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Background to Study
The changing face of the Facilities Management profession within the last two decades
from the traditional function of ensuring the smooth running of plants and buildings towards
playing an increasingly active role in the efficiency and productivity of the business has
resulted in making technology a facilities managers best friend, with Computer-Aided
Facilities Management (CAFM) systems as the lynchpin. Not only are Facilities
Management professionals harnessing the power of CAFM to give them greater control of
disparate resources, directors and senior management staff are recognizing the strategic
importance of CAFM to an entire organization (Richardson, 2011).
Corporate Organizations are now aware that Real estate represents the second largest
expense on their balance sheets and that professional facilities management adds significant
value to their core business thereby enhancing cost efficiency, staff productivity,
transparency and business flexibility. According to Hajdukova & Figuli (2012), facilities
management is a practical way of professional administration and management of business
support processes that is capable of saving overhead costs by up to 30%.
Optimizing facilities management through the use of CAFM can save an organization a
considerable percentage of its maintenance contract charges and result in the reduction of
equipment downtimes thus optimizing service levels, optimizing operational efficiency
while also saving costs. According to Williams (2003), facilities management expenditure
takes up to 15% of an organisations yearly budget.

In many organizations, a lot of the Facility Managers work related data and information are
available however in most cases, they are in different spread sheets, in formats arising from
different IT systems and often, the data remains in the minds of the different employees.
The quality and accuracy of these data is therefore doubtful and because of the fragmented
sources, it is impossible to generate any type of useful information. Hence, the compilation
of these data in a structured single-source-of-truth, in most cases a database such as
CAFM, is an important step towards answering the what question e.g.; what real estate to
manage, what assets to maintain, what planned preventive maintenance activity is to be
carried out etc.

Organisations are faced with the stiff competition in the market and therefore forced to
develop efficient structures in facilities management. Madritsch and May (2009) according
to a survey, stated that although CAFM has been in use for more than 15 years, it is still a
relatively new and challenging technological approach and thus by far not all projects can
be considered a success.

Computer-aided facilities management (CAFM) is an information system integrating multidisciplinary activities within the built environment and the management of their impact
upon people and the workplace (Seebauer and Viniczay, 2009). CAFM maintains a
computer database of information about an organizations properties and equipment to plan,
provide and manage the most efficient, humane and productive work environment possible.
CAFM is an important link in the integration of telecommunication, information
management systems, maintenance, security and general administrative services (Seebauer
and Viniczay, 2009).

CAFM is the support of facilities management activities with information technology, with
the prime objective of capturing and assimilating information in a single source relating to
all aspects of managing an organizations facilities and thereafter providing a centralized
and strategic management of the facilities through improved information and process. The
impact of Information and communications technology in the business environment coupled
with the evolution of smart buildings and sophisticated working environments has pushed
the technology envelope forcefully in the facilities management direction. Consequently, it
has become imperative that CAFM be employed to ensure prompt and effective delivery of
facilities management services.

The usage of CAFM in facilities management practice supports operational and strategic
facilities management including all activities associated with administrative, technical and
infrastructural FM activities. However, despite an increase in the number of studies related
to the deployment and implementation of CAFM in developed countries, its application is
still relatively new in the developing nations in West Africa including Nigeria.
The potentials of CAFM systems in their application in facilities management cannot be
underestimated. The main advantage with such a system is the transparency in data
management and the unique data source for all users in a company. CAFM with its promise
of flexible, intuitive, enabling and supporting technology has become the facilities
managers most important ally in the innovation, implementation, delivery and management
of a new generation of business-critical services in the advanced countries.


Statement of Research Problem

In USA, CAFM has been implemented for more than 20 years across various industries
including education, finance, insurance, pharmaceutical, government, healthcare, utilities,
facilities management, manufacturing, aerospace and defence (Kamaruzzaman et al., 2009).

Consequently, it is paramount to ascertain the level of recognition and application of CAFM

in providing support for better operational as well as the strategic processes of facilities
planning and management in Nigeria.
Since the 1990s, CAFM has provided efficient information technology (IT) tools for
mapping, evaluation and control of facility management structures and processes. However,
despite the multitude of vendors and users in different branches, there is still a lack of
transparent and systematic case studies regarding successful CAFM implementations and
uncertainty about the market situation (Madritsch and May, 2009). This is particularly so in
Nigeria where empirical investigations in the field of Facilities management are still
relatively few.
Many Organizations still use paper-based systems to manage their facilities; however,
problems can arise when a FM department experiences an increase in the services under
management. The resulting work requests, contracts, assets and suppliers involved, the
volume and diversity of the activity can make paper-based systems difficult to manage.
Additionally, paper-based systems do not allow for the fast/efficient production of
performance statistics, monthly reports, job/event costs and so on, without significant
manual effort and the manual manipulation of event data. By contrast, CAFM systems have
well-defined work-flows, triggers for event reminders, collation of event data/costs and
histories and regular reporting capabilities. Manual systems have their place, but this is
probably in the single location, low-event volume arena.
Teicholz (1995) in a study asserted that in the USA, CAFM software products were
beginning to combine building deficiency data collected during physical audits with other
data such as cost spreadsheets and financial investment models. These CAFM products
which could incorporate multimedia information have thus proved to be helpful in fixing

scheduled maintenance backlogs and served as powerful forecasting and strategic

management tools.
Owing to the incessant increase and proposed plans by the Lagos State government to
commence the construction of high rise buildings in some parts of Lagos State e.g. Eko
Atlantic city, Victoria Island etc., the deployment and implementation of CAFM systems in
the facilities management of such buildings is of paramount importance in ensuring efficient
service delivery. Redlein and Zobl (2012) carried out a survey amongst 70 companies that
are in Austrias listed Top 500 companies and stated that companies with CAFM software
tend toward a higher number of areas of productivity than companies without CAFM
software. There is a lack of information on which to base similar evaluations of CAFM
usage in Nigeria. Hence, it is in view of this that this study sets out to seek answers to the
following research questions:-


Research Questions
1. To what extent are FM practitioners in Lagos aware of CAFM?
2. What is the rate of CAFM take up amongst Facilities Management practitioners in
3. What are the obstacles to the deployment and Implementation of CAFM?
4. What are the benefits of CAFM application to Organizational effectiveness?


Aim of Study
The aim of this study is to ascertain and evaluate the extent of the usage of CAFM systems
by Facilities Management practitioners in Lagos State, Nigeria.


Objectives of Study
To achieve the aim stated above, the following objectives have been set out:

To determine the level of awareness of CAFM amongst FM practitioners in Lagos.



To determine the rate of Usage/Implementation of CAFM by Facilities Management

practitioners in Lagos.


To determine the obstacles faced with the deployment and implementation of CAFM
by FM companies in Lagos.



To identify the benefits of CAFM application to Organizational effectiveness.

Scope of Work
This research work concentrates on the usage of CAFM by Facilities Management
practitioners in Lagos State for the delivery of FM services. It is geared towards
ascertaining the extent to which FM professionals in Lagos State render their services with
the usage of CAFM. It should have been ideal to cover other seemingly highly Commercial
states like Rivers, Delta and the Federal Capital Territory; however, this study is restricted
to Lagos State to facilitate in depth enquiry within the context of the peculiar contextual
challenges of a primate city where Facilities management practice is most widespread. In
the same vein, the restriction of the study to Lagos State permitted the researcher to form
definite conclusions which could create a pedestal for research that could be extended to
other states in the country in the future.
Furthermore, the research is focused on FM companies whose offices are mainly domiciled
in the Victoria Island and Ikoyi areas of Lagos State, which mainly carry out total Facilities
management (i.e. using a holistic approach to facilities management), as against those
rendering specialized FM services like cleaning, security, catering, etc.
This allows for a more concentrated study and prevents generalized conclusions. The target
responses were from Facility Managers, Maintenance Managers, Senior Executives of
Facilities Management companies and professionals with relevant roles in the Facility
management profession or industry.


Significance of the Study

The Facilities Management profession is a relatively new profession in Nigeria, with very
few, if any research papers on the subject of the deployment of CAFM systems by FM
companies. Most of the studies in Nigeria have been devoted to addressing issues such as
definitions and scope of facilities management practice [Odiete (1998), Udo (1998),
Koleosho et al (2012), Adejumo, Adewunmi & Omirin (2009); The usage of Facilities
management tools such as benchmarking in facilities management [Adewunmi et al (2009),
Adebanjo et al (2010)] and the impact of FM on related professions like Property
Management, Estate Management and other building support services from which FM
evolved [Fatokun (1998), Omirin (2000) and Adewunmi (2006)] amongst others.

However, in developed countries, the profession has evolved rapidly within the last two
decades owing to the impact of information technology and the deployment of CAFM
systems. Examples of some of the studies in the developed countries about the topic of
CAFM include those carried out by Abel & Lennerts (2005) and Madritsch & May (2009)
in Germany, Elmualim & Pelumi-Johnson (2009) in the United Kingdom, May (2006) and
May et al (2007) in Austria and Switzerland and Bainbridge & Finch (2009) in Scotland etc.

The deployment of information technology in FM through the use of Computer-aided

facilities management systems has made the practice of facilities management much more
efficient by providing the possibility of combining, storing and managing different
information of several buildings and facilities in one database and subsequently reducing
redundancy to a minimum. The increasing need for cost efficiency, business flexibility and
transparency is challenging todays Facilities Managers.

