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A

Summer Training Report on


HERMETIC CENTRIFUGAL CHILLER
For Practical Training taken at
SUDHIR POWER PROJECTS LIMITED
For the partial fulfillment of the award of degree of
Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering
SESSION 2014-15
Submitted to:

Submitted by:

Mr. ANURAG MANDIYA

Mr. KULDEEP

Asstt. Prof.

Roll no.: 12ME49

Department of Mechanical Engineering


RPS College of Engineering. & Technology, Balana, Mohindergarh
1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The successful completion of any training depends upon the co-operation, coordination and combined efforts of several resources of knowledge, inspiration and energy.
I am thankful to all the employees of SUDHIR POWER PROJECTS LIMITED
who had helped me in gathering various information that helped me in completion of my
Industrial Training Report.

I am very grateful to Mr. Sheel Kumar Bhutani, HEAD OF DEPT. (H.R.), for
allowing me to be a part of such an esteem organization of him. I am grateful for patience and
interest everybody in the organization have shown for me.
The author also wishes very thank to Mr. Vinod Singh (AGM), Mr. Dev (Deputy.
Manager), Ashish (Sec. Engineer) and experienced engineers for providing constant
encouragement, support and valuable suggestion during the Training.

KULDEEP

PREFACE

Before joining my training, I had no idea what it is going to be and what exactly is its
need in the academic curriculum. By the time I finished my training I understood how
important it was for me to be a complete engineer.
An engineering student would have absolutely no idea of the functioning of an industry. He
would probably be unaware about the various departments and their functioning. He would
be completely ignorant of the working and environment. He generally would not know about
the department in an enterprise. Thus industrial training prepares you to walk out of your
college and join the industry. You need to have basic professional knowledge along with the
theoretical background and spending a month among hardcore professional can teach you a
lot.
The following report does not discuss the details of these experiences and discuss mostly about the
training and how it was completed. It is much more fulfilling experience than any report will be able
to express. I feel pride to get an opportunity to have my practical training at

SUDHIR POWER PROJECTS LIMITED Manesar


I thank everyone who has contributed to make this experience truly complete and stimulating.

KULDEEP

COMPANY PROFILE
Introduction to SUDHIR POWER PROJECTS LIMITED:Sudhir is a name synonymous with Power. It stands tall in the Indian Power Generation
Sector, providing complete turnkey Electrical solutions from
GENERATION, DISTRIBUTION to ELECTRIFICATION.
An Industry leader in the field of setting up Diesel base Captive Power Plants upto 20MW
having its corporate office in Gurgaon & revenue of over INR 1500 Crs, it has leveraged its
relationship with Cummins Ltd. to capture a majority market share.
The Company has a wide blue-chip customer base and operates through multiple
manufacturing facilities across India and focuses on Diesel & Gas Generators,
HT & LT Switchboards, Transformers and Turnkey EPC contracts.
The product line includes the widest range of Diesel Gensets 7.5-3000 KVA with a fuel
option of Diesel or Gas, Transformers, Packaged Substations, complete range of HT 11KV &
33KV Panels, LT Switchboards, Turnkey EPC contracts covering electrical and mechanical
services
Indeed, we have achieved and leapfrogged towards unprecedented growth. But to us this is
just another step in our ongoing journey to greater goals and broader horizons.
Plants details:Head office:
Ahmadabad, Gujarat
Manesar Plant:

. Plot No. 147, sector-5, IMT, Manesar, Gurgaon, Haryana.


