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1111 Lakeside Drive, Gurnee, IL 60031-4099

Phone: 800-448-0770
Fax: 847-855-6300
www.ohiomedical.com

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Technical

Selecting a Vacuum System


Sizing a Medical Vacuum System
Vacuum System Exhaust
Selecting an Air System
Sizing an Air Compressor System
Special Considerations
Full Load Amps for Vacuum and Air Compressor Packages
Suggested Medical Gas Master Alarm Points (For level 1 facilities)
Medical Gas Equipment Mounting Height Detail
Manifold Sizing
Medical Gas Cylinder Data
Conversion Chart Vacuum
ACFM / SCFM
Common Conversions
Flow Conversion Chart
Volume Conversion Chart
Temperature Conversion Chart
Miscellaneous Conversions
Pressure Conversion Chart
Altitude Compensation for Vacuum
Receiver Sizing
Technical White Papers from Ohio Medical Corporation
ACFM vs. SCFM vs. ICFM
Pressure Drop in Air Piping Systems
Affects of Altitude on Vacuum Systems
Systems Limited Warranty
Pipeline Warranty

TRUSTED BRANDS OF OHIO MEDICAL

SELECTING A VACUUM SYSTEM


There are several considerations in selecting a Medical/Surgical Vacuum System. In addition to physical size,
expense, and site limitations, capacity is the primary issue. The required capacity, or flow at a given vacuum level,
most generally 19 Hg Gauge, is also referred to as Calculated Peak Demand. Click here for the worksheet used
to determine Calculated Peak Demand for a typical hospital.
You will notice that the categories on the worksheet coincide with various areas in the hospital. Because of the
manner in which the space is used, the value given for flow is either per room, per bed, or per outlet. For example, in areas where only one procedure will be performed, such as surgery, we use a per room value. In areas
where there may be several uses simultaneously and the possibility of vast fluctuations in use, such as a recovery
suite, we calculate the demand per bed. You will also notice the term Simultaneous Use Factor. This is a value
given to the likelihood that the full demand will exist in a particular area at any given time. The most critical areas,
such as surgery, will have the highest likelihood and therefore the greatest value.
To use the worksheet, start by filling in the quantities of each area in the left-hand column. Keep in mind to tally
these figures correctly; either per room, bed or outlet. Also be certain to account for all of the outlets which are
part of the proposed system. Some outlets may be easy to overlook and some departments in the facility may be
known by a slightly different name. If you encounter an area in the facility that is not listed on the worksheet, categorize it based on what procedures are performed in that area.
With all of the areas accounted for, multiply each quantity by the given Design Flow value, and then multiply by the
Simultaneous Use Factor. Write the value in the right hand column for each line. Finally, total the values for all of
the lines at the bottom of the sheet. This value is the Calculated Peak Demand, expressed in Standard Cubic Feet
per Minute at a vacuum level of 19Hg Gauge.
Having tallied the Calculated Peak Demand, you must adjust for any abnormal conditions. High elevation, operation on 50 Cycle current or unusual ambient temperatures can affect performance. If considering future expansion,
you may opt for a system with a control package which will allow for an additional pump to be added later.
When the Calculated Peak Demand exceeds the capacity of a 10 Horsepower pump, consider using a triplex or
quadruplex system rather than duplex. For example, if you have chosen a 15Hp duplex system, also consider a
7.5 Hp triplex version where two of the three pumps will meet the Calculated Peak Demand. Demand for
Medical/Surgical Vacuum in a typical facility varies widely in the course of a day, and in times of low demand, a 7.5
Hp pump will be required to operate as opposed to a 15 Hp pump. Each pump on the system is controlled by a
separate vacuum switch, allowing more efficient operation and reducing current spikes caused by the in-rush as
the larger motors start. In many cases, the initial expense of the multiplex system is also lower.
A dedicated Waste Anesthetic Gas Evacuation system is best served by use of a separate simplex or duplex vacuum system of either the Water Sealed Liquid Ring or Dry Running Rotary Vane style. Pumps lubricated or sealed
with oil are not to be used for such a system.

TM

www.ohiomedical.com

1111 Lakeside Drive, Gurnee, IL 60031-4099


Phone: 800-448-0770 - Fax: 847-855-6300

www.squire-cogswell.com
An Ohio Medical Corporation Brand

Project:

Date:

Calculated Peak Demand for a Medical Surgical Vacuum System in a


Typical Short Term General Hospital
Design Flow in SCFM
(Free Air)
Simultaneous
Per
Per
Per
Use Factor
Room Bed Outlet
%

Qty Medical Gas Vacuum


Outlet Locations

Total

ANESTHETIZING LOCATIONS:
Specialized Surgeries (Open Heart, Organ
Transplant)
Major / Outpatient OR
Cystoscopy / Endoscopy
Delivery Room
Emergency Operating Room
Cardiac Catheterization
Other Anesthetizing Areas (Minor O.R.,
Induction Rooms, etc .)
Waste Anesthetizing Gas Evacuation

4.0
3.5
2.0
1.0
3.0
1.0

100
100
100
100
100
10

0
0
0
0
0
0

1.0
2.0

50
100

0
0

50
50
75
100
50
50
25
10

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

10
20
10
10
50
10
10
10
10
10

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

20
10
10
10
10

0
0
0
0
0

ACUTE CARE (NON-ANESTHETIZING LOCATIONS):


Post Operative Recovery Room
O.B. Recovery Room
Intensive Care Units (Except Cardiac)
Emergency Room (Trauma, Cardiac)
Cardiac Intensive Care
Neonatal I.C.U.
Special Procedure (X-Ray,Dialysis,Radiology)
Surgical Excision Room

3.0
2.0
2.0
1.0
2.0
1.0
1.5
1.0

SUBACUTE PATIENT CARE AREAS:


Normal Nursery
Premature Nursery
Respiratory Care
Labor/Birthing
Patient Room (Surgical)
Patient Room (Medical)
Exam & Treatment Rooms
ER (Cast Room, OB/GYN)
Pre-Op Holding
Stress Test EKG & EEG

1.0
1.0
1.5
1.0
1.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

OTHER AREAS:
Autopsy / Morgue
Central Supply / Sterile
Equipment Repair,Calibration & Teaching
Medical Lab / Pharmacy
Anesthesia/Workroom

2.0
1.5
1.5
1.0
1.5

Total Estimated Peak Flow (In SCFM @ 19" Hg)


Ohio Medical Corporation
1111 Lakeside Drive - Gurnee, IL 60031-4099
Ph: 800-448-0770 - Fax: 847-855-6300
Visit us on our website: www.ohiomedicall.com
550611 (Rev.4) 06/2006

SELECTING AN AIR SYSTEM


There are several considerations in selecting a Medical Compressed Air System. In addition to physical size,
expense, and site limitations, capacity is the primary issue. The required capacity, or flow at a given pressure, most
generally 50 PSIG, is also referred to as Calculated Peak Demand. Click here for the worksheet to determine
Calculated Peak Demand for a typical hospital.
You will notice that the categories on the worksheet coincide with various areas in the hospital. Because of the
manner in which the space is used, the value given for flow is either per room, per bed, or per outlet. For example, in areas where only one procedure will be performed, such as surgery, we use a per room value. In areas
where there is the possibility of vast fluctuations in use, such as an ICU, we calculate the demand per bed. You
will also notice the term Simultaneous Use Factor. This is a value given to the likelihood that the full demand will
exist in a particular area at any given time. The most critical areas, such as surgery, will have the highest likelihood
and therefore the greatest value.
To use the worksheet, start by filling in the quantities of each area in the left-hand column. Keep in mind to tally
these figures correctly; either per room, bed or outlet. In the case of Ventilators, it is important to consider the type
and requirements of each unit the facility intends to operate. Ventilators powered by medical air require considerable capacity and must be accounted for. Also be certain to account for all of the outlets which are part of the proposed system. Some outlets may be easy to overlook and some departments in the facility may be known by a
slightly different name. If you encounter an area in the facility that is not listed on the worksheet, categorize it based
what procedures are performed in that area.
With all of the areas accounted for, multiply each quantity by the given Design Flow value, and then multiply by the
Simultaneous Use Factor. Write the value in the right hand column for each line. Finally, total the values for all of
the lines at the bottom of the sheet. This value is the Calculated Peak Demand, expressed in Standard Cubic Feet
per Minute at a pressure of 50 Pounds per Square Inch Gauge.
Having tallied the Calculated Peak Demand, you must adjust for any abnormal conditions. High elevation, operation on 50 Cycle current or unusual ambient temperatures can affect performance. If considering future expansion,
you may opt for a system with a control package, which will allow for an additional compressor to be added later.
When the Calculated Peak Demand exceeds the capacity of a 15 Horsepower compressor, consider using a triplex
or quadruplex system rather than duplex. For example, if you have chosen a 20 Hp duplex system, also consider a 7.5 Hp triplex version where two of the three compressors will meet the Calculated Peak Demand. Demand
for Medical Air in a typical facility varies, and in times of low demand, a 7.5 Hp compressor will be required to operate as opposed to a 20 Hp compressor. Each compressor on the system is controlled by a separate pressure
switch, allowing more efficient operation and reducing current spikes caused by the in-rush as the larger motors
start. In many cases, the initial expense of the multiplex system is also lower.
Please peruse the Accessories tab of the Medical Air Systems section for optional types of air dryers and other
related accessories. The Healthcair Treatment Module is a fabricated package incorporating dual dryers, filters,
regulators, and monitors. It can be used to upgrade existing installations.

TM

www.ohiomedical.com

1111 Lakeside Drive, Gurnee, IL 60031-4099


Phone: 800-448-0770 - Fax: 847-855-6300

www.squire-cogswell.com
An Ohio Medical Corporation Brand

Project:

Date:

Calculated Peak Demand for a Medical Air System in a Typical


Short Term General Hospital
Design Flow in SCFM
(Free Air)
Simultaneous
Per
Per
Per
Per
Use Factor
Unit Room Bed Outlet
%
ANESTHETIZING LOCATIONS:

Qty Medical Air


Outlet Locations

Totals

Special Surgery (Open Heart, Organ


0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
1.0
0.5

Transplant, Ortho)

Major / Outpatient Surgery


Minor Surgery
Emergency Surgery
Cardiac Catherization
Endoscopy / Cytoscopy
Delivery Room / C-Section

100
100
75
50
50
10
100

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

50
25
50
50
10
75
10
10
50
50

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

50
25
10
10
50
10
50
50
50

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

10
10
10

0
0
0

ACUTE CARE LOCATIONS:


Recovery Room/Surgical
Recovery Room - OB
ICU/CCU & Pediatric I.C.U.
Emergency Room (Trauma, Cardiac)
Anesthesia Workroom
Neonatal ICU
Pre-Op Holding
Dialysis Unit, Radiology
Ventilators Adult*
Ventilators Infants*

2.0
0.5
2.0
2.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
0.5
3.5
3.5

SUBACUTE CARE LOCATIONS:


Pediatric Croup Tents**
Nursery Full Term & Isolation
ER (Cast Room, OB/GYN)
Patient Rooms (Medical & Surgical)
EEG & EKG
Exam & Treatment
Respiratory Care
Pulmonary Function Lab
Birthing & LDRP

2.0
0.5
1.0
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

OTHER:
Respiratory Care Workroom
Autopsy / Morgue
Equipment Repair

1.5
1.5
1.5

Total Estimated Peak Flow (In SCFM @ 50 PSIG)


* Important! You must consult with respiratory therapy personnel concerning the maximum number of ventilators that could
be used at one time and the average flow rates for each ventilator. DO NOT CALCULATE your total peak requirements
without this information.
** If powered by Medical Air

Ohio Medical Corporation


1111 Lakeside Drive - Gurnee, IL 60031-4099
Ph: 800-448-0770 - Fax: 847-855-6300
Visit us on our website: www.ohiomedical.com
550611 (Rev.4) 06/2006

Vacuum System
Exhaust Installation

Notes:
Piping Connections:
1. All piping connections shall be checked for tightness by the installing
contractor prior to starting the system.
2. Exhaust Piping and fittings represented by dashed lines are to be
furnished and installed by the contractor.
3. Exhaust from oil reservoir shall be collected to a single stack, run to
outside air with the discharge line turned down and screened.
4. Vent / Exhaust should be piped by installer in accordance with
C.G.A. P2.1 recommendations or N.F.P.A. 99 standards. If a drop in
a horizontal run of exhaust piping is present, then a drip leg will be
required. For recommendations on exhaust pipe sizing consult Ohio
Medical Engineering @ 1-800-448-0770.
Electrical Connections:
5. All the electrical connections shall be checked for tightness by the
installing contractor prior to starting the system.
6. Electrical contractor is to furnished and install wiring of proper size
and type per NEC code.
Miscellaneous:
7. Inlet (non-braided) and discharge (braided) flexible connectors, vibration pads and system isolation valves are shipped separately.
Accessories are shipped inside the system crate and designated
with an orange label. Accessories to be installed by contractor.

