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Atherosclerosis

Foam Cells Reduced width of lumen Cholesterol cleft Fibrosis Artery wall
Foam Cells
Reduced width of lumen
Cholesterol cleft
Fibrosis
Artery wall

(Atherosclerosis, x4 mag)

Arteriosclerotic is a vascular disease is a condition where an artery wall thickens as a result of the

accumulation

of fatty materials

such as cholesterol.

It is a syndrome

affecting

arterial blood

vessels,

a chronic

inflammatory

response

in

the

walls

of a rteries,

caused

largely

by the

accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and promoted by low-density lipoproteins. The

pathogenesis of atheroma is believed to be damage to the endothelium which allows entry of low

density lipoprotein into the tunica intima. After a large amounts of accumulation, a foam cell can

be seen. These cells secrete collagen when the plaque starts to become necrotic and attracts more

macrophages. As the lesion develops, the increased secretion of collagen forms a dense fibrous

cap to the plaque which hardens it.

Microscopically, we can see in this slide there is an atherosclerotic plague which has grown on the

left side of the artery which reduces the width of the lumen. We can also observe some formation

of foam cells inside the plague with cholesterol cleft. There is also formation of fibrosis besides

the original artery wall.

Myocardial Infarction.

besides the original artery wall. Myocardial Infarction. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils Normal myocardial cells
besides the original artery wall. Myocardial Infarction. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils Normal myocardial cells

Polymorphonuclear

neutrophils

Normal myocardial cells

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils Normal myocardial cells Granulation Tissue (Acute myocardial infarction, 4mag) Acute
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils Normal myocardial cells Granulation Tissue (Acute myocardial infarction, 4mag) Acute

Granulation Tissue

(Acute myocardial infarction, 4mag)

Acute myocardial infarction

indicates

irreversible

myocardial

injury resulting

in necrosis of a

significant portion of myocardium. The term "acute" indicates that the infarction is usually less

than 24 hours old , when the inflammatory infiltrate is primari ly neutrophilic. Acute MI may be

either of the nonreperfusion type, in which case the obstruction to blood flow is permanent, or of

the reperfusion type, in which the obstruction or lack of blood flow is long enough in duration but

is reversed or restored after myocardial cell death occurs.

Microscopically, we can observe some infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and the lower

right side we can observe a formation of extensive granulation tissue and no indication of any

collagen

and fibrous

tissue

formation indicating

that this is an early acute healed myocardial

infarction.

Necrotic Tissue

acute healed myocardial infarction. Necrotic Tissue Fibrous Tissue Granulation Tissue Normal myocardial cells
acute healed myocardial infarction. Necrotic Tissue Fibrous Tissue Granulation Tissue Normal myocardial cells
acute healed myocardial infarction. Necrotic Tissue Fibrous Tissue Granulation Tissue Normal myocardial cells

Fibrous Tissue

Granulation Tissue

Normal myocardial cells

(Myocardial infarction, x4mag)

Compared to acute myocardial infarction, a chronic myocardial infarction usually after 3 to 4 days’

old has a repeated cycles of granulation tissue formation during the healing process which results

in collagen and fibrous tissue formation over the healed areas of infarction.

Microscopically, we can observe there is a loss of myocardial fibers in the granulation tissue and

replacement of fibrous tissue. There is also infiltration of PMN leukocytes and some necrosis of

myocardial cells where there are no observable nuclei.

Cirrhosis of liver

Fibrous Band Lipid vacuole Regenerative Nodule
Fibrous Band
Lipid vacuole
Regenerative Nodule

(Alcoholic liver disease, x4mag)

Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is a type of liver damage where healthy cells are replaced by scar tissue.

Excessive

and chronic

alcohol consumption

is the most common

cause of liver

cirrhosis.

In

micronodular cirrhosis, the regenerating nodules are small under 3mm. Micronodular cirrhosis is

seen along with moderate fatty liver change. This is because the regenerative nodule is surrounded

by fibrous connective

tissue extending between portal regions. The numerous

require fat staining to be properly seen.

tiny fat vesicles

Microscopically, we can observe that the regenerative nodule is filled with numerous small lipid

vacuole and the nodule is surrounded by fibrous band. The regenerative nodule is also small in

size, less than 3mm which classified as micronodular cirrhosis.

