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Resilient Mobile IP

CoCo Architecture White Paper

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sheets 1-18.
White Paper
Resilient Mobile IP
CoCo Architecture White Paper

15 February 2008

CoCo Communications Corporation


www.cococorp.com

999 3rd Avenue, Suite 3700


Seattle, WA 98104

Phone: 206-284-9387
Fax: 206-770-6461

Copyright © 2002-2008 CoCo Communications Corporation.


CoCo is a trademark of CoCo Communications Corporation.
All Rights Reserved. Patents Pending.
The names of actual companies or products mentioned herein may be
the trademarks of their respective owners.
coco communications Resilient Mobile IP

Table of Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................. 1
About this document ...................................................................................... 1
Motivation ......................................................................................................... 1
Quality and Type of Service ...................................................................... 2
Interoperability ............................................................................................ 2
Mobility and Rapid, Dynamic Configurations......................................... 2
Identity Security ........................................................................................... 3
Network Security ......................................................................................... 3
Scalability ..................................................................................................... 3
Addressing in CoCo Networks ....................................................................... 4

Architectural Overview ............................................................................. 4


Routing Layer.................................................................................................... 5
Recent Developments ............................................................................... 5
Virtual Infrastructure .................................................................................... 5
Clustering System Overview ...................................................................... 5
Clustering Terminology and Concepts ............................................... 6
A Clustering Example............................................................................. 7
Tree Representation of Clusters............................................................ 8
Clustered Route Advertisement................................................................ 8
Location-based Routing .......................................................................... 10
Circuit Layer.................................................................................................... 12
Circuit Establishment ................................................................................ 12
Circuit Tables ............................................................................................. 13
Circuit Layer Multipath Support .............................................................. 13
Circuit Layer Multicast Support ............................................................... 15
Identity Management ................................................................................... 16

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coco communications Resilient Mobile IP

Introduction
Th e CoCo P r ot ocol is a u n iqu e com bin a t ion of en h a n cem en t s t o exist ing IP
syst em design in t en ded t o in cr ea se usa bilit y, r elia bilit y, m obilit y, a n d secu r it y.
It in st a lls a s a vir t u a l net wor k a dapt er on t h e wh ole r a n ge of Win dows a n d
Lin u x oper at in g syst em s. Ta ken sepa r at ely t h ese t ech n iqu es m ir r or st a t e-of-
t h e-a r t developm en t s in m obile ad-h oc n et wor kin g (MANE T), fast IP m obilit y,
peer-t o-peer secur it y, a nd m edia -in depen dent ha n dover (MIH ). Toget h er, t h ey
for m a n offer in g not ot her wise ava ila ble t oday.
Th a t sa id, as t h e IE TF wor kin g gr oups com e t o r esolu t ion on best pr a ct ices
for ea ch of t h ese com pon en t s, CoCo is fir m ly com m it t ed t o suppor t in g open
st a n dar d a r ch it ect u r e. On e cu r r ent exam ple is 802.21, wh ich pr om ises a
su fficient ly flexible a nd power fu l set of pr im it ives t o be consider ed a solid
im pr ovem en t u pon CoCo’s pr iva t e design . Wh ile t h is st a n da r d is st ill fa r fr om
a dopt ion , we ar e m oving t o a lign ou r in t er n a l st r u ct ur es for r a pid com plia n ce
wh en t h a t day com es. We believe t h a t ou r n et wor k ar ch it ect u r e h olds it s
m er it befor e, du r in g, a nd a ft er st a n da r diza t ion of t he key elem ent s.

About this document


Th is docu m en t is in t ended for a t ech n ica l a u dien ce —in clu din g CoCo
developer s, CoCo t ech n ica l sa les st a ff, a n d t h e t ech n ica l st aff of CoCo
bu sin ess pa r t n er s a n d cu st om er s. Th is docu m en t gives a n over view of t h e
fu n ct ion alit y a nd design of t h e CoCo P r ot ocol. It pr ovides a high -level
descr ipt ion of t h e pr ot ocol layer s, t h e in t er fa ces bet ween t hem , a nd t h e
in t er face t h e CoCo P r ot ocol offer s t o t h e u ser level.
Th e “Mot iva t ion” sect ion expla ins t he m ot iva t ion for t he CoCo P r ot ocol by
h igh ligh t in g t h e n et wor k fea t u r es it suppor t s t h a t a r e u n ava ila ble wit h
exist in g t ech n ology. Th e sect ion “CoCo P r ot ocol Layer s” gives a su m m a r y
descr ipt ion of t h e pr ot ocol layer s. Th e sect ion “Layer Fea t u r es a n d In t er fa ces”
expla in s ea ch layer in m or e det a il.

Motivation
Da t a a n d voice com m u nica t ion syst em s play incr ea sin gly im por t a nt r oles in
t h e m ilit ar y, gover nm ent , a n d civilia n sect or s. Sin ce t he or igin a l developm en t
of t he Tr a n sm ission Con t r ol Pr ot ocol (TCP ) a nd t h e In t er net Pr ot ocol (IP ) in
t h e ea r ly 1970s, com pu t er n et wor ks h ave a dva nced sign ifica n t ly. Th e
sim u lt a n eous der egu la t ion of con vent ion a l t eleph on e syst em s spu r r ed a wide
a r r ay of n ew t eleph on y ser vices. Mobile cellu la r n et wor ks h ave a lso becom e
in cr ea sin gly soph ist ica t ed a n d widespr ea d. Despit e t h ese developm en t s,
m oder n n et wor ks ca n n ot pr ovide a dequ at e infr a st r uct u r e for m a n y cr it ica l
a pplica t ions su ch as fir st r esponder com m u n icat ion. Th e CoCo Pr ot ocol
a ddr esses sh or t com in gs of exist in g n et wor k t ech n ologies; it en a bles m oder n
a n d em er gin g com m u n ica t ion t ech n ologies in t h e m ost dem a n din g
a pplica t ions.

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Resilient Mobile IP coco communications

In t h e 1970s, r obust n ess a n d fa ult -t oler a n ce wer e key design goa ls for t h e
TCP /IP pr ot ocols. Th e DARPA fu n din g a gen cies wer e especia lly int er est ed in
n et wor ks t h a t cou ld m ain t a in fu n ct ion by r ou t in g pa cket s a r ou nd n odes h it in
a m ilit a r y st r ike a n d m a n a ge t h e r esu lt in g congest ion.
Today’s n et wor ks h ave a ddit ion a l r equ ir em en t s, in cludin g:
Qu a lit y of ser vice: t h e abilit y t o su ppor t a wide va r iet y of applica t ions,
in clu din g voice, video, an d dat a
In t er oper a bilit y: t h e abilit y t o u se a ll com m on ph ysica l t r a nspor t
t ech n ologies a n d h a r dwa r e devices
Dyn a m ic, sca la ble r ou t in g: t h e a bilit y t o su ppor t r apid u ser m ovem ent
a n d a d-h oc n et wor k for m a t ion
Secu r it y: t h e a bilit y t o au t h en t icat e user s a nd r esist n et wor k a t t a cks
Som e t ech n ologies a t t em pt t o im plem en t som e of t h ese fea t ur es by ext en din g
t r a dit ion a l t r a nspor t pr ot ocols. CoCo’s syst em ar ch it ect ur e addr esses a ll of
t h ese r equ ir em ent s.