Abel and Lennerts (2005) stated that the main purpose of a CAFM system is to support
operational and strategic facility management, which offers a means of reducing costs and
making profits. The degree of the implementation of CAFM has a major impact on the
performance of the facilities and assets being managed. CAFM systems are rapidly being
deployed in multinational companies to enable Facility Managers manage and track the
different services rendered thereby enhancing faster and efficient decision making.
In the light of the foregoing, the need for reliable information is obvious, especially at
operational, tactical and strategic levels. Operational data and information about buildings,
spaces and usage is needed to analyze actual occupancy, identify future vacancies and to
benchmark the performance of the buildings. Knowing ones Heating, Ventilation and Airconditioning (HVAC) installations and the maintenance requirements allows the FM to
forecast maintenance costs and balance them with available long term maintenance budgets.
In the same vein, registering supplier contracts and Service level agreements (SLAs) assists
in tracking quality, costs and timelines to ultimately realize the best value for money.

The incorporation of intelligence by Information technology has made facilities

management in other countries much more innovative than the conventional FM. In recent
times, technology has proved to be one of the tools that an organisation can use to harness
her critical operational and performance data. Hence, the influence of IT on the Facilities
management profession in the coming years will be highly significant and as such FMs
must stay on top of the implications of the ever changing information and communication
technology market.
Successfully implemented FM software can provide significant financial savings as well as
time savings through the automation of a couple of services and efficiency improvements
and measurable customer service benefits.

It is important to have both a carefully


structured product selection as well as implementation process so that the scope and goals
of the project are clear both to staff internally and to the supplier in order to secure the
initial and future success of the solutions.

This research work seeks to enlighten facilities management practitioners and other relevant
professionals associated with the industry about their need to adopt Computer-aided
facilities management. It also seeks to provide insights into the current CAFM tools being
deployed for the delivery of FM services in Lagos state.
Furthermore, the study aims to provide a tool for filling in the basic theoretical gaps, and at
the same time, equipping facility managers with the necessary knowledge to understand and
better implement CAFM in their organizations that will contribute to overall organizational
effectiveness and competitiveness. It will also provide research results from which newly
established FM companies can pick to guide them towards the deployment of CAFM
systems. The findings of the study are relevant for support service providers, FM companies
Governmental agencies and Multinational organizations in the Facilities management and
Real estate sectors.


Limitations of the Study

It is recognized that, in some ways, any research work would have limitations. For this
research, there was no published work relating to the application of Computer-aided
facilities management in Nigeria, and what was available mainly focused on the
nature and scope of FM practice with other traditional building support
professions from which FM evolved.
Also, there w e re various barriers to the collection and exchange of information,
compounded by the fears about commercial confidentiality. It is anticipated that the
findings could at least form the framework for future research of other states in the

country particularly the other notable commercial nerve centres like Rivers State and the
Federal Capital territory (FCT).


Definition of Terms
1. Computer-Aided Facilities Management (CAFM): A high-tech tool used by facility
management professionals to track and manage virtually any facility-related asset. Amongst
many other benefits, it provides managers and decision makers with the ability to analyze
the effective use of space more readily than ever.
2. Computer Aided Design: Computer Aided Design (CAD) is the term used to describe a
range of computer based tools that assist architects, engineers, space planners and other
professionals in drafting, design, image or plan production or maintenance (Pickard, 2010).
3. Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS): a software program or
system used in preventative maintenance, work order management, and other functions of
facilities management.
4. Building Information Modeling (BIM): BIM is the process of creating a digital
representation (3-D data set) of the physical and functional characteristics of a facility and
sharing the data among the various types of professionals within the design and construction
team. The goal of this process is to improve collaboration among project participants.
5. Facilities Management (FM): Facilities Management is the integration of multidisciplinary activities within the built environment and the management of their impact
upon people and the workplace.
6. Operations & Maintenance Manuals (O&M): These are instruction manuals for
equipment that are compiled by the contractor and manufacturer for the support of facility
maintenance personnel.


7. Facility Manager (FM): A Facility manager is responsible for managing all facility
management activities in an organization. Its primary functions are planning, management,
monitoring and evaluation of facility management activities.
8. Total Facilities Management (TFM): This form of facilities management implies the
rendering of a holistic approach to facilities management as against those rendering
specialized FM services like cleaning, security, catering, etc.



This review synthesizes the current literatures that are germane to facilities management
and the application of Computer-aided facilities management (CAFM) systems. The
purpose is to highlight the role of CAFM in promoting efficiency in facilities management,
evaluate the various types of computer programmes available and review the contributions
of various authors to the development of knowledge in the field.
The practice of facilities management has advanced in many developed countries but it is
still at its elementary stages in most African countries and developing economies such as
Nigeria. Akintunde (2009) reported that the practice of the facilities management profession
in Nigeria is being threatened by lack of benchmark standards, inadequate industry
knowledge and experience as well as corrupt practices in the processing of FM contracts.
According to Adejumo, et al. (2009), the Nigerian facilities management practice suffers
from identity crises resulting from its infancy. The Facilities management profession was
introduced in Nigeria in the 1980s by multinational companies in the oil and gas industry
such as Shell, Mobil and Chevron as part of their relocation activities.
Studying the fundamental literature about facilities management in developed and
developing nations attests to the fact that the profession is an emerging profession which
has been described in several ways without firm consensus. According to some notable
studies concerned with the facilities management profession, as seen in the works of
(Seebauer and Viniczay, 2009) and Becker (1990), numerous definitions of facilities
management were given nevertheless none can be taken as an official international one.
These definitions included terms like process, service, systems, information


technology and buildings. Generally, facilities management addresses a large number of

different issues related to processes, service activities and building spaces. The scope and
specific range of deliverables is considered to vary according to customer requirements
performed both in-house and outsourced.
Popular FM definitions include those of Becker (1990); who defined FM as the structural
activities that are responsible for coordinating all efforts related to planning, design and
management of buildings and their systems, their equipment and their fittings, in order to
improve the organizations ability to compete successfully in a rapidly changing
environment. With this in mind, plant management has to encompass the three cost centres
that include local support services and information technology. Alexander (1996) specified
that the purpose of FM is to cover all aspects related to space, environmental control, health
and safety and support services. The Facility Management institute (FMI) in 1970 defined
facilities management as a discipline that encompasses the management of people, process
and place.

Figure 2.1: A three-interrelated element model of People, Process & Place

[Saengratwatchara (2008), pg. 10]
Reference will be made to the definition by the International Facility Management
Association (IFMA) which defined facility management as a profession that encompasses

multiple disciplines to ensure functionality of the built environment by integrating people,

place, process and technology. This definition suggests that Facilities Management
provides a supporting management function to the core business of an organization;
concentrates on the area of interface between physical workplace and people; and requires a
multi-skill approach to integrate people, place, process and technology in executing its
support functions.

Figure 2.2: A Four-interrelated element model of People, Place, Process & Technology of
Facilities Management as defined by IFMA.
Facilities Management has recently not only emerged as a service sector but also it has
helped to establish a new professional discipline with its own codes, standards and technical
vocabulary (Atkins, 2005). According to Andrew (1998), in his study emphasized that
Facilities Management can encompass: mechanical engineering, architecture, interior
design, space planning, human factors, organizational behaviour, psychology, human
resources, finance, telecommunications, CAD, construction, project management, acoustics,
lighting etc.


This list is not exhaustive and depending on the nature of the facility, other specializations
may be required. FM embraces much more than the operational concerns of plumbing and
lighting and even more than the provision and maintenance of a productive and comfortable
environment. Kincaid (2004) gave a visual overview of the variety of disciplines
involved in facilities management (See figure 2.3 below), with a mix of so-called
unglamorous tasks (such as cleaning management) as well as high value, high
impact tasks (such as planning and budgeting).

Source: Kincaid (2004)

Fig 2.3: Visual Overview of the variety of disciplines involved in Facilities Management


The Concept of Computer-Aided Facilities Management (CAFM)

According to Kamaruzzaman et al. (2009), Computer-Aided Facilities Management
(CAFM) is a high tech tool which is a combination of computerized network system that
connects graphic and non-graphic information in a centralized manner using widespread
data collection. CAFM includes the creation and utilization of Information Technology
(IT)-based systems in the built environment. James & Watson (2011) defined a typical
CAFM system as a combination of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and/or relational
database software with specific abilities for facilities management which provides facility
managers with the tools to track, plan, manage, and provide real-time updates about FM
assets and equipment.
The overwhelming technological advancements experienced in developed nations has led to
the application of information technology (in the form of CAFM) in facilities management
and other professions relevant to the built environment such as architecture, engineering,
real estate etc.
According to the study made by Keller & Keller (2004), CAFM is defined as a software
system that automates several facility management tasks in order to reduce management
costs by creating a central and comprehensive resource of facilities information. CAFM
supports the day-to-day facilities operations, from master planning to project conception,
design and budgeting; as well as from construction to lease management. In sum, CAFM
provides facility managers with the ability to analyze the effective use of space more readily
than ever.
According to CAFM Explorer (2013), a leading worldwide CAFM solution provider,
CAFM modules are mainly grouped as follows:


Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) software that is used for

Planned Preventive Maintenance, Reactive Maintenance and Asset Management.

