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SUST

Collage of Engineering
School of Civil Engineering
rd
th
3 Class 6 Semester 2014

Design of Reinforced Concrete I


According to American Standards (ACI 318M-11)

Tutorial No. (1)

Analysis and Design of the Section for F lexure


Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

2
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

Example 1 (Reinforcement for given Moment & Section)


Determine the reinforcing bars for a rectangular section of beam subjected to ultimate moment using
the following design data:
(

Solution:
1) Assume the strength reduction factor & the corresponding minimum tensile strain (
(

):

Either of the following pairs may be chosen (

2) Maximum reinforcement ratio for singly reinforced section (

))

):

3) Required reinforcement ratio ( ):


(

4) The reinforcement:

)
(

5) Check the ductility of the section at the failure:


)

(
*

)
(

(
)+

)
*

)+

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

3
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

Example 2 (Reinforcement for given Moment & Section)


Design the flexural reinforcement for a
) and dead
imposed load of (
The
beam
is
simply
supported
are (

) to carry an
beam with cross-section of (
).
load of (
) span,
over (
and
the
materials
grades
).
), and the reinforcement cover to center of bars (

Solution:
The ultimate moment (

):
(

( )
( )

(
(

The effective depth ( ):

The design:

1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (
(

2) Maximum reinforcement ratio for singly reinforced section (


(

):
)

):

3) Required reinforcement ratio ( ):


(

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

4) The reinforcement:

4
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

(
(

5) Check the ductility of the section at the failure:


(

Example 3 (Reinforcement for given Moment & Section)


Calculate the flexural reinforcement of a rectangular section of beam with width of (
) to resist an ultimate moment of (
) using concrete grade (
overall depth of (
), and cover to the center of reinforcement (
).
and reinforcement grade (

) and
)

Solution:
The effective depth ( ):

The design:

1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (
(

2) Maximum reinforcement ratio for singly reinforced section (


(

):
)

):

3) Required reinforcement ratio ( ):


(

4) Compression reinforcement ( ):
)
(

*
*

)+

)+

)
)

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

5
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

(
(

)(

)
)(

) (

5) Tension reinforcement ( ):
[

*
(

6) Check the ductility of the section at the failure:


)

)
(

)+
(

):
)

)
[

7) Recheck the flexural capacity (

The effective depth of the section (d=630 mm) is the distance


from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the
longitudinal tension reinforcement, so that the overall depth
of the section (700 mm) should be increased to allow for
placing two layers of the tensile reinforcement of (6 T 32).

Is the net tensile strain at the centroid of tension steel


(at depth ).

Is the net tensile strain at the extreme layer of tension


steel (at depth ).

The value of the flexural strength reduction factor ( )


depends on the ( ) not ( ), but it has been calculated
conservatively in this example, and it is more safety
).
because (

)
(

)+
)

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

6
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

Example 4 (Reinforcement for given Moment & Section)


) thick supported monolithically on
The figure below shows a reinforced concrete floor slab (
) to resist an ultimate positive moment of (
).
beams with cross-section of (
), (
), design the
Using (
) and cover to the center of reinforcement (
]
). [
flexural reinforcement if the beam span is (

Solution:
The effective depth ( ):

The effective breadth of the flange ( ):

{
The design:

1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (
(

):

2) Check that how the section should be designed (rectangular or T-section):


)

)+
(

*
(

)+
)
) Like this

3) Moment of resistance provided by the Slab (overhanging flange) & the required steel (
*

)(

)+

):

)(

)+

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

7
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

4) Moment of resistance required of the beam alone (web) & the required steel (
4.1 Moment of resistance required of the beam alone (web) (

):

):

4.2 Maximum reinforcement ratio for singly reinforced section (

):

4.3 Required reinforcement ratio ( ):


(

4.4 The required steel (

):

5) The total tension reinforcement for the T-section ( ):

(
(

6) Check the ductility of the section at the failure:


)

(
*

)
(

)(
)

)+
)(

)+

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

8
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

Example 5 (Reinforcement for given Moment & Section)


) thick supported monolithically on beams with effective
A reinforced concrete floor slab (
) to resist an ultimate positive moment of (
). If the materials
cross-section of (
), (
).
grades are (
) design the flexural reinforcement of the beam to span (
[

Solution:
The effective breadth of the flange ( ):

{
The design:

1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (
(

):

2) Check that how the section should be designed (rectangular or T-section):


(

)+
(

*
(

)+
)
) Like this

3) Maximum reinforcement ratio for singly reinforced section (

):

4) Required reinforcement ratio ( ):


(

)
)

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

5) The reinforcement:

9
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

(
(

6) Check the ductility of the section at the failure:


(

New type of problems

Example 6 (Flexural strength for given Section & Reinforcement)


Determine the ultimate flexural strength of the singly reinforced rectangular
section of beam shown, considering the following design data:

Solution:
The effective depth ( ):

The Ultimate flexural strength:

1) flexural strength reduction factor ( ):


)

2) Ultimate flexural strength (

):
(

)+
(

)+

Check the ACI-code requirements for minimum reinforcement (

):

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

10
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

Example 7 (Flexural strength for given Section & Reinforcement)


Calculate the ultimate flexural strength of the doubly reinforced rectangular
section of beam shown, using:

Solution:
The Ultimate flexural strength:

1) Stress in the compression steel ( ):


(
(

)
)

)
(

)
(

2) flexural strength reduction factor ( ):


(

3) Ultimate flexural strength (

):

)
)