. Plot No. 26-c, sector-3, IMT, Manesar, Gurgaon, Haryana.
. Plot No. 54 &160, sector-3, IMT, Manesar, Gurgaon, Haryana.
. Plot No. 22 &23, sector-3, IMT, Manesar, Gurgaon, Haryana.
4

PRODUCT:
DIESEL GENERATOR (DG), PANEL
Clients:
DLF

Mahindra

Hospitals: AIIMS

Ambience mall Hotel Taj

Hotel Radisson

RML SAFDARGANG

Strategic Partners:

CONTENTS

Sr. No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Topic
Introduction
Definition
Components of Hermetic Centrifugal Chiller
Types of Chiller
Key Components of Compression Chillers
Other main Component of Chiller Plant
Application
Advantages
Conclusion

Page No.
7
8
9
10
15
22
28
28
29

1. INTRODUCTION:
Chillers are a key component of air conditioning systems for large buildings. They produce
cold water to remove heat from the air in the building. They also provide cooling for
process loads such as file-server rooms and large medical imaging equipment. As with
other types of air conditioning systems, most chillers extract heat from water by
mechanically compressing a refrigerant.
Chillers are complex machines that are expensive to purchase and operate. A preventive
and predictive maintenance program is the best protection for this valuable asset.
Chillers commonly use more energy than any other piece of equipment in large buildings.
Maintaining them well and operating them smartly can yield significant energy savings.

2. Definition:
A water chiller is a mechanical device used to facilitate exchange from water to
a refrigerant in a closed loop system. The refrigerant is then pumped to a location where the
waste heat is transferred to the atmosphere.
In hydroponics, pumps, lights and ambient heat can warm the reservoir water temperatures,
leading to plant root and health problems. For ideal plant health, a chiller can be used to
lower the water temperature below ambient level; 68F (20C) is a good temperature for most
plants. This results in healthy root production and efficient absorption of nutrients.
In air conditioning, chilled water is often used to cool a building's air and equipment,
especially in situations where many individual rooms must be controlled separately, such as
a hotel. A chiller lowers water temperature to between 40 and 45F before the water is
pumped to the location to be cooled.
A chiller plant normally consists of evaporator pumps, chillers, condenser pumps, and
cooling towers. The evaporator pumps pump chilled water out to the building through a water
pipe loop to air handler units that use valves to vary the amount of chilled water to that unit's
water coil to control the temperature of the air coming out of the unit. Thus added heat back
into the water that goes back to the plant. The return water from the building goes to the
evaporator side of the chillers & they cool it back down, transferring the heat to the
condenser side of the chillers, which is a separate water loop. The condenser pumps pump the
condenser water out to the cooling towers, which are outside. The water is pumped to the top
of the tower & then rains down inside it. There are big fans on the top of the tower that pulls
air through the tower, thus across the raining water & blows it outside. This water pools up at
the bottom of the tower & is sucked back into the building to run through the condenser side
of the chillers again, thru removing the heat from the building.

3. Components of Hermetic Centrifugal Chiller

4. Types of Chillers
Mechanical Compression
During the compression cycle, the refrigerant passes through four major components within
the chiller: the evaporator, the compressor, the condenser, and a flow-metering device such
as an expansion valve. The evaporator is the low-temperature (cooling) side of the system
and the condenser is the high-temperature (heat-rejection) side of the system.

THE REFRIGERATION CYCLE

Block diagram of cooling cycle:

10

Mechanical Compressor Chillers


Mechanical compression chillers are classified by compressor type: reciprocating,
rotary screw, centrifugal and frictionless centrifugal.

Reciprocating:
Similar to a car engine with multiple pistons, a crankshaft is turned by an electric motor, the
pistons compress the gas, heating it in the process. The hot gas is discharged to the condenser
instead of being exhausted out a tailpipe. The pistons have intake and exhaust valves that can
be opened on demand to allow the piston to idle, which reduces the chiller capacity as the
demand for chilled water is reduced. This unloading allows a single compressor to provide a
range of capacities to better match the system load. This is more efficient than using a hot-gas
bypass to provide the same capacity variation with all pistons working. Some units use both
methods, unloading pistons to a minimum number, then using hot-gas bypass to further
reduce capacity stably. Capacities range from 20 to 125 tons.

11

Rotary Screw:
The screw or

helical

compressor

has two mating

helically

grooved rotors in

stationary

housing. As the

helical rotors

rotate, the gas is

compressed

by direct volume

reduction

between the two

rotors.