Resource booking software used for room booking, catering, equipment, and visitor

Health and Safety software used for recording accidents or incidents permit
management, security and risk assessments.

Supporting software used for stock, purchase ordering, digital dashboard and

Integrated Workplace Management System (IWMS) software used for space

planning and management.

Real Estate (RE) and Capital Planning software.

Computerized CAFM ranges from a simple space management tool to a range of

applications (Keller and Keller, 2004) such as: maintenance and operations, facility
budgeting and accounting, construction and project management, space inventory and
management, architectural and interior planning, space forecasting, lease and property
management and furniture and equipment management.
CAFM systems combine and analyze complex data to improve FM service delivery
throughout a variety of industries including government, educational, healthcare,
commercial, and industrial environments. They give decision makers the ability to automate
many of the data-intensive FM functions which consequently results in continuous cost
savings and improved utilization of assets and equipment through-out their entire lifecycle.
(James & Watson, 2011)



Empirical Studies about CAFM

For the purpose of this research work, it is necessary to identify the contributions of
previous authors and researchers. The number of studies concerned with the application of
Computer-aided facilities management (CAFM) systems in facilities management has been
growing in recent years mainly in the UK, USA, Europe, and Asia. However, there has
hardly been any evidence of such a study in most African developing nations such as
Nigeria. Most of the relevant empirical studies that one is aware of have been conducted
in countries such as the Uni t ed Ki ngdom , US A, Germ an y, Aus t ri a, M al a ys i a,
Indi a,

In Germany, Abel & Lennerts (2005) conducted a study indicating the overview of
current fields of application for CAFM systems and a trend for future fields of
application in terms of user needs. The research also sought to identify the primary
users of CAFM whether building owners, occupants or operators.

Another German study by Madritsch & May (2009) carried out a comparative
analysis of CAFM implementation projects and procedures in German speaking
countries. The research showed a comparative analysis of the CAFM sectors in
Germany, Austria and Switzerland. It showed current trends, technologies, obstacles,
challenges and recommendations for a successful CAFM implementation.
In the United Kingdom (UK), Elmualim & Pelumi-Johnson (2009) carried out a study on
the opportunities derived from the application of Computer-aided facilities management
systems in managing intelligent buildings. The results of the survey showed that 46% of the
respondents make use of CAFM systems for managing the intelligent buildings.


Another UK study by Bainbridge & Finch (2008) looked in to the adoption patterns of
Computer-aided facilities management in Scotland. The study also examined the
significance of IT in the delivery of facilities management services to the built environment
and business organizations in Scotland. It also sought to gather the views of FM
professionals regarding the usefulness of CAFM tools in improving the effectiveness of
facilities management.
In USA, Saengratwatchara and Elsworth (2008) in a study titled the antecedents of
intention to adopt web-based CAFM system, examined the factors that influence the
adoption of CAFM systems by FM professionals. The study suggested that opportunities
be provided to allow potential users of the CAFM system understand the working
experience of the tools so as to discover their work-related advantages as well as to be able
to understand whether the system is easy or difficult to use.
In Malaysia, Kamaruzzaman et al. (2009) carried out a survey of Computer added Facilities
management in Malaysian Building Industry. It examined the level of recognition towards
computers application in providing assistance for better operational as well as strategic
processes for facilities planning and management. The study reiterated that Malaysia is still
at her infancy level in the application of computer tools within the Facilities Management
In India, Por & Kuchtova (2013) examined the economic evaluation of effective CAFM
software implementation in a manufacturing company.
In Canada, Abel et al. (2006) focused on how the day to day business of facility managers
in hospitals can be supported using a CAFM system and what an accordingly database
model would look like. The research aimed at designing a standard database model that can
be used as a ready to start pre-configured system that reduces data acquisition and

customizing efforts to a minimum. The research findings showed that CAFM to the facility
manager is not the same as to a facility manager in other FM branches. It emphasized that
the main request in hospitals is not the maintenance of the facility documentations in terms
of drawings and contracts but the documentations of service calls and maintenance of
biomedical and technical objects.
Jayasena and Weddikkara (2012) carried out a research in Sri Lanka. The research showed
that FM is in its infancy stage in Sri Lanka and that CAFM was not in use presently.
These empirical studies provide several views pertaining to the application and
implementation of CAFM as shown in the different countries. One has to be cautious in
accepting the outcome of these studies as relevant to Nigeria, since they were carried out
in different cultural, social and institutional settings.
In present day Nigeria, the recognition and growth recorded in the Facilities
management sector es peci all y amongst the privat e sect or is a reflection of the
increasing recognition accorded to the profession. This has strongly resulted in a diverse
and highly competitive marketplace amongst FM companies and corporate organizations
thus leading to the deployment of various information technology tools such as CAFM
systems, Enterprise Resource planning (ERP) tools and other business software in a bid to
be more innovative and gain competitive advantage over other competitors. This present
study advances the discussion.


Origin of Computer Aided Facilities Management (CAFM)

According to Massad (2012), the evolution of CAFM dates back to the 1980s. In the
1980s and 90s, CAFM systems application evolved with the leveraging of widespread
PCs. Today, what is obtainable are Web based CAFMs in line with the internet age and
advancement in information technology.

Mason (2007) further reiterated that the first CAFM systems originated in the early 1980s
and some systems have been around almost as long as AutoCAD itself. The fact that CAFM
systems started with and still have CAD roots is unsurprising because initially most
systems focused on the generation of space and asset information derived directly from the
CAD space planning plans.
Teicholz (2000) in his study, reported that CAFM evolved in the late 1980's leveraging the
personal computer (PC) to automate the collection and maintenance of Facilities
management information. CAFM evolution dates back to the period where CAFM vendors
such as Archibus (http://www.archibus.com), FM Systems (http://fmsystems.com),
Drawbase (http://www.drawbase.com) etc., started linking database applications to CAD
programs in order to perform facility related functions.
Initial CAFM applications were mostly related to tracking space and physical assets such as
furniture and equipment, depicting physical location and departmental organization of staff,
which were often developed by getting lists of staff and locations from corporate human
resource or information technology groups and re-entering this data into the CAFM system.
Consequently, widespread usage of Information Technology (IT) tools and applications in
almost all disciplines eventually penetrated the construction and FM industry as well.
CAFM systems consist of a variety of technologies and information sources that may
include Building Information Models (BIM), object-oriented database systems, CAD
systems, and interfaces to other systems such as a Computerized Maintenance Management
System (CMMS). Today most Computer-aided facilities management (CAFM) systems are
internet-based and they provide a host of features such as maintenance management,
tracking and monitoring of work orders, asset management, purchase orders management
including facilities related scheduling and analysis capabilities.



The Evolution of CAFM

According to a study by Saengratwatchara (2008), the evolution of CAFM can be classified
into five (5) distinct phases as enumerated in the works of Teicholz (1994; 2001). These
phases are listed below:

Generations 1 & 2: Technology Evolution This phase entailed the development

of mainframe computers with applications designed for FMs in the early 1960s,
before the term facility manager even existed. This generation had very few
vendors, but solutions were quite comprehensive and integrated.

Generations 3: CAFM & CIFM The third generation of CAFM, started in the
early 1990s. It was characterized by robust integration between various FM graphic
and non-graphic applications, still using the PC as the primary hardware platform.
The earlier CAFM systems were desktop solutions whereby data were moved over a
local area network (LAN) to the desktop computer.

Generations 4: The Explosion of the Internet The explosion of the internet

represents the largest telecommunications network that currently exists in the world.
Any Vendor that does not use this network for all aspects of data communication
and reporting will find it increasingly difficult to exist. Today CAFM vendors have
moved well beyond these simple data collection, querying, and reporting functions.
The benefits of the internet are clearly discernible and have been well defined and

Generations 5 & beyond: High Speed Internet Computers and Networks: This
post-PC age refers to the imminent arrival of high speed internet computers and
networks (both through cables and mobile) and the increasing embedding of
microchips into assets. In this generation, communication is at a very high speed; it
will be wireless as well as on wires, new data formats such as sound and multimedia


video will be included, and there will be very high-speed data networks connected to
powerful hub computers.
It is not surprising then, that the commercially available computer-aided facility
management (CAFM) software vendors have eagerly sought to transfer their products to
internet technology. A number of companies have evolved to offer integrated solutions to
typical facilities information problems.
Examples of the application areas included in currently available CAFM systems products
Space Management
Asset Management
Maintenance Management
CAD Drawing and image management
Project Management
Project budgeting


The Components of CAFM

A CAFM system usually includes both graphic and non-graphic components. Basically, A
CAFM system is typically composed of a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) package and a
database which is updated as more information is added to it. At the heart of a CAFM
system is a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) package which automates design and drafting
tasks. CAFM systems link graphics, usually in the form of drawings and databases in to an
integrated system. The linking of the database to the graphics involves going from a macro
level, such as the site or building to a micro level, which could be a room with all its
contents (McLean, 1998).