Quality and Type of Service


Th e a bilit y t o specify t he qu a lit y of ser vice (QoS) a nd t ype of ser vice (ToS) is a
r ecen t developm en t in net wor k pr ot ocol design. QoS a n d ToS a llow user
a pplicat ions t o a ccess an a pplica t ion pr ogr a m in t er face (AP I) t h at per m it s
t h em t o specify t h e in t en ded use of a n et wor k pa t h . For exa m ple, u ser
pr ogr a m s m ay r equ est a voice or da t a pat h . The In t er n et pr ot ocols, by
com par ison , wer e design ed t o su ppor t on ly da t a a n d so VOIP is bu ilt on t h e
voice-over-da t a m odel. CoCo’s im plem en t a t ion focu ses on cr eat in g a n d
m a in t a in in g voice cir cu it s a nd uses t hose cir cu it s t o ca r r y da t a t r a ffic t o
r epr odu ce t h e da t a -over-voice m odel so su ccessfu lly deployed by 3GP P.

Interoperability
Th e CoCo P r ot ocol suppor t s a wide va r iet y of ph ysica l t r a nspor t t ech nologies
in clu din g cellu la r, WiFi, E t h er n et , a n d sa t ellit e—w h ich en a bles const r u ct ion
of int er n et wor ks based on differ en t u n der lyin g ph ysica l t r a nspor t s. For t h is
r ea son, t h e CoCo P r ot ocol is ca lled a n over lay pr ot ocol. CoCo t ech n ology
fost er s int er oper a bilit y a lso beca u se it is a pur e soft war e t ech n ology t ha t r u ns
on widely ava ila ble, off-t h e-sh elf h a r dwa r e devices com m on ly u sed for
wir eless com m u n ica t ion su ch a s P DAs, cell ph on es, la pt ops, a nd wir eless
a ccess poin t s. A CoCo device, or CoCo n ode, is an y com pu t a t ion a l device
pr ovision ed wit h t h e CoCo P r ot ocol soft war e. Th e sect ion “Th e P h ysical
Layer” discu sses in t er oper a bilit y in m or e det a il.

Mobility and Rapid, Dynamic Configurations


All n et wor k devices m ay ser ve a s r out er s in CoCo n et wor ks. As devices t u r n
on a n d off, or m ove fr om on e loca t ion t o a n ot h er, t h e n et wor k dyn a m ically
r econ figu r es wit h ou t t he in t er ven t ion of n et wor k adm in ist r a t or s. In

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coco communications Resilient Mobile IP

con ven t ion a l cellu la r n et wor ks, t ower s a r e sit u at ed at fixed locat ions, so t h e
n et wor k’s r out in g r esour ces a r e st a t ic a n d n ot con figu r a ble. CoCo n et wor ks
wor k m or e flexibly a n d wit h a fin er gr a n u la r it y of n et wor kin g r esou r ces. In
con ven t ion a l cellu la r n et wor ks, ea ch con nect ed device dr aws u pon a fixed
su pply of ba n dwidt h. Sin ce a ll CoCo devices can ser ve as r ou t er s wh en
n ecessa r y, ea ch device adds ba n dwidt h r esour ces a n d r out in g ca pa bilit y.
Mor eover, in expen sive wir eless r ou t er s m ay ser ve a s CoCo n odes a n d be
ea sily r eposit ion ed t o loca t ions wh er e m or e ba ndwidt h is r equ ir ed; for
exa m ple, a n em er gen cy sit e.

Identity Security
Th e CoCo P r ot ocol u ses F IP S 140-2 cr ypt ogr a phic pr im it ives t o suppor t
iden t it y va lidat ion a nd ser vice a u t h or iza t ion . Th e TCP /IP pr ot ocols do n ot
a ddr ess pr iva cy a n d a u t h en t ica t ion , bu t leave t h ese fea t ur es for applica t ion
developer s t o im plem ent a t t h e u ser level, so t her e is n o u n ifor m st a n da r d for
In t er n et secu r it y. Con ver sely, secu r it y pr im it ives a r e bu ilt dir ect ly int o t h e
CoCo P r ot ocol on m u lt iple levels t o en sur e consist en cy. Refer t o t he sect ion
“Th e Cir cu it Layer” for m or e det a il.
Iden t it y secur it y h as far -r ea ch in g consequ ences. For exam ple, e-m a il spa m in
it s pr esen t for m wou ld be im possible sin ce sender s wou ld be u n able t o for ge
t h eir iden t it ies. Web ser ver s on t h e In t er net know t h e on ly t h e ext er n al IP
a ddr ess of t he sou r ce of ea ch pa ge r equ est . Th e In t er n et pr ot ocols m ake n o
gu a r a n t ees a bou t t h e iden t it y of a u ser. By con t r a st , a CoCo n et wor k ser ver
kn ows t h e ident it y of each u ser r equest in g a page. P r ot ocol-level ident it y
secu r it y a llows adva n ced a u t h or iza t ion t ech n ologies acr oss t h e en t ir e
n et wor k.

Network Security
Th e CoCo P r ot ocol r esist s den ia l-of-ser vice a t t acks, m a n -in -t h e-m iddle
a t t a cks, a n d t r affic a n a lysis a t t a cks u sin g best pr a ct ice defen ses in clu din g
bu t n ot lim it ed t o secu r e pa ir -wise lin k keyin g a n d en d-t o-en d bu lk
en cr ypt ion . Th e t opic of peer-t o-peer secur it y is beyon d t he scope of t h is
docu m ent .

Scalability
Th e CoCo P r ot ocol sca les effect ively t o la r ge net wor k sizes wh ile m a int a in in g
con n ect ivit y a n d t h e a bilit y t o r out e pa cket s efficien t ly in a dyn a m ica lly
ch a n gin g n et wor k. Th is is a r esu lt of CoCo’s novel a ddr essin g sch em e an d
clu st er in g m ech a nism . To avoid t h e need for a ll n odes t o exch a n ge m essa ges
wit h ea ch ot h er, wh ich r esu lt s in O(N 2 ) com m u nica t ion com plexit y in
n et wor ks of size N, t h e CoCo P r ot ocol decom pos es t h e n et wor k in t o a
h ier a r ch y of r egion s ca lled clust er s. Th e sect ion “Th e Rou t in g Layer” expla in s
a ddr essin g a n d clu st er in g in m or e det ail.

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Resilient Mobile IP coco communications