)+
(

)+

Example 8 (Flexural strength for given Section & Reinforcement)

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

Calculate the ultimate flexural strength of the beam shown,


using:

11
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

Solution:
The effective breadth of the flange ( ):

Check that how the section should be treated (rectangular or T-section):


(

)
(

)
) Like this

The Ultimate flexural strength:

1) Nominal flexural strength of the Slab (overhanging flange) (


)(

)(

)+

2) Nominal flexural strength of the beam alone (web) (


(

):

):

)+

3) flexural strength reduction factor ( ):

(
(

4) Ultimate flexural strength (


[

):
]

)
)

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

12
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

Check the ACI-code requirements for minimum reinforcement (

):

)
)

Example 9 (Flexural strength for given Section & Reinforcement)


Calculate the ultimate flexural strength of the beam
shown, using:

Solution:
The effective breadth of the flange ( ):

Check that how the section should be treated (rectangular or T-section):


(

)
(

)
) Like this

The Ultimate flexural strength:

1) flexural strength reduction factor ( ):


)

)
(

)
)

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

13
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

2) Ultimate flexural strength (

):
(

)+
(

)+

Check the ACI-code requirements for minimum reinforcement (

):

New type of problems

Example 10 (Section & Reinforcement for given Moment)


Determine the rectangular cross-section of beam and the required steel to resist an ultimate design
) using the following data:
moment of (

Solution:
1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (
)

2) Maximum reinforcement ratio for singly reinforced section (


(

3) The effective cross-sectional dimensions (

(
(

)
):

( )

)
)

):

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

):

14
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

4) The reinforcement:

(
(

5) Check the ductility of the section at the failure:

6) Structural detailing (sketch):

(
*

)+

)
*

)+

Example 11 (Section & Reinforcement for given Moment)


Determine the rectangular cross-section of beam and the required steel to carry an ultimate moment
) considering the following design data:
of (

Solution:

2) Maximum reinforcement ratio for singly reinforced section (


(

):
)

):
)

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (

15
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

3) The effective cross-sectional dimensions (

):
(

( )

4) The reinforcement:
(
(

5) Check the ductility of the section at the failure:


(

6) Structural detailing (sketch):

Example 12 (Section & Reinforcement for given Moment)


) and reinforcing bars grade (
Using concrete grade (
)
section to resist an ultimate moment of (

) design a suitable rectangular

Solution:

2) Maximum reinforcement ratio for singly reinforced section (


(

):
)

):
)

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (

16
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

3) The effective cross-sectional dimensions (

):
(

( )

4) The reinforcement:
(
(

5) Check the ductility of the section at the failure:


(
(

)
(

(
*

)
(

(
)+

)
*

)+

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

6) Structural detailing (sketch):

17
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

Example 13 (Section & Reinforcement for given Moment)


Design a rectangular reinforced concrete section using the following design data:

Solution:
1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (
(

2) Maximum reinforcement ratio for singly reinforced section (


(

3) The effective cross-sectional dimensions (


)

):

):

)
):

4) Required reinforcement ratio ( ):


(

5) The reinforcement:

(
(

6) Check the ductility of the section at the failure:


(

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

7) Structural detailing (sketch):

18
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

Example 14 (Section & Reinforcement for given Moment)


Design a rectangular reinforced concrete section using the following design data:

Solution:
1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (
(

):

2) Maximum reinforcement ratio for singly reinforced section (

):

3) The effective cross-sectional dimensions (


(

)
):

4) Required reinforcement ratio ( ):


(

)
(

5) Compression reinforcement ( ):
(

)
(

)+

)+
(

(
(

)(

)
)(

) (

(
(

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

19
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

6) Tension reinforcement ( ):
[

*
(

7) Check the ductility of the section at the failure:


(

)
(

8) Recheck the flexural capacity (

]
(

(
)

)+
(

*
(

):

[
*

)
[

)
(

)+
)

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

9) Structural detailing (sketch):

20
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

Example 15 (Design of a beam for Flexure and Shear)

The figure shows a concrete beam supported directly on masonry walls. The beam is required to carry
) and estimated dead
uniformly distributed characteristic load comprises an imposed load of (
)(including the beam self-weight). Using concrete with characteristic compressive
load of (
), flexural reinforcement with yield strength of (
)
strength (for cylindrical sample) of (
)
shear reinforcement with yield strength of (
and cover to the center of
), design the beam.
reinforcement (

Solution:

The ultimate moment (

):
( )

(
(

The design:

1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (
(

2) Maximum reinforcement ratio for singly reinforced section (


)

3) The effective cross-sectional dimensions (


(

):

):

)
):

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

( )

21
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

4) The reinforcement:
(

(
(

5) Check the ductility of the section at the failure:


(

6) Structural detailing (sketch):

The ultimate shear force ( ):

( )
( )

The design:

1) Ultimate shear strength provided by concrete (

):

(
(

)
[

)
(

2) Check that the shear reinforcement is required or not:


(

3) Choose the shear reinforcement (diameter & shape):


[
[

(
(

)
(

)
)

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

22
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

4) Spacing of stirrups ( ):

4.1 Through the (

)near the support:

)
(

) or (

).

4.2 After (

) from support:

5) Structural detailing (sketch):

This shear reinforcement is conservative, but it is practical and convenient.


More accurate shear reinforcement can be provided by considering more intervals for distribution of Stirrups spacing.

)
)

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

23
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

Table-1

( )
(

)
(

( )

The End

+)

))

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

Table-2