Massad (2012) in a study summarized that CAFM systems consist of a variety of

technologies and information sources that include Computer Aided Design systems,
Building Information Models (BIM) and the Interface to other systems. CAFM software
allows users to combine CAD and other non-graphic data to track information from bulk
data in order to perform various facility management-related tasks.
According to a study by Teicholz and Noferi (2002), CAFM systems can be described in six
primary components as follows:
1. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) for design and drafting tasks.
2. Space and Asset Management for space inventory, planning and analysis, asset
inventory, integrated CAD, occupancy information and move management.
3. Capital Planning/Facility Condition Assessment for tracking condition and
deficiencies of buildings (e.g. building fabrics, roofs, structural and mechanical
systems, etc.) and life cycle costs of renewal.
4. Maintenance and Operations for Work order management, planned preventive
maintenance, stock/inventories, and other scheduling works.
5. Real Estate and Property Management for tracking information on property
portfolios with tenant and lease administration, transaction management, financial
modeling, and work management functions.
6. Support Technologies: This is a miscellaneous grouping for functions that support
and integrate the other FM-specific categories. Examples include project
management, document management, web-based applications such as extranets (a
private internet over the internet), reporting tools, IT infrastructure, and office
support tools such as emails and spreadsheets.


CAFM systems vary in their complexity and capabilities. Smaller organizations may be
satisfied with one or two CAD stations linked to a simple desktop database. Others may
wish to link all the graphic and non-graphic information involved in facilities management.


Scope of CAFM
The most commonly used term in the United Kingdom and Europe for facilities
management and real estate management software is CAFM, which stands for Computeraided facilities management. There are however, a number of names used to categorize
similar or related applications. In the United States and within globally operated
organizations, it is labeled as Integrated Workplace Management System (IWMS). IWMS is
characterized as an enterprise-class software platform that integrates five (5) key
components of functionality, operated from a single technology platform and database
repository (BIFM, 2010).
These functional areas are:

Real Estate and Lease management

Facilities and Space management

Maintenance management

Project management

Environmental sustainability

In the Netherlands and Belgium, it is labeled as Facility Management Information system

(FMIS). In most cases, the category used is a reflection of the origins of the software. In
another vein, some reflect the profession/function from where the software originated, such
as CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management software) and FMS (Facilities
Management software), whereas others are created by software suppliers to differentiate


their product offerings (e.g. TIFM, Total Integrated Facilities Management and CIFM,
Computer-Integrated Facilities Management.
In general, CAFM, IWMS, CMMS or FMIS systems support at a minimum processes in:

Space management

Facility management

Reactive Maintenance management

From a functional perspective, the most important difference between IWMS and CAFM is
that IWMS additionally includes extensive functionality for real estate and lease
management, project management and environmental sustainability. Individual offerings
however differ per vendor. Next to IWMS and CAFM, which aim to support a combination
of integrated processes, there are many point solutions available that focus on one specific
process. Some examples are Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS),
Enterprise Asset Management (EAM), and room booking or visitor registrations.
These IT based facilities management solutions help facility managers to track and manage
organizational resources. These solutions enhance the optimal use of resources and bring
down the operational costs in any facilities. These solutions track and manage the
information on usage and storage of resources such as inventory, people, or property
(owned or leased).
Consequently, Facility managers can use this information to identify patterns from past and
present, and on the basis of these identified patterns, facility managers can make decisions,
keeping future perspectives in mind. These future perspectives include several aspects such
as resource utilization, space utilization, and environment sustainability amongst others.



CAFM Implementation
The implementation of CAFM system is not a quick fix/solution to a poorly managed or
fundamentally unsound management system. It is a tool to aid operational efficiency,
generate quality improvement and assist in compliance. Therefore, before the
implementation of any CAFM system, the organizations business processes must be well
reviewed and defined in advance before the selection of the CAFM software. In parallel
with this, CAFM vendors are often asked to provide integration from CAFM applications
into third- party products, such as HR, accounting/financials (i.e. SAP, Sage etc.) and spaceplanning applications.
Among the major areas that should be reviewed are:

Help-desk/call/request logging

Service Management (Both hard and soft services)

Contractor notification

Service level agreements

Health and Safety/Risk management

Stock and Purchasing

Asset and Property Management

Space Management/planning

Resource Management

Data capture and reporting

Furthermore, the CAFM system to be implemented must be sure to possess the ability to
interface with Building management system (BMS) devices such as security controls,
building automation controls and emergency systems. The bulk of most facilities managers
documents exist mainly on paper, not in electronic form, or in some mixture of electronic


and paper. Typically, 70% of the owners cost in implementing CAFM involves getting the
data in to a system.
Madritsch and May (2009) illustrated in more detail, a model for CAFM implementation as
shown in fig 2.4 below.
Preliminary Study
Fundamental consideration of pros and cons of a CAFM system
Setting of goals and precondition
Management decision for a possible CAFM project.
Project assignment


Project Management
Organization of the projects (naming Project group and Project manager)
Project management: planning and control of the project parameters
(services, deadlines, costs, resources,)

Concept phase (Customer requirement specification)

As-is analysis (operational and organizational structure, IT systems and infrastructure.
Definition of the user specific requirements on the CAFM system
Cost-benefit analysis

Selection phase (tender/placing)

Selection of CAFM software vendor and CAFM service provider
Determination of supporting hardware and software components
Decision make-or-buy or a combination of both

Implementation phase
Installation, test and certification of the CAFM system
Customization according to operational and organizational structure
Data acquisition and transfer into the CAFM system
Training (for administrators and users)

Selection of CAFM software vendor and CAFM service provider

of supporting
and amortization
phase hardware and software components

a combination
of both
Maintenance and ongoing

Installation, test and certication of the CAFM system

Further development and modular extension of the total system

Figure 2.4: A CAFM Implementation Model by Madritsch and May (2009), pg. 437

Facilities managers know that computer aided facilities management (CAFM) software can
bring many benefits to both the FM department and the wider organisation.


appreciate that CAFM software is designed to enable FMs to keep track of their

organizations assets by linking a variety of information together electronically (BIFM,

2010). Consequently, FMs must be able to identify and recognize the type of CAFM of
tools that would best serve their companys particular requirements.


Examples and Range of Application for CAFM Systems

There is a variety of CAFM systems being used by facility managers, across organizations
in different countries and continents. Popular examples include Archibus, CAFM Explorer,
and Planon etc.
In Malaysia, Kamaruzzaman et al. (2009) carried out a survey which studied and analyzed
the level of computer application that has been implemented in relevant Facilities
Management companies in Malaysia. The study showed that most FM organizations had
subscribed to basic computer needs such as Microsoft Word, Excel and Internet. A small
percentage of FM companies make use of Central Monitoring systems and Building
Automated system (B.A.S). Examples of CAFM applications in use are C-Works, Archibus,
B.A.S, MYOB etc.
In another study in Scotland, Bainbridge & Finch (2008) investigated the examples of
CAFM systems in use by FM practitioners. The CAFM system selected the most was
Concept FM, which had 24% of the survey respondents indicating its use. Other identified
CAFM applications widely in use as indicated by the survey were Bespoke system,
CAFM Explorer, Archibus, FM Desktop , Planon and Planet FM. The survey
identified Work order management, Fault management, Asset Management, Planned
Maintenance as the most widely usage of CAFM systems.


Purpose of CAFM
Compared to earlier days, modern building projects have significantly evolved in terms of
size, complexity and speed of completion resulting into a multi-user multi-tasking design

environment. Buildings have become a complex integration of various systems and

services. The trend has been technically supported by development in information and
communication technology and resulted in intelligent building (IB).
Abel & Lennerts (2005) emphasized that the possibilities of CAFM systems are
multifarious. The main purpose is to support operational and strategic facility management,
i.e. all the activities associated with administrative, technical and infrastructural FM.
Typically, the purposes of a CAFM system include:

To help the facility's manager ensure the organization's assets are fully utilized at the
lowest possible cost, while providing benefit to every phase of a building's lifecycle.


To support operational and strategic facility management, i.e. all of the activities
associated with administrative, technical, and infrastructural FM tasks when the
facility or building is operational, as well as the strategic processes for facilities
planning and management.

According to the Judicial Council of California (2001), CAFM performs the functional
supports for Project management, portfolio management, Facility management, and Real
property management.
CAFM systems combine and analyze complex data to improve FM practices throughout a
variety of industries including government, healthcare, educational, commercial, and
industrial environments. The CAFM system gives decision makers the ability to automate
many of the data-intensive facility management functions and typically results in
continuous cost savings and improved utilization of assets through-out their entire lifecycle.
Although there is no ideal model suitable for all situations, to meet the specific demands of
the facility manager, a well-developed CAFM system will often include a variety of


functions and features. CAFM systems typically provide and maintain information on floor
plans, property descriptions, space utilization, energy consumption, equipment location, and
other critical infrastructure data that pertains to the sector it is serving.


Differences between CAFM and CMMS

Computer-aided facility management (CAFM) software focuses primarily on space
management issues. This addresses questions such as who owns the property, people of
the workplace, where are facilities located, Number of facilities present across the
globe, how much does it cost to run the operation in each facility amongst many others. It
is also used to manage relocation and renovation projects that change how the spaces look
and work. There is also usually a graphical component to CAFM so that users can connect
CAD plans to facilities database information, (Facilities Desk, 2014).
Computerized Maintenance Management system (CMMS) software on the other hand
focuses primarily on maintenance issues and problem resolution. CMMS is a computer
software program designed to assist in the planning, management, and administrative
functions required for effective maintenance. Often times, assets in a facility break down
and somebody has to fix them. The primary vehicles for communicating these breakdown
problems and resolutions are the initial work request that is logged when something is
wrong and the work order that is created to track the steps to fix the problem.
In short, maintenance management, work order tracking and preventive maintenance are the
order of the day for a CMMS Application. In CMMS software, preventive maintenance
focuses on processes and activities designed to maintain assets and equipment before they
breakdown and to extend their life. CMMS may include tools to manage parts, equipment
documentation, fleet maintenance, staff and subcontractor activities etc.