Fibrous Band Regenerative Nodule Inflammatory cells
Fibrous Band
Regenerative Nodule
Inflammatory cells

(Chronic hepatitis, x4mag)

Chronic hepatitis

is inflammation of the liver that lasts at least 6 months. Chronic hepatitis

is

usually caused by one of the hepatitis

viruses. Hepatitis

C virus causes the most cases usually

becomes chronic. About as little

as 5% of the hepatitis

B cases, with hepatitis

D co-infection,

become chronic. Hepatitis A and E viruses do not cause chronic hepatitis.

Microscopically, we can observe that there are many inflammatory cells along the portal tract and

some infiltration of inflammatory cells into the parenchyma of hepatocyte nodule. We can also

observe some clear fibrous

bands with many inflammatory

cells surrounding the nodule. The

regenerative nodule we observe in the slide is large and can classified as macronodular cirrhosis if

more than 3mm is size.

Metastatic carcinoma of liver

if more than 3mm is size. Metastatic carcinoma of liver Small cell carcinoma (Liver metastatic small
if more than 3mm is size. Metastatic carcinoma of liver Small cell carcinoma (Liver metastatic small

Small cell carcinoma

(Liver metastatic small cell carcinoma, x4mag)

Small- cell carcinoma is a type of highly malignant cancer that commonly arises within the lungs

although it can develop in other sites such as prostate or gastrointestinal tract. When associated

with the lung, it is sometimes

called "oat cell carcinoma"

due to the

flat

cell shape and little

cytoplasm. It usually occurs in men over 60 years of age with high prominence in heavy smokers.

Small- cell carcinoma

is most often more metastatic compared to the non- small cell lung carcinoma

type and has a low prognosis rate if left untreated.

Microscopically, we can observe that there is presence of small cell carcinoma especially on the

bottom the slide, the cancer cell shown are atypical and does not resembles any normal liver cells

above the slide but more towards the shape of lung cancer cells. We can also observe the nuclei is

highly chromatic and deeply stained. There is also a high nucleus to cytoplasm ratio on these cells

where there is little observable cytoplasm on these cells.

Hyperchromatic nuclei Neoplastic cells Neoplastic cells
Hyperchromatic nuclei
Neoplastic cells
Neoplastic cells

(Gastric adenocarcinoma, x4mag)

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancerous tumor originating in glandular tissue which the epithelial

tissue is widely occurring in the body. It can occur in several parts of the body like cervix, pancreas,

prostate, stomach and breast. It is defined as neoplasia of epithelial tissue that has glandular origin

and possess secretion properties.

Microscopically, we can observe a high nucleus to cytoplasm ratio on the neoplasm cells which

shown by the larger size of nucleus and little cytoplasm content. On the upper right corner, we can

observe well defined hyperchromatic nuclei which stains slightly darker in color.

References

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(2016).

What

is

non- small

cell

lung

cancer?

[online]

Available

at:

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/lungcancer-non-smallcell/detailedguide/non-small-cell- lung-

cancer- what- is- non- small- cell- lung- cancer [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016].

Emedicine.medscape.com.

(2016).

Definitions.

[online]

Available

[Accessed 8 Apr. 2016].

Myocardial

Infarction:

Practice

Essentials,

Background,

at:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/155919-overview

Medical News Today. (2015). Atherosclerosis:

Causes, Symptoms

and Treatments.

[online]

Available at: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/247837.php [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016].

National

Cancer Institute.

(2016). NCI Dictionary

of Cancer Terms.

[online]

Available

at:

http://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms?cdrid=46216

[Accessed

8

Apr.

2016].

Nhs.uk.

(2016).

Alcohol-related

liver

disease

-

NHS

Choices.

[online]

Available

at:

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/liver_disease_(alcoholic)/Pages/Introduction.aspx

[Accessed

8

Apr. 2016].

 

Nhs.uk.

(2016).

Hepatitis

-

NHS

Choices.

[online]

Available

at:

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Hepatitis/Pages/Introduction.aspx [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016].