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EFFECTS OF YOUTUBE MARKETING ON ATTENDANCE OF LIVE

EVENTS. CASE STUDY: CARACAS COMIC CON 2014

PAMELA CABELLO LOPEZ

Supervisor: Olivier KOVARSKI


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To my mom,
That even in the strongest storm
Always kept her sails up.

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Abstract in English
This research has as a purpose to analyze what motivates the audience to attend live events, right
after we understand the reasons we will study if they can be affected by marketing through social
networks specifically YouTube.
We would study both main types of advertisement in YouTube banners on top of the desired
video and videos before the desired content; the later can be skip after few seconds.
A quantitative approach will be used, with a questionnaire that will be given after the event both
on site and online.
Keywords: Social networks, YouTube, Event motivations, Live Events

Abstract in French
Cette recherche a pour but d'analyser ce qui motive le public participer des vnements en
direct, juste aprs nous comprenons les raisons pour lesquelles nous allons tudier si elles
peuvent tre affectes par le marketing via les rseaux sociaux spcifiquement YouTube.
Nous souhaitons tudier les deux principaux types de publicit dans les bannires de YouTube
sur le dessus de la vido dsire et vidos avant le contenu souhait; le plus tard peut tre passer
aprs quelques secondes.
Une approche quantitative sera utilise, avec un questionnaire qui sera donn aprs l'vnement
la fois sur place et en ligne.
Mots-cls: rseaux sociaux, YouTube, les motivations de l'vnement, vnements en direct

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Table of Contents
Authors Declaration of Originality
Acknowledgements
Abstract in French + Key Words
Abstract in English + Key Words
1.

Introduction ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7
a. Research Motivation ------------------------------------------------------------------------7
b. Research Question --------------------------------------------------------------------------8
c. Methodology Overview --------------------------------------------------------------------8
d. Dissertation Structure -----------------------------------------------------------------------9

2.

Literature Review -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11


a. Live events attendance motivations -----------------------------------------------------11
b. Consumers decision making-process --------------------------------------------------13
c. Influence factors ---------------------------------------------------------------------------15
1. Internal influences -------------------------------------------------------15
2. Word of mouth -----------------------------------------------------------15
d. Live events advertising online -----------------------------------------------------------16
i. Paradigm: Traditional vs. new advertising channels -------------------------18
ii. Social Media Marketing ---------------------------------------------------------19
iii. Social networks: Facebook ------------------------------------------------------21
iv. Social networks: YouTube ------------------------------------------------------21
1. YouTubes Advertising Formats --------------------------------------22
a. Text Advertisements -------------------------------------------22
b. Video Advertisements -----------------------------------------23

3.

Research Methodology -------------------------------------------------------------------------------26


a. Research Design ---------------------------------------------------------------------------26

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i. Type of investigation -------------------------------------------------------------26


b. Sample Elements --------------------------------------------------------------------------27
i. Sample Selection -----------------------------------------------------------------27
c. Survey Elaboration ------------------------------------------------------------------------28
i. Questionnaire Preparation -------------------------------------------------------28
ii. Question Selection ----------------------------------------------------------------29
iii. Analysis Procedures --------------------------------------------------------------30
4.

Results and Discussion ------------------------------------------------------------------------------31


a. Results Presentation ----------------------------------------------------------------------31
i. Demographics ---------------------------------------------------------------------31
ii. Reliability --------------------------------------------------------------------------34
iii. Factor Analysis -------------------------------------------------------------------35
iv. Cluster Analysis ------------------------------------------------------------------39
v. Correlations -----------------------------------------------------------------------42
b. Discussion ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------43
i. Motivations to attend Caracas Comic Con -----------------------------------43
ii. Effects on YouTube advertising -----------------------------------------------43
iii. Cluster Analysis -----------------------------------------------------------------44
iv. Correlations ----------------------------------------------------------------------45

5.

Conclusions --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------46
a. Conclusions --------------------------------------------------------------------------------46
b. Managerial Implications ------------------------------------------------------------------47
c. Research Limitations ----------------------------------------------------------------------48
d. Suggestions for Future Research --------------------------------------------------------48

6.

Bibliography --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------50

Appendix ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------54

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1.

Chapter 1 - Introduction

The Internet as a marketing channel has seen ups and downs since its conception in the late
1990s, yet as of late it has once again been growing in popularity. Investments into online
advertising are seen as beneficial now that more dynamic and interactive forms of advertisements
can be created; also needed as the behavior of costumers has changed drastically from an only
consumption interaction to an exchange interaction, consumers lean to a more interactive
relationship with brands where they are able to have a two-way communication. This change has
lead to larger marketing budget in the areas of social media, web content creation and events.