CAFM and CMMS sometimes overlap in the area of work orders. Most CAFM software
use work orders to manage staff and Facilities, employees and teams relocations. The work
order provides a convenient and efficient tool to manage the details that go with these
activities. In large organizations having facilities and operated across globe, different teams
are generally responsible for facility and maintenance issues. Each group may want
software applications that meet their specific needs. In smaller organizations the same team
may be responsible for both functions and prefer a tightly integrated solution that meets all
their needs.


Theoretical Framework
There is no underlying theoretical framework for the implementation of CAFM systems in
Facilities management. Information technology is a wide field, and has enabled
organizations across the world to work in an efficient manner. It plays a very important role
in effective management and running of a business. The use of IT in organizations is
inevitable, be it any type of company like manufacturing or medicinal sector. It has
contributed largely to the process advancements in organizations.
Rogers Diffusion of Innovations theory is the most appropriate for investigating the
adoption of technology in offices and educational environments. Rogers (2003) used the
word technology and innovation as synonyms. For Rogers, a technology is a design
for instrumental action that reduces the uncertainty in the cause-effect relationships
involved in achieving a desired outcome. It is composed of hardware and software. While
hardware is the tool that embodies the technology in the form of a material or physical
object, software is the information base for the tool.


The profession of facilities management is now one of the fastest growing and strategically
important parts of an organizations operational structure. To reflect this development, there
has been a corresponding consolidation in the types of supporting software.

Figure 2.5. A Model of Five Stages in the Innovation-Decision Process

(Source: Sahin, Pg. 15, 2006)

The most commonly used term in the UK for facilities management software is CAFM,
which stands for Computer-aided facilities management. There are, however, a number of
names used to categorize similar or related applications. In most cases, the category used is
a reflection of the origins of the software. Some reflect the profession from where the


software originated, such as CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management software)

and FMS (Facilities management software).


Benefits of CAFM
Without mincing words, todays FM professionals know that a CAFM system brings surplus
benefits to their job functions and the wider organization. CAFM is increasingly becoming
an indispensable standard technology for the successful implementation of FM as a strategic
corporate concept (Elmualim & Pelumi-Johnson, 2009)

CAFM enables FMs to keep track of their organizations assets by linking a variety of
information electronically. The benefits a fully-fledged CAFM system brings to an
organization when fully utilized as a core business tool can not be underestimated.
Abel & Lennerts (2005) in their study, stated that the benefits of CAFM systems are
multifarous. The study reiterated that CAFM can be used to achieve functional objectives
i:e to achieve transparency of information which results in an improvement in planning
performance and quality. Other benefits of CAFM as shown in the study includes the
possibility of CAFM to fulfil economic and legal objectives such as reduction of costs on a
one-off and long-term basis and adherence to statutory requirements respectively.
CAFM systems provide an excellent, automated framework for managing maintenance and
service contracts. They take the onus off the team and allows them to focus on what is
needed to be done to make sure the subcontractors are alerted when the PPMs becomes due,
and that the task is completed to schedule. It cuts down on the administrative time
overhead and its extremely efficient to use.
Choosing the right CAFM system, working with a supplier who understands that every
organizations needs are different, that facilities management has a unique role to play in


todays business infrastructure, and who can tailor the technology accordingly rather than
pushing an all-purpose off-the-shelf solution, should be a vital element in any facilities
managers strategy. Without it, there is the very real possibility that FM professionals will
be unable to contribute effectively to business development or cost savings, just at a time
when they will be under greater pressure to do so.
Almost all CAFM software applications assist in the monitoring, management and planning
of operational activities and expenditure, standards, regulatory compliance and capital
budgeting in one, or several, of the following areas:

FM buildings/people/services/ resources including help-desks.

Asset management buildings/plant/equipment

Property/space management utilization/ charging/ administration/ modeling.

Resource management e.g. conference-room/travel bookings

Sustainability environmental management and control

There are a number of reasons for deploying a CAFM system. However for the majority of
organizations, it is usually implemented to:
Cut costs
Increase productivity
Improve customer service
More efficiently use space
Reduce churn rates
Enhance faster and more accurate reporting
Streamline facilities processes
Share information throughout an organization.


This chapter focused on the evolution of facilities management, the concept of CAFM
and the empirical studies concerned with CAFM implementation in other developed
countries. Furthermore, it examined the components, scope and the range of
applications/functions for CAFM systems.
The next chapter examines the concept of the research methodology and design used for
the study and continues with an explanation of the data collection and analysis
techniques used by the researcher.



This chapter presents the methodological framework adopted for the research. It describes
the research design, the study area, the study population, the sampling technique and
sample size, the instrument for data collection, the types of data obtained and the tools for
data analysis. Furthermore, the procedure for testing the instrument of data collection
through pilot study, and also for reliability and validity including the administration of the
questionnaire were described in more detail.
In compiling this dissertation, a thorough knowledge of focal issues was required; hence
surveys and observations involving the collection of data from relevant sources was
adopted. Questionnaires were administered to professionals currently working as Facility
managers, Maintenance Managers or in other roles relevant to the Facilities management
The approach adopted for this study comprised of a field survey which was based on
answering questions presented in a structured questionnaire. This sought to provide
relevant answers to the stated research problems and questions from the perspectives of the
local population used for the study. This approach involved the collection of relevant
quantitative data, which were put to rigorous quantitative analysis using statistical
In this survey, the local population was determined to be Facility Management
professionals/practitioners in different Facilities Management companies and organizations
situated in the Victoria Island and Ikoyi areas of Lagos State.



Research Design
The Research design process entails the planning and structuring of the research in order
to ensure the gathering of relevant information which would help in obtaining the most
valid findings with respect to the study.
Kothari (2004) defined research design as the arrangement of conditions for collection
and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose
with economy in procedure.

Research design provides an outline of the type of

information relevant to a particular research problem and also the strategies and
approaches for data collection and analysis.
The preparation of a research design appropriate for a particular study involves the
consideration of the following:
1. Objectives of the research
2. Types and sources of information required
3. Method of Data collection to be adopted
4. Sampling strategy
5. Tools for Data collection
6. Data Analysis - qualitative and quantitative
Types of research design include Exploratory, Descriptive and Analytical research designs.
To achieve the objectives of the research, the exploratory research design approach was
considered. This type of research design enables the discovery of new ideas and insights
about the research topic. It entails the questioning of knowledgeable individuals to clarify
and define the nature of the research problems through the use of structured questionnaires
complemented with informal interviews. It attempts to explore and explain the underlying
issues while providing additional information about the research topic.



Research Location
The study was conducted in Lagos State, Nigeria. Lagos state is densely populated and has
a high concentration of industrial, commercial and residential facilities. It is located on the
south western coast of Nigeria between 6o to 7o north of the equator and longitude 3o and 4o
east of the Greenwich meridian. The city has a total area of 3,577 km2 where about 22% of
the total area is covered by lagoons and creeks (Wikipedia, 2015).
The city of Lagos is located in the south-western part of Nigeria. It has boundaries with the
Republic of Benin in the West. In the North and East, it is bounded by Ogun State while
behind its southern borders lies the Atlantic Ocean. Lagos has remained the major sea port
and commercial nerve centre of the country earning it the name Centre of Excellence.

Figure 3.1: Map of Lagos State showing Victoria Island and Ikoyi areas in red arrows

This research is targeted at facilities management practitioners in companies and

organizations whose corporate offices are domiciled in the Victoria Island and Ikoyi areas

of Lagos state, and which mainly carry out total Facilities management (i.e. using a holistic
approach to facilities management) as against those rendering specialized facilities
management services like cleaning, security, catering, etc.
The Victoria Island and Ikoyi areas of Lagos state are home to several large luxury
apartments, high-rise buildings, mixed-use buildings, corporate head offices of notable
multinational companies and Hotels which require facilities management. The choice of this
research location allowed for a more concentrated study in achieving the research objectives
and thus prevented the formation of generalized conclusions.

Figure 3.2: Aerial view of the Falomo roundabout in Ikoyi linking the Victoria Island area
of Lagos state

The target respondents were Facility Managers, Maintenance Managers, Senior Executives
of Facilities Management companies and professionals with relevant roles in the Facility
management profession or industry.



Study Population
The study population can simply be defined as the entire group or set of subjects that the
researcher is interested in using for the study. For the purpose of this research, the study
population consists of Facility Management practitioners in companies/organizations that
carry out facilities management operations and services. The study population was limited
to companies and organizations with corporate offices in Victoria Island and Ikoyi areas of
Lagos state. The population for this study is finite however, its actual number could not be
determined. This is due to the absence of a comprehensive register/documentation showing
the details of facilities management companies/practitioners for the study population.