Capacity

controlled by

valve

or

variable-speed

drive

(VSD)

Capacities

sliding

is
inlet

on the motor.
range from 20 to

450 tons.

Centrifugal:
The centrifugal compressor operates much like a centrifugal water pump, with an impeller
compressing the refrigerant. Centrifugal chillers provide high cooling capacity with a
compact design. They can be equipped with both inlet vanes and variable-speed drives to
regulate control chilled water capacity control. Capacities are 150 tons and up.

12

Frictionless Centrifugal:
This highly energy-efficient design employs magnetic bearing technology. The compressor
requires no lubricant and has a variable-speed DC motor with direct-drive for the centrifugal
compressor. Capacities range from 60 to 300 tons.

Absorption Chillers:
Absorption chillers use a heat source such as natural gas or district steam to create a
refrigeration cycle that does not use mechanical compression. Because there are few
absorption machines in the Northwest U.S., this document covers only mechanicalcompression chillers. You can learn more about absorption chillers at the Energy Solutions
Center.

13

Dual Compressor Chillers


As inlet guide vanes are used to modulate the capacity of a compressor, the compressor
efficiency drops off dramatically. Where there is tower water relief (decreasing tower water
temperature), variable speed drives can be used to improve part load efficiency. By utilizing
two compressors on a common refrigeration circuit, it is possible to greatly improve the part
load efficiency of a centrifugal chiller. This is a major benefit of a dual compressor chiller.
Dual compressor chillers have two compressors operating in parallel between a common
evaporator and condenser. For example, a 1000 ton dual will have two nominal 500 ton
compressors mounted. As the chiller unloads from 100% load, one compressor shuts off at
approximately 600 tons (60% of full load). Only one compressor is required to circulate
enough refrigerant to meet the load. That compressor is operating with its inlet guide vanes
wide open and at maximum compressor efficiency. Additionally, the compressor is operating
with a condenser and evaporator designed for twice the capacity. In effect, the two heat
exchangers have twice the required surface area. This lowers the lift and improves the
compressor performance. The need for operating only one compressor at mid-range chiller
loads accounts for the superior performance of these chillers.
Dual compressor chillers have a unique performance profile. Single compressor chillers
are most efficient at or near 100% capacity. Dual compressor chillers are most efficient at
50% to 60% capacity. This matches the typical building load profile very well, offering
optimum efficiency.

14

5. Key Components of Mechanical Compression Chillers


Evaporator
Chillers produce chilled water in the evaporator where cold refrigerant flows over the
evaporator tube bundle. The refrigerant evaporates (changes into vapor) as the heat is
transferred from the water to the refrigerant. The chilled water is then pumped, via the
chilled-water distribution system to the buildings air-handling units.
The chilled water passes through coils in the air-handler to remove heat from the air used
to condition spaces throughout the building. The warm water (warmed by the heat
transferred from the building ventilation air) returns to the evaporator and the cycle starts
over.

Compressor
Vaporized refrigerant leaves the evaporator and travels to the compressor where it is
mechanically compressed, and changed into a high-pressure, high-temperature vapor. Upon
leaving the compressor, the refrigerant enters the condenser side of the chiller.

Condenser
Inside the water-cooled condenser, hot refrigerant flows around the tubes containing the
condenser-loop water. The heat transfers to the water, causing the refrigerant to condense
into liquid form. The condenser water is pumped from the condenser bundle to the cooling
tower where heat is transferred from the water to the atmosphere. The liquid refrigerant then
travels to the expansion valve.

15

Expansion valve
The refrigerant flows into the evaporator through the expansion valve or metering device.
This valve controls the rate of cooling. Once through the valve, the refrigerant expands to
a lower pressure and a much lower temperature. It flows around the evaporator tubes,
absorbing the heat of the chilled water thats been returned from the air handlers,
completing the refrigeration cycle.