Addressing in CoCo Networks


A key con cept in t h e CoCo P r ot ocol is t h e logical sepa r a t ion of a device’s
iden t it y fr om it s loca t ion . Th is a dva n cem en t is ech oed by m oder n
developm en t s in IE E E a n d IE TF wor kin g gr oups, a n d is fu nda m ent a l t o
cr ea t in g a posit ive m obile IP exper ien ce. Th ese gr ou ps r ecom m en d a m ove t o
IP v6 t o a ch ieve t h ese goa ls. Th e CoCo im plem ent a t ion offer s t his
fu n ct ion alit y in exist in g IP v4 con figu r a t ions.
Con cept u a lly, CoCo pr ovides m edia -independen t h a n dover bet ween var iou s
ph ysica l t r a nspor t s wit h ou t dist ur bin g t he IP st a ck. Th e im plem ent a t ion is
t r a n spa r en t t o exist in g IP n et wor ks, cu r r en t ly u sin g UDP enca psu la t ed
sou r ce r out in g a nd in t he fu t ur e usin g IP v6 addr ess t r a n slat ion. In t h e
a bsen ce of a m obilit y pr ovider ser vice, lega cy IP v4 m a ch in es ca n st ill be
a ccessed t r a n spa r en t ly bu t t h e h a n dover fu n ct ion a lit y r ever t s t o t r a dit ion a l
IP m ode.
Tr a dit ion a l IP a ddr esses r efer t o a specific in t er fa ce r a t her t h a n t h e h ost ,
t h u s ea ch in t er face h as a dist in ct addr ess a n d ca n be t h ou gh t of a s a sepa r a t e
n et wor k loca t ion. Th is m ea n s t h a t swit ch in g t r a ffic fr om on e in t er fa ce t o
a n ot h er effect ively ch a nges t h e iden t it y of t h e con n ect ion a n d r equ ir es a
com plet e session r econ nect . H owever, IP a llows for en ou gh a bst r act ion t h a t
we ca n use loca l pr ivat e a ddr esses t o r efer t em por a r ily t o r em ot e host s r a t h er
t h a n on e specific in t er face on t h a t r em ot e h ost . Net wor k a ddr ess t r a n sla t ion
a llows for in t er oper a t ion wit h t he u nm odified sen der a n d r eceiver IP st a cks.
Th e sect ion “Th e Rou t ing Layer” gives m or e infor m a t ion a bout CoCo
loca t ions.

Architectural Overview
E xt er n a lly, t h e CoCo st a ck fit s idea lly bet ween exist in g OSI layer 2 a nd layer
3 im plem en t a t ions, wher e ARP cu r r ent ly r esides. In t er n a lly, it divides in t o
fou r layer s: Rou t in g, Cir cu it , Ident it y, a n d Addr essin g.

Address Translation

Identity Management

Circuit Routing

Packet Routing
Cluster Satellite Carrier Wi-Fi
MANET Data Data Hotspot

Figure 1: Conceptual Layers

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coco communications Resilient Mobile IP

Routing Layer
Th e r ou t in g layer consist s of sever a l con cr et e t r a n spor t object s wit h iden t ica l
a bst r act in t er fa ces. Th ese t r a n spor t s gen er a lly divide in t o IP in fr a st r u ct u r e
a n d IP MANE T a d-h oc t ypes. Th ey com m u n ica t e wit h t h e va r iou s n et wor k
m edia t h r ou gh st a n da r d h ost oper at in g syst em n et wor k int er fa ce dr iver s, so
m ost m oder n t ech n ologies ar e su ppor t ed t r a nspa r en t ly. Th ese t r a n spor t s
pr ovide a bst r a ct int er faces t o sim ple m a n a gem en t fu nct ions su ch as ch a n n el
r eser vat ion, peer discover y, m u lt ica st gr oup fu nct ions, a nd qu a lit y m et r ics
su ch as r ou n d-t r ip t im e.

Recent Developments
H ist or ica lly, ou r pr odu ct s pr efer r ed t h e MANET poin t of view a nd so used
en ca psula t ion t o ext end t h e m esh over va r iou s in fr a st r u ct u r e t r a nspor t s.
Today’s t h inkin g r eflect s a su bst a n t ia l sh ift in t h a t design, inst ead pr efer r in g
t h e IP per spect ive by a ssign in g t em por a r y addr esses t o m esh peer s.
Th is m ea n s t h a t t he im plem ent a t ion for In t er net -con nect ed infr ast r uct u r e
t r a n spor t s is sim ply a pa ss-t h r ou gh t h a t a llows IP r ou t in g t o do wh a t it does
best .

Virtual Infrastructure
Wh en a ll in fr ast r u ct ur e n et wor ks fa il, devices power ed by CoCo m ay fall ba ck
in t o vir t u a l infr ast r uct ur e m ode. Th is u n iqu e offer in g en a bles com m on IP
ser vices su ch as DH CP a n d DNS for dyn am ic MANE T configu r a t ion s t h a t
sca le u p t o t h ousa n ds of devices wit h ou t t r ou ble. Th is t ech n ology is a h ybr id
of t r a dit ion a l m esh r ou t in g pr ot ocols wit h la ndm a r k -based com m u n icat ion
r edu ct ion. Clust er in g decom poses a n et wor k int o a h ier a r ch y of r egions in a
m a n n er a n a logou s t o t he way cit ies a nd st at es pr ovide a geogr a ph ica l
h ier a r ch y t h at fa cilit a t es a ddr essin g. Th e clust er in g m ech a n ism assigns ea ch
n et wor k n ode a location ba sed on t h e layer s of clu st er s t h a t cont a in it .
For t h e r out in g m ech a nism t o sca le efficient ly, a dver t isem ent s a n d loca t ion s
ca n n ot pr opa ga t e com plet ely t hr ou gh t he n et wor k. (If t h ey did, t h e n u m ber of
m essa ges exch a n ged in a n et wor k of N n odes wou ld be O(N 2 ).) A given n ode’s
loca t ion is n ot com m on ly kn own, a nd it s a dver t isem en t s a r e n ot sen t t o a ll
ot h er nodes. Th e clust er in g m odel con t r ols t h e ext en t t o wh ich loca t ion s a n d
a dver t isem ent s pr opa gat e t o lim it m essa ge passin g over h ea d. Th e r ou t in g
syst em uses a m ech a n ism ca lled location -based rou tin g wh ich uses t h e best
dest in a t ion a ppr oxim at ion con t ain ed in a n ode’s loca t ion. Th e r em a inder of
t h is sect ion expla ins t he det a ils of t hese t ech n iqu es.

Clustering System Overview


Th e m a in pu r pose of t he clu st er in g syst em is t o cr eat e a locat ion -ba sed
a ddr essin g syst em t h a t a ssist s dyn a m ic r out in g. On e of t h e design goals of
t h is syst em is t o lim it t h e n u m ber of m essa ges r equ ir ed by t h e r ou t in g
syst em as t h e n et wor k gr ows in size. It does t his by lim it in g t he pr opaga t ion

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Resilient Mobile IP coco communications

dist a nce of a dver t isem en t s. Th e clu st er in g syst em en a bles a n ode S t o r ou t e


da t a t o a dest in at ion n ode D effect ively, even if th e d estin ation n od e D does
n ot appear in th e rou ting table of S . Th is is t h e key ben efit of location -based
rou tin g.
Th is sect ion gives a h igh level, int u it ive expla na t ion of t h e clust er in g con cept .
A m or e m a t h em a t ica lly r igor ou s developm en t of clu st er in g appear s in t h e
sect ion “Clu st er in g Gr aph Th eor y”.
Th e clu st er in g m ech a n ism defin es clu sters as r egion s in a net wor k. It a lso
a ssigns t o ea ch n et wor k device a location defin ed in t er m s of t hese clu st er s.
Th e clu st er in g m ech a n ism defin es a hier a r ch y of clust er in g levels. Befor e
descr ibin g t h is in det a il, it is h elpfu l t o con sider a geogr aph ica l a n a logy.
Region s su ch as cou n t r y, st at e, cou nt y, a nd cit y det er m in e geogr a ph ic loca t ion
a s a ser ies of incr easin gly pr ecise r efin em en t s. E a ch of t h ese r egion s con t a in s
dist in gu ish ed cit ies t h at represen t t h em , for exa m ple, ca pit ols ca n r epr esen t
st a t es a n d cou n t y seat s ca n r epr esen t cou n t ies. We m ay r epr esen t t h e
geogr a ph ic loca t ion of a cit y as a sequen ce of cit ies, ea ch on e t h e
r epr esen t at ive of a su ccessively sm a ller r egion . For exa m ple, t he loca t ion of
t h e cit y Bellevu e, Wa sh in gt on cou ld be denot ed by t h e or der ed sequen ce of
cit ies: [Wa sh in gt on D.C., Olym pia, Sea t t le, Bellevu e] sin ce ea ch r epr esen t s
on e of t h e r egion s con t ain in g Bellevu e:

Wa sh in gt on D. C. “r epr esen t s” Am er ica (a level 3 r egion )


Olym pia “r epr esen t s” Wa sh in gt on st at e (a level 2 r egion )
Sea t t le “r epr esen t s” King cou n t y (a level 1 r egion )
Bellevu e “r epr esen t s” it self (a level 0 r egion )
In t h is exa m ple, a node in Lon don, E n gla n d could sen d d a t a t o Bellevu e,
Wa sh in gt on wit h ou t knowin g t h e best r out e t o Bellevu e it self, sim ply
kn owin g a good way t o r ea ch Wash in gt on D. C.
Clustering Terminology and Concepts
Th e goa l of t h e clust er h ier a r ch y is t o pr ovide a way of specifyin g a n et wor k
loca t ion for ea ch n ode in a CoCo n et wor k. Th is sect ion develops t h e necessar y
t er m inology a n d concept s.
A CoCo n et wor k cluster is a set of a t least t wo n odes wher e a t lea st one of t h e
n odes is dir ect ly con nect ed t o ea ch of t h e ot h er s. Th e clust er in g syst em t a kes
a n in it ia lly u n differ en t ia t ed collect ion of n odes a n d a ssign s ea ch t o a dist in ct
clu st er. In ea ch clu st er, it a lso design at es on e of t h e n odes t h a t is dir ect ly
con n ect ed t o a ll t he ot her s a s t h e cluster represen tative.
On ce t h e in it ial set of clu st er s is for m ed, t he clust er in g m ech a n ism m ay be
a pplied t o t he clust er s t h em selves. In t h is ca se, t h e or igin a l clust er s a r e
con sider ed individu a l nodes, wh er e ea ch clust er r epr esen t at ive st a n ds for t h e
clu st er it r epr esen t s.

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coco communications Resilient Mobile IP

Su ccessive a pplica t ion s of t his clu st er in g pr ocess r esu lt s in a h ier ar ch y of


clu st er levels. See Definit ion 2 a n d Fa ct 3 in t h e sect ion “Clust er in g Gr aph
Th eor y” for a m a t h em a t ica lly pr ecise for m u la t ion of t h is pr ocess. E a ch clu st er
h a s a t least t wo m em ber s, so t h e n u m ber of clust er s at ea ch level is a t m ost
h a lf t he n um ber of n odes. Th er efor e, t h er e a r e at m ost log 2 N levels in a
n et wor k wit h N n odes.
In t h e geogr aph ic a n a logy, t h e fir st level of clu st er in g cor r espon ds t o t he
for m at ion of cou nt ies fr om collect ions of t owns, a n d t h e secon d level of
clu st er in g cor r espon ds t o t h e for m a t ion of st at es fr om collect ion s of cou n t ies.
Th e n etw ork location of a device D is a sequ en ce of clu st er r epr esen t a t ives
[D n , D n -1, ..., D 1, D 0 ], wh er e D = D 0 a n d D i is t h e r epr esen t a t ive of t h e clust er of
level i wh ich cont a in s D. Th e sm aller t h e va lu e of t he su bscr ipt i, t he closer
t h e dist a nce fr om D i t o D 0. So t h e locat ion of a CoCo n ode D m ay be viewed a s
a sequ ence of posit ions t h a t con ver ge t o D, ju st a s t he set of cit ies in t he
geogr a ph ic exa m ple is a sequ ence t h a t con ver ges on Bellevu e.
A Clustering Example
Figu r e 2: Clust er in g E xa m ple illust r at es t h e clu st er in g h ier ar ch y in a sim ple
n et wor k. Cir cles a nd ellipses indicat e clust er s; boldfa ce bor der s in dica t e
clu st er r epr esen t at ives. Th er e a r e t wo level 1 clu st er s, on e con t a inin g X, Y,
a n d Z, a nd a n ot h er cont a in in g U, V, a n d W.

X Z U W

Y V

Figure 2: Clustering Example

Th e r esu lt of r epla cin g clu st er s wit h t heir r epr esen t at ives in t h e clust er in g
decom posit ion is t he r edu ced n et wor k sh own in Figu r e 3.

Z U

Figure 3: Clustering Example, continued: Level 1 Clusters

Repea t in g t h is pr ocess a ga in yields a sin gle n ode, a s sh own in Figu r e 4:

Figure 4: Clustering Example, continued: Level 2 Cluster

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Resilient Mobile IP coco communications

Th is exam ple illust r at es t he con cept s of t h e for m a t ion of clu st er s a nd a of


clu st er-level h ier a r ch y.
Tree Representation of Clusters
Th e t r ee in Figu r e 5 r epr esent s t h e clu st er h ier a r ch y for t h e n et wor k of
Figu r e 2. In t h is t r ee, each n on -leaf node r epr esen t s a clust er, a nd t he
ch ildr en of t h a t n ode r epr esen t t h e clust er ’s m em ber s. For exam ple a t level 1
n ode Z r epr esen t s a clust er cont a in in g X, Y, a nd Z.
Con cept u a lly, a n ode X’s loca t ion con t a ins a sequ en ce of n et wor k loca t ion s
t h a t becom e pr ogr essively closer t o X. Th e sect ion “Loca t ion -ba sed Rout in g”
expla in s h ow t h e loca t ion con cept con t r ibu t es t o r ou t in g sca la bilit y.
Let t h e h eigh t of a n ode X be t h e dist a n ce of t h e sh or t est pa t h fr om X t o a leaf
n ode (so t h at leaf nodes h ave h eigh t 0, pa r en t s of leaf nodes h ave h eight 1,
a n d so on). Th e ran k of a n ode in a n et wor k is defin ed a s t h e h eigh t of t h e
h igh est node it occur s in t h e clu st er t r ee. E qu iva len t ly, t h e r a n k of a node is
t h e level of t he h igh est clu st er it r epr esen t s.
In t h ese figu r es, t he n odes X, Y, V, a n d W h ave r a n k 0, t h e n ode Z h a s r a n k 1,
a n d n ode U h a s r a nk 2. Th e n et wor k loca t ion of a n ode m ay be obt a ined by
followin g t he sequ en ce of n odes a lon g t h e pa t h fr om t h e r oot of t h e clu st er
t r ee t o t h e lea f t h at r epr esent s t h a t n ode.

Level 2 U

Level 1 Z U

Level 0
X Y Z U V W

[U,Z,X] [U,Z,Y] [U,Z,Z] [U,U,U] [U,U,V] [U,U,W]

Figure 5: Cluster Tree with Network Locations

For exa m ple, in Figu r e 5, t h e loca t ion of X is [U, Z, X], sin ce


X is it s own level-0 clust er
X is pa r t of a level-1 clust er wh ose r epr esen t at ive is Z
Z is pa r t of a level-2 clust er wh ose r epr esen t at ive is U

Clustering Graph Theory


Th is sect ion gives t he m a t h em a t ica l ba ckgr ou nd t h at is t h e basis for t he
clu st er in g concept s. Th e goa l of t h is sect ion is t o u n der st a nd wh a t clu st er s
a r e a n d t o u n der st a n d h ow t h e clust er in g levels give r ise t o n et wor k
loca t ions.

