Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 27

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Design and Analysis of Machine Components


Introduction
Dr. P. JEYARAJ

Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
NITK Surathkal, Mangalore 575 025

December 30, 2014

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

Cotter Joint

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Cotter Joint

Design
The term design clearly encompasses a wide range of meaning.
Wallpaper is designed. We are wearing designer clothes. Automobiles are designed in terms of
their external appearance.
In these examples, design refers primarily to the objects aesthetic appearance.

In case of the automobile, all of its other aspects also involve design.Its
mechanical components (piston, connecting rod, crank, brakes, suspension,
etc.,) must be designed by engineers.
Engineering design- The process of applying the various techniques and
scientic principles for the purpose of dening a device, a process, or a system
in sucient detail to permit its realization.
Machine design - deals with the creation of machinery that works safely and
reliably.

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

Terminology
Mechanism
A device which transforms motion to some desirable pattern
may contain linkages, cams, gears, belts and chain
typically develops very low forces and transmits little power

Examples
Umbrella , Folding chair and Adjustable desk lamp

Denition
A system of elements arranged to transmit motion in a pre determined fashion

Terminology
Machine
typically contains mechanisms
designed to provide signicant forces and transmit signicant power

Examples
Bulldozer, Robot,Engines

Denition
A system of elements arranged to transmit motion and energy
in a pre determined fashion

Basic Procedure
Basic Procedure
Consists of a step by step approach from given specications about the
functional requirements of a product to the complete description in the form of

drawings of the nal product.

Design of Machine Elements


Design of Machine Elements
The design of machine elements is the most important step in the complete
procedure of machine design. In order to ensure the basic requirements of
machine elements, calculations are carried out to nd out the dimensions of the
machine elements.
The basic procedure of the design of machine elements is illustrated as

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Materials
Design
made out of some material
able to manufacture that material

Through understanding of
material properties
treatments
manufacturing process

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

Materials

Cotter Joint

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Cotter Joint

Material Property

Material Property
determined through destructive testing of samples under
controlled loadings
test loadings do not accurately duplicate actual service
loadings
there will be some statistical variation in the strength of any
particular sample compared to the average tested properties
for that material
many of the published data are given as minimum values

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Cotter Joint

Material Property

Material Property
The best material-data will be obtained from destructive or
nondestructive testing under actual service loadings of
prototypes of actual design, made from actual materials by
the actual manufacturing process.
Done only when economic and safety risks are high
aircraft, automobiles
motor cycles, farm equipment

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Cotter Joint

Tensile Test
Tensile Test
The bar is stretched slowly in tension until it breaks, while the
load and the distance across the gage length (or alternatively
the strain) are continuously monitored. The result is a
stress-strain curve

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Tensile Test

Tensile Test
The result is a stress-strain curve

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

Materials

Cotter Joint

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Cotter Joint

Tensile Test

Tensile Test
Parameters measured are load and deection but those
plotted are stress and strain.
Stress () is dened as the load per unit area, () = APO ,
where P - Applied load at any instant, and Ao - original cross
section area of the specimen.
o
Stain is the change in length per unit length  = ll
lo , where
lo - original gage length and l - gage length at any load P.

Modulus of Elasticity E =  . E is a measure of the stiness of


the material in its elastic range.

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Cotter Joint

Tensile Test
Tensile Test
Elastic Limit - The point beyond which the material will take
a permanent plastic deformation. Boundary between
elastic-behavior and plastic-behavior region of the material.
Yield strength - At a point y slightly above the elastic limit,
the material begins to yield more readily to the applied stress,
and its rate of deformation increases (note the lower slope).
This is called the yield point, and the value of stress at that
point denes the yield strength, Sy of the material.
Materials that are very ductile like low-carbon steels, will
sometimes show an apparent drop in stress just beyond the
yield point.

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Cotter Joint

Tensile Test
Tensile Test
Many ductile materials will not exhibit this apparent drop in
stress. The yield strength is then taken at the intersection of
the stress-strain curve and the oset line of 0.2percent strain.