Controls
Newer chillers are controlled by sophisticated, on-board microprocessors. Chiller control
systems include safety and operating controls. If the equipment malfunctions, the safety
control shuts the chiller down to prevent serious damage to the machine. Operating controls
allow adjustments to some chiller operating parameters. To better monitor chiller
performance, the chiller control system should communicate with the facilitys direct digital
control (DDC).

16

Safety Issues
Chillers are typically located in a mechanical equipment rooms. Each type of refrigerant
used in a chiller compressor has specific safety requirements for leak detection and
emergency ventilation. Consult your local mechanical code or the International Mechanical
Code for details.
The EPA has enacted regulations regarding the use and handling of refrigerants to comply
with the Clean Air Act of 1990. All personnel working with refrigerants covered by this act
must be appropriately licensed.

Best Practices for Efficient Operation


The following best practices can improve chiller performance and reduce operating costs:
Operate multiple chillers for peak efficiency:
Plants with two or more chillers can save energy by matching the building loads to the most
efficient combination of one or more chillers. In general, the most efficient chiller should be
first one used.
Raise chilled-water temperature:
An increase in the temperature of the chilled water supplied to the buildings air handlers
will improve its efficiency. Establish a chilled-water reset schedule. A reset schedule can
typically adjust the chilled-water temperature as the outside-air temperature changes. On a
centrifugal chiller, increasing the temperature of chilled water supply by 23F will reduce
chiller energy use 35%.
Reduce condenser water temperature:
Reducing the temperature of the water returning from the cooling tower to the chiller
condenser by 23F will reduce chiller energy use 23%. The temperature
set point for the water leaving the cooling tower should be as low as the chiller manufacturer
will allow for water entering the condenser. The actual leaving tower water temperature may
be limited by the ambient wet bulb temperature.

17

Purge air from refrigerant:


Air trapped in the refrigerant loop increases pressure at the compressor discharge. This
increases the work required from the compressor. Newer chillers have automatic air purgers
that have run-time meters. Daily or weekly tracking of run time will show if a leak has
developed that permits air to enter the system.
Optimize free cooling:
If your system has a chiller bypass and heat exchanger, known as a water-side economizer, it
should be used to serve process loads during the winter season. The water-side economizer
produces chilled water without running the chiller. Condenser water circulates through the
cooling tower to reject heat, and then goes to a heat exchanger (bypassing the chiller) where
the water is cooled sufficiently to meet the cooling loads.
Verify Performance of hot-gas bypass and unloader:
These are most commonly found on reciprocating compressors to control
capacity. Make sure they operate properly.
Maintain refrigerant level:
To maintain a chiller's efficiency, check the refrigerant sight-glass and the superheat and sub
cooling temperature readings, and compare them to the manufacturers requirements. Both
low-level and high-level refrigerant conditions can be detected this way. Either condition
reduces a chillers capacity and efficiency.
Maintain a daily log:
Chiller O&M best practices begin with maintaining a daily log of temperatures, fluid levels,
pressures, flow rates, and motor amperage. Taken together, these readings serve as a
valuable baseline reference for operating the system and troubleshooting problems. Many
newer chillers automatically save logs of these measurements in their on-board control
system, which may be able to communicate directly with the DDC system. Below is an
example of a daily log that can be adapted for use with your chiller.