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Let G = <V, E > be a gr aph wh er e V is t h e set of ver t ices of G a n d E is t he set


of edges of G.
D e fin itio n 1: A clu ster of G is a set of t wo or m or e n odes of G su ch t h a t on e
of t he n odes is dir ect ly con n ect ed t o ea ch of t h e ot h er s. Th e n odes in a clu st er
a r e m em bers of t h e clu st er. On e of t h e clust er m em ber n odes t h at is dir ect ly
con n ect ed t o a ll t he ot her s is dist in gu ish ed a s t h e represen tative of t h e
clu st er.
Fa c t 1: It is possible t o decom pose a n y con n ect ed gr aph in t o a set of clu st er s
su ch t h at ever y n ode is con t a in ed in a clust er. (A st r a igh t for wa r d indu ct ive
a r gu m en t sh ows t his.)
Fa c t 2: An y clu st er decom posit ion of a con n ect ed gr aph G con t a ins n o m or e
t h a n | G| /2 clu st er s. (Th is follows fr om t h e fact t h a t ever y clust er h as a t
lea st t wo nodes.)
D e fin itio n 2: Let G = <V, E > be a con n ect ed gr a ph a n d let t h er e be a clu st er
decom posit ion of G. The cluster-in d u ced graph of G w ith respect to th is
d ecom position is a gr aph G’ = <V’, E ’> wh er e V’ is t h e set of clu st er s of G, a n d
E ’ h a s a n edge fr om C 1 a n d C 2 (wh er e C 1 a n d C 2 m em ber s of V’) if t her e is a n
edge of G t h a t con n ect s a n ode of C 1 wit h a n ode of C 2 in G.
Th is t ech n iqu e of con st r u ct in g indu ced gr a phs m ay be used t o for m a
h ier a r ch y of clust er levels.
Fa c t 3: If G is a con n ect ed gr aph , it is possible t o defin e a sequ en ce of gr a ph s
G = G 0, G 1, G 2 , ..., G n , wher e G n is t h e t r ivia l gr aph consist in g of a sin gle n ode,
a n d G i+1 is a clust er-in du ced gr aph of G i for ea ch i = 0, ..., n -1, wh er e t he
len gt h of t he sequ en ce, n , is n o m or e t h a n log 2| G| .
Re m ark : As m em ber s of V’, C 1 a n d C 2 (in Defin it ion 2) ar e n odes in G’, but
t h ey a r e a lso clust er s of n odes in G. It is con ven ien t t o nam e t h e clu st er s by
givin g t h em t h e sam e na m e as it s r epr esen t at ive n ode. For exa m ple, if G is
t h e gr a ph of t he n et wor k sh own in Figu r e 9 of sect ion 3.3.3, t hen Figu r e 10
sh ows t h e gr a ph G’ = G 1, t h e in du ced gr aph of G. Th e n ode “Z” of t he gr a ph G
is a lso t h e n a m e of a clust er in G, or equ iva lent ly, a n ode in t he indu ced gr a ph
G 1, sh own in Figu r e 10.
D e fin itio n 3: A n ode is a level i cluster represen tative for G if it is a n ode in
G i . Not e t h at a level 0 r epr esen t a t ive is sim ply a n ode of G, a nd a level 1
clu st er r epr esen t at ive is a clu st er r epr esen t a t ive a s defin ed in Defin it ion 1
a bove.
Fin a lly, we ca n obt a in n et wor k locat ions for ea ch n ode ca n be obt a in ed fr om
t h e clust er levels:
D e fin itio n 4: Th e netw ork location or full-cluster ad dress of a n ode X in a
n et wor k G is [Xn , …, X0] wh er e Xi is t h e level i clu st er r epr esen t at ive of X for i
= 0, …, n.

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Clustered Route Advertisement


Th e a dver t isem en t syst em pr ovides a m ech a n ism t h at per m it s n et wor k n odes
t o det er m in e t h e cost of sen din g pa cket s t o ot h er n odes. To im pr ove
sca la bilit y, adver t isem en t s pr opa ga t e select ively, a n d n odes do not adver t ise
t o a ll ot h er n odes, just nodes wit h in cer t a in clust er s.
Th e a dver t isem en t syst em en a bles n odes t o in for m ea ch ot h er a bou t
dist a nces a n d cost s in t h e n et wor k. Loca lly, ea ch n ode develops kn owledge
a bou t h ow fa r ot h er n odes ar e a nd h ow cost ly it is t o r ea ch t hem u sin g
ava ila ble links. E a ch n ode st or es t h is infor m a t ion in a rou tin g table, wh ich
con t a in s a n en t r y for each dest in a t ion -link pa ir (for ea ch dest in a t ion a bou t
wh ich it h as r eceived adver t isem en t s). For a given dest in at ion D a n d lin k L,
t h e D-L en t r y in t h e r ou t in g t a ble cont a in s t h e cost of r ea ch in g n ode D via
lin k L.
Sin ce t h e infor m a t ion in a dver t isem en t s becom es ou t da t ed qu ickly as
n et wor k loa ds a n d t opologies ch a n ge, adver t isem en t s pr opa ga t e fr om ea ch
n ode at fixed per iodic int er va ls. Recipien t s of a dver t isem en t s obt a in a new
sn a psh ot of t h e n ea r by t opology wit h ea ch n ew set of a dver t isem ent s. To
pr even t a n om a lies su ch a s r ou t in g loops a n d t he cou n tin g to infinity pr oblem ,
t h e a dver t isem en t syst em keeps t r a ck of t h e m ost cu r r ent a nd con sist en t set
of adver t isem en t s, r efer r ed t o as a n advertisem en t ed ition .
Th e goa l of t h e r ou t in g layer is en a blin g n odes t o m ake n ea r ly-opt im a l
r ou t in g decisions, i.e. t he sam e decisions it wou ld m ake if it h a d globa l
n et wor k knowledge. If a n ode h a d kn owledge of t h e full n et wor k t opology, it
cou ld use Dijkst r a’s “shor t est pa t hs” a lgor it h m t o det er m in e opt im a l r ou t es in
t h e n et wor k. In t h e CoCo sch em e, n o n ode h as com plet e net wor k infor m a t ion .
H owever, by exch a n gin g in for m a t ion wit h n eighbor in g n odes, a n d by wor kin g
in con ju n ct ion wit h t h e clu st er in g syst em , t he pr ot ocol fin ds r ou t es t h at a r e
close t o opt im a l wh ile exch a n gin g fa r fewer m essa ges t ha n wou ld be r equ ir ed
if ea ch n ode sen t a dver t isem en t s t o a ll ot h er n odes. Th e n u m ber of m essa ges
is lim it ed by ran k -based ad vertisem en t propagation , t h e pr inciple t h at a
n ode’s adver t isem en t s pr opa ga t e t h r ou gh out t he n et wor k ba sed on it s r a n k.
Th e h igh er a n ode’s r a nk, t he m or e widely it is a dver t ised t h r ou gh t h e
n et wor k. Th is lim it s adver t isem en t pr opa ga t ion a n d helps con t r ol pr ot ocol
over h ea d.

Location-based Routing
In gen er a l, a n ode’s r ou t in g t a ble does not con t ain a n ent r y for ever y device in
t h e n et wor k. H owever, u sin g t h e n ot ion of net wor k loca t ion s, a n ode S ca n
r ou t e da t a t o a dest in a t ion n ode D effect ively even if th e destin ation n od e D
d oes n ot appear in its rou tin g table. If device S wa n t s t o send da t a t o a device
D wit h n et wor k loca t ion [D n , …, D 0], it uses t h e a lgor it h m in Erro r!
Re fe re n ce s o u rce n o t fo u n d ..