P/N 255356 (Rev.3) 02/2006

SPECIAL CONSIDERATION
The performance data for Medical Air and Vacuum Systems is based upon standard atmospheric conditions.
Significant deviations from these standards must be accounted for in proper selection of the systems.
Elevation
If the site is above sea level, the reduced barometric pressure of the atmosphere affects the performance of
Medical/Surgical Vacuum Systems in two ways. First, the maximum vacuum level obtainable is reduced. In addition, the capacity or flow characteristics of a vacuum pump at a given vacuum level are reduced.
Base on their performance curves, different types of vacuum pumps react differently. Please consult the factory
for help in selection of systems for higher altitudes.
Temperature
These systems are intended to be installed indoors, in a controlled climate. Temperatures should never approach
freezing or exceed 104 degrees Fahrenheit. These extremes will affect overall system performance, maintenance
intervals and equipment life as well.
In addition, these systems will generate heat, and this heat load must be considered when designing the mechanical space in which they are to be installed.
To calculate the heat generated by the air or vacuum system, use Brake Horsepower of the system multiplied by
2,545 BTU/Hr. ___ BHP x 2,545 BTU/Hr = _____ BTU/Hr generated by the system. In the case of multiplex systems, use the horsepower value of the units that are intended to operate under normal conditions. If you do not
know the Brake Horsepower requirement, use the nameplate Horsepower value.
This formula can also be used to calculate the heat load that a totally recirculated, water sealed, liquid ring pump
will contribute to the cooling water loop or chiller.
Make-Up Water and Cooling Water Temperature
Liquid ring vacuum pumps using water as a sealing fluid are subject to decreased performance if the water temperature is substantially greater then 60 degrees Fahrenheit.
Inertia Bases
When installed above ground, it may be advisable to mount reciprocating compressors on an inertia base. This
will eliminate the transfer of vibration and related noise to the structure. Rotary vane and Liquid ring style units do
not require inertia bases.
Seismic Certification
Most systems can be certified for use in various seismic zones. Please consult the Medical Sales Department for
help in selecting a system.

TM

www.ohiomedical.com

1111 Lakeside Drive, Gurnee, IL 60031-4099


Phone: 800-448-0770 - Fax: 847-855-6300

www.squire-cogswell.com
An Ohio Medical Corporation Brand

Full Load Amps for Rotary Vane Vacuum Systems


Lubricated Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps

Model
Number
S200B
S300LB
S300B
S500LB
S500B
S750B
S1000B

Model
Number
S200B
S300LB
S300B
S500LB
S500B
S750B
S1000B
S1500B
S2000B
S2500B

Simplex Systems
System Full Load Amps
H.P.
208
230
460
2
8.8
7.2
4.1
3
12.0
8.8
4.9
3
12.0
8.8
4.9
5
18.5
13.8
7.4
5
18.5
13.8
7.4
7.5
26.3
19.6
10.3
10
33.2
26.0
13.5

H.P.
2
3
3
5
5
7.5
10
15
20
25

Model
Number
S500B
S750B
S1000B
S1500B
S2000B
S2500B

Duplex Systems
System Full Load Amps
208
17.6
24.0
24.0
37.0
37.0
52.6
66.4
98.6
126.2
158.4

230
14.4
17.6
17.6
27.6
27.6
39.2
52.0
86.0
110.0
138.0

Model
Number
S500B
S750B
S1000B
S1500B
S2000B
S2500B

460
8.2
9.8
9.8
14.8
14.8
20.6
27.0
44.0
56.0
70.0

H.P.
5
7.5
10
15
20
25

H.P.
5
7.5
10
15
20
25

Triplex Systems
System Full Load Amps
208
230
460
55.5
41.4
22.2
78.9
58.8
30.9
99.6
78.0
40.5
147.9
129.0
66.0
189.3
165.0
84.0
237.6
207.0
105.0

Quad Systems
System Full Load Amps
208
73.8
105.0
132.6
197.0
252.2
316.6

230
55.0
78.2
103.8
171.8
219.8
275.8

460
29.4
41.0
53.8
87.8
111.8
139.8

Oil-less Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps

Model
Number
D100B
D150B
D200B
D300B
D500LB
D500B
D750B
D1000B

Simplex Systems
System Full Load Amps
H.P.
208
230
460
1
5.8
5.2
3.1
1.5
7.9
7.0
4.0
2
8.8
7.8
4.4
3
12.0
10.6
5.8
5
18.5
16.2
8.6
5
18.5
16.2
8.6
7.5
26.3
23.0
12.0
10
33.2
29.0
15.0

Model
Number
D100B
D150B
D200B
D300B
D500LB
D500B
D750B
D1000B

H.P.
1
1.5
2
3
5
5
7.5
10

Duplex Systems
System Full Load Amps
208
230
460
11.6
10.4
10.4
15.8
14.0
14.0
17.6
15.6
15.6
24.0
21.2
21.2
37.0
32.4
32.4
37.0
32.4
32.4
52.6
46.0
46.0
66.4
58.0
58.0

*FLA amps listed are approximate

www.squire-cogswell.com

1111 Lakeside Drive, Gurnee, IL 60031-4099


Phone: 800-448-0770 - Fax: 847-855-6300
1 of 4

www.ohiomedical.com

Full Load Amps for Rotary Claw Vacuum Systems

Model
Number
C300B
C500B
C750B
C870B
C1000B
C1500B

Model
Number
C300B
C500B
C750B
C870B
C1000B
C1500B

Simplex Systems
System Full Load Amps
H.P.
208
230
460
3
5
7.5
8.7
10
15

5.6
8.5
11.9
13.7
15.0
18.5

C300B
C500B
C750B
C870B
C1000B
C1500B

Duplex Systems
System Full Load Amps
H.P.
208
230
460

Model
Number

H.P.

C300B
C500B
C750B
C870B
C1000B
C1500B

3
5
7.5
8.7
10
15

3
5
7.5
8.7
10
15

10.8
18.4
26.6
30.0
30.5
N/A

21.6
36.8
53.2
60.0
61.0
N/A

10.2
16.0
22.8
26.4
29.0
36.0

Model
Number

Triplex Systems
System Full Load Amps
H.P.
208
230
460

20.4
32.0
45.6
52.8
58.0
72.0

11.2
17.0
23.8
27.4
30.0
37.0

3
5
7.5
8.7
10
15

32.4
55.2
79.8
90.0
91.5
N/A

30.6
48.0
68.4
79.2
87.0
108.0

16.8
25.5
35.7
41.1
45.0
55.5

Quad Systems
System Full Load Amps
208
230
460
43.0
73.4
106.2
119.8
121.8
N/A

40.6
63.8
91.0
105.4
115.8
143.8

22.2
33.8
47.4
54.6
59.8
73.8

*FLA amps listed are approximate

Ohio Medical Corporation - 1111 Lakeside Drive, Gurnee, IL 60031-4099 - Phone: 800-448-0770 - Fax: 847-855-6300
2 of 4

Full Load Amps for Liquid Ring Vacuum Systems


Water Sealed Partial or Total Recirculation

Model
Number
LR3B
LR5B
LR75B
LR10B
LR15B
LR20B
LR25B

Simplex Systems
System Full Load Amps
H.P.
208
230
460
3
5
7.5
10
15
20
25

Model
Number

H.P.

LR3B
LR5B
LR75B
LR10B
LR15B
LR20B
LR25B

3
5
7.5
10
15
20
25

9.5
15.0
24.0
30.9
47.0
61.0
77.0

8.8
14.6
19.8
25.8
41.0
53.0
63.0

4.9
7.8
10.4
13.4
21.0
27.0
32.0

Duplex Systems
System Full Load Amps
208
230
460
19.0
30.0
48.0
61.8
94.0
122.0
154.0

17.6
29.2
39.6
51.6
82.0
106.0
126.0

9.8
15.6
20.8
26.8
42.0
54.0
64.0

Model
Number

H.P.

LR10B
LR15B
LR20B
LR25B

10
15
20
25

Model
Number

H.P.

LR5B
LR75B
LR10B
LR15B

5
7.5
10
15

Triplex Systems
System Full Load Amps
208
230
460
92.7
141.0
183.0
231.0

77.4
123.0
159.0
189.0

40.2
63.0
81.0
96.0

Quad Systems
System Full Load Amps
208
230
460
59.8
95.8
123.4
187.8

58.2
79.0
103.0
163.8

58.2
79.0
103.0
163.8

*FLA amps listed are approximate

Ohio Medical Corporation - 1111 Lakeside Drive, Gurnee, IL 60031-4099 - Phone: 800-448-0770 - Fax: 847-855-6300
3 of 4

Full Load Amps for Oil-Less Air Compressor Systems

Model
Number
AS200B
AS300B
AS500B

Model
Number
AS200B
AS300B
AS500B
AS750B
AS1000B
AS1500B

Simplex Systems
Full Load Amps
H.P.
208
230
460
2
3
5

8.8
12.0
18.5

7.8
10.6
16.2

Model
Number

4.4
5.8
8.6

AS500B
AS750B
AS1000B
AS1500B

Duplex Systrems
Full Load Amps
H.P.
208
230
460
2
3
5
7.5
10
15

17.6
24.0
37.0
50.4
63.6
94.4

15.6
21.2
32.4
46.0
58.0
86.0

8.8
11.6
17.2
24.0
30.0
44.0

Triplex Systems
Full Load Amps
H.P.
208
230
460
5
7.5
10
15

Model
Number

H.P.

AS750B
AS1000B
AS1500B

7.5
10
15

26.4
75.6
95.4
141.6

23.4
69.0
87.0
129.0

13.2
36.0
45.0
66.0

Quad Systems
Full Load Amps
208
230
460
100.6
127.0
188.6

91.8
115.8
171.8

47.8
59.8
87.8

Full Load Amps for Oil-Less Air Compressor Systems


Simplex Systems
Model
Number
A200B
A300B
A500B
A750B
A1000B
A1500B

Model
Number
A200B
A300B
A500B
A750B
A1000B
A1500B
A2000B
A2500B
A3000B

H.P.
2
3
5
7.5
10
15

H.P.
2
3
5
7.5
10
15
20
25
30

Triplex Systems

Full Load Amps


208
8.8
12.0
18.5
26.3
33.2
49.3

230
7.8
10.6
16.2
23.0
29.0
43.0

Model
Number
A500B
A750B
A1000B
A1500B
A2000B
A2500B
A3000B

460
4.4
5.8
8.6
12.0
15.0
22.0

Duplex Systrems
Full Load Amps
208
17.6
24.0
37.0
52.6
66.4
98.6
126.2
158.4
186.0

230
15.6
21.2
32.4
46.0
58.0
86.0
110.0
138.0
162.0

Model
Number
A750B
A1000B
A1500B
A2000B

460
8.8
11.6
17.2
24.0
30.0
44.0
56.0
70.0
82.0

H.P.
5
7.5
10
15
20
25
30

H.P.
7.5
10
15
20

Full Load Amps


208
55.5
78.9
99.6
147.9
189.3
237.6
279.0

230
48.6
69.0
87.0
129.0
165.0
207.0
243.0

460
25.8
36.0
45.0
66.0
84.0
105.0
123.0

Quad Systems
Full Load Amps
208
105.0
132.6
197.0
252.2

230
91.8
115.8
171.8
219.8

460
47.8
59.8
87.8
111.8

*FLA amps listed are approximate

Ohio Medical Corporation - 1111 Lakeside Drive, Gurnee, IL 60031-4099 - Phone: 800-448-0770 - Fax: 847-855-6300
4 of 4

SUGGESTED MEDICAL GAS MASTER ALARM POINTS

SUGGESTED MEDICAL GAS MASTER ALARM POINTS

FOR LEVEL 1 FACILITIES

FOR LEVEL 1 FACILITIES

MECHANICAL ROOM

MEDICAL GAS ROOM

MASTER ALARM #1
MAY BE LOCATED IN SECURITY
(Requires 24 Hours/Day Surveillance)

MASTER ALARM #2
MAY BE LOCATED IN ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/AREA
Source/Mainline
Isolation Valve

