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Two Hundred Essential Latin Words

more or less

These are among the most common words in Latin. Taken together, they
account for almost half the words in a typical prose text.

Pronouns, Conjunctions, Adverbs


These are the words that show you the structure of a sentence.
Pronouns:
ego; hic; idem; ille; ipse; is; iste; nemo; nihil; nos; qui; quidam; quis;
quisque; se; tu; vos
Conjunctions:
ac, atque (usually ac before consonants, atque before vowels); an; aut; autem;
cum; deinde; dum; enim; et; etiam; nam; ne; nec, neque (usually nec before
consonants, neque before vowels); -que; quia; quod; sed; si; tamen; tum; ut;
vel
Prepositions taking the ablative:
ab (a before consonants, abs te); cum; de; ex (e before consonants); pro; sine
Prepositions taking the accusative:
ad; ante; contra; inter; per; post; trans
Prepositions taking either case (in different senses):
in, sub
Adverbs (many prepositions can also be used as adverbs; some conjunctions
are much like adverbs):
haud; iam; inde; ita; modo; non; nondum; nunc; quam; quidem; satis;
tam; ubi; unde

Verbs
These are where the action happens.
Irregular:
do, eo, fero, fio, inquam, nolo, possum, sum, volo
First conjugation (-re):
amo, appello, impero, iuro, probo, puto, sto, voco
Second conjugation (-re):
debeo, habeo, moveo, teneo, video
vereor

Third conjugation (-ere):


ago, capio, credo, dico, duco, facio, gero, incipio, interficio, mitto, occdo, peto,
pono, reddo, vivo
loquor, sequor, utor
Fourth conjugation (-re):
audio, scio, venio

Nouns and Adjectives


These are the subjects and objects.
Pronominal declension:
alius, alter, neuter, nullus, solus, totus, ullus, unus, uter
First declension:
causa, gloria, terra
Second declension nouns, first-and-second declension adjectives:
aequus, amicus, animus, annus, arma, bellum, bonus, certus, dignus, deus,
filius, imperium, ingenium, iudicium, lber (adj), locus, longus, magnus, meus,
modus, multus, natus, noster, novus, parvus, populus, primus, principium,
publicus, quantus, regnum, salvus, suus, tantus, tuus, verus, vester, vir
Third declension:
adulescens, aetas, civis, civitas, corpus, crimen, dux, facilis, gens, gravis, homo,
hostis, ius, mater, miles, mors, mulier, nomen, omnis, opes, ordo, pars, pater,
potestas, qualis, rex, similis, sol, talis, tempus, urbs, uxor, virtus, vis (somewhat
irregular), vulnus
Fourth declension:
domus
Fifth declension:
dies, fides, res

The next words to learn are the easy compounds and derivatives of these
words: verbs + prefixes (ab + sum), agent nouns from verbs (auditor), qualitative
nouns from adjectives (magnitudo), verbal nouns (motus), and so on. This will
give you another couple hundred words almost for free. Some of these words,
naturally, are more common than others; the most common words in the
following lists are marked. The lists are not exhaustive, and in particular
derivatives and compounds can be formed from derived words.

Verb compounds:

Note that compounds with ad may be spelled with or without assimilation (a

word that exemplifies what it means: ad + similis). Cum in compounds appears


as con and is generally assimilated.
Principal parts are the same as for the uncompounded verb unless otherwise
noted.
By prefix:
Compounds with ab:
abdico, abdo, abduco, abeo, abigo (ab + ago), abiuro, absto, abstineo (ab + teneo),
absum, abutor, amitto, amoveo, aufero, avoco
Compounds with ad:
accipio (ad + capio), accredo, adamo, addico, addo, adduco, adeo, adhibeo, adigo,
adiuro, admitto, admoveo, adsequor, adsto, adsum, advenio, advoco, afficio,
affero, aggero, alloquor, appello, appeto, appono, approbo, ascio, attineo
Compounds with ante:
antecapio, anteeo or anteo, antefero, antehabeo, antemitto, antepono, antesto,
antevenio
Compounds with cum:
coeo (cum + eo), cogo (cum + ago), concipio, concredo, condico, condo, conduco,
conficio, confero, congero, cohabeo (cum + habeo), coniuro, colloquor, committo,
commoveo, competo, compono, comprobo, computo, conscio, consequor, consto,
contineo, convenio, convivo, convoco
Compounds with de:
dego (de + ago), decido, decipio, dedo, deduco, defero, deficio, degero, deiero (de
+ iuro), demitto, demoveo, depono, deputo, desum, detineo, deutor, devenio,
devoco
Compounds with dis:
dido, diduco, differo, digero, dimitto, dimoveo, dispono, disputo, disto, distineo
Compounds with ex:
exigo, exaudio, excipio, edico, edo, educo, exeo, efficio, effero, egero, exhibeo, eiuro
(or eiero), eloquor, emitto, emoveo, expeto, expono, exputo, exsto (or exto), evenio,
evoco
Compounds with in: Note the prefix in these verbs is related to the preposition
in; there is also a negative in- as in inimicus (in + amicus).
inigo, inaudio, incipio, indico, indo, induco, ineo, infero, inficio, ingero, inhibeo,
immitto, impero, impeto, impono, improbo, imputo, insequor, insto, insum,
invenio, invideo, invoco

Compounds with inter:


intercipio, interdico, interdo, intereo, interficio, interfio, interloquor, intermitto,
interpono, intersum, intervenio
Compounds with ob:
occido, occipio, occupo (also ob + capio), obdo, obduco, obeo, offero, officio, oggero,
obloquor, omitto, oppeto, oppono, obsequor, obsto, obsum, obtineo, obvenio
Compounds with per:
perago, percipio, perdo, perduco, pereo, perfero, perficio, perhibeo, peiero or periuro,
permitto, permoveo, perputo, persequor, persto, pertineo, pervenio, pervideo,
pervolo
Compounds with post:
postfero, posthabeo, postpono, postputo
Compounds with prae:
praecipio, praedico, praeeo, praefero, praeficio, praebeo (prae + habeo), praeloquor,
praemitto, praepono, praescio, praesto, praesum, praevenio, praevideo
Compounds with pro:
prodigo (pro + ago), prodico, prodo, produco, prodeo (pro + eo), profero, proficio,
prohibeo, proloquor, promitto, promoveo, propono, prosequor, prosum, provenio,
provideo, provoco
Compounds with re:
redigo, redamo, recipio, reddo, redeo, reduco, reficio, refero, regero, remitto, removeo,
repeto, repono, reputo, resequor, resto, retineo, revenio, revereor, revideo, revoco
Compounds with sub:
subigo, suscipio, subdo, subduco, subeo, sufficio, suggero, submitto or summitto,
summoveo, suppeto, suppono, subsequor, substo, subsum, sustineo, subvenio,
subvereor
Compounds with trans:
transigo, trado, traduco or transduco, transeo, transfero, traloquor, transmitto,
transmoveo, transpono, transtineo
By verb:
Compounds of ago:
abigo, adigo, cogo, dego, exigo, inigo, perago, prodigo, redigo, subigo, transigo

Compounds of amo:
adamo, redamo
Compounds of capio: Note the a is usually weakened to i.
accipio, antecapio, concipio, decipio, excipio, incipio, intercipio, occipio, occupo,
percipio, praecipio, recipio, suscipio
Compounds of credo:
accredo, concredo
Compounds of dico:
abdico, addico, condico, edico, indico, interdico, praedico, prodico
Compounds of do: Note most of these are in the third conjugation!
abdo, addo, condo, dedo, dido, edo, indo, interdo, obdo, perdo, reddo, trado
Compounds of duco:
abduco, adduco, conduco, deduco, diduco, educo, induco, obduco, perduco,
produco, reduco, subdoco, traduco
Compounds of eo:
abeo, adeo, anteo or anteeo, coeo, exeo, ineo, intereo, obeo, pereo, praeeo, prodeo,
redeo, subeo, transeo
Compounds of facio: Note the a is usually weakened to i.
afficio, conficio, deficio, efficio, inficio, interficio, officio, perficio, praeficio, proficio,
reficio, sufficio
Compounds of fero:
affero, antefero, aufero, confero, defero, differo, effero, infero, offero, perfero,
postfero, praefero, profero, refero, transfero
Compounds of gero:
aggero, congero, degero, digero, egero, ingero, oggero, regero, suggero
Compounds of habeo: Note the a is usually weakened to i.
adhibeo, antehabeo, cohabeo, exhibeo, inhibeo, perhibeo, posthabeo, praebeo,
prohibeo
Compounds of iuro:
abiuro, adiuro, coniuro, deiero, eiuro or eiero, periuro or peiero
Compounds of loquor:
alloquor, colloquor, eloquor, interloquor, obloquor, praeloquor, proloquor

Compounds of mitto:
amitto, admitto, antemitto, committo, demitto, dimitto, emitto, immitto, intermitto,
omitto, permitto, praemitto, promitto, remitto, submitto or summitto, transmitto
Compounds of moveo:
amoveo, admoveo, commoveo, demoveo, dimoveo, emoveo, permoveo,
promoveo, removeo, summoveo, transmoveo
Compounds of peto:
appeto, competo, expeto, impeto, oppeto, repeto, suppeto
Compounds of pono:
appono, antepono, compono, depono, expono, impono, interpono, oppono,
postpono, praepono, propono, repono, suppono, transpono
Compounds of probo:
approbo, comprobo, improbo
Compounds of puto:
computo, deputo, disputo, exputo, imputo, perputo, postputo, reputo
Compounds of scio:
ascio, conscio, praescio
Compounds of sequor:
adsequor, consequor, insequor, obsequor, persequor, prosequor, resequor,
subsequor
Compounds of sto:
absto, adsto, antesto, consto, disto, exsto or exto, insto, obsto, persto, praesto,
resto, substo
Compounds of sum:
absum, adsum, desum, intersum, intersum, obsum, praesum, prosum
Compounds of teneo: Note the first e is usually weakened to i.
abstineo, attineo, contineo, detineo, obtineo, pertineo, retineo, sustineo
Compounds of utor:
abutor, deutor
Compounds of venio:
advenio, antevenio, convenio, devenio, evenio, invenio, intervenio, obvenio,
pervenio, praevenio, provenio, revenio, subvenio

Compounds of vereor:
revereor, subvereor
Compounds of video:
invideo, pervideo, praevideo, provideo, revideo
Compounds of vivo:
convivo
Compounds of voco:
avoco, advoco, convoco, devoco, evoco, invoco, provoco, revoco
Compounds of volo:
pervolo

Verbs derived from verbs:


Frequentatives: indicate doing the action of the base verb frequently or
repeatedly, or more intensely
These are formed with -t-, -it-, -tit- added to the stem of the base verb, and they
are in the first conjugation.
agito, appellito, capto, dicto, dictito, ducto, ductito, factito, gesto (from gero),
habito, imperito, ito (from eo), loquitor, moto, petesso, sciscitor, scitor, sector,
sisto, ventito, vocito
Causatives: indicate causing the action of the base verb.
These are usually formed with vowel changes; compare lay (cause to lie), set
(cause to sit), fell (cause to fall) in English.
cado, caedo; occido, occdo; iaceo, iacio; sedeo, sedo

Verbs derived from nouns and adjectives:


Inchoatives: indicate becoming, taking on the state given by the adjective
adulesco, gravesco, vivesco
Desideratives: indicate desiring the thing given by the noun or adjective
petiturio

Nouns derived from verbs:


Agent nouns: one who does the action of the verb
Most of these are third-declension masculines in -tor, often with matching
feminines in -trix.
actor, agitor, amator, auditor, captor, creditor, debitor, dictator, ductor, gestor,
habitator, imperator, occisor, petitor, sciscitator, stator

Action nouns: the action that goes with the verb, the act of doing the verb
Many of these are third-declension feminines in -tio. Others are fourthdeclension masculines in -tus.
actio, amatio, appellatio, auditio, captio, debitio, factio, gestio, habitatio, itio
(from eo), missio, motio, occisio, petitio, positio, probatio, translatio, visio,
vocatio
aditus, adventus, auditus, ductus, gestus, habitus, impetus, missus, motus, petitus,
positus, victus, vocatus

Nouns derived from adjectives:


There are several common suffixes that make abstract nouns from adjectives
(including participles).
amicitia, potentia, scientia
aequalitas, dignitas, facilitas, gravitas, libertas, novitas, potestas, qualitas,
veritas
certitudo, longitudo, magnitudo, multitudo, similitudo