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coco communications Resilient Mobile IP

// S tries components of D’s location, starting with the closest


for i = 0, ..., n
{
if (Di occurs in the routing table)
{
L = best link to send to Di according to the table;
send the packet over link L;
break;
}
}

Figure 6: How Node D Chooses a Route to S

Th e h igh er t h e va lu e of t h e su bscr ipt i, t h e m or e widely adver t isem en t s for D i


pr opa ga t e t hr ou gh t he n et wor k; t h er efor e, t h e m or e likely S will h ave
r eceived on e a n d h ave an en t r y in it s r out in g t able for D i . On ce S sen ds a
pa cket t o D i t h er e is a high pr oba bilit y t h a t D 0 occu r s in D i’s r ou t in g t a ble. If
n ot , D i a pplies t he sa m e loca t ion -based t ech n iqu e t o obt a in a r ou t e t o D j (for
som e j < i). If N is t h e nu m ber of devices in t h e n et wor k, t h en n < log2 N
bou n ds t h e n u m ber of pot en t ia l r e-r out in gs.
In pr a ct ice, fu r t h er opt im iza t ions ar e possible. Con sider t h e scen a r io above in
wh ich S sen ds a pa cket P t o D i (beca use D i is t he closest com pon en t of D t o D
it self t h a t occur s in S’s r ou t in g t a ble). As t he pa cket P m oves t owa r d D i it
pa sses t h r ou gh n odes a lon g t h e pa t h fr om S t o D i t h at will likely h ave bet t er
in for m a t ion a bou t r ea ch in g D. Th is is a con sequ en ce of r a n k -ba sed
a dver t isem ent pr opa ga t ion : t h e closer a n ode is t o D, t h e m or e likely it h a s
r eceived a dver t isem ent s fr om D.

D
Blue arrows show route
generated by unmodified
location-based routing;
Red arrows show refined
location-based routing.

Figure 7: Refinement in Location-based Routing

As t h e pa cket get s closer t o D, t h e m or e r efin ed t h e infor m a t ion in t h e r ou t in g


t a bles of n odes on it s pat h becom es. H ence t h e act u a l pa t h t r aver sed by t h e
pa cket fr om S t o D m ay be m u ch sh or t er t h a n t h e pa t h t h at pa sses t hr ou gh
t h e com pon en t s of D’s loca t ion: S  D i  D i-1  …  D 0 = D im plied by
Figu r e 6. Th e blu e a r r ows in Figu r e 7 in dica t e t h e r out e ba sed on pu r e
loca t ion -ba sed r ou t in g; t h e r ed ar r ows in dica t e t h e r out e ba sed on r efined
loca t ion -ba sed r ou t in g.

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Circuit Layer
In t h e CoCo P r ot ocol, a circuit is a com m u n ica t ion pa t h over wh ich dat a
m oves fr om on e device t o a n ot h er. Th e cir cu it layer is t h e fir st layer in t h e
CoCo P r ot ocol t h a t suppor t s end-t o-end com m u n ica t ion, wh ich m ay be
en cr ypt ed on a per-cir cuit basis. Th is r epr esent s a sepa r a t e a pplica t ion of
en cr ypt ion fr om t h at used a t t h e link layer discu ssed in sect ion 3.2. The
cir cu it layer m a n a ges t h e cr eat ion, m a in t en a n ce, a nd dest r u ct ion of cir cu it s.
Th e cir cu it layer a lso m a n a ges h a n doffs —a dju st m en t s t o t h e cir cu it pa t h
m a de n ecessar y by CoCo devices ch a n gin g posit ion .
A cir cu it con sist s of legs, wh er e ea ch leg uses one link. A cir cu it m ay be in a n y
of t hr ee st a t es:
C: Closed (n onexist en t )
O: Openin g (in t h e pr ocess of bein g cr eat ed)
R : R ead y (r ea dy for dat a t o t r aver se it )
Cir cu it s a r e u n idir ect ion a l: t h e exist en ce of a cir cu it fr om A t o B does not
im ply t h e exist en ce of a cir cu it fr om B t o A. If B wa n t s t o sen d dat a t o A, it
m u st est a blish a n ew cir cu it fr om B t o A, sepa r a t e fr om t h e cir cu it fr om A t o
B. Su ch a cir cu it fr om B t o A m ay n ot follow t h e r ever se pa t h of t h e cir cu it
fr om A t o B beca u se som e n et wor k links m ay be slower in on e dir ect ion t h a n
t h e ot h er.

Circuit Establishment
Wh en a n ode S wa n t s t o com m u n icat e wit h a n ode D it con su lt s t h e r out in g
layer t o det er m in e t h e best lin k for pa cket s dest in ed t o D, a n d sends a cir cu it
est a blish m en t con t r ol pa cket over t h a t link. Th is pa cket con t a ins t he
followin g da t a :
dest in a t ion
QoS r equ ir em ent s
Cir cu it ID (see Sect ion 3.4.2)
Wh en a n ode A r eceives a cir cu it est a blish m en t pa cket , it ch ecks t o see if it is
t h e in t en ded dest in a t ion . If n ot , n ode A for war ds t h e est a blishm en t packet t o
on e of it s n eigh bor s a nd ch a n ges it s st a t e fr om C t o O. It det er m in es t he link
over wh ich t o for war d t h e m essa ge by con su lt in g t h e r ou t in g t a ble. If n ode A
is t h e fin a l dest in a t ion (i.e. A a n d D a r e t h e sam e n ode), t h en A sen ds an
a ckn owledgem en t pa cket ba ck t owa r d t h e or igin a l in it iat or n ode, S. E a ch
in t er m edia t e n ode, u pon r eceipt of a n a ckn owledgem en t pa cket , sim ila r ly
sen ds a n a ckn owledgem en t pa cket a lon g t h e cir cu it ba ckwar d t owar d S.
Wh en a n ode r eceives an a ckn owledgem ent pa cket , t h e cir cu it st at e ch a n ges
fr om O t o R . Wh en t h e or igin a l in it ia t or n ode D fin a lly r eceives a n
a ckn owledgem en t pa cket a n d ch a n ges it s st at e t o R , t he cir cu it is fu lly
est a blish ed a n d r eady for S t o begin sen din g dat a pa cket s t o D.

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Circuit Tables
E a ch n ode m ay be a pa r t of sever a l cir cu it s. Th e cir cu it layer m a in t a ins a
circuit table, a n in t er n al da t a st r u ct u r e t h a t ena bles it t o associat e in bou n d
lin ks wit h ou t bou n d links, for ea ch a ct ive cir cu it passin g t h r ou gh a node.
Th e Cir cu it ID (CID) is a n u m ber t h at associa t es pa cket s a r r ivin g over a
pa r t icula r lin k wit h a pa r t icu lar cir cu it . Th e CIDs a ssocia t ed wit h differ en t
legs of a sin gle cir cu it m ay be differ en t . For exa m ple, if a pa cket cont ain in g
CID = v 1 a r r ives a t n ode N fr om lin k l 1, t he cir cuit layer consu lt s it s cir cu it
t a ble t o det er m in e t h at t h e pa cket sh ou ld be for wa r ded a lon g, say, link l 2 wit h
CID = v 2. If n ode N is t he pa cket ’s fin al dest in a t ion , t h en t h e cir cu it layer
for war ds t he dat a t o a user a pplica t ion pr ocess specified by t h e en dpoint
a ddr ess (sim ila r t o a TCP por t ) t h a t a ppea r s in t h e pa cket h eader.
Th e cir cu it layer uses t h e cir cu it t a ble t o sen d con t r ol pa cket s as well a s da t a.
Con t r ol pa cket s for open in g a n d closin g cir cu it s m ove in t h e forw ard
d irection, i.e. t he dir ect ion of dat a. Con t r ol pa cket s for a ckn owledgem ent s a nd
r eset t in g t h e cir cu it , if n ecessa r y, a r e sent in t he r ever se dir ect ion . Th e cir cu it
t a ble con t a ins su fficient in for m a t ion t o en a ble t h is.