Typical Oxygen (O2), Medical Air (Air),


Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Installation

Source/Mainline
Isolation Valve

Source/Mainline
Isolation Valve

261920* Actuating Pressure Switch


(Reserve In Use, Activate HP Cylinders
set at 85 PSIG)

Typical Nitrogen (N2) Installation

Check Valve
Located
in Pigtail

SUGGESTED ALARM POINTS FOR:


MEDICAL AIR COMPRESSOR (All Types)

Source/Mainline
Isolation Valve

RESERVE COMPRESSOR RUNNING 5.1.9.5.4(1) / 5.1.3.5.14.5


(Termination point located in compressor control panel)
MAINLINE PRESSURE HIGH 5.1.9.2.4(7)
Regulator

(Termination point from mainline pressure switch)

261921 Actuating Pressure Switch


("Reserve Low", 500 PSIG)

MAINLINE PRESSURE LOW 5.1.9.2.4(7)


(Termination point from mainline pressure switch)

SUGGESTED ALARM POINTS FOR:


MEDICAL/SURGICAL VACUUM PUMPS

CARBON MONOXIDE HIGH 5.1.9.4.5(2) / 5.1.3.5.15(2)

RESERVE VACUUM PUMP RUNNING

DEW POINT HIGH 5.1.9.2.4(10) / 5.1.3.5.15(1)

5.1.3.6.8 / 5.1.9.2.4(9) / 5.1.9.5.2 / 5.1.9.5.4(4)


(Termination point located in vacuum control panel)
MAIN LINE VACUUM LOW
5.1.9.2.4(8)
(Terminal point from main line vacuum switch)

WASTE ANESTHETIC GAS VACUUM PUMPS

Also, For Reciprocating (Piston type) Compressors


HIGH TEMPERATURE 5.1.3.5.14.3 / 5.1.9.5.4(9) / 5.1.3.5.14.4(1)
(Termination point located in compressor control panel)

(Termination point located in vacuum control panel)


MAINLINE EVACUATION LOW

(Termination point located in compressor control panel)

Also, For Liquid Ring Compressors:

5.1.9.5.2 / 5.1.3.7.4.1 / 5.1.9.2.4(9) / 5.1.9.5.4(5)

5.1.9.2.4(8)

(Termination point from main line vacuum switch)

MANIFOLDS WITH RESERVE

(Termination point located in compressor control panel)

RECEIVER FLOODED (see note #1) 5.1.3.5.14.1 / 5.1.9.5.4(7)

RESERVE VACUUM PUMP RUNNING

SUGGESTED ALARM FUNCTIONS FOR:

(Termination point from CO monitor)

RECEIVER FLOODED 5.1.3.5.14.1 / 5.1.9.5.4(7)


(Termination point located in compressor control panel)
HIGH WATER SEPARATOR 5.1.3.5.14.2 / 5.1.9.5.4(8)
(Termination point located in compressor control panel)

CYLINDER BANK CHANGEOVER 5.1.9.2.4(1) / 5.1.3.4.12.9(1)

SUGGESTED ALARM FUNCTIONS FOR:


MANIFOLDS WITHOUT RESERVE
CYLINDER BANK CHANGEOVER 5.1.9.2.4(1) / 5.1.3.4.10.6
(Termination point located in power supply)
MAINLINE PRESSURE HIGH 5.1.9.2.4(7)
(Termination point from mainline pressure switch)
MAINLINE PRESSURE LOW 5.1.9.2.4(7)
(Termination point from mainline pressure switch)

(Termination point located in power supply)


RESERVE IN USE 5.1.9.2.4(3) / 5.1.3.4.15.5 / 5.1.3.4.12.9(3)
(Terminal point from actuating pressure switch 261920*)
RESERVE LOW 5.1.3.4.12.9(4) / 5.1.9.2.4(5)
(Terminal point from actuating pressure switch 261921*)
MAINLINE PRESSURE HIGH 5.1.9.2.4(7)
(Termination point from mainline pressure switch)
MAINLINE PRESSURE LOW 5.1.9.2.4(7)
(Termination point from mainline pressure switch)

SUGGESTED MEDICAL GAS MASTER ALARM POINTS

SUGGESTED MEDICAL GAS MASTER ALARM POINTS

FOR LEVEL 1 FACILITIES

FOR LEVEL 1 FACILITIES

MECHANICAL ROOM

MEDICAL GAS ROOM

MASTER ALARM #1
MAY BE LOCATED IN SECURITY
(Requires 24 Hours/Day Surveillance)

MASTER ALARM #2
MAY BE LOCATED IN ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/AREA
Source/Mainline
Isolation Valve

Typical Oxygen (O2), Medical Air (Air),


Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Installation

Source/Mainline
Isolation Valve

Source/Mainline
Isolation Valve

261920* Actuating Pressure Switch


(Reserve In Use, Activate HP Cylinders
set at 85 PSIG)

Typical Nitrogen (N2) Installation

Check Valve
Located
in Pigtail

SUGGESTED ALARM POINTS FOR:


MEDICAL AIR COMPRESSOR (All Types)

Source/Mainline
Isolation Valve

RESERVE COMPRESSOR RUNNING 5.1.9.5.4(1) / 5.1.3.5.14.5


(Termination point located in compressor control panel)
MAINLINE PRESSURE HIGH 5.1.9.2.4(7)
Regulator

(Termination point from mainline pressure switch)

261921 Actuating Pressure Switch


("Reserve Low", 500 PSIG)

MAINLINE PRESSURE LOW 5.1.9.2.4(7)


(Termination point from mainline pressure switch)

SUGGESTED ALARM POINTS FOR:


MEDICAL/SURGICAL VACUUM PUMPS

CARBON MONOXIDE HIGH 5.1.9.4.5(2) / 5.1.3.5.15(2)

RESERVE VACUUM PUMP RUNNING

DEW POINT HIGH 5.1.9.2.4(10) / 5.1.3.5.15(1)

5.1.3.6.8 / 5.1.9.2.4(9) / 5.1.9.5.2 / 5.1.9.5.4(4)


(Termination point located in vacuum control panel)
MAIN LINE VACUUM LOW
5.1.9.2.4(8)
(Terminal point from main line vacuum switch)

WASTE ANESTHETIC GAS VACUUM PUMPS

Also, For Reciprocating (Piston type) Compressors


HIGH TEMPERATURE 5.1.3.5.14.3 / 5.1.9.5.4(9) / 5.1.3.5.14.4(1)
(Termination point located in compressor control panel)

(Termination point located in vacuum control panel)


MAINLINE EVACUATION LOW

(Termination point located in compressor control panel)

Also, For Liquid Ring Compressors:

5.1.9.5.2 / 5.1.3.7.4.1 / 5.1.9.2.4(9) / 5.1.9.5.4(5)

5.1.9.2.4(8)

(Termination point from main line vacuum switch)

MANIFOLDS WITH RESERVE

(Termination point located in compressor control panel)

RECEIVER FLOODED (see note #1) 5.1.3.5.14.1 / 5.1.9.5.4(7)

RESERVE VACUUM PUMP RUNNING

SUGGESTED ALARM FUNCTIONS FOR:

(Termination point from CO monitor)

RECEIVER FLOODED 5.1.3.5.14.1 / 5.1.9.5.4(7)


(Termination point located in compressor control panel)
HIGH WATER SEPARATOR 5.1.3.5.14.2 / 5.1.9.5.4(8)
(Termination point located in compressor control panel)

CYLINDER BANK CHANGEOVER 5.1.9.2.4(1) / 5.1.3.4.12.9(1)

SUGGESTED ALARM FUNCTIONS FOR:


MANIFOLDS WITHOUT RESERVE
CYLINDER BANK CHANGEOVER 5.1.9.2.4(1) / 5.1.3.4.10.6
(Termination point located in power supply)
MAINLINE PRESSURE HIGH 5.1.9.2.4(7)
(Termination point from mainline pressure switch)
MAINLINE PRESSURE LOW 5.1.9.2.4(7)
(Termination point from mainline pressure switch)

(Termination point located in power supply)


RESERVE IN USE 5.1.9.2.4(3) / 5.1.3.4.15.5 / 5.1.3.4.12.9(3)
(Terminal point from actuating pressure switch 261920*)
RESERVE LOW 5.1.3.4.12.9(4) / 5.1.9.2.4(5)
(Terminal point from actuating pressure switch 261921*)
MAINLINE PRESSURE HIGH 5.1.9.2.4(7)
(Termination point from mainline pressure switch)
MAINLINE PRESSURE LOW 5.1.9.2.4(7)
(Termination point from mainline pressure switch)

Vacuum/Compressor Alarm Termination Points


Located inside System Control Panel
(Lower Left hand Corner)

LA

Lag Vacuum/Compressor Alarm

RF

Receiver Flooded Alarm

NOTES:
1.

Liquid air compressor and reciprocating air compressors with


water cooled heads and/or water cooled aftercoolers.

2.

Mainline pressure switches for oxygen, nitrous oxide,


medical air and carbon dioxide will provide both High and
Low pressure alarm functions. A similar switch is provided
for medical/surgical vacuum and/or waste anesthetic gas
evacuation, but only a Low Vacuum function is required.
Nitrogen requires two separate switches, one for High and
one for Low

3.

Per NFPA 99, 2002 (5.1.8.2.3.) All pressure switches,


pressure gauges and pressure sensing devices downstream
of the source valve shall be provided with a gas specific
demand check fitting to facilitate servicing, testing or
replacement.

4.

Cable requirement for area alarm module to remote sensors;


master alarm to source equipment.
18-22 gauge shielded, twisted pair
Multi-conductor twisted pair cable cab be used when
connecting multiple sensors.

High Temperature Alarm


HT1
Compressor 1
HT2
Compressor 2
HT3
Compressor 3
HT4
Compressor 4
High Water Separator Alarm
HW1
Compressor 1
HW2
Compressor 2
HW3
Compressor 3
HW4
Compressor 4

Mainline Pressure/Vacuum witch Connections


Mainline Pressure Switch High, Oxygen (O2), Medical Air (AIR),
Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Orange Wire NC
Brown Wire Common
Mainline Pressure Switch/Low
Oxygen (O2), Medical Air (Air), Nitrous Oxide (N2O),
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Red Wire NC
Purple Wire Common
Mainline Vacuum Switch/Low
Blue Wire NC
Purple Wire Common
Mainline Pressure Switch High, Nitrogen (N2)
N.C. NC
C. Common
Mainline Pressure Switch Low, Nitrogen (N2)
N.C. NC
C. Common
All Gases from High Pressure Manifold
Reserve in Use/Cylinder Changover
Terminal #6 NC
To Alarm Ground Terminal #7 Common
Dew Point/CO Monitor
Yellow Relay, DewPoint C & NC
Red Relays, CO C & NC

SUGGESTED ALARM FUNCTIONS FOR BULK


OXYGEN SYSTEM

CRYOGENIC BULK GAS UNITS WITH CRYOGENIC


RESERVE
LIQUID LEVEL LOW 5.1.9.2.4(2) / 5.1.3.4.13.6(1)
RESERVE IN USE 5.1.9.2.4(3) / 5.1.3.4.13.6(2)
MAIN LINE PRESSURE HIGH 5.1.9.2.4(7)
MAIN LINE PRESSURE LOW 5.1.9.2.4(7)
RESERVE LOW 5.1.9.2.4(5) / 5.1.3.4.11.6(3)
CHANGEOVER 5.1.9.2.4(1) / 5.1.3.4.13.6(5)
RESERVE PRESSURE LOW 5.1.9.2.4(6) / 5.1.3.4.11.6(4) (Not
Functional)

CRYOGENIC BULK GAS UNITS WITH CYLINDER


RESERVE
LIQUID LEVEL LOW 5.1.3.4.13.6(1) / 5.1.9.2.4(2)
RESERVE IN USE 5.1.9.2.4(3) / 5.1.3.4.13.6(2) / 5.1.3.4.13.5
MAIN LINE PRESSURE HIGH 5.1.9.2.4(7)
MAIN LINE PRESSURE LOW 5.1.9.2.4(7)
CHANGEOVER 5.1.9.2.4(1) / 5.1.3.4.13.6(5)