18

Technical details of Hermetic Centrifugal Chiller


SL

PARAMETER NAME

DESIGN

AS PER

VALUE

ACTUAL

AS PER

SITE

ARI

N
O
WATER COOLED CHILLING MACHINE

01

MAKE

CARRIER

CARRIER

02

MODEL

19 XR

19 XR

03

NOMINAL CAPACITY TR

372 TR

372 TR

04

NO

ONE

ONE

05

MACHINE
LEAVING

06

OPERATING
TEMP

07

OF

COMPRESSOR

/ENTERING

PER
WATER

5.55/13.3

DEG

5.55/13.3 DEG

101.13
DEG F
C

101.94 DEG F

IN
DEG F
COMPRESSOR
SUCTION TEMP IN

41.83 DEG F

41.75 DEG F

08

DEG F
CAPACITY

350 TR

350 TR

09

OPERATING
CONDITION
OVERALL DIMENSION
IN MM

4693*1670*205

4693*1670*2051

10

REFRIGERANT CHARGED IN KG

1 KG
480

480 KG

11

NOISE

82 DBA

82 DB A

12

FROM
THE UNITE IN DB
COMPRESSOR
TYPE

CENTRIFUGAL

CENTRIFUGAL

13

MODEL

SEMI HERMETIC

SEMI HERMETIC

14

MAKE

CARRIER

CARRIER

15

REFRIGERANT

134 A

134 A

16

SPEED IN RPM

3000 MOTOR

3000 MOTOR

17

KW AT OPERATING CONDITION

238 KW

243 KW

18

MOTOR LOSSES

LESS THAN

19

KW / TR

0.68

20

CAPACITY CONTROL

VFD

21

NO OF STEPS

VANES LESS
STAPES

STAPES LESS

22

100 %

0.68 IKW/KW

0.693 IKW/KW

23

75%

0.482

0.491

CONDENSING

LEVEL

AT

AT

TEM

DESIGN

METER

5%

LESS THAN

5%

0.693
+

GUIDE

VFD

+ GUIDE VANES

19

24

50%

0.338

0.342

25

25%

0.455

0.459

26

100 %

0.68

0.693

27

75%

0.681

0.695

28

50%

0.849

0.863

29

25%

1.25

1.226

MOTOR

30

MAKE

AO SMITH

AO SMITH

31

TYPE

TERC

TERC

32

FRAME

KEH SERIES

KEH SERIES

33

MOTOR KW/RPM

2960

2960

34

RATED AMP

372 AMP

378 AMP

35

EFFICIENCY

MORE

36

STARTING CURRENT

95%AMP
372

378 AMP

(I)