Sampling Techniques
Purposive sampling technique (a non-probabilistic form of sampling) was adopted for the
research work. Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2009) defined Purposive sampling as nonprobability sampling procedure in which the judgment of the researcher is used to select the
cases that makes up the sample. It entails the deliberate selection of the items for the sample
by the researcher. The researcher selects the particular units of the study population to be
constituted as a sample which then forms the sample frame to be used for the study. It is
mostly adopted for small inquiries and researches by individuals and in addition because of
its cost and time savings.


Sample Size
Sampling entails the selection of observations to acquire some knowledge of a statistical
study population. Its purpose is to yield some knowledge about the population of concern,
especially for the purpose of making predictions based on statistical inference. In simple
terms, the Sample size entails the numbers of items to be selected from a study population
to be used for the research study. Since a good sample must as nearly as possible be the


representative of the entire population, i:e not excessively large nor small, care was taken to
ensure that the sample size was large enough to convey a measure of credibility on the
outcome of the study.
The study population/sampling frame as described earlier is limited to FM practitioners in
companies and organizations with corporate head offices in Victoria Island and Ikoyi areas
of Lagos state. Owing to the absence of a reliable register of Facilities management
practitioners in the state, no definite sample frame could be derived. However, in a bid to
determine the sampling frame to be used for the study i:e the approximate number of FM
practitioners in the research location, reference was made to the VConnect database.
VConnect is the largest business search engine in Nigeria with more than 500,000
businesses listed on its site. It provides the most comprehensive and updated information
about local businesses products, services or companies in Nigeria. VConnect provides users
with a Pan-Nigeria platform to access business information. On VConnect website, users
across states and LGAs in Nigeria can access information on local businesses across
Nigeria. VConnect is the simplest and most cost-effective way to find local businesses
information in Nigeria.
In the light of the above, a thorough online search was made on the VConnect database for a
list of companies and organizations with corporate head offices in Victoria Island and Ikoyi
areas of Lagos state that have facilities management practitioners and professionals in their
staff strength. The resulting list was screened to remove companies that didnt meet the
criteria. Conclusively, the study population was adjudged to be made up of about 35
Consequently, a sample size of 75 was adopted equalling an approximate number of two
FM practitioners per company. A total number of 75 questionnaires were circulated to the


target respondents out of which 64 were returned but only 57 were used for the analysis
after scrutinizing for errors, omissions, incompleteness and inconsistencies. The completion
rate of 76% was considered adequate and representative enough for the study.


Data Sources
The data employed for the research were derived from primary and secondary sources.
The key primary source was the questionnaire survey specifically designed to elicit data
specific to the research questions. This survey was carried out through the form of a
structured questionnaire. A series of questions that are easy and convenient to answer that
could describe the intended practices and provide relevant information to the study were
formulated and included in the questionnaire.
The delivery method chosen was mainly via email while about 25 percent was done by

The decision to largely make use of the email method for carrying out the

questionnaire survey was driven by the fact that it is less expensive and not time
consuming. Other methods of collecting primary data include through interviews
(personal or telephone) and the use of mechanical devices such as cameras, audiometers
Secondary data entails data that have already been collected by someone else and in
addition data that have already been passed through the statistical process. The research
study also made use of considerable secondary data sources such as books, journal
articles and internet websites.


Instrument for Data Collection

A structured questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection from the target
respondents. This helped to achieve the gathering of necessary information required for the
research. Structured questionnaires are those with definite and fixed alternative questions

which are distributed to all respondents in the same wording and order. The questionnaires
used for the research contained a number of structured and direct questions for which the
answers from the target respondents were limited to the given alternatives. In addition,
some of the questions had provision of alternative replies for cases where the alternatives
given did not provide any answer choice to the respondent.
The questionnaire was divided into five sections (Section 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). Section 1 was
used to draw relevant information about the profile of the respondents. It contained
questions used to determine the respondents job title, employment status, gender, years of
working experience, etc. Others questions include the CAFM application in use, no of years
of using CAFM, operational activities for using CAFM. Nominal (classificatory) scale,
Ranking and interval scale were employed in providing detailed measurement to the
The Sections two to five of the questionnaire employed the use of Likert type four and fivepoint scales of measurement where one extreme implied a strong agreement with a given
statement and the other extreme a strong disagreement and at the middle lies intermediate
points. The Section two was used to draw relevant information about the level of awareness
of CAFM by the various Facility managers. It contained six questions dealing with the
application of IT and CAFM in facilities management. Section three of the questionnaire
was used to draw information on the rate of CAFM implementation by the respective FM
practitioners utilizing them. Section four was used to draw information on the challenges of
deploying CAFM. Section 5 was used to draw relevant data on the performance of CAFM
and its effects on organizational bottom-line of the users.



Pre-Testing of the Instrument through Pilot Study

A Pilot study was undertaken for pre-testing the reliability and validity of the research
instrument. It offers a means of identifying errors in the research instrument before it is
administered. These errors may take the form of reasoning, formulation errors or simple
spelling mistakes.
The Validity test is a critical criterion and indicates the degree to which an instrument
measures what it is supposed to measure. It is the extent to which differences found with a
measuring instrument reflect true differences among those being tested. In order to test for
the validity of the instrument, experts in the Real Estate and the facilities management
profession were sought to proof-read and assess the appropriateness of the statements in the
questionnaire before administering them to the respondents. Furthermore, the target
respondents chosen for the study were seen to be practicing facility managers or those with
roles and the cognizant experience relevant to the profession and the nature of the research
problem respectively.
The test for the reliability of the instrument is another important test of sound measurement.
According to Black and Champion (1976), a measuring instrument is reliable if it provides
consistent results. In the case of this study, ensuring reliability had specific reference to
ensuring that the respondents chosen were of sufficient quality, and that the responses
received could be analyzed with sufficient depth to draw meaningful conclusions. To this
end, the respondents chosen had specific levels of credentials and qualifications. All the
respondents, as mentioned above had to have been in their role for at least 1 year and also
gotten the requisite bachelors degree qualification in their profession. The respondents
were therefore believed to be conversant with up-to-date developments in the field of
facilities management.


Consequently, the research instrument was pre-tested before formal data collection process
for fine-tuning of the structured questionnaire. The researcher personally carried out the
administration of the data collection instruments. A total of 15 respondents were selected
representing about 25% of the total sample size. The Pilot survey was carried out to
establish the functionality of the questionnaire and to ascertain if the questionnaire would
generate the proposed results required for the research study. The respondents were
informed to check through the questionnaire and generate feedbacks peradventure there
were any ambiguities relating to the questions.


Procedure for the Administration of the Questionnaire

The questionnaires used for this research were delivered by hand and also sent through
emails to the respondents. Respondents were given a one week time frame to complete the
questionnaires. Care was taken to ensure that the questionnaires were administered to only
in-house and Facility Management Professionals. Furthermore, help was received from
some of my colleagues in the distribution of the questionnaires in their respective
companies and organizations.


Questionnaire Retrieval
The questionnaires used for this study were collected by return email while the ones
administered by hand were collected at a mutually agreed time. The use of email and the
physical delivery and collection of the questionnaire, afforded the opportunity to answer or
clarify any query the respondents had regarding the questions and purpose of the study. In
total, 57 questionnaires were used for the analysis representing a response rate of 76%.


Tool for Data Processing

Analysis of the data retrieved from the questionnaires was processed using the Statistical
Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.



Tools for Data Analysis

The study employed both descriptive and statistical methods of data analysis. These comprise
frequency distributions and cross tabulations. The frequency distribution shows the basic
distributional features of the data on the respondents and also the data employed in the
subsequent statistical analysis. The descriptive statistics like mean was used to rank the
variables in addition to frequency and percentage distributions. The tools adopted for the
analysis of the data collected were selected to achieve the objectives of the study. The data
was tabulated and analysed using the Statistical analysis software package (SPSS 20). The
characteristics of the respondents used for the study were analysed using frequency counts,
mean scores and percentages. The descriptive statistics included mean of the data pertaining to
the specific variables. Furthermore, frequencies and bar diagrams were prepared to provide a
more appropriate interpretation of the processed data.



In this chapter, the results of the field survey are analysed and discussed. In realizing this
purpose, descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the sample data collected
from the field. Furthermore, tables were used for the presentation of data to facilitate


Response to Questionnaire administered

Table 4.1 shows the descriptive results of the response to the questionnaire administered for
the research.
Table 4.1

Response rate from Respondents


Total number administered



Total number unreturned



Total returned completed



Total used for analysis



A total number of 75 questionnaires were administered to respondents out of which 64 were

returned. However, only 57 were used for the analysis after scrutinizing for errors,
omissions, incompleteness and inconsistencies. This represents a completion rate of 76.0%.


Respondents Characteristics
This section of the questionnaire gathered information about the background of respondents
such as their job title, gender, age, highest level of education, and years of working
experience. The background information of respondents used for the study was analysed
using frequency counts and percentages as shown in table 4.2 below.


Table 4.2: Descriptive result of Respondents Characteristics

Respondents Characteristics


Percentage (%)

Facility Manager



Operations Manager



Senior FM/Manager



Multi-Site FM


Executive Director





Less than 20years


20-29 years



30-39 years



40-49 years


50-59 years














Bachelors Degree



Masters Degree





Doctoral degree


Professional degree





Less than 5 years


05 - 10 years



11 - 15 years



15 - 20 years


20 - 25 years





A. Job Title

B. Age

C. Gender

D. Highest level of Education

E. Years of Working experience


Table 4.2 above shows the summary of the demographic characteristics of the respondents.
Respondents with the Facility Manager job title constituted the highest proportion
(50.9%). 17.5% of the respondents were Operation Managers, 21.1% were Senior FMs
while the remaining 7% were Multi-site FMs. About 70.2% of the population were male
respondents with the remaining 29.8% being females.