HOSP ITA L PIP ING SYSTE M


ARE A CONNECTION
BY INS TALLER

GAS SPECIFIC DEMA ND CHECK


DISS MALE THREAD
1
1/4" NPT MALE
TO 1/8" NP T FE MALE
RE DUCING BUSHING

1
FOR SWITCH
1/4" NP T CLOS E
NIPP LE (2)

FOR GAUGE
1
1/4" NPT MALE
TO 1/8" NP T FE MALE
RE DUCING BUSHING

GAUGE
1

S UP PLIE D BY OTHERS

Mainline Pressure Switches

Typical Nitrogen (N2) Installation

HOSPITAL PIPING SYSTEM


AREA CONNECTION
BY INSTALLER

GAS SPECIFIC DEMAND C HECK


D ISS MALE THREAD
1
FOR SWITCH
1/4 " NPT
CLOSE NIPPLE

1
1/4" NPT MALE
TO 1/8" NPT FEMALE
REDUCIN G BU SHING
1

GAUGE

Mainline Pressure/Vacuum Switch

1
FOR GAUGE
1/4" NPT MALE
TO 1/8" NPT FEMALE
REDUCIN G BU SHING

SUPPLIED BY OTHERS

Typical Oxygen (O2), Medical Air (Air), Nitrous Oxide (N2O),


Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Vacuum Installation

Ohio Medical Corporation - 1111 Lakeside Drive, Gurnee, Il 60031-4099


800-448-0770 / 847-855-0500 - Fax: 847-855-6300 - www.ohiomedical.com

MEDICAL GAS EQUIPMENT MOUNTING HEIGHT DETAIL

TM

www.ohiomedical.com

1111 Lakeside Drive, Gurnee, IL 60031-4099


Phone: 800-448-0770 - Fax: 847-855-6300

www.squire-cogswell.com
An Ohio Medical Corporation Brand

technical support
Manifold Sizing
Medical Air Manifold:
Cylinders per Bank

400 ft3

No. of beds X

12

52

234

[Cubic ft of gas used

[Months

[# of weeks

[Cubic ft per

[Cylinders

per month per bed]

per year]

per year]

cylinder]

per bank]

Surgery Center Oxygen Cylinder Manifold:


Where usage is not known
Cylinders per Bank

400 ft3

X No. of Beds

12

52

244

[Cubic ft of gas used

[Months

[# of weeks

[Cubic ft per

[Cylinders

per month per bed]

per year]

per year]

cylinder]

per bank]

Hospital Oxygen Cylinder Manifold:


Where usage is not known
Cylinders per Bank

700 ft3

x No. of Beds x

12

52

244

[Cubic ft of gas used

[Months

[# of weeks

[Cubic ft per

[Cylinders

per month per bed]

per year]

per year]

cylinder]

per bank]

*With a monthly demand of 30,000 ft, bulk O2 should be used.


Where usage is known:
Usage, Ft3 per Month
5850
9750
13650
17600
21500
25350
29250

Duplex Manifold Size


Divide by 2 for each Bank
6
10
14
18
22
26
30

N2O Cylinder Manifold:

N2 Cylinder Manifold:

CO2 Cylinder Manifold:

Divide total by 2 for each Bank

Divide total by 2 for each bank

Divide total by 2 for each bank

No. of
Operating
Rooms
1 to 4
5 to 8
9 to 12
13 to 16
17 to 20

No. of
Operating
Rooms
1 to 2
3 to 4
5 to 6
7 to 8
9 to 10
11 to 12
13 to 14

No. of
Operating
Rooms
1 to 8
9 to 16
17 to 32

Total
No. of
Cylinders
4
8
12
16
20

Total
No. of
Cylinders
4
8
12
16
20
24
28

Total
No. of
Cylinders
4
8
12

TRUSTED BRANDS OF OHIO MEDICAL

Division of Ohio Medical

Division of Ohio Medical

Division of Ohio Medical

Ohio Medical Corporation


1111 Lakeside Drive - Gurnee, IL 60031-4099 USA
TollFree: 800-448-0770- Fax: 847-855-6200
www.ohiomedical.com

technical support
Medical Gas Cylinder Data

Gas

Oxygen (O2)

Nitrous Oxide
(N2O)

Medical
Breathing Air
(Air)

Nitrogen (N2)

Carbon
Dioxide (CO2)

Helium (He)

Cyl. Size
B
D
E
M
M
G
H
J
B
D
E
M
G
H
J
D
E
M
M
G
H
J
D
E
M
M
G
H
J
B
D
E
M
G
H
J
D
E
M
M
G
H
J

Cylinder
Dimensions

Cyl. Pressure
(psig)

3-3/16" x 13"
4-3/16" x 16-3/4"
4-3/16" x 26-1/2"
7" x 43"
7" x 43"
9" x 51"
9" x 51"
9-1/4" x 55"
3-3/16" x 13"
4-3/16" x 16-3/4"
4-3/16" x 26-1/2"
7" x 43"
9" x 51"
9" x 51"
9-1/4" x 55"
4-3/16" x 16-3/4"
4-3/16" x 26-1/2"
7" x 43"
7" x 43"
9" x 51"
9" x 51"
9-1/4" x 55"
4-3/16" x 16-3/4"
4-3/16" x 26-1/2"
7" x 43"
7" x 43"
9" x 51"
9" x 51"
9-1/4" x 55"
3-3/16" x 13"
4-3/16" x 16-3/4"
4-3/16" x 26-1/2"
7" x 43"
9" x 51"
9" x 51"
9-1/4" x 55"
4-3/16" x 16-3/4"
4-3/16" x 26-1/2"
7" x 43"
7" x 43"
9" x 51"
9" x 51"
9-1/4" x 55"

2015
2015
2015
2217
2492
2217
2492
2640
745 @ 70F
745 @ 70F
745 @ 70F
745 @ 70F
745 @ 70F
745 @ 70F
745 @ 70F
2015
2015
2217
2492
2217
2492
2640
2015
2015
2217
2492
2217
2492
2640
838 @ 70F
838 @ 70F
838 @ 70F
838 @ 70F
838 @ 70F
838 @ 70F
838 @ 70F
2015
2015
2217
2492
2217
2492
2640

Standard Volume (14.7 psia, 70 F)


Gal.
55
112
186
935
1055
1878
2110
2521
98
248
420
2155
3726
4242
4900
105
175
875
973
1743
1945
2319
103
172
860
958
1721
1908
2274
98
248
420
2155
3726
4249
4908
98
165
823
913
1638
1825
2177

Ft.3
7.4
15
24.9
125
141
251
282
337
13.1
33.2
56.1
288
498
567
655
14
12.4
117
130
233
260
310
13.7
23
115
128
230
255
304
13.1
33.2
56.1
288
498
568
656
13.2
22
110
122
219
244
291

Liters
210
424
704
3540
3993
7108
7986
9543
370
940
1590
8156
14103
16057
18550
398
662
3313
3682
6599
7363
8778
391
651
3257
3625
6514
7222
8609
370
940
1590
8156
14103
16086
18578
374
623
3115
3455
6202
6910
8241

Approx. Wt.
Gas (lb-oz)
0-9.8
1-3.9
2-1.0
10-6.2
11-11.5
20-13.8
23-7.8
27.14.5
1-7.8
3-12.8
6-6.8
32-15.5
57-0.0
64-14.6
74-15.7
1-0.8
1-12.0
8-12.2
9-11.8
17-7.2
19-7.6
23-3.5
1-0.0
1-10.7
8-5.4
9-4.5
16-10.8
18-7.8
22-0.5
1-8.0
3-12.6
6-6.7
33-0.0
56-15.8
64-15.8
75-1.1
0-2.2
0-3.6
1-2.1
1-4.1
2-4.1
2-8.2
3-0.0

CGA Connection
870
Pin-Indexed

540

910
Pin-Indexed

326

950
Pin-Indexed

346

960
Pin-Indexed

580

940
Pin-Indexed

320

930
Pin-Indexed

580

TRUSTED BRANDS OF OHIO MEDICAL

Division of Ohio Medical

Division of Ohio Medical

Division of Ohio Medical

Ohio Medical Corporation


1111 Lakeside Drive - Gurnee, IL 60031-4099 USA
TollFree: 800-448-0770- Fax: 847-855-6200
www.ohiomedical.com

CONVERSION CHART
ACFM / SCFM
Vacuum
Level
(Gauge

Conversion
Factor

Vacuum
Level
(Gauge

Conversion
Factor

Vacuum
Level
(Gauge

Conversion
Factor

1"

1.03

11"

1.58

21"

3.33

2"

1.07

12"

1.67

22"

3.75

3"

1.11

13"

1.79

23"

4.28

4"

1.15

14"

1.88

24"

5.00

5"

1.20-

15"

2.00

25"

6.00

6"

1.25

16"

2.14

26"

7.63

7":

1.30

17"

2.31

27"

10.00

9"

1.36

18"

2.50

28"

15.00

9"

1.43

19"

2.73

29"

30.00

10"

1.50

20"

3.00

TO FIND ACFM - Multiply SCFM by conversion factor


EXAMPLE:

99 SCFM @ 19 Hg
99 x 2.73 = 270.27 ACFM

99 SCFM @ 25 Hg
99 x 6 = 594 ACFM

TO FIND SCFM - Divide ACFM by conversion factor


EXAMPLE:

270.27 ACFM @ 19 Hg
270.276 divide by 2.73 = 99

TM

www.ohiomedical.com

594 ACFM @ 25 Hg
594 divide by 6 = 99

1111 Lakeside Drive, Gurnee, IL 60031-4099


Phone: 800-448-0770 - Fax: 847-855-6300
P/N 255277 (Rev.2) 07/2006

www.squire-cogswell.com
An Ohio Medical Corporation Brand

1) Start at the column with the


units that you wish to convert from.
2) Follow down the chart to where
you find the 1.
3) Horizontally move from that column to the column with the units
that you wish to convert to.

FLOW CONVERSION CHART


GPM
L/Hr
m 3/Hr
m 3/min

L/min

7.481

1.69907

0.0283

1699.07

28.318

0.134

0.227

0.00379

227.1

3.785

0.589

4.403

0.0167

1000

16.67

35.31

264.2

60

60000

1000

0.000589

0.0044

0.001

1.67E-05

0.0167

0.0353

0.264

0.06

0.001

60

CFM

TO USE THESE CHARTS

VOLUME CONVERSION CHART


Gal
L
M3
Ft
In3
1
1728
7.48
0.0283
28.32
0.000579
1
0.00433 1.64E-05 0.0164
0.134
231
1
0.00378
3.786
35.34
61060
264.3
1
1000
0.0353
61.02
0.264
0.001
1
3

4) Multiply the number found in the


box by the number that you have
to get the converted value. or use
the appropriate formula contained
in the box.

TEMPERATURE CONVERSION CHART


K
R
C
1
K x 1.8
K - 273.15
R x 0.5556
1
(R - 491.67) x 0.5556
C + 237.15
(C x 1.8) + 491.67
1
(F + 459.67) x 0.5556
F + 459.67
(F - 32) x 0.5556

#/Hr to ACFM:
ACFM to #Hr:

F
(K - 255.37) x 1.8
R - 459.67
(C x 1.8) + 32
1

MISCELLANEOUS CONVERSIONS
#/Hr(1/60)(379/MW)(760/P)(460+T/250)
ACFM(60/1)(MW/379)(P/760)(520/460+T)

NOTE: Where MW is the molecular w eight, P is the operating pressure in TORR,


and T is the operating temperature in oF.

In
Hg

Torr
(mmHg)

mBar

In
H2O

1
0.0394
0.0295
0.0735
0.883
0.0029
2.9
2.04
0.000295
0.295
29
29.921

25.4
1
0.75
1.868
22.42
0.0736
73.55
51.71
0.0075
7.5
735.7
760

33.86
1.333
1
2.49
29.89
0.0981
98.06
68.95
0.01
10
980.9
1013.25

13.6
0.535
0.402
1
12
0.0394
39.38
27.69
0.00402
4.016
393.9
406.9

PRESSURE CONVERSION CHART


Ft
m
mm H2O
PSI
H2O
H2O
1.133
0.0446
0.0335
0.0833
1
0.00328
3.281
2.307
0.000335
0.335
32.82
33.9

345.3
13.6
10.2
25.39
304.8
1
1000
703.1
0.102
102
10003
10333

0.345
0.0136
0.0102
0.0254
0.305
0.001
1
0.703
0.000102
0.102
10
10.333

0.491
0.0193
0.0145
0.0361
0.434
0.00142
1.422
1
0.000145
0.145
14.23
14.696

Pa

kPa

3386
133.3
100
249
2989
9.806
9806
6895
1
1000
98088
101325

3.386
0.133
0.1
0.249
2.989
0.00981
9.806
6.895
0.001
1
98.09
101.325

Kg/cm2
0.0345
0.00136
0.00102
0.00254
0.0305
0.0001
0.1
0.0703
0.0000102
0.0102
1
1.033

ATM
0.0334
0.00132
0.000987
0.00246
0.0295
0.0000968
0.0968
0.068
0.0000099
0.00987
0.968
1

NOTE: All pressure terms are absolute, not gauge.

