanstheimpellertransfer0%anglevelocitycoefficientforelementm.Forthis
situationitisnotreal,butonlyusedtodemonstratethetransfervelocitycoefficientoftheimpellertothe
streamlinesofvariationthataccordingtotheflowofthepump.

Figurerotatingimpeller2showsifelementmmovewith1/2speedthanbeforeitwillrotate1/8of
round,meanstheimpellertransfer50%anglevelocitycoefficientforelementm.
Headpressurecreatedbybackwardcurvedvanesimpeller

Thisistheformula
Thenecessityofthenewtheory
Forcenturies,peoplehavetrustedandusedEulerequationasabasictoexplainhowtheimpellerwork.
Butitwasnotcorrect.Because:Theolddescriptionshowsonlytheinteractiveforcebetweenthe
impellervanandthemassofliquidgoingthroughit,namelytheforcegeneratedtorqueonitsaxis,that
meansonlycircumferentialforcewasmention.Thecentrifugalforcenotcreatedtorqueontheshaftsoit
wasoutsidethatscope.thisdescriptionwasthemajorshortcomingswasalsoseriousmistakes.

Theolddescription
BySirEulerin19thCentury
Conservationofmomentum
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AnotherconsequenceofNewtonssecondlawofmechanicsistheconservationoftheangular
momentum(orthemomentofmomentum)whichisoffundamentalsignificancetoallturbomachines.
Accordingly,thechangeoftheangularmomentumisequaltothesumoftheexternalmoments.Angular
momentumsQrcuatinletandoutlet,anexternaltorqueMandfrictionmomentsduetoshear
stressesMareactingonanimpelleroradiffuser.
Sincenopressureforcesarecreatedoncylindricalsurfacesinthecircumferentialdirection,itispossible
towriteEq.(1.10)as:[3]
(1.13)
Euler'spumpequation
BasedonEq.(1.13)EulerdevelopedtheheadpressureequationcreatedbytheimpellerseeFig.2.2
(1)
(2)
InEq.(2)thesumof4frontelementnumbercallstaticpressure,thesumoflast2elementnumbercall
velocitypressurelookcarefullyontheFig2.2andthedetailequation.
Httheoryheadpressureg=between9.78and9.82m/s2dependingonlatitude,conventionalstandard
valueofexactly9.80665m/s2barycentricgravitationalacceleration
u2=r2.theperipheralcircumferentialvelocityvector
u1=r1.theinletcircumferentialvelocityvector
=2.nangularvelocity
w1inletrelativevelocityvector
w2outletrelativevelocityvector
c1inletabsolutevelocityvector
c2outletabsolutevelocityvector
Trianglevelocity
Thecolortriangleformedbyvelocityvectoru,c,wcalled"velocitytriangle".thisisanimportantrolein
oldacademic,thisrulewashelpfultodetailEq.(1)becomeEq.(2)andwideexplainedhowthepump
works.
Fig2.3(a)showstrianglevelocityofforwardcurvedvanesimpellerFig2.3(b)showstrianglevelocity
ofradialstraightvanesimpeller.Itillustratesratherclearlyenergyaddedtotheflow(showninvectorc)
inverselychangeuponflowrateQ(showninvectorcm).

Efficiencyfactor
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,
where:
isthemechanicsinputpowerrequired(W)
isthefluiddensity(kg/m3)
isthestandardaccelerationofgravity(9.80665m/s2)
istheenergyHeadaddedtotheflow(m)
istheflowrate(m3/s)
istheefficiencyofthepumpplantasadecimal
Theheadaddedbythepump( )isasumofthestaticlift,theheadlossduetofrictionandanylosses
duetovalvesorpipebendsallexpressedinmetresoffluid.Powerismorecommonlyexpressedas
kilowatts(103W,kW)orhorsepower(hp=kW*0.746).Thevalueforthepumpefficiency,
,may
bestatedforthepumpitselforasacombinedefficiencyofthepumpandmotorsystem.