Most respondents fell within the age bracket of 30-39 years (52.6%) and 20-29 years
(24.6%) respectively. Close to about half of the population (45.6%) had between 5-10
years work experience while 29.8% had between 11-15 years of work experience. This
implies that the respondents were sufficiently knowledgeable about the facilities
management profession having gathered relevant experience.

Figure 4.1: Respondents profile by Job title



Organizational Characteristics of Respondents

This section examines the respondents organization characteristics like its ownership
structure, years of operation, managerial staff strength, deployment and frequency of usage
of CAFM and the operational activity that the CAFM application is being used for.
Table 4.3 below depicts that 61.4% of the respondents work in Limited Liability
Companies. The remaining 38.6% of the respondents work in companies whose ownership
structures are sole proprietorship (19.3%) and partnership (19.3%) respectively. 42.1% of
the respondents work in organizations with a managerial staff strength of above 250 people.
22.8% of the respondents work in organizations with staff strength of 100 250 people
while about 17.5% work in organizations with a managerial staff strength of 50-100 people.
15.8% of the respondents work in Companies with 15-20 years of existence and operations.
22.8% work in companies with 10-15 years operations while about half of the respondents
(50.9%), work in companies with 5-10 years of operations. This implies that most Facilities
Management companies were recently established attesting to the fact that FM is a
relatively new profession in Lagos State and Nigeria at large. The remaining 10.5% work in
companies with less than 5 years of corporate establishment.


Table 4.3:

Organizational Characteristics of Respondents

Organizational Characteristics
A. Ownership structure
Sole Proprietorship (Private individual)
Limited Liability


Percentage (%)



B. Years of Companys operations
Less than 5 years
05 - 10 years
10 - 15 years
15 - 20 years
20 - 25 years





B. Managerial Staff strength
Less than 20 people
20 - 50 people
50 - 100 people
100 - 250 people
More than 250 people





D. CAFM Application in use
CAFM Explorer
Maintenance Connection
Broll Online
FM Desktop





D. Frequency of CAFM usage
All the time
Some of the time





E. Operational activity CAFM is used for
Planned Maintenance
Fleet Management
Asset Management
Relocation Management
Work order Management










Level of Awareness of CAFM

The first objective of the study is to determine the level of awareness of CAFM amongst
FM practitioners in Lagos. To achieve this objective, respondents were asked to indicate the
extent to which they agree or disagree with some relevant questions in accordance with the
objective. The percentage of level of awareness of CAFM amongst the respondents is
presented in the Table 4.4 below.

Table 4.4:

Level of Awareness of CAFM by FM Practitioners

Level of Awareness of CAFM

IT can be used to effectively manage

buildings & facilities.


CAFM can be used for high effective FM.


CAFM helps in managing multiple buildings,

their usage, value & condition.

Min Max


Percent (%)








CAFM application is clear and

understandable to me.




CAFM is advantageous for providing FM





CAFM is being deployed by many FM

companies in Lagos.




N = Number of Respondents
Table 4.4 shows from the results of the percentage scores that the respondents are largely
aware and conversant with the topic of CAFM and its application in facilities management
service delivery.


Rate of Usage/Implementation of CAFM

4.6.1 Duration and Frequency of CAFM Usage

In order to examine the level of experience of CAFM usage amongst the respondents, they
were asked to indicate how long they had been using CAFM systems. Majority of the
respondents (63.2%) indicated they had between 1 and 3 years experience of CAFM usage.


19.3% of respondents indicated they had less than a year. Respondents with 3 to 5 years
experience in using CAFM were 8.8% while those with 5 to 10 years were also 8.8%. This
suggests that CAFM implementation is relatively new in FM companies and it is being
deployed mostly by Medium to Large-sized organizations.

Figure 4.2: Number of years of using CAFM

Furthermore, respondents were asked to indicate the frequency of deploying CAFM in the
delivery of FM services. A majority of the respondents indicated that they were already
using CAFM, with 54.4% indicating the usage of CAFM some of the time. 15.8% of the
respondents (All the time) while 12.3% indicated the option rarely. However, about
17.5% indicated that they were not using CAFM in the delivery of FM services. This
implies that the rate of CAFM take-up and awareness amongst FM practitioners can be said
to have increased considerably.


Figure 4.3: Frequency of CAFM usage by FMs

4.6.2 CAFM Systems in Use

The respondents indicating use of CAFM systems were asked to select which system they
were currently using. The CAFM system which was selected most was Maintenance
Connection with 40.4% indicating its use. This was followed by FM Desktop which 31.6%
of the respondents indicated as being the system they were using. 17.5% of the respondents
indicated the use of CAFM Explorer, 5.3% for Broll Online and Planon respectively. Other
CAFM systems which were listed by respondents were BIM, Cworks and some other ERP
software. This suggests that some companies made use of CAFM packages that are
specifically tailored to meet their needs.


Figure 4.4: CAFM application in use by FMs

4.6.3 Operational Activity for using CAFM
The study presented a list of operational activities which are commonly addressed using
CAFM systems. Respondents were asked to indicate which of the operational activities their
CAFM system was currently being used to deliver.
The activities which were most widely being delivered utilizing CAFM systems, with over
three quarters of the respondents selecting were Planned Maintenance (43.9%) and Work
order Management (38.6%). 10.5% of the respondents indicated they make of use CAFM
for Relocation Management while 7% make use of CAFM for Asset Management. (See
table 4.3 above).
4.6.4 Rate of CAFM Implementation
Respondents who indicated the usage of CAFM were asked to indicate the perceived degree
of effectiveness of their CAFM system. Majority of the respondents gave a positive view of


their CAFM system with 1.8% rating it Indispensable.

80.7% of the respondents

considered their CAFM system Effective and 17.5% rated their system Adequate. No
respondent considered their CAFM system to be Ineffective or Poor.
This implies a very high overall satisfaction rating amongst FM practitioners using CAFM
systems. The percentage of rate of CAFM implementation by the respondents as related to
the questions in the questionnaire is presented in the Table 4.5 below.

Table 4.5:

Rate of CAFM Implementation

Rate Of CAFM Implementation





Frequency of deploying CAFM in your






How often your Company has deployed

CAFM for FM services.





Deploying CAFM for analyzing

complex data.





To what extent has CAFM been

increasing operational performance?






N = Number of Respondents


Obstacles to the Deployment of CAFM

The survey asked respondents to indicate what they as FM professionals considered to be
the most important obstacle hindering the deployment of CAFM in various FM companies
and organizations. As shown in Table 4.6 below, Senior Managements lack of
understanding of the benefit of CAFM was seen to be the greatest obstacle with 86.67%,
ranking 1st place. This was closely followed by Lack of acceptance by Companys
personnel and resistance to changing work approach with 79.65% ranking 2nd place. The
least obstacles to the deployment of CAFM were CAFM is often frustrating and difficult to


set up and Linking CAFM to other departments such as Accounts and Human resource,
both with 52.28%.

Table 4.6:

Obstacles to the Deployment of CAFM

Obstacles to CAFM Deployment






Senior Managements lack of

understanding of the benefits of CAFM.




Lack of acceptance by Company's

Personnel & resistance to changing work




Difficulty in integrating an
organization's existing data.




CAFM is relatively new and its hard

installing on existing facility.




Deferred funding.




High Implementation costs.




CAFM is often frustrating and difficult

to set up.




Linking CAFM to other departments

like HR, Accounts etc.




N = Number of Respondents


Benefits of CAFM Application to Organizational Effectiveness

The final part of the survey asked respondents to indicate the main effects of CAFM on an
organizations bottom-line and level of performance. 86.32% of the respondents chose
Improved FM planning and material re-ordering as the main effect CAFM impacts on an
organization, see table 4.7 below. This suggests that CAFM systems can assist in improving
FM planning thus making it more effective in its service delivery and material re-ordering
for the various facilities being managed.


Table 4.7: Benefits of CAFM application to Organizational Effectiveness

Benefits of CAFM application to
Organizational Effectiveness
Improved FM planning and material reordering














Detailed implementation of Planned

Preventive Maintenance (PPMs).




Reduced FM Costs and improved

service delivery.




Helps to combine and analyze complex





Tightening budgetary control.




Enhanced Resource availability for FM





Faster Decision making.




Increased Customer satisfaction.





Meeting Service Level Agreements

(SLAs) and Key Performance Indicators
(KPIs) targets.
Improved Communications amongst
other departments.


N = Number of Respondents.
A large number of the respondents (85.96%) selected Meeting Service Level Agreements
(SLAs) and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) as the main effect CAFM brings to an
organization. This was followed by Improved Communications amongst other
departments with 83.51% and Detailed implementation of Planned Preventive
Maintenance (PPMs) with 83.16%. This reflects that CAFM positively affects
organizational performance and improves service delivery.