TM

www.ohiomedical.com

1111 Lakeside Drive, Gurnee, IL 60031-4099


Phone: 800-448-0770 - Fax: 847-855-6300
P/N 255033 (Rev.3) 07/2006

www.squire-cogswell.com
An Ohio Medical Corporation Brand

Altitude Compensation for Vacuum


Normal Barometric
Multiplier Used for
Altitude in Feet Pressure
Required SCFM
Sea Level
29.92"Hg (760 mmHg)
1
500
29.39"Hg (747 mmHg)
1.02
1000
28.86"Hg (733 mmHg)
1.04
1500
28.33"Hg (720 mmHg)
1.06
2000
27.82"Hg (707 mmHg)
1.08
2500
27.32"Hg (694 mmHg)
1.1
3000
26.82"Hg (681 mmHg)
1.12
3500
26.33"Hg (669 mmHg)
1.14
4000
25.84" Hg(656)mm Hg)
1.16
5000
24.90"Hg (633 mmHg)
1.2
6000
23.98"Hg (609 mmHg)
1.25
8000
22.23"Hg (565 mmHg)
1.35
9000
21.93"Hg (543 mmHg)
1.4
10000
20.58"Hg (523 mmHg)
1.45

Receiver Sizing Formula


In vacuum thermoforming it is customary to generate deep vacuum in a short period of
time. A vacuum receiver is usually employed to produce this quick initial pulldown. If
the installation is new, the following formula may be used to determine the size of the
appropriate vacuum receiver.
V2 = V1(P3-P1)/P2-P3
Where:

Equ. 1.1

V2 = Applicable vacuum receiver size [Ft3]


V1 = Total mold volume (forming volume + box volume) [Ft3]
P1 = Initial pressure in the mold [PSIA]
P2 = Pressure in vacuum system [PSIA]
P3 = Pressure in combined system [PSIA]

Example:

A vacuum receiver needs to be sized for a new installation. The forming volume is 0.8 Ft3, and the box volume is 1.2 Ft3. The initial pressure in the mold
is 29.75 Hg (barometric pressure). The required pressure to form the sheet in
the mold is 22 Hg. The pressure produced by the vacuum pump will be considered to be a maximum of 28 Hg.

First one must determine what are the appropriate variables, and then covert them to the
appropriate units.
V2 To be determined
V1 2 Ft3 (0.8 Ft3 + 1.2 Ft3)
P1 14.61 PSIA (29.76 Hg(A) converted to PSIA)
P2 0.98 PSIA (28 Hg(G) first converted to 2 Hg(A), then converted to PSIA)
P3 3.93 PSIA (22 Hg(G) first converted to 8 Hg(A), then converted to PSIA)
V2 = 2 (3.93 14.61)/(0.98-3.93)
V2 = 7.24 Ft3 or times 7.48 gal/1 Ft3;
V2= 54 gal
In this case, a 60 gal receiver would be appropriate.

TM

www.ohiomedical.com

1111 Lakeside Drive, Gurnee, IL 60031-4099


Phone: 800-448-0770 - Fax: 847-855-6300
1 of 6

www.squire-cogswell.com
An Ohio Medical Corporation Brand

Another formula is useful where an existing tank is to be used. If the receiver size is known,
one will wish to calculate the pressure in the combined system.
P3 = (P1V1+P2V2)/(V1+V2)
Equ. 1.2
Where:

V2 = Existing vacuum receiver size [Ft3]


V1 = Total mold volume (forming volume + box volume) [Ft3]
P1 = Initial pressure in the mold [PSIA]
P2 = Pressure in vacuum system [PSIA]
P3 = Pressure in combined system [PSIA]

Example:

Say that a 60 gal receiver is available from stock, what will be the final pressure
in the combined system?

First one must determine what are the appropriate variables, and then convert them to the
appropriate units.
V2 8.02 Ft3 (60 gal * 1 Ft3/7.48 gal)
V1 2 Ft3 (0.8 Ft3 + 1.2 Ft3)
P1 14.61 PSIA (29.75 Hg(G) converted to PSIA)
P2 0.98 PSIA (28 Hg(G) first converted to 2 Hg(A), then converted to PSIA)
P3 to be determined
P3 = (14.61 * 2 + 0.98 * 8.02)/(2 + 8.02)
P3 = 3.7 PSIA or converted to Hg(G) (29.92 Hg(A)-3.7 PSIA (29.92 Hg(A)/14.7 PSIA))
P3 = 22.4 Hg(G)
In most cases the system volume is equivalent to the tank volume. Generally if the pipework
associated with the system is greater than 10% of the tank volume, that the volume of the
pipework should be taken into account. These formulas also do not account for the collapse
of the plastic in the mold. In most cases, the forming volume is so much smaller than the system volume that it does not add much to the calculations. These formulas also do not
account for leaks in the system.

Ohio Medical Corporation - 1111 Lakeside Drive, Gurnee, IL 60031-4099 - Phone: 800-448-0770 - Fax: 847-855-6300
2 of 6

Pump Sizing Formula


After the vacuum receiver has produced the initial quick pulldown, the vacuum pump
can be used to generate the final deep vacuum. The following formula is the general
pump down formula.
t = V * LN (PI/PF)/QAVG Equ. 1.3
Where:

t Time to evacuate volume [min]

LN Natural Log
V Total volume to be evacuated [Ft3]
P1 Initial pressure (PSIA)
PF Final pressure (PSIA)
QAVG Average volumetric flowrate of the pump (ACFM)

Note that this formula does not account for leaks in the system
Example:

The 60 gal receiver from the previous example has been installed. The process
requires that the vacuum pump should pull the combined system from 22.4 Hg
to 28 Hg in approximately 10 seconds to increase the detail on the molded
plastic. Will the S3 be able to accomplish this?

Once again the appropriate variables need to be determined.


t = To be determined
V 9.22 Ft3 (1.2 Ft3 = 8.02 Ft3) {note that the forming volume is approximately 0}
P1 3.7 PSIA (22.4 Hg(G) determined by equation 1.2)
PF 0.98 PSIA (28 Hg(G) first converted to 2 Hg(A), then converted to PSIA)
QAVG 37 ACFM
The average flowrate is determined by adding the flows at different vacuum levels. The average capacity of the pump should be taken between the starting vacuum level and the ending
vacuum level. For this example, the values are for the S3.
5 Hg
19 Hg
22 Hg
25 Hg
28 Hg
29 Hg

55 ACFM
44 ACFM
43 ACFM
35.9 ACFM
31 ACFM
21 ACFM

43 + 38 + 31
3
= 37.33 or 37 Avg. ACFM

Solving for time:


t = 9.22 * LN (3.8/0.98)/37
t = 0.331 min or times 60 s/1 min;
t = 20 s

Ohio Medical Corporation - 1111 Lakeside Drive, Gurnee, IL 60031-4099 - Phone: 800-448-0770 - Fax: 847-855-6300
3 of 6

Basically the S3 will take 10 seconds too long to accomplish this pulldown. Try the S5 using
the same parameters. All of the values remain the same, except for the average flowrate of
the pump For the S5 from 22 Hg to 28 Hg:
QAVG = 82 ACFM
Once again solving for time:
t = 9.22 * :N (3.8/0/98)/82
t = 0.149 min or times 60 s/1 min;
t=9s
In answer to the question that was posed in the example, the S3 will not be able to satisfy the
requirement, but the S5 does satisfy the requirement.
Another way to work this problem is to determine what flowrate is required given a specific
time period.
Example:

The 60 gal receiver from the previous example has been installed. The process
requires that the vacuum pump should pull the combined system from 22.4 Hg
to 28 Hg in approximately 10 seconds to increase the detail on the molded plastic. Will the S3 be able to accomplish this?

Change the formula to the following format:


QAVG = V * LN (PI/PF)/t

Equ. 1.4

From the values that been used in the previous pump down examples:
QAVG = 9.22 * LN (3.7/0.98)/0.1667
{t = 10 s * (1 min/60 s) = 0.1667 min}
QAVG = 73 ACFM
From what has been shown here, knowing the average volumetric flowrates, is that the SC10TR will be the best choice.

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4 of 6

Converting from SCFM to ACFM is as follows:


V2 = V1(P1/P2)(T2/T1)
Where:V2 ACFM
V1 SCFM

Equ. 1.5
P1 Absolute Pressure @ STP
P2 Absolute Pressure @ Vacuum Condition
T1 Absolute Temperature @ STP
T2 Absolute Temperature @ Vacuum Condition
MW Average Molecular Weight
STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure)
is 520oR and 760 mmHg(A)

An easy way to remember is:


V that you want = V that you have x
(P that you have / P that you want) x
(T that you want / T that you have)
Converting from a mass flowrate to a volumetric flowrate is as follows:
V = m (1/60)(379/MW)(P1/P2)(T2/T1)
Where:V ACFM
m - #/Hr

Equ. 1.6

P1 Absolute Pressure @ STP


P2 Absolute Pressure @ Vacuum Condition
T1 Absolute Temperature @ STP
T2 Absolute Temperature @ Vacuum Condition
MW Average Molecular Weight
STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure)
is 520oR and 760 mmHg(A)

Example:
Convert 20#/Hr of air to volumetric flowrate 25 Hg and 100oF.
V = m (1/60)(379/MW)(P1/P2)(T2/T1)
m = 20#/Hr
P1 = 760 mmHg(A) = 29.92 Hg(A)
P2 = 25 Hg(G) = 125 mmHg(A), or 4.92 Hg(A)
T1 = 460 + 60oF = 520oR
T2 = 460 + 100oF = 560oR
V = 20 (1/60)(379/29)(760/125)(560/520), or V = 20 (1/60)(379/29)(29.92/4.92)(560/520)
V = 29 ACFM @ 25 Hg and 100oF (Volumetric flowrates should be described at a specific
pressure and temperature
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5 of 6

Converting from a volumetric flowrate to a mass flowrate is as follows:


M = V (60/1)(MW/379)(P2/P1)(T1/T2),
using the same symbols as above.

Equ. 1.7

Example:
Convert 300 ACFM of air @ 28.5 Hg and 60oF to a mass flowrate.
m = V (60/1)(MW/379)(P2/P1)(T1/T2)
V = 300 ACFM
P1 = 760 mm Hg = 29.92 Hg
P2 = 28.5 Hg = 36 mmHg, or 1.42 Hg(A)
T1 = 460 + 60oF = 520oR
T2 = 460 + 100oF = 520oF, note that since T1 = T2, the division is 1, and it may be neglected
m = 300 (60/1)(29/379)(36/760), or m = 300 (60/1)(29/379)(1.42/29.92)
m = 65#/Hr
Note that all calculations involving pressure and temperature should be performed at absolute
conditions.

Ohio Medical Corporation - 1111 Lakeside Drive, Gurnee, IL 60031-4099 - Phone: 800-448-0770 - Fax: 847-855-6300
6 of 6

Affects of Altitude on Vacuum


Systems
Series of Technical White Papers from Ohio Medical Corporation

Ohio Medical Corporation. 1111 Lakeside Drive Gurnee, IL 60031


Phone: (800) 448-0770 Fax: (847) 855-6304 info@ohiomedical.com www.ohiomedical.com
560809 Rev. 1

TERMINOLOGY
ACFM Actual Cubic Feet per Minute
CFM Cubic Feet per Minute
MDCFD Thousand Standard Cubic Feet per Day
psia Pounds Per Square Inch in Absolute pressure
SCFM Standard Cubic Feet per Minute

Ohio Medical Corporation

INTRODUCTION
This paper discusses the affect of atmospheric variation on a vacuum pumps
performance. To simplify the understanding, vacuum pumps are compressors
operating in reverse, where inlet pressure is below the atmospheric pressure,
and compressed to the discharge at atmospheric pressure. The operating range
of a vacuum pump will be between atmospheric pressure down to absolute
zero (a perfect vacuum). Realistically, we can not achieve a perfect vacuum
(29.9 in-Hg), and the vacuum pumps used for medical and industrial
applications require approximately 95% (28.5 in-Hg) of the atmospheric
pressure to be evacuated in a tank. Cryogenic applications require nearly a
perfect vacuum, and will achieve more than 99.9% (greater than 29.8 in-Hg)
of the atmospheric pressure to be evacuated from a chamber.
This paper supplements the Squire-Cogswell white paper titled: ACFM vs.
SCFM vs. ICFM published in 2004 and explains the differences in compressor
performance with respect to the varying atmospheric conditions. The paper
also addresses appropriate CFM terminology that should be use in
comparing compressors (SCFM) and sizing them properly (ACFM) for the off
Standard conditions for the altitude and conditions for the area.
Due to the atmospheric variation in air pressure, temperature and density the
fluid properties are constantly changing (i.e. - conditions are dependent on
location, time of the year, altitude, etc.) Thus, it is important to understand
that the conditions in Los Angeles vary significantly from the conditions in
Denver, and a vacuum pumps performance (capacity and operation) will vary
significantly. The intent of this paper is to provide a better understanding of
how vacuum pumps capacity varies with respect to altitude, so we can
properly select and size vacuum pumps for their specified and intended
applications.