Circuit Layer Multipath Support


It is possible for cir cu it s t o m a int a in m u lt iple pa t h s bet ween a n y pa ir of
n odes a lon g t h e cir cu it , so in t h e gen er a l case, a cir cu it is r epr esen t ed loca lly
a t ea ch n ode by a set of in com in g a n d a set of ou t goin g legs. Th is fea t ur e
per m it s gr ea t er t r a nsm ission opt ions. Sin ce som e links h ave differ en t
per for m a nce ch ar a ct er ist ics (ba n dwidt h, lat en cy, et c), t h e cir cu it layer m ay be
a ble t o sat isfy user QoS r equ ir em ent s m or e eas ily wh en it h a s m or e links
fr om wh ich t o ch oose. To illust r at e, consider a cir cu it fr om n ode W t o node Z
in t h e n et wor k t opology of Figu r e 8.

A C
4 7
W X N Y Z
3 8
B D

Figure 8: A Multi-path Circuit

At t h e n ode N, t h e cir cuit t a ble in cludes t h e infor m a t ion t h at a n y da t a


in bou n d fr om A wit h CID = 4 or fr om B wit h CID = 3 m ust be for wa r ded t o C
wit h CID = 7 or t o D wit h CID = 8.
Mu lt ipat h su ppor t for cir cu it s en a bles a n at u r a l m et h od for cir cu it h a ndoffs.
If a n ode t h a t is par t of a cir cu it m oves fr om one geogr a ph ic loca t ion t o
a n ot h er, t h e lin ks bet ween it a n d t h e ot h er n odes in t h e cir cu it m ay becom e
weaker t h a n lin ks t o ot h er n ea r by n odes. Wh en t h is h a ppens, t h e cir cu it layer

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Resilient Mobile IP coco communications

a n t icipat es t h e links dr op a n d a dds legs t o t h e cir cu it . In it ia lly, t hey m ay be


r edu n da nt , bu t t h ey ca n effect ively r epla ce links t h at br ea k du e t o t he
geogr a ph ica l m ovem en t of a n ode. Th is en a bles a seam less h a n doff n ot on ly
fr om on e n ode t o a n ot h er, bu t fr om a lin k t h a t uses on e t r a nspor t m echa n ism
t o a n ot h er lin k t h at uses a differ en t t r a nspor t m ech a n ism bet ween t h e sam e
t wo n odes. For exa m ple, a pair of n odes A a n d B m ay h ave a WiFi link an d a
cellu la r link, a n d on e m ay st r en gt h en as t h e ot h er wea ken s. Mu lt ipat h
su ppor t a lso en a bles ban dwidt h a ggr egat ion .
Figu r e 9 illu st r a t es a n et wor k wit h a cir cu it est a blish ed fr om n ode W t o n ode
Z. Th e ser ies of illust r at ion s in Figu r e 9 sh ow t h e effect on t h is cir cu it a s n ode
N m oves. In Figu r e 9a , N h a s good r ecept ion t o n odes A a n d C a n d n on e t o B
a n d D, so t h e cir cu it goes t hr ou gh A a n d C. As Node N m oves, a s Figu r e 9b
illu st r a t es, N st a r t s t o r eceive a sign a l fr om n odes B a n d D, bu t t h e sign a l is
t oo weak for t h e cir cu it t o a dd legs t h r ou gh B an d D. Wh en N is equ idist a n t
fr om A, B, C, a n d D (see Figu r e 9c), t h e sign a ls t o t hese n odes a r e a ll st r on g
en ou gh for links t o for m . Th ese links en a ble n ew cir cu it legs t o for m fr om B t o
N a n d fr om N t o C, wh ich en h a n ces t h e ba ndwidt h ava ila ble t hr ou gh N. As N
m oves away fr om A a n d C t owa r d B a nd D, t h e sign a ls t o A a nd C wea ken
a n d even t u a lly dr op, leavin g ju st t h e pa t h t h r ough B a n d D (Figu r e 9e). Th e
cir cu it fr om W t o Z con t in u a lly a dju st s t o m ake u se of ava ila ble links. As
lin ks for m or br eak, t h e cir cu it layer upda t es t he cir cu it t a bles in t he affect ed
n odes.

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coco communications Resilient Mobile IP

A N C

a W X Y Z

B D

A C

N
b W X Y Z

B D

A C

c W X N Y Z

B D

A C

d W X Y Z

N
B D

A C

e W X Y Z

B N D

Figure 9: Circuit Layer Handoff Illustration

Circuit Layer Multicast Support


Th e cir cu it layer pr ot ocol in clu des m u lt i-t r a n spor t da t a gr am m u lt ica st .
Mu lt ica st suppor t en a bles da t a sent fr om a sin gle sou r ce t o m u lt iple
dest in a t ions t o be t r a n sm it t ed non -r edu n da nt ly— h en ce m or e efficien t ly —in
t h e sen se t h at on ly on e copy of t h e d a t a pa cket s is sent acr oss sh ar ed lin ks
fr om t h e sou r ce t o t h e dest in at ions. For exa m ple, if A wa nt s t o sen d a pa cket

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Resilient Mobile IP coco communications

t o ea ch of B a nd C in Figu r e 10, on ly on e copy of t h e pa cket is sen t a long t h e


lin k fr om A t o X.

A X

Figure 10: Circuit Layer Support for Multicast

For m essa ges sent t o m a n y r ecipien t s a lon g pat h s t h at sh a r e a sign ifican t


n u m ber of links, m u lt ica st su ppor t r epr esen t s a su bst a n t ia l r edu ct ion in
ba n dwidt h ut iliza t ion .

Identity Layer
Th e con cept s of nam e an d location as t h ey a pply t o CoCo n et wor ks wer e
in t r oduced a t t h e beginn in g of t h is docu m en t . As DNS m aps n a m es t o IP
loca t ions, so does t h e CoCo Iden t it y layer. Sin ce devices m ay a ppea r t o ch a n ge
loca t ion on a r egu la r basis, especia lly in a d-h oc r ou t in g scen ar ios, t he pr ocess
of n am e r esolu t ion m ust sur vive cat a st r ophic net wor k even t s.
Ou r peer-t o-peer iden t it y m a n a gem ent syst em pr ovides a t em por a r y
r epla cem en t for DNS. Su ch a syst em necessit a t es a level of cr ypt ogr ap h ic
cer t a int y t h at r espon ses ca n be t r ust ed a nd quer ies shou ld be pr ocessed, so
CoCo u ses X.509-en coded, ch a in -sign ed, P KCS-com pa t ible cer t ifica t es t o
m a t ch a pu blic key t o a DNS-com pa t ible dom ain n a m e. For ea ch cer t ifica t e,
t h e Ident it y layer inst an t ia t es on e secu r it y role.