Discussion of Findings
This research sought to evaluate the application of CAFM systems amongst FM
practitioners in Lagos state. This section highlights and discusses the key findings from the

study. For easy appreciation, the key findings are arranged in consonance with the
objectives of the study and shown under appropriate sub-headings below.
Level of Awareness of CAFM: The first objective of the study sought to determine the level
of awareness of CAFM amongst FM practitioners in the study area. Having analysed and
computed the responses from the survey, it was clearly seen that the level of CAFM
awareness amongst the respondents is quite high with only about 17.5% of the respondents
indicating that they had never made use of any CAFM system nor any other similar range of
IT tools in the delivery of FM services to their Clients. This finding thus corroborates the
increasing growth of the Facilities Management industry in Nigeria.
Previous studies carried out in other developed countries such as the United Kingdom,
Germany, Austria, Switzerland etc., showed that a majority of FM practitioners are
knowledgeable and well informed on the topic of CAFM. This is similar to findings in
Scotland (Bainbridge and Finch, 2008); United Kingdom (Elmualim & Pelumi-Johnson,
2009); and in Germany, Austria and Switzerland (Madritsch and May, 2009).

Rate of Usage/Implementation of CAFM: The respondents indicating knowledge and

awareness of CAFM were asked to state their perceived degree of CAFM implementation
for FM service delivery. It was found that majority of the respondents (83.5%) had been
using CAFM for less than a year to 3 years, with a remaining percentage of the respondents
(16.5%) had above 3 years experience of using CAFM. This implies that the deployment of
CAFM is relatively new and fast gaining wide recognition, increased awareness and
acceptance in the Nigerian FM industry.
Furthermore, the survey findings showed that CAFM is mostly deployed by dedicated
Facilities management companies as against organizations with in-house FM delivery. Also,


it was deduced that the deployment and implementation of CAFM systems was mainly by
medium-sized companies (100-250 employees) and large-sized organizations (above 250
This is consistent with findings by Madritsch and May (2009) in Germany, Austria and
Switzerland respectively. On another note, Kamaruzzaman et al. (2011) in Malaysia
asserted that the FM industry is still at an infancy level especially in the deployment and
implementation of CAFM tools.
Obstacles to CAFM Deployment: It was discovered that most of the respondents considered
Senior Managements lack of understanding of the benefits of CAFM as the main
obstacle to the deployment of CAFM systems by FM companies. This is particularly
attributed to small firms who see CAFM deployment and implementation as stovepipes and
hindrances to cost and profit savings. The other variables with mean scores that ranked 2nd
and 3rd respectively were Lack of acceptance by Companys personnel and resistance to
changing work approach and Difficulty in integrating an organizations existing data.
These findings give credence to the notion that many Nigerian Senior Executives and CEOs
see the implementation of CAFM systems as quite expensive and costly to implement. This
is similar to findings by Kamaruzzaman et al. (2011) in Malaysia. Saengratwatchara and
Elsworth (2008) examined the factors that could influence the adoption of CAFM systems by
FM professionals and suggested that opportunities be provided to allow potential users of the
CAFM systems understand the working experience of the tools so as to discover their workrelated advantages as well as to be able to understand whether the system is easy or difficult
to use. In summary, CAFM applications can be more successfully implemented if their
tangible results are readily apparent or if users have a chance to try them before making an
adoption decision.


Benefits of CAFM Application to Organizational Effectiveness: Majority of the CAFM

users indicated a positive view of their CAFM system with 1.8% rating it Indispensable,
80.7% considering their CAFM system Effective and 17.5% rating their system Adequate.
None of the respondents considered their CAFM system to be Ineffective or Poor. This
represents a very high overall satisfaction rating amongst CAFM users with their systems
and also serves as good news for CAFM software providers. This is similar to findings by
Bainbridge and Finch (2008) in Scotland. Similarly, Madritsch and May (2009), asserted
that CAFM is increasingly becoming an indispensable standard technology for the
successful implementation of FM as a strategic corporate concept.
Furthermore, it was discovered that respondents ranked FM planning and material reordering and Meeting Service Level Agreements (SLAs) and Key Performance
Indicators as 1st and 2nd respectively as the main effects CAFM brings to an organization.
The study also showed that the operational activities which FM practitioners commonly use
the CAFM systems for addressing were Planned Maintenance and Work Order
Management activities.



This study aimed at evaluating the application of Computer-aided facilities management
(CAFM) applications amongst FM practitioners in Lagos state. This final chapter concludes
the study by highlighting the key findings of the research work, areas for further research
and recommendations for Facilities Management practitioners and other relevant
stakeholders with respect to the subject of Computer-aided facilities management.


The findings in this study serve as a basis for making the following conclusions: Most
Facilities management practitioners in the study population are well-informed about the
application of Computer-aided facilities systems in delivering FM services. The research
also revealed that these CAFM systems are mostly deployed by medium-sized to large-sized
companies with staff strength of above 100 people.
Based on the study, it was gathered that about 70% of the Facilities Management
practitioners surveyed were p r e s e n t l y applying information technology specifically on
computer applications tools in their daily business depending on their organizational
needs and strategic goals. It also agreed that t h e computer applications provide
organization with competitive advantage as well as enhancing efficiencies.
Furthermore, it was discovered that most of the respondents that are not willing
to invest in CAFM a r e t h o s e i n s m a l l - s i z e d F M c o m p a n i e s w i t h t h e o p i n i o n
that the initial cost for d e p l o y i n g C A F M i s highly expensive. Hence, whilst these
FM practitioners consider information technology as a useful tool in the delivery of FM
services, their deployment and implementation of CAFM varies considerably across the

profession; with some with the notion that the CAFM tools do not provide sufficient
benefits to service delivery to warrant the investment required.










w i t n e s s i n g g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t . Catching up with the system is highly

important so as to enable facility managers become effective decision makers and a l s o
t o provide effective management of facility information. Encouraging



developers as deduced from the survey is the finding that more than half of the FM
companies surveyed indicated that they were already using Computer-aided facilities
management systems or were considering its implementation.
To this end, CAFM developers would also realize that they still have a large untapped market in
the FM industry coupled with the increasing level of CAFM awareness amongst practitioners;
thus demonstrating that there is room for growth in the market, provided they can target their
efforts in the right areas.


Facility Management professionals and Senior Executives of FM Companies are
overburdened with the advice on how to choose the right CAFM system for their
organization, how to get the most out of the system they do have and also with issues of
installation, training and maintenance of the CAFM system.
As pointed out early on in the research work, its important to reiterate that the deployment
and implementation of a new CAFM system will not return overnight results to a poorly
managed system. A lot of resources such as

information technology support, data

population/configuration, User training, Project management etc. are consumed in the early
stages to get it right. Through each stage, a dedicated Project Manager/Administrator should


be assigned assist and guide through the process via regular review meetings and constant
communication in order to ensure that the CAFM vendor delivers a solution thats right for
the organisation and delivers effective solutions which are right for their clients.
To this end, it is pertinent to make the following recommendations prior to the deployment
and implementation of CAFM systems by a company:
1. FM Practitioners and Companies should clearly define their end goals/targets to the
various CAFM vendors before the implementation of any particular CAFM system.
2. Senior Management/Company Executives must decide on the cadre of people that
will be using the system and what level of authorization/access they would be
entitled to.
3. CAFM Vendors should be implored to make provision for linking the CAFM
systems to other departmental systems such as accounting packages, HR systems
application or Active directory etc., to avoid expensive data re-entry. The CAFM
system should be thoroughly checked to ensure it has an open architecture that can
complement, integrate and/or support existing systems.
4. FM practitioners must clarify the processes the CAFM system is intended to
achieve/improve and evaluate if it would comfortably meet the stated objectives.
5. FMs should request that CAFM vendors provide opportunities for potential users, in
a bid to understand the CAFM system viz-a-viz the discovery of its work-related
advantages before going live.

In recent times, the complexity of workplaces has been on the increase, and as such,
technically skilled individuals are going to continue to be required to manage them. Hence,
it becomes imperative that future FM professionals be properly trained on the best


approach to adopt as regards CAFM deployment and implementation for their

To this end, it is recommended that FM professionals and the Nigerian chapter of the
International Facility Management Association (IFMA) be actively involved in mentoring
these young people, and also clamouring that Facilities management be taught as a
discipline at the 4-year undergraduate University level.
It is believed that the recommendations made in this research work if given swift attention
and implemented accordingly, would not only improve the level of performance of FMs in
Lagos state and in many other parts of Nigeria, but will also ensure that improved service
delivery is attained while carrying out the facilities management function.


Contribution to Knowledge
It can be clearly seen from the findings of the survey that the use of information technology
is of paramount importance in the delivery of effective facilities management services. The
study has also highlighted that there is an increase in the level of CAFM awareness amongst
FM practitioners in Lagos State.
Having identified the significance of CAFM to effective FM service delivery, it is therefore
recommended that similar research works be carried out on the subject matter in other
major commercial centres of the country especially Port -Harcourt and Abuja. Further
studies should be conducted to assess the performance of FM companies already deploying
Computer-aided facilities management

systems compared with those not

Conclusively, Organisations should develop process models and guidelines to help prepare
them for the application of CAFM and to assist them during the implementation. Facility


managers can help their organization to overcome CAFM challenges by utilizing the
resources available and convincing leadership that efficiencies and cost savings can be
achieved with investments in the technology.


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