Ohio Medical Corporation

DESCRIPTION
The term cubic feet per minute (CFM) describes the fluid flow rate, (measured in volume
- ft3) not the weight per minute on the inlet side of a compressor. The vacuum pumps
performance capability is measured in how many one ft3 cubes of fluid are able to move
per minute through the system.
1 ft

1 ft

1 ft

Figure 1 One Cubic Feet of Volume


Now consider the conditions in Los Angeles, where one cubic foot of air weighs 0.075
lbs., and in Denver, where one cubic foot of air weighs 0.062 lbs. Even though the
volume is the same, the weight (mass) of the air is different.
1 ft

1 ft

Denver

Los Angeles
1 ft

1 ft

W=0.075 lbs.

1 ft

W=0.062 lbs.

1 ft

Figure 2 Constant Volume


Condition
Now consider a constant weight (mass) condition. A balloon filled with 31 actual cubic
feet of air in Los Angeles is then taken up to Denver. The balloon now contains 38
standard cubic feet of air.

Los Angeles

Denver

V=31 ft3

V=38 ft3

Figure 3 Constant Mass


Ohio Medical Corporation

The two examples illustrate the confusion of measuring volume due to the fact air is
compressible. In this instance, the number of gas molecules occupying a particular
volume, depends primarily on the pressure and temperature conditions of that location.
At a microscopic level, the air molecules are closer together (greater air density) in Los
Angeles compared to the air molecules in Denver.

Denver

Los Angeles

Figure 4 Variation in Air Molecule Density


A variation in air pressure results in a variation in air density, as show in Figure 4, and is
consistent with constant volume concept in Figure 2. Another way to look at this is to
analyze the number of air molecules in a 120-gallon receiver tank at atmospheric pressure
at Los Angels and at Denver, where the former (higher pressure) tank occupies a greater
number of molecules. The weight and density vary primarily because the atmospheric
pressure is significantly different between the two cities, as show in Table 1. Note the
terms for actual and standard for the volumes described above leads us to SCFM
and ACFM.
City
Los Angeles
Denver

Altitude
(ft)
0
5280

Atmospheric Pressure
(psia)
14.69
12.12

Atmospheric Pressure
(in-Hg)
29.92
24.68

Table 1 Variation in Atmospheric Pressure between the Two Cities

THE GENERAL RULE


To simplify the understanding of the affect of vacuum pumps with respect to variation in
altitude, the following illustration simplifies and points out the concept to understand
prior to proceeding with a more theoretical view point on the matter. For this paper, we
will assume only the attitude is varying, while keeping other conditions constant (like
temperature, humidity, etc,).

Ohio Medical Corporation

The first general rule is to understand that the maximum vacuum level that can be
achieved is with respect to the atmospheric conditions in the area. For example, assume
the maximum vacuum that can be achieved theoretically in Los Angeles (sea level) is
29.92 in-Hg, but in Denver (5280 feet above sea level) is 24.68 in-Hg.
City
Los Angeles
Denver

Altitude
(ft)
0
5280

Atmospheric Pressure
(in-Hg)
29.92
24.68

Atmospheric Pressure
(in-Hg using the rule)
29.92
24.64

Table 2 Rule of Thumb for Atmospheric Pressure


As a general Rule of Thumb, for every 1000 feet above sea level, the maximum
possible vacuum is reduced by approximately one in-Hg (0.491 psi). By using this rule
one can quickly determine the maximum possible vacuum for the area. Note the
accuracy of this Rule, as there is only a 0.16% difference between the approximated
and the actual pressure (shown in Table 2).
PERFORMANCE BASED ON CAPABILITY
Next consider that a vacuum systems performance is a percentage of the atmospheric
pressure that it can exhaust from a closed system. At sea level, Los Angeles has a
barometric pressure at 29.92 in-Hg. Thus, a vacuum pump with a maximum capability of
24.00 in-Hg will have are rating of 80.2%.
24.00 psi
= 0.802
29.92 psi

Then, the 80.2% rating can be assigned to the vacuum pump to determine its capability in
Denver.
0.802 24.68 = 19.79 in Hg

The 80.2% rating applied to the maximum possible vacuum (24.68 in-Hg) results in a
maximum vacuum of 19.79 in-Hg for this pump in Denver. This is a very important
point to understand and consider for vacuum performance and sizing for your location. If
the user needs a vacuum that can achieve 22 in-Hg in Denver, a pump with at least a 89%
vacuum capability is needed, or a pump that will achieve at least 26.7 in-Hg capability in
Los Angeles.

Ohio Medical Corporation

PERFORMANCE BASED ON CAPACITY

% CAPABILITY

In a closed system vacuum pumps use kinetic energy to move air through a closed
system. At low vacuum levels large volumes of air can be evacuated through the system,
but at higher vacuum levels, the capacity decreases, due to increased leakage from a
larger pressure differential with the environment and there is additional resistance to
flow. This phenomena is illustrated in Figure 5.

10

15

20

25

VACUUM (in-Hg)
Figure 5 Vacuum Capacity for Los Angels and Denver

Ohio Medical Corporation

SUMMARY
This paper summarized the affect of atmospheric variation on a vacuum pumps
maximum performance. By comparing conditions in Los Angeles from the conditions in
Denver (capacity and operation) and using the general Rule of Thumb (for every 1000
feet above sea level, the maximum possible vacuum is reduced by approximately one inHg), we can quickly determine the maximum possible vacuum for the area.
Finally, a specifier can use the Rule of Thumb for sizing a vacuum system properly. In
addition, the reference pressure, temperature, and required vacuum must be specified, in
addition to the required capacity and capability. When specifying the vacuum
requirement, the worst case conditions should be used (i.e. - generally hot days lower
air density). Other important factors to consider in vacuum system sizing are:
Vacuum requirement or demand in a given day
Normal operating conditions
Other operating conditions (hot days are the worst)
Single-stage or two-stage vacuum
Electrical characteristics and power requirement
Area classification (Elevation)

Ohio Medical Corporation

ACFM vs. SCFM vs. ICFM


Series of Technical White Papers from Ohio Medical Corporation

Ohio Medical Corporation 1111 Lakeside Drive Gurnee, IL 60031


Phone: (800) 448-0770 Fax: (847) 855-6304 info@ohiomedical.com www.ohiomedical.com
560808 Rev. 2

TERMINOLOGY
ACFM Actual Cubic Feet per Minute
CFM Cubic Feet per Minute
ICFM Inlet Cubic Feet per Minute
MDCFD Thousand Standard Cubic Feet per Day
psia Pounds Per Square Inch in Absolute pressure
SCFM Standard Cubic Feet per Minute
NOMENCLATURE
P1
Barometric pressure at the non-standard site in psia
T1
Ambient air temperature in R
PF
Pressure after the inlet filter in psia
TF
Air temperature after the inlet filter in R
Psat
Saturation Pressure

Relative Humidity at the non-standard site


Tstd
Standard temperature in degrees in R (60F = 60 + 460 = 520 R)
Pstd
Standard air pressure in psia (14.696 psia)

Ohio Medical Corporation.

INTRODUCTION
The term CFM is often confusing and difficult to define for one condition, and
one definition does not satisfy all conditions we encounter in our customers
applications throughout the world. Simply put, CFM is an acronym for Cubic
Feet per Minute, and defines the volumetric flow rate of a fluid displaced by a
pump (like a compressor, a blower, or a booster). The term CFM is generally
used to describe a pumps capacity, and is used to determine the size of the
source system for medical, industrial and other applications. The common
terms used to specify a volumetric flow rate in different industries are SCFM,
ACFM, ICFM, MCFM, MSCFD, etc. Often times these terms are very vague,
and in turn, misunderstood.
The primary reason for all the difficulties described above is because air is a
compressible fluid, due to the atmospheric variation in air pressure,
temperature and density - the fluid properties are constantly changing. The
conditions are dependent on location, time of the year, altitude, etc. Thus, it is
important to understand that the conditions in Los Angeles vary significantly
from the conditions in Denver. The terms SCFM, ACFM and ICFM are often
used to define the different instances and conditions of a compressors
capacity and operation. If the CFM terms are used appropriately, they can be
useful in the direct and relative comparison to their operating conditions, and
to other source systems. The intent of this paper is to provide a better
understanding of SCFM, ACFM and ICFM and their meaning, so we can
properly select and size compressors for their specified and intended
applications.

Ohio Medical Corporation.

DESCRIPTION
The term cubic feet per minute (CFM) describes the fluid flow rate, (measured in volume
- ft3) not the weight per minute on the inlet side of a compressor. The compressors
performance capability is measured in how many one ft3 cubes of fluid are able to move
per minute through the inlet.
1 ft

1 ft

1 ft

Figure 1 One Cubic Feet of Volume


Now consider the conditions in Los Angeles, where one cubic feet of air weighs 0.075
lbs., and in Denver, where one cubic feet of air weighs 0.062 lbs. Even though the
volume is the same, the weight (mass) of the air is different.
1 ft

1 ft

Denver

Los Angeles
1 ft

1 ft

W=0.075 lbs.

1 ft

W=0.062 lbs.

1 ft

Figure 2 Constant Volume


Condition
Now consider a constant weight
(mass) condition. A balloon filled with 31 actual cubic
feet of air in Los Angeles is then taken up to Denver. The balloon now contains 38
standard cubic feet of air.

Los Angeles

Denver

V=31 ft3

V=38 ft3

Figure 3 Constant Mass

Ohio Medical Corporation.

The two examples illustrate the confusion of measuring volume due to the fact air is
compressible. In this instance, the number of gas molecules occupying a particular
volume, depends on the pressure and temperature conditions of that location. At a
microscopic level, the air molecules are closer together (greater air density) in Los
Angeles compared to the air molecules in Denver.

Denver

Los Angeles

Figure 4 Variation in Air Molecule Density


A variation in air pressure results in a variation in air density, as show in Figure 4, and is
consistent with constant volume concept in Figure 2. Another way to look at this is to
analyze the number of air molecules in a 120-gallon receiver tank at 80 psia and 100 psia,
where the higher pressure tank occupies a greater number of molecules. The weight and
density vary primarily because the atmospheric pressure is significantly different between
the two cities, as show in Table 1. Note the terms for actual and standard for the
volumes described above leads us to SCFM and ACFM.
City
Los Angeles
Denver

Altitude
(ft)
0
5280

Atmospheric Pressure
(psia)
14.69
12.12

Table 1 Variation in Atmospheric Pressure between the Two Cities


SCFM and ACFM
The term standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM) is usually used as a standard reference
condition for flow rate performance for atmospheric pressure at sea level, as opposed to
actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) is typically used to rate flow rate performance of
compressor systems for actual pressure and temperature. SCFM is defined as air at
14.696 psia and 520R (60 F). Sometimes other conditions are used, such as 530R
(70F), 528R (68F), 0% and 36% Relative Humidity for describing the standard
conditions. It is important to remember SCFM is defined by a fixed set of conditions or
common reference point for comparing different compressors systems. Otherwise the
consequences are the improper sizing of the compressor system for its true application.
This point will be apparent in the two examples to follow.

Ohio Medical Corporation.

The conditions at sea level are generally not experienced by our customers and for
practicality purposes ACFM is typically used for sizing compressors for these
applications (+100F and lower pressures). The conversion for ACFM from SCFM is
shown by the formula below.
ACFM = SCFM

Pstd
T
1
P1 Psat1 1 Tstd

Equation 1

Note, absolute units must be used in the equation.


