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Direct Method

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It was a reaction to Grammar Translation and the needs of the period. That
is, the needs of commerce and tourism.
No need for teachers to know L1 to teach the target language.
First scholars to use it were (French scholar) L. Sauveur and (German
Scholar) Franke. Maximilian Berlitz used it in English language teaching.

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Based on observation of children learning a first language. The aim was to


make language learning more natural and similar to first language
learning.
Necessity is the source of creativity: Not all teachers know the learners
mother tongue. So, a method which involved only the target language was
necessary.
The theory is more psychological than linguistic. F. Franke wrote about
direct association between forms and meaning in the target language.

.
-

L1 does not exist.


The role of the teacher is to demonstrate, act, correct, speak, encourage
students to speak and help students induce grammar.
Unlike Grammar Translation the teacher and learner are partners in the
process.
o The learner is more active.

.
-

The teacher often uses acting, pantomime, pictures to demonstrate


meaning.
The syllabus is based on situations or topics.
o Situations: eg. at the bank, in the restaurant, shopping
o Topics geography, money, theweather)
Grammar is taught inductively ;that is,they figure out the rule from
examples.
Students practice vocabulary by using new words in complete sentences.

Direct Method Answer Key


What was behind it? Who is behind it?
-

It was a reaction to Grammar Translation and the needs of the period (i.e.
the needs of commerce and tourism.)
No need for teachers to know L1 to teach the target language.
First scholars to use it were (French scholar) L. Sauveur and (German
Scholar) Franke. Maximilian Berlitz used it in English language teaching.

Whats the theory? / Why do they think it will be effective?


-

Based on observation of children learning a first language. The aim was to


make language learning more natural and similar to first language
learning.
Necessity is the source of creativity: Not all teachers know the learners
mother tongue. So, a method which involved only the target language was
necessary.
The theory is more psychological than linguistic. F. Franke wrote about
direct association between forms and meaning in the target language.

What are the roles of the teacher, the learner and L1?
-

L1 does not exist.


The role of the teacher is to demonstrate, act, correct, speak, encourage
students to speak and help students induce grammar.
Unlike Grammar Translation the teacher and learner are partners in the
process.
o The learner is more active.

Characteristic materials, classroom techniques and procedures


-

The teacher often uses acting, pantomime, pictures to demonstrate


meaning.
The syllabus is based on situations or topics.
o Situations: eg. at the bank, in the restaurant, shopping
o Topics geography, money, the weather)
Grammar is taught inductively; that is, they figure out the rule from
examples.
Students practice vocabulary by using new words in complete sentences.

Larsen-Freeman, D., 2000. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. 2nd


ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Richards, J. C. & Rodgers, T. S., 2001. Approaches and Methods in Language
Teaching. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Thornbury, S., 2006. About Language. 11th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.

Handout 2

1. Do you agree that the goal of target language instruction should be to teach
students how to communicate in the target language?
2.
Does it make sense to you that the students' native language should not be
used to give meaning to the target language ?
3.
Do you agree that the culture that is taught should be about people's daily
lives in addition to the fine arts?
4.

Should students be encouraged to self-correct?

5.
Are there any other principles of the Direct Method which you believe in?
Which ones?
7.
Is dictation a worthwhile activity? Have you used question -and -answer
exercises and conversation practice as described here before? If not, should you?
8.

Is paragraph writing a useful thing to ask students to do?

9.

Should grammar he presented inductively?

10. Are there all other techniques of the Direct Method which you would consider
adopting? Which ones?
Larsen-Freeman, D. 1986 Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching OUP.
P:32.

..

1. Do you agree that the goal of target language instruction should be to teach
students how to communicate in the target language?
2.
Does it make sense to you that the students' native language should not be
used to give meaning to the target language ?
3.
Do you agree that the culture that is taught should be about people's daily
lives in addition to the fine arts?
4.

Should students be encouraged to self-correct?

5.
Are there any other principles of the Direct Method which you believe in?
Which ones?
7.
Is dictation a worthwhile activity? Have you used question -and -answer
exercises and conversation practice as described here before? If not, should you?
8.

Is paragraph writing a useful thing to ask students to do?

9.

Should grammar he presented inductively?

10. Are there all other techniques of the Direct Method which you would consider
adopting? Which ones?
Larsen-Freeman, D. 1986 Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching OUP.
P:32.