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Cotter Joint

Tensile Test
Tensile Test
Ultimate Tensile Strength - The stress in the specimen
continues to increase non-linearly to a peak value at point u.
This is considered to be largest tensile stress the material can
sustain before breaking.
However for ductile steel curve shown, the stress appears to
fall o to a smaller value at the fracture point f.

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Cotter Joint

Specific Strength
Specic Strength
In comparing the properties of dierent materials it is quit
useful to express those properties normalized to the materials
density.
Since light weight is nearly always a goal in design, we seek
the lightest material that has sucient strength and stiness
to withstand the applied loads.
The specific strength of the material is dened as the
strength divided by the density.
The strength-to-weight ratio is another way to express the
specic strength.

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Ductility
Ductility
Ductility - tendency for a material to deform signicantly
before fracturing.
Figure shows a test specimen of ductile steel after fracture.
The distortion called necking-down can clearly seen at the
break. The fracture surface appears torn and is laced with
hills and valleys

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

Cotter Joint

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Cotter Joint

Brittleness

Brittleness
Brittleness - absence of signicant deformation before
fracture.
Figure shows a test specimen of cast iron after fracture. The
break shows no evidence of necking and has the ner surface
contours.

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Cotter Joint

Ductile Vs Brittle Failure

Ductile Vs Brittle Failure


Brittleness - absence of signicant deformation before
fracture.
Figure shows a test specimen of cast iron after fracture. The
break shows no evidence of necking and has the ner surface
contours.

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Cotter Joint

Compression Test
Compression Test
Tensile test machine can be run in reverse to apply a
compressive load to a specimen that is a constant-diameter
cylinder as shown in Figure.
The ductile sample will not fracture in compression. If enough
force is available from the machine, it could be crushed into a
pancake shape
Brittle materials will fracture when compressed. Note the
rough, angled fracture surface. Brittle materials have much
greater strength in compression than in tension.

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Cotter Joint

Bending Test

Bending Test
A thin rod, is simply supported at each end as beam and
loaded transversely in the center of its length until it fails.
If the material is ductile, failure is by yielding. If the material
is brittle, the beam fractures.

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Cotter Joint

Torsion Test
Torsion Test
The shear properties of a material are more dicult to
determine than its tensile properties. A specimen similar to
the tensile test specimen is made with non circular details on
its ends so that it can be twisted axially to failure.
The helical twist in the ductile specimens line after failure
shows that it wound up for several revolutions before breading
in ductile case.
The brittle, torsion-test specimens line is still straight after
failure as there was no signicant plastic distortion before
fracture.

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Cotter Joint

Torsion Test

Torsion Test
The stress-strain relation for pure torsion is dened by
= Grlo
The shear modulus G =

E
2(1+)

The breaking strength in torsion is called the ultimate shear


strength or modulus of rupture Sus and it is calculated from
Sus = Tr
J , where T is the applied torque necessary to break
the specimen.

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

What is Mechanical Design?

Machine, Mechanism and Structure

Materials

Torsion Test

Torsion Test
In the absence of available data for the ultimate shear
strength of a material, a reasonable approximation can be
obtained from tension test data
Steel: Sus  0.80 Sut
Other ductile materials: Sus  0.75 Sut
Sys  0.80 Sy

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal

Cotter Joint

Cotter Joint

Cotter Joint
Used to connect two co-axial rods, which are subjected to
either axial tensile force or axial compressive force.
Typical applications of cotter joint are
Between the piston rod and the crosshead of a steam engine
Between the slide spindle and the fork of the valve mechanism
Between the piston rod and the tail or pump rod

Cotter Joint
Cotter Joint
The principle of wedge action is used in a cotter joint. A
cotter is a wedge shaped piece made of a steel plate. The
joint is tightened and adjusted by means of a wedge action of
the cotter.
The construction of a cotter joint, used to connect two rods A
and B is shown. Rod A is provided with a socket end, while
Rod B is provided with a spigot end.

Cotter Joint

Tensile Failure of rods


The tensile stress in the rod is given by