SCFM ACFM EXAMPLE 1 Normal Day
For this example we will reference a 30-hp compressor operating at 1020 rpm, and use it
in Los Angeles and Denver to demonstrate how SCFM and ACFM should be used.
Assume the requirement for compressed air is 125 psig discharge pressure, and 100
SCFM of demand, and the site ambient conditions are T1 = 80 F (540 R), P1 = 14.7 psia
and = 75%, and this results in the following:
ACFM = 106.6
If we assume that all ambient conditions remain the same with the exception of moving
the compressor to Denver, where the atmospheric pressure will drop to P1 = 12.12 psia,
the resulting volumetric flow requirement becomes:
ACFM = 130.0
In order to deliver the same amount of work (100 SCFM at 125 psig), the compressor in
Denver must ingest larger quantities of the lower-density air, due to the change in the
atmospheric pressure.
Location
Los Angeles, CA
Denver, CO

SCFM
100
100

ACFM
106.6
130.0

% Diff.
6.6 %
30.0 %

Table 1 Normal Day between the Two Cities


To provide the required 100 SCFM of work in Denver, the compressor must be able to
process 130 ACFM.
SCFM ACFM EXAMPLE 2 Hot Humid Day
For this example we will reference the first example for Los Angeles and Denver and
change the conditions to a hot humid day. Assume the same requirements and conditions
except for the ambient temperature of T1 = 100 F (560 R) and relative humidity of =
100%, which results in the following:

Ohio Medical Corporation.

Location
Los Angeles, CA
Denver, CO

SCFM
100
100

ACFM
115.1
141.6

% Diff.
15.1 %
41.6 %

Table 3 Hot Humid Day between the Two Cities


The results at the higher temperature and higher humidity condition show an even greater
amount of air is needed (approximately 10% more air is needed compared to Example 1)
to meet capacity requirements. Thus, we recommend using hot humid days to calculate
the worst case conditions for sizing a system. Tables can be constructed to size systems
from Equation 1, but it is up to the specifier to determine the proper conditions. Table 4
in Appendix A shows the expansion ratio conversions for SCFM and ACFM for the
conditions described in this example.
ICFM
The term Inlet Cubic Feet per Minute (ICFM) is used by compressor vendors to establish
the conditions at the inlet of compressor in front of the inlet filter, blower, or booster.
If the pressure and temperature condition at the inlet is the same as after the filter, blower,
or booster, then the ICFM and ACFM values will be the same. However, as the air
passes through these components, there will be always be a pressure drop or rise, and
Equation 2 is used to approximate ACFM.
ACFM = ICFM

P1 TF

PF T1

Equation 2

Then ICFM is used to measure inlet capacity, which will approximate ACFM for this
type of a system. Note, when a blower or booster is added, the inlet may experience
significantly higher pressure and temperature conditions than the actual ambient
conditions. Greater the difference in pressure and temperature, greater the difference in
ACFM and ICFM. Finally, there are losses (air seal, heat, etc.) associated with the use of
these components and coupled with the pressure and temperature differences, the use of
ICFM will result in a misleading outcome in determining a compressors capability.
Note at higher altitudes, the specifier must account for the decrease in air pressure when
estimating a compressors performance and sometimes blowers or boosters are used for
economic reasons, but this is not always the best solution. Thus, in certain markets, like
the Medical, where tighter controls are employed, ICFM should not be used to determine
a compressors capacity, instead ACFM should be used.

Ohio Medical Corporation.

CONCLUSION
This paper defined, summarized and applied the terms SCFM, ACFM and ICFM, and the
differences between them. The term CFM, at a fundamental level, is defined such that a
compressor will pump a specific volume of air in a given amount of time when the
compressor speed and flow resistance matches the test conditions.
A specifiers most difficult task is sizing a compressor properly, by specifying the
compressors required capacity. It is important to note that the proper understanding of
these terms will help a specifier in selecting a compressor. The specifier should use
SCFM to compare differences in compressor capacities, and ACFM for actual nonstandard site conditions and proper load applications. ICFM should be used only when a
filter, a booster or a blower is added to the system, and should not be used in determining
compressor selection, due to misleading results.
Finally, the reference pressure, temperature, and discharge pressure must be specified, in
addition to the required capacity. When specifying the compressed air requirement, the
worst case conditions should be used (i.e. - generally hot humid days, as shown in
Example 2). Otherwise, there will be confusion in the sizing process. Other important
factors to consider in compressor capacity and system sizing are:
Air requirement or demand in a given day
Normal operating conditions
Other operating conditions (hot humid days are the worst)
Single-stage or two-stage compressor (compression ratio)
CFM reduction due to flow resistance
Electrical characteristics and power requirement
Area classification (Elevation)
Compressors with a higher CFM rating will pump more air than
compressors with lower CFM

Ohio Medical Corporation.

APPENDIX A

Volume Expansion Ratio


Pressure
(psia)
14.70
14.50
14.25
14.00
13.75
13.50
13.25
13.00
12.75
12.50
12.25
12.00
11.75
11.50
11.25
11.00
10.75
10.50
10.25
10.00
9.75
9.50
9.25
9.00
8.75
8.50
8.25

SCFM to ACFM

ACFM to SCFM

1.151
1.168
1.190
1.213
1.237
1.261
1.287
1.314
1.341
1.371
1.401
1.433
1.466
1.500
1.537
1.575
1.615
1.658
1.702
1.749
1.799
1.851
1.907
1.966
2.029
2.097
2.168

0.869
0.856
0.840
0.824
0.809
0.793
0.777
0.761
0.745
0.730
0.714
0.698
0.682
0.666
0.651
0.635
0.619
0.603
0.588
0.572
0.556
0.540
0.524
0.509
0.493
0.477
0.461

Table 4 Volume Expansion Ratio Conversion Chart

Ohio Medical Corporation.

Pressure Drop in Air Piping Systems


Series of Technical White Papers from Ohio Medical Corporation

Ohio Medical Corporation 1111 Lakeside Drive Gurnee, IL 60031


Phone: (800) 448-0770 Fax: (847) 855-6304 info@ohiomedical.com www.ohiomedical.com

560807 Rev 2

TERMINOLOGY
ACFM Actual Cubic Feet per Minute
CFM Cubic Feet per Minute
GPM Gallons per Minute
NOMENCLATURE
Constants:
g Acceleration Due to Gravity (32.2 ft./sec2)
- Specific Weight (lb/ft3)
- Density of Fluid (slugs/ft3)
- Dynamic Viscosity (lb*s/ft2)
- Equivalent Roughness (.0005 ft. for Galvanized Pipe)
KL Loss Coefficient for Fittings (Found in Industrial Literature or College Text)
Variables:
zn Height at Position n (ft.)
V - Velocity of Fluid (ft/sec.)
D - Diameter of Pipe (in. or ft.)
A Cross Sectional Area of Pipe (in.2)
L Pipe Length (ft.)
hL Head Loss (ft.)
pn Pressure at Node n
f Friction Factor

INTRODUCTION
Ever since the development of piping systems throughout civilization there has been the
need to analyze pipe size for optimal flow. In 1738 Daniel Bernoulli had developed an
equation to represent all variables within a piping system, as shown below:
p1

V
p V
+ 1 + z1 = 2 + 2 + z 2 + hL
2g

2g

(1)

From Bernoullis equation, we can see how pressure, velocity and position relate to one
another, and many derivations can be created from this equation. Depending on the
assumptions made and under certain conditions, some of the variables become negligible
and can be removed to simplify the equation, and result in a simpler solution. The nature
of this paper is to solve for the pressure drop (or commonly referred to the back pressure)
which is essentially the pressure difference between two points in a piping system. The
pressure drop is critical when sizing pipe. A pump that is integrated within a piping
system is designed such that it will withstand certain forces at the inlet and exhaust. If
the pump is subjected to forces greater than the ones prescribed, there is a high potential
for damage to the internal pump components, and thus the designed flow will be affected.
This paper will focus on the flow of air, although it can be shown that other fluids can
also be modeled using the same methodology. Like other media that flows within a
piping system, air has its own characteristics which benefit and hinder the process.
There are numerous ways in which to solve for the pressure drop of piping system. That
is to say, one can incorporate the use of a computer with a plethora of software available.
However, the underlying equations used in these programs follow the same fundamental
laws of physics found in any collegiate Fluid Mechanics textbook. In addition, sound
engineering judgment should be used when sizing pipe. While a cost-effective solution
may look good on the bottom line, a safe and reliable system should have precedence in
any design.
For our discussion the following assumptions can be made:
Assumptions:
1. Air Flow will be turbulent.
2. The temperature for the ambient air will be 70oF
3. Air flow will be defined using ACFM.
With these assumptions we can model our system.

BACKGROUND:
As we all have either experienced, or heard about, the phenomenon referred to as
turbulence. Essentially turbulence is a random positioning of the flow of air. Whereas
in a laminar condition, the flow of air is uniform and follows a smooth, organized path.
For air piping, we assume that the air flow will be turbulent due to surface randomness in
the piping fabrication and/or power fluctuation in the air source equipment. A visual
depiction of laminar and turbulent flow is shown below:
Laminar Flow

Figure 1
Turbulent Flow

Figure 2
To see if the flow of air will be turbulent or laminar, we solve for a parameter referred to
as the Reynolds number. The Reynolds number is a dimensionless number which is
obtained from the following equation:
Re =

V D

(2)

The conditions for if the flow is turbulent or laminar is as follows:


If Re < 2100 then the flow is Laminar
If Re > 4000 then the flow is Turbulent
If 2100 < Re < 4000 then the flow is classified as in Transition.

To determine if the flow rate is laminar or turbulent, the Reynolds number should be
calculated. The combination of the Reynolds number, equivalent roughness and pipe
diameter we can determine the friction factor from the Moody chart. (Moody charts can
be found in industrial literature and in college text books.) The friction factor is used in
the equations below.
OTHER EQUATIONS:
Some of the other equations used to determine the pressure drop are in this section. We
can solve for the velocity of the flow by dividing the ACFM by the cross sectional area:

Velocity ( ft / s) =

Volumetric Flow Rate( ft 3 / s)


Area( ft 2 )

(3)

Where the area is solved by:


A = r2

(4)

Once the velocity is found, we can then check to see if the flow is turbulent, or laminar,
by utilizing the Reynolds equation (as mentioned previously).
The pressure drop in a piping system can be broken down into two (2) equation forms:
1. Major Pressure Losses (Pipe Losses)
2. Minor Pressure Losses (Losses through fittings, valves, etc.)
The Equation for Major Losses:
p1 p2 = f

l 1
V 2
D2

(5)

The Equation for Minor Losses:

p1 p2 = hL
Where hL is found by:

hL = K L

(6)

V2
2g

(7)

And the constant KL is found in tables of either college text, or industrial references.
Combining Equations (6) and (7) we can solve the pressure differential directly:

p1 p 2 = K L

V2
2g

(8)
5

Once the pressure drop has been calculated for the pipe length and all of the
fittings/valves, the total pressure drop can be found by the summation of all components.
In Equation form:
(9)

pTotal = p Fittings + p Pipe + pValves

COMPRESSIBLE VERSUS INCOMPRESSIBLE:

The reader might be wondering that since air is a gas, shouldnt the flow be characterized
as compressible? The answer to this question is dependent on many conditions.
Depending on the length of the pipe and the complexity of the arrangement of fittings and
valves, the pressure drop may, or may not, be small relative to the initial pressure. If the
pressure drop is small enough, then you can assume the fluid is incompressible.
Otherwise, the flow is Compressible, and complicates the analysis. An example to find
the pressure ratio is as follows:
We have a pipe length of 7-0 and the pressure drop should be no greater than 1.0 psi
per 7-0. The pressure at the beginning is 14.7 psi.

( p1 p2 )

(10)

p1

1 psi

(7 ft )
7 ft
= .068 = 6.8%
14.7 psi

This ratio is small enough to assume an incompressible flow. Sound judgment and
experience should be used when applying this equation. In different industries, different
values are used to make the difference.