THAN

MORE THAN

95%

STARTER

37

STATOR TYPE

VFD

VFD

38

MAKE

DANFOSS

DANFOSS

39

SINGLE PHASING PROTECTION

PROVIDED

PROVIDED

40

OVER LOAD PROTECTION

PROVIDED

PROVIDED

41

TYPE OF DRIVER

GEAR DRIVEN

GEAR DRIVEN

42

CONDENSER

43

MAKE

CARRIER

CARRIER

44

WATER INLET TEMP IN DEG C

32.2 DEG C

32.2 DEG C

45

WATER OUT LET IN DEG C

37.5 DEG C

37.5 DEG C

46

FOULING FACTOR

0.00025 FPS

0.0005 FPS

47

EVAPORATOR

48

TYPE

FLOODED

FLOODED

49

SHELL

908 MM

908 MM

50

NO OF TUBES

282

282

51

TUBE

19 MM

19 MM

52

MATERIAL OF TUBE

COPPER

COPPER

53

REFRIGERANT IN KG

480

480

OD IN MM

OD IN MM

20

54

FLOW RATE IN

55

US GPM

599.3

599.3

LEAVING WATER TEMP IN DEG C

5.55

5.55

56

ENTERING WATER TEMP IN DEG C

13.33

13.33

57

TEMP DIFFERENCE

7.75

7.75

58

NO OF PASSES

TWO

TWO

59

TUBE VELOCITY

3.99 FT/S

3.99 FT/S

60

PRESSURE

11 FEET

11 FEET

61

C
OLUM FACTOR
FOULING

0.0001 FPS

0.00025 FPS

DROP

IN DEG C

IN

WATER

21

6. OTHER MAIN COMPONENTS OF CHILLER PLANT


1. COOLING TOWER
Definition:
A cooling tower is a heat rejection device, which extracts waste heat to the atmosphere
though the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. The type of heat rejection in a
cooling tower is termed "evaporative" in that it allows a small portion of the water being
cooled to evaporate into a moving air stream to provide significant cooling to the rest of that
water stream. The heat from the water stream transferred to the air stream raises the air's
temperature and its relative humidity to 100%, and this air is discharged to the atmosphere.
Evaporative heat rejection devices such as cooling towers are commonly used to provide
significantly lower water temperatures than achievable with "air cooled" or "dry" heat
rejection devices, like the radiator in a car, thereby achieving more cost-effective and energy
efficient operation of systems in need of cooling. Think of the times you've seen something
hot be rapidly cooled by putting water on it, which evaporates, cooling rapidly, such as an
overheated car radiator. The cooling potential of a wet surface is much better than a dry one.
Common applications for cooling towers are providing cooled water for air-conditioning,
manufacturing and electric power generation. The smallest cooling towers are designed to
handle water streams of only a few gallons of water per minute supplied in small pipes like
those might see in a residence, while the largest cool hundreds of thousands of gallons per
minute supplied in pipes as much as 15 feet (about 5 meters) in diameter on a large power
plant.

22

23

COOLING TOWER SPECIFICATIONS AND TECHNICAL DETAILS

24

SL .

PARAMETER NAME

ACTUAL

NO

COOLING TOWER
01

MAKE

ADVANCE

02

TYPE

INDUCED DRAFT COUNTER

03

MODEL

FLOW
TM
117(TWIN CELL)

04

SL . NO

2012-05-34F6

05

DISTRIBUTION

HEADER AND BRANCH ARMS

06

QTY

4 NO

07

NO OF CELLS

PERFORMANCE

08

WATER FLOW

1050 USGPM

09

WATER FLOW/CELL

525 USGPM

10

INLET /OUTLET TEMP

100/90 F

11

DESIGN WBT

83F

12

TOTAL HEAT REJECTION CAPACITY

1323000 KCAL/HR.

FAN DATA

13
14
15
16

MAKE

17
18

AIR FLOW PER FAN

TYPE
DIMETER
SPEED IN RPM

TYPE OF DRIVE

ADVANCE
AXIAL FLOW ADJUSTABLE
1600 MM
710
58000 CFM
DIRECT DRIVE

MOTOR
19
20
21

MAKE
TYPE

TE EXTENDED SHAFT WP

22

SL . NO

1567G5679BV

23

MOTOR HP

2*5 HP (EFF 1)

24

SPEED IN RPM

710

25

VOLTAGE

415 V

26

CURRENT

7.5 AMP

27

FREQUENCY

50 HZ

28

POWER FACTOR

.99

29

NO . OF PHASE

3 PHASE

30

STARTING TORQUE (RATED )

31

SERVICE FACTOR

32

WINDING MATERIAL

COPPER

33

MOTOR EFFICIENCY

90.60%

34

CLASS OF INSULATION

35

PROTECTION

IP55

HINDUSTAN MOTOR MFG CO

MODEL / FRAME SIZE

25

26

2. CHILLED WATER PUMP


The pump that moves chilled water back from the chilled loop into the rest of the
HVAC system is called the chilled water pump.

27

3. CONDENSER WATER PUMP


The pump that moves condensate back from the condensate loop into the rest of the
HVAC system is called the condenser water pump.

28

7. APPLICATIONS:
In chemical factories
In ice storage plants
In data centers
In building automation solution
In hospitals
In big companies, factories

8. ADVANTAGES:
Reduce Green House gas emission
Cut Energy cost
Easy to monitoring
Easy to controlling
Easy to install
High cooling rate
Low maintenance

29

9. Conclusion:
We conclude from this training that the various processes as applied
are dependent on various parameters. A good co-ordination is the key to get
best efficiency and high productivity.
In this training I learn how to coordinate with seniors. Also I learn
how to install a Hermetic Centrifugal Chiller, how to operate it & which
problems can be raised during operating chiller & how to solve them.
In the technical aspect, we conclude that nothing can be
understood thoroughly without practical knowledge and practice. We
observed almost each process related to COOLING CYCLE that we had
just studied in books. It was really a fruitful training for us to enhance our
knowledge and confidence level.

30