Verticalcentrifugalpumps
Verticalcentrifugalpumpsarealsoreferredtoascantileverpumps.Theyutilizeauniqueshaftand
bearingsupportconfigurationthatallowsthevolutetohanginthesumpwhilethebearingsareoutside
thesump.Thisstyleofpumpusesnostuffingboxtosealtheshaftbutinsteadutilizesa"throttle
bushing".Acommonapplicationforthisstyleofpumpisinapartswasher.

Frothpumps
Inthemineralindustry,orintheextractionofoilsand,frothisgeneratedtoseparatetherichmineralsor
bitumenfromthesandandclays.Frothcontainsairthattendstoblockconventionalpumpsandcause
lossofprime.Overhistory,industryhasdevelopeddifferentwaystodealwiththisproblem.Inthepulp
andpaperindustryholesaredrilledintheimpeller.Airescapestothebackoftheimpellerandaspecial
expellerdischargestheairbacktothesuctiontank.Theimpellermayalsofeaturespecialsmallvanes
betweentheprimaryvanescalledsplitvanesorsecondaryvanes.Somepumpsmayfeaturealargeeye,
aninducerorrecirculationofpressurizedfrothfromthepumpdischargebacktothesuctiontobreakthe
bubbles.[4]

Multistagecentrifugalpumps
Acentrifugalpumpcontainingtwoormoreimpellersiscalleda
multistagecentrifugalpump.Theimpellersmaybemountedon
thesameshaftorondifferentshafts.
Forhigherpressuresattheoutlet,impellerscanbeconnectedin
series.Forhigherflowoutput,impellerscanbeconnected
parallel.
Acommonapplicationofthemultistagecentrifugalpumpisthe
boilerfeedwaterpump.Forexample,a350MWunitwould
requiretwofeedpumpsinparallel.Eachfeedpumpisamultistage
centrifugalpumpproducing150l/sat21MPa.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrifugal_pump

Multistagecentrifugalpump[5]

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Allenergytransferredtothefluidisderivedfromthemechanicalenergydrivingtheimpeller.Thiscan
bemeasuredatisentropiccompression,resultinginaslighttemperatureincrease(inadditiontothe
pressureincrease).

Energyusage
Theenergyusageinapumpinginstallationisdeterminedbytheflowrequired,theheightliftedandthe
lengthandfrictioncharacteristicsofthepipeline.Thepowerrequiredtodriveapump( ),isdefined
simplyusingSIunitsby:

where:
istheinputpowerrequired(W)
isthefluiddensity(kg/m3)
isthestandardaccelerationofgravity(9.80665m/s2)
istheenergyHeadaddedtotheflow(m)
istheflowrate(m3/s)
istheefficiencyofthepumpplantasadecimal

Singlestageradialflowcentrifugal
pump

Theheadaddedbythepump( )isasumofthestaticlift,the
headlossduetofrictionandanylossesduetovalvesorpipebendsallexpressedinmetresoffluid.
Powerismorecommonlyexpressedaskilowatts(103W,kW)orhorsepower(kW=hp/0.746).The
valueforthepumpefficiency,
,maybestatedforthepumpitselforasacombinedefficiencyof
thepumpandmotorsystem.
Theenergyusageisdeterminedbymultiplyingthepowerrequirementbythelengthoftimethepumpis
operating.

Problemsofcentrifugalpumps
Thesearesomedifficultiesfacedincentrifugalpumps:[6]
Cavitationthenetpositivesuctionhead(NPSH)ofthe
systemistoolowfortheselectedpump
Wearoftheimpellercanbeworsenedbysuspended
solids
Corrosioninsidethepumpcausedbythefluidproperties
Overheatingduetolowflow
Leakagealongrotatingshaft
Lackofprime(http://ivacaustralia.com.au/movingslurry
apumpersprimer/)centrifugalpumpsmustbefilled
(withthefluidtobepumped)inordertooperate
Surge

OpenTypeCentrifugalPump
Impeller

Centrifugalpumpsforsolidscontrol
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Anoilfieldsolidscontrolsystemneedsmanycentrifugalpumps
tositonorinmudtanks.Thetypesofcentrifugalpumpsusedare
sandpumps,submersibleslurrypumps,shearpumps,and
chargingpumps.Theyaredefinedfortheirdifferentfunctions,
buttheirworkingprincipleisthesame.

Magneticallycoupledpumps
Piechartshowingwhatcauses

Magneticallycoupledpumps,ormagneticdrivepumps,vary
damagetopumps.
fromthetraditionalpumpingstyle,asthemotoriscoupledtothe
pumpbymagneticmeansratherthanbyadirectmechanical
shaft.Thepumpworksviaadrivemagnet,'driving'thepumprotor,whichismagneticallycoupledtothe
primaryshaftdrivenbythemotor.[7]Theyareoftenusedwhereleakageofthefluidpumpedposesa
greatrisk(e.g.,aggressivefluidinthechemicalornuclearindustry,orelectricshockgardenfountains).
Theyhavenodirectconnectionbetweenthemotorshaftandtheimpeller,sonoglandisneeded.Thereis
noriskofleakage,unlessthecasingisbroken.Sincethepumpshaftisnotsupportedbybearingsoutside
thepump'shousing,supportinsidethepumpisprovidedbybushings.Thepumpsizeofamagneticdrive
pumpscangofromfewWattspowertoagiant1MW.

Priming
Mostcentrifugalpumpsarenotselfpriming.Inotherwords,thepumpcasingmustbefilledwithliquid
beforethepumpisstarted,orthepumpwillnotbeabletofunction.Ifthepumpcasingbecomesfilled
withvaporsorgases,thepumpimpellerbecomesgasboundandincapableofpumping.Toensurethata
centrifugalpumpremainsprimedanddoesnotbecomegasbound,mostcentrifugalpumpsarelocated
belowthelevelofthesourcefromwhichthepumpistotakeitssuction.Thesameeffectcanbegained
bysupplyingliquidtothepumpsuctionunderpressuresuppliedbyanotherpumpplacedinthesuction
line.

Seealso
Axialflowpump
Effectsofmachnumberandshocklossesinturbomachines
Netpositivesuctionhead(NPSH)
Pump
Seal(mechanical)
Specificspeed(NsorNss)
Thermodynamicpumptesting
Turbine
Turbopump

References
1.Shepard,DennisG.(1956).PrinciplesofTurbomachinery.McMillan.ISBN0471855464.
LCCN56002849.
2.Reti,LadislaoDiGiorgioMartini,Francesco(Summer1963)."FrancescodiGiorgio(Armani)Martini's
TreatiseonEngineeringandItsPlagiarists".TechnologyandCulture4(3):287298(290).
doi:10.2307/3100858.
3.Glich,JohannFriedrich(2010).CentrifugalPumps(2nded.).ISBN9783642128233.
4.BahaAbulnaga(2004).PumpingOilsandFroth(PDF).21stInternationalPumpUsersSymposium,Baltimore,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrifugal_pump

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Maryland.PublishedbyTexasA&MUniversity,Texas,USA.
5.Moniz,PareshGirdhar,Octo(2004).Practicalcentrifugalpumpsdesign,operationandmaintenance(1.publ.
ed.).Oxford:Newnes.p.13.ISBN0750662735.Retrieved3April2015.
6.LarryBachus,AngleCustodio(2003).Knowandunderstandcentrifugalpumps.ElsevierLtd.
ISBN1856174093.

Sources
ASMEB73StandardsCommittee,ChemicalStandardPumps
(https://cstools.asme.org/csconnect/CommitteePages.cfm?Committee=C34000000)

Externallinks
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
title=Centrifugal_pump&oldid=714840490"
Categories: Pumps Gascompressors Turbines
Hydraulicengineering Powerengineering

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