EXAMPLE:
Given: A Squire-Cogswell S750TR-T2 system needs to have an exhaust line sized
properly. The customer needs to pipe the system to the outside the building. The
customer knows that there will be 100 ft. of pipe, three 90o elbows, and two 45o elbows.
All Piping will be galvanized ( = 0.0005 ft.). Air temperature is 60oF and atmospheric
pressure is 14.7 psi.
Find: The proper exhaust pipe diameter for this system.
Known: The given flow rate is 163.8 ACFM per pump. The exhaust for the pump is 11/2. (It is always advisable to check with the manufacturer of the pump for a back
pressure allowance. Depending on the manufacturer of the pump, the allowable back
pressure may vary.) The back pressure should not be greater than 1 psi.
Solution:

First we solve for the major lossesFind the velocity of the fluid from the flow rate using equation (3):
ft 3 1min
ft 3
V = 163.8

= 2.73
min 60 sec
sec
V = 2.73

ft 3
1

sec Cross Sectional Area of Pipe

Lets assume a 1-1/2 (0.0625 ft.) Cross Sectional Diameter:


Therefore:
V = 2.73

ft 3
1
ft

= 222.6
2
sec (0.0625 ft ) 3.14
sec

The next variable we look for is the Reynolds Number using equation (2):

Re =

VD

slugs
ft.
0.00238 3 222.6 (0.125 ft.)
s
ft
Re =
= 176,471
7 lb s
3.74 10
ft 2

Once the Reynolds number is found then the flow can be determined as either turbulent
or laminar. In this example, the flow is turbulent. The frictional factor can be found
from knowing the Reynolds number, relative roughness and diameter of the pipe.
From the Moody Chart f = 0.029
Using equation (5) to solve for the major losses:
100 ft. 1
slugs
ft
0.00238
222.6
p1 p 2 = 0.029

3
sec
ft
0.125 ft. 2
p1 p 2 = 1368

p1 p 2 = 1368

lb
ft.2

lb
1 ft 2

ft.2 144in 2

p = 9.49 psi

Second we solve for the minor losses (i.e. through fittings and valves) using equation (8):

p1 p 2 = K L

2

ft

222.6
lb
s
p1 p 2 = 0.0765 3 3 1.5
ft
ft

2 32.2 2

s

p = 359

V2
2g
2

ft

222.6

+ 2 .4
ft

2 32.2 2

lb
ft 2

lb
1 ft 2
p = 359 2
ft 144in 2
p = 2.50 psi
pTotal = pFittings + pPipe

pTotal = 9.49 psi + 2.50 psi


pTotal = 11.99 psi

As we can see from this solution, the pressure drop is much higher than what should be
observed in the pumps. Therefore, other iterations of the example are shown in Table 1:

Iteration

Pipe
Size
(in.)

Major Losses
Pressure
Drop in Pipe
(psi)

Minor Losses
Pressure Drop
in Fittings (psi)

Total
Pressure
Drop (psi)

1 1/2

9.49

2.20

11.99

0.24

0.14

0.38

2 1/2

0.64

0.28

0.92

Table 1
EXPERIMENT:

The above theory was tested in our lab to see if the data correlated with the solutions.
The experiment was set up as seen in the following pictures:

Pressure Measuring Device:


Merical DP2000I (Accuracy 0.05%R)
Pump:
45 lpm Volumetric Free Flow, 12 VDC, 4.0 Amp
Pipe Size:
1/8 (.269ID)
Fittings:
1/8 Tees (Qty. 2)
1/8 Pipe Nipples (as appropriate)
1/8 Pipe Couplings (as appropriate)
Conditions for the test:
Ambient conditions at Sea Level:
Temperature - 70oF
Pressure 14.7 PSIA
Flow Rate:
45 lpm (Approximately 1.6 ACFM)
The pressure drop was measured at different pipe lengths. Refer to the data below.

Length

Major
Losses
Calculated
(psi)

0.04

12

0.09

24

0.17

36

0.26

48

0.35

Minor Losses Calculated (psi)


Tee Branch Flow: 0.05(2) = 0.10
Elbow: 0.04(1) = 0.04
Tee Branch Flow: 0.05(2) = 0.10
Elbow: 0.04(1) = 0.04
1 Coupling: 0.002(1) = 0.002
Tee Branch Flow: 0.05(2) = 0.10
Elbow: 0.04(1) = 0.04
3 Couplings: 0.002(3) = 0.006
Tee Branch Flow: 0.05(2) = 0.10
Elbow: 0.04(1) = 0.04
5 Couplings: 0.002(5) = 0.010
Tee Branch Flow: 0.05(2) = 0.10
Elbow: 0.04(1) = 0.04
7 Couplings: 0.002(7) = 0.014

P
Calculated
(psi)

P
Measured
(psi)

0.18

0.19

0.23

0.23

0.32

0.30

0.41

0.37

0.49

0.42

Table 2

10

Pressure Drop Experiment


1
0.9
0.8

Pressure Drop (psi)

0.7
0.6
Calculated

0.5

Measured

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
6

12

24

36

48

Pipe Length (Inches)

Figure 3

As we can see from the data above, the calculated and measured data points correlate
with each other. The average difference is 0.03 psi between the calculated and measured
data points. The non-linear behavior of the measured values is attributed to the random
behavior of air. From Figure 3, one can see that the pressure data separates from the 12
point. The separation of data points can be attributed to leaks or irregularities in the pipe
(i.e. burrs, surface irregularities from galvanizing etc.) The leaks in the piping system
will decrease the flow rate, this in turn decreases the pressure. It is also interesting to
note that as the pipe length increases, so does the pressure. This is both demonstrated in
the measured and calculated values.

11

CONCLUSION:

Optimization of piping is essential in todays new construction of building systems. Due


to ever increasing costs of steel and copper, there is no other alternative but to take a
closer look at the piping system. In the past, a rule of thumb gave a large margin of
safety. However, the Engineer, Contractor and Architect must understand that the margin
of safety can be held while decreasing the excess size of the pipe. As long as the pressure
drop is within the pump manufacturers specifications, the performance will not be
affected.
The pressure drop in the piping system directly affects the performance of the pump.
Essentially the pressure drop produces additional forces that directly and indirectly affect
the internal parts. It should be noted that having an excess size diameter of pipe can be
detrimental as well (i.e. oversized). If the area is increased, the excess (stagnant) air will
act as an obstruction to the flow and therefore create a greater turbulence. Another
detrimental effect, besides damage to the internal components of the pump, is the
reduction of air capacity the pump removes. The back pressure acts as an obstruction to
the flow, therefore hindering capacity.
The example could be solved in different ways. In fact we could have different pipe sizes
in this line. That is to say, we could have calculated for a run 50-0 of 1 Dia. and
50-0 of 3 Dia. The calculation above is good for approximating the pipe size for the
entire length of the pipe, and it is also good for solving for smaller sections of pipe. In
addition, this paper makes lot of assumptions regarding the condition of the air flow and
the ambient conditions. It can be argued that a more detailed analysis would be
appropriate, and in other cases a more general solving approach would be appropriate.
As shown in the example, there are many steps that need to be followed to give us an
optimized pipe size. There are many opportunities to overlook error by using these
equations. Therefore, it is recommended to use sound industry judgment when solving
for the pressure drop and interpreting the results.

12

1111 Lakeside Drive Gurnee, IL 60031-4099 847-855-0500 www.ohiomedical.com

MEDICAL VACUUM AND COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEMS


LIMITED WARRANTY
1. Ohio Medical Corporation warrants to the original purchaser its Medical Vacuum and Compressed Air
Systems to be free from functional defects in material and workmanship for a period of twenty four (24)
months from the date of shipment, or for a period of twelve (12) months from the date of start-up, whichever
comes first.
a. Start-up shall only be done by an authorized representative of Ohio Medical Corporation.
2. In the event there is a functional defect either in material or workmanship Ohio Medical Corporation will only
repair or replace any part or component which is proven to be defective.
a. System Components sold as individual items are not warranted to include job site installation and wiring,
and the warranty set forth in Paragraph 1 is limited to complete units which include all factory installed
components and interconnected piping and wiring.
b. Labor on site is limited to functional defects in workmanship found to be defective at the time of start-up.
c. The replacement of normal wearing or maintenance items (including but not limited to packings,
mechanical seals, oil seals, piston rings, contacts, coils, fuses, etc.) made in connection with normal
maintenance services are not covered by this warranty.
3. To obtain service within the warranty period, first contact your authorized Ohio Medical Corporation dealer or
the Ohio Medical Corporation Service Department. Ohio Medical Corporation responsibility under this
warranty shall be limited to providing at Ohio Medical Corporation sole discretion new or similar rebuilt
replacement parts to replace any component found to be defective within the warranty period.
a. Labor to repair any part or component proved to be defective within the warranty period will be provided
at no charge for any item returned to our factory adequately packaged and insured with shipping costs
prepaid. Standard surface freight shipping cost and return of the repaired part or component will be paid
by Ohio Medical Corporation.
b. Before returning any part or component to the factory, proper return authorization must first be obtained
from Ohio Medical Corporation Service Department.
4. The warranty is valid only when the product has been property installed according to Ohio Medical
Corporation specifications, used in a normal manner and serviced according to factory recommendations. It
does not cover failure due to damage which occurs in shipment or failures which result from accidents,
misuse, abuse, neglect, mishandling, alteration, misapplication or damage that may be attributable to acts of
God. Similarly, this warranty does not apply to units that are re-sold or rented to others by the purchaser.
5. Ohio Medical Corpioration shall not be liable for incidental or consequential damages resulting from the use of
this product. There are no expressed or implied warranties which extend beyond the warranty of fitness for a
particular purpose to the equipment and/or to its parts and components.
6. THE CONDITIONS OF THE BUYERS RESPONSIBILITY ARE:
a. The equipment is stored properly before installation.
b. The equipment is installed according to Ohio Medical Corporation specifications and installation
procedures.
c. The room where the equipment is installed meets stated operating temperatures.
d. The equipment is placed into initial operation by an authorized representative of Ohio Medical
Corporation.
e. The equipment is properly maintained and is not repaired or altered unless by an authorized
representative of Ohio Medical Corporation.
573010 (Rev.5) 503004
Producers of Ohmeda Suction and Oxygen Therapy Devices, Aeros Instruments Portable Suction Machines and
Squire-Cogswell Medical Gas Pipeline Equipment, Medical and Industrial Vacuum Systems and Air Compressor Packages

1111 Lakeside Drive Gurnee, IL 60031-4099 847-855-0500 www.ohiomedical.com

OHIO MEDICAL CORPORATION


MEDICAL GAS PIPELINE EQUIPMENT
LIMITED WARRANTY
1.

OHIO MEDICAL CORPORATION warrants the Medical Gas Pipeline Equipment to be free from functional defects
in material and workmanship for a period of twenty-four (24) months from the date of shipment or twelve (12) months
from the date of start-up, whichever occurs first. Within said period Ohio Medical Corporation will repair or replace
any part or component which is proven to be defective in either material or workmanship.

2.

To obtain service within the warranty period, first contact the Ohio Medical Service Department.

3.

Ohio Medical Corporation's responsibility under this warranty shall be limited to providing at Ohio Medical
Corporation's sole discretion, new or replacement parts to replace any component found to be defective within the
warranty period. Installation of user replaceable items will be the user's responsibility.

4.

Labor to repair any part or component proved to be defective within the warranty period will be provided at no charge
for any item returned to our factory adequately packaged and insured with shipping costs prepaid. Standard surface
freight shipping cost to return the repaired part or component to the user will be paid by Ohio Medical Corporation.
a.

Before returning any part or component to the factory, proper return authorization must first be obtained
from Ohio Medical Service Department.

b.

The user will be required to issue a purchase order for replacement items. Upon receipt of the defective
items, Ohio Medical Corporation will issue a credit to the user in the amount equal to the purchase order.

5.

This warranty is valid only when the product has been properly installed according to Ohio Medical Corporation
specifications, used in a normal manner and serviced according to factory recommendations. The warranty does not
cover failures due to damage which occurs in shipment or failures which result from accidents, misuse, abuse,
neglect, mishandling, alteration, misapplication or damage that may be attributable to acts of God.

6.

Ohio Medical Corporation shall not be liable for incidental or consequential damages resulting from the use of this
product. There are no expressed or implied warranties which extend beyond the warranties set forth above. Ohio
Medical Corporation makes no warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose to equipment and to its
parts and components.

7.

THE CONDITIONS OF THE BUYER'S RESPONSIBILITY ARE:


1.
2.
3.

The equipment is stored properly before installation;


The equipment is installed according to Ohio Medical Corporation's specifications and installation
procedures;
The equipment is properly maintained and not altered unless by an authorized representative of Ohio
Medical Corporation.
573078 (REV.2) 580273

Producers of Ohmeda Suction and Oxygen Therapy Devices, Aeros Instruments Portable Suction Machines and
Squire-Cogswell Medical Gas Pipeline Equipment, Medical and Industrial Vacuum Systems and Air Compressor Packages