Distributed Name Resolution


Th e n a m in g syst em is com plet ely decent r a lized a n d dist r ibut ed. It self-
gen er a t es wh en a n et wor k fir st for m s a nd it self-a djust s wh en t h e n et wor k
t opology ch a n ges. DNS, by com pa r ison, r equ ir es h u m a n in t er vent ion t o
u pda t e ser ver IP a ddr esses a n d m u ch lon ger delays for su ch ch a n ges t o
pr opa ga t e t hr ou gh t he n et wor k. Nam es a r e h ier a r ch ica lly st r u ct ur ed ASCII
t ext st r in gs t h a t ca n n ot be for ged. E a ch device m ay be assign ed a n am e when
it is or igin a lly pr ovisioned. It is possible t o delega t e t h e a u t h or it y t o assign
n a m es. For exa m ple, t he cit y of Seat t le m ay delega t e t o t h e police
com m ission er t h e a u t h or it y t o dist r ibu t e n a m es for t h e n et wor k devices u sed
by m em ber s of t h e Sea t t le Police depa r t m en t . Th ese oper at ions a r e
com plet ely ext er n a l t o t h e CoCo n et wor k syst em a n d a r e wh olly dr iven by t h e
con figu r a t ion of t h e cer t ifica t e a u t hor it y. Th is pr ovides t h e m a xim u m
flexibilit y in definin g secu r it y r ela t ion sh ips t h at ca n be a ut om at ica lly
en for ced.

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coco communications Resilient Mobile IP

Hierarchical Structure of the Namespace


Th e n a m in g syst em is hier a r ch ica l. For exa m ple t h e n a m e
smith.police.seattle.wa.us im plies five logica l t ier s of t h e syst em as
r epr esen t ed in Figu r e 11.

Ambu-
lance
Fire
Dept
US

P2 Seattle
P1 P3
WA
Police

Figure 11: Exemplary hierarchy of identity

Th e expa n ded h ier a r ch ica l view of t h e n am e spa ce in Figu r e 11 illust r at es


t h e dom in a n ce of loca l n et wor k t r affic as it is fa r m or e likely t h at n odes of
sim ilar iden t it y will be pr opor t ion a lly m or e likely t o com m u n icat e t h an n odes
of less sim ila r iden t it ies. It is r ea son a ble t o expect , for exa m ple, t h at m ost of
t h e t r a ffic t o a n d fr om t h e device wit h n a m e
smith.police.seattle.wa.us wou ld in volve devices wit h n am es of t h e
for m *.police.seattle.wa.us m or e t h a n wit h devices wit h n a m es of t he
for m *.police.beijing.china.
Naming Convergence
Th e con ver gen ce a lgor it h m uses a ser ies of registration m essa ges am ong
select ed n odes in t he n et wor k. A n ode X t h a t wish es t o join t h e net wor k
in it ia lly det ect s t he pr esen ce of a n ot her n ode Y a n d est a blishes a link t o it a s
descr ibed in t h e Rou t ing Layer sect ion . To in t egr a t e it self in t o t h e n am in g
syst em , n ode X sends a r egist r a t ion m essa ge t o in t r oduce it self t o Y. Node Y
t h en com put es t h e t r ee-r ela t ion of t h e n a m e of n ode X t o t h e n am e of node Y,
wit h r esu lt s su ch as “par en t” or “ch ild” r esu lt in g in loca l t r ee r eor ga n izat ion,
“descen dent” or “dist a n t ” r esu lt in g in m essa ge for wa r din g a lon g t h e exist in g
t r ee, or “siblin g” wh ich in st a n t iat es or expa nds a m u lt icast gr ou p.
Th is con st r u ct s a spa n nin g t r ee of n am es wher e a n y t r ee elem ent m ay also
r epr esen t a m u lt ica st gr ou p. Aside fr om t h e im plied st a t e m a int en a n ce cost ,
t h is a lgor it hm is consider ed t o be aca dem ica lly u n der st ood a n d in t u it ive.

Address Translation Layer


Th e elem en t s pr esen t ed t h u s far dem onst r a t e t h e CoCo P r ot ocol’s a bilit y t o
m a ke u se of exist in g Layer 2 a nd Layer 3 t r a nspor t s t o con st r u ct a peer -t o-
peer t opology wit h st at efu l r ou t in g t o affect a da t a -over-voice t r a n sm ission
syst em am on g devices wit h cer t ified secu r it y r oles. Wh ile t his would en a ble
cu st om applica t ion developm ent , CoCo’s per spect ive dict a t es t h a t n o feat u r e

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Resilient Mobile IP coco communications

sh ou ld n ecessit a t e ch a nges t o com m on In t er n et a pplica t ion s su ch a s t he web


br owser. Th is m ea n s t ha t a ll con t r ol a n d sign a lin g m u st h appen t h r ough a n
IP -com pat ible in t er fa ce.

IP Compatibility
Today’s h ost oper at in g syst em s ar e fa ir ly st a n da r d in t h eir r elia n ce u pon IP
socket s, wh ich in t ur n r equ ir es t h at expa nsions t o t h e syst em be deliver ed in
t h e for m of n et wor k in t er fa ces. An exa m ple fr om t he COTS m a r ket wou ld be
t h e com m on VP N or Wi-Fi m a n a gem en t soft war e wh ich inst a lls a n ew
n et wor k dr iver int o Micr osoft Win dows or Debia n Lin u x.
Th e m ost com m on m essa ge exch a n ges ar e DNS n a m e r esolu t ion, TCP or UDP
pa cket r out in g, ICMP sign a lin g, a n d IGMP gr oup m a n a gem en t . Our pr ot ocol
st a ck is ca pped wit h a t r a n sla t ion m odu le t o exch a n ge in st r u ct ion s bet ween
t h e h ost IP st a ck a n d t he m u lt i-t r a n spor t , m u lt ica st logica l view of t h e CoCo
n et wor k. So wh en a net wor k cir cu it discon n ect s, we m ay gen er a t e a m essa ges
su ch as T CP reset or ICM P h ost u n reachable t o effect ively in st r u ct t h e IP
st a ck. Th is is h ow In t er n et E xplor er a n d IIS wor k t oget h er per fect ly over
CoCo even on a pa ir of la pt ops in a deser t wit h n o DNS im plem ent a t ion .

Network Address Translation (NAT)


NAT is m ost com m on ly u sed t o pr oxy m u lt iple m a ch in es on a pr iva t e net wor k
t h r ou gh a sin gle ga t eway device so t h at m a n y user s ca n sh ar e on e pu blicly
r ou t a ble IP a ddr ess. CoCo u ses t h is exa ct t ech nology in a r ever sed
con figu r a t ion t o pr oxy t h e en t ir e CoCo n et wor k t h r ou gh on e pr iva t e IP
a ddr ess r a n ge. In ot h er wor ds, m y m a ch in e m ay a lia s t h e n a m e
smith.police.seattle.wa.us t o a pr iva t e IP a ddr ess, say 10.0.0.2, so
t h a t t h e syst em is in depen den t of a n y IP assignm en t a u t h or it y. Th is avoids
su bst a n t ia l r esponsibilit y a t pr ovision in g t im e a n d a lso avoids t h e n eed for
on -sit e con figu r at ion m a n a gem en t ser ver s.

18 © CoCo Communications Corporation CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY