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FORMATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

Sedimentary rocks are derived from the weathered waste products of the pre-
existing rocks.

These rocks form an extensive part of the earth crust and cover about three-four
of the contents sedimentary rocks have economic importance for people all over
the world. These rocks are contains economically valuable deposits such as coal,
petroleum, natural gas, aluminum, iron ore and copper. Sedimentary rocks are
generally deposited as beds or strata.

FORMATION
These are formed in the following four different Stages.
1. Weathering
2. Transportation
3. Sedimentation/Deposition
4. Lithification

1) WEATHERING
Igneous sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks are the ultimate source of the
sediments of which sedimentary rocks are formed .Under the combined effect of
producing weathered material after this the material is ready to be transported to
some place of accumulation .Like ocean.

2) TRANSPORTATION
The products of rock weathering are generally transported in large amounts by
the running water (rivers) moving ice & wind. Out of these agents, rivers are the
most important.

1 http://miningmuet.webs.com By: Izhar Mithal Jiskani


FORMATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

3) SEDIMENTATION OR DEPOSITION
The transportation of the weathered products continuous as long as the velocity
of the transporting medium remains unchecked. but when the products are
brought at rest into big water bodies like oceans, their deposition will start. The
general process by which the rock forming material is laid down is termed as
sedimentation

4) LITHIFICATION
The process of lithification converts loosely deposited sediments into a rock. This
job is generally done in two ways
a) Compaction and b) Cementation

A) COMPACTION
As the deposition of sediments continuous, it automatically goes on compacting
and consolidating due to its own weight with the squeezing out of water e.g.
Shale, Silt Stone.

B) CEMENTATION
Coarse sediments do not stick together as fine sediments, however they will stick
to one another if they are cemented together .Ocean and lake waters contain
dissolved minerals such as silica, lime and iron compounds these are natural
cement. As they soak into the layers of sand and gravels, they cement the
fragments into rock.

The common examples of Sedimentary rocks are limestone, sand stone shale etc.
In cementation water carrying mineral matter in solution passes through the
sedimentary layers. This minerals matter crystallizes and holds the layers
together like glue.

2 http://miningmuet.webs.com By: Izhar Mithal Jiskani