Of the various advertisement forms through Social Networks available to companies, the video
advertisement option has generated substantial buzz in recent months with the acquisition of
YouTube by Google in October 2006. YouTube is the prime social network related to video
creation and broadcasting, with more than 100 hours of video uploaded per second, in recent
years it changed from an only amateur generated video platform to a mix between professional
content producers and companies; this increased the interest from brands on YouTube on how to
market their products using this tool.

Various brands have started using this platform as marketing tools with a wide range; now in the
scope of this dissertation will be brands using YouTube to promote attendance to live events and
aiming to increase their brand awareness through such events are focused on.

a.

Research Motivation

Social Networks are tools more frequently used by marketing professionals in the aims of
reaching a broader audience, having either of these two objectives: to increase direct sales of a
product or to increase brand awareness.

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Social Networks vary in shape and objectives, taking a closer look to YouTube, it started as a
channel for the audience to share videos, nevertheless with the maturity of this tool companies
and brands see it more a tool to reach a younger audience and promote products and events.
For this dissertation the main focus will be to study how YouTube can power the increase of
attendance to live events.

b.

Research Question and Objective

The present investigation work has the following research question:

Does marketing a Live Event through YouTube has an impact on attendance?

The main objective of this work is to study the effects of marketing a Live Event using YouTube
as a marketing tool. To achieve this objective first a literature review will be performed to
understand the use of YouTube from the event organizers to promote Live Events, the literature
review will begin by exploring the motivations to attend live events and then how is the social
media being used as an advertising tool.

The second objective is to study if the sponsors of Live Events conduct marketing through
YouTube, and if this has an effect on attendance in order to determine of this has managerial
implications.

c.

Methodology Overview

In order to achieve the objectives, after performing the literature review there will be a research
using a quantitative method in participants after they attended the Caracas Comic Con 2014. For

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this event the questionnaires first part will focus on the relationship between the participants and
YouTube, the second part will study the motivations to attend the event and the third part the
questions will be directed to see the future steps of the participants with the event and the events
YouTube channel, this questionnaire will be distributed randomly to the events participants after
the event using two ways giving out at the exit of the event and calling to participate in the Social
Networks of the event.

d.

Dissertation Structure

The present dissertation comprises both theoretical and academic content as well as practical
information, both gathered by theoretical research and experimental results through
questionnaires. And its divided in the following chapters.

The first chapter starts by an introduction, followed by the research motivation both from the
academic and managerial points of view, later a briefing of the dissertation structure and an
overview of the methodology that will be used to draw conclusions and answer the research
question.

The second chapter, the literature review, examining previous studies and articles documenting
the topics relevant for this dissertation, this will be the foundation of the present research.
Definitions, key concepts will be address in this chapter.

The third chapter, the research methodology, will explain the selected method for this research
along with the sample selection, develop on the content of the questionnaire and the future
procedures for analysis of the results.

The forth chapter, Results and Discussions, will present the results of the investigation and then

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analyze and compare them to the literature previously stated.

The last chapter, Conclusions, will answer the research question stated at the beginning of this
study, also the limitations of the research will be exposed and the recommendations for future
research.

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2.

Chapter 2 - Literature Review

e. Live events attendance motivations

Through time the motivations to attend events, whether musical, cultural or educational has
change due to the changes on the needs of certain communities and individuals, nevertheless the
frameworks where this motivations are have remain similar.

A motive is as simple as reason for doing or achieving something; it is fully link to the persons
behavior, and according to previous literature Moutinho (1987), it will fulfill a need in order to
bring satisfaction.

A large number of studies have focus specifically on the motivations or reasons on why people
attend festivals or live events, Gahan & Martin (1993) performed an study in different groups
attending different profile events and reach a conclusion that there are 24 motivation items that
can be classified in 5 groups or motivational dimensions.

Before moving along the research on each dimension is important to highlight why it is important
for marketing and production of events to understand the motivations of their attendees. In the
studies of Crompton and McKay (1997) they feature three reasons on this matter, the first of
them is that by understanding the attendees needs the design of the live events can be adapted in
order to provide a larger satisfaction that will have a positive influence in the loyalty levels. The
second reason once again brings up the subjects of loyalty, as motivation and satisfaction are
strongly linked when the audience is satisfied they will be more likely to attend the events again.
And the third and last reason is that by understanding the decision making process of the
attendees it will be easier to develop marketing strategies that really reach the target audience and
the return on investment will be higher.

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Having cleared the reasons on why knowing the exact motivations of visitors is important, we
look at specific dimensions of motivations rather than just the overall motivation we move along
to study the five main dimensions of motivations to attend live events, this are excitement,
external, family, socializing and relaxation as was highlighted by Backman et al (1995).

Excitement, is largely linked to the desire of seeking new experiences with a high wow factor,
external referred to the human need of self-fulfillment and positioning one self in in front of the
eyes of others, family is always present as the vast majority of attendees go to live event to
experience them with family and friends fulfilling the needs of belonging to a group, socializing
fills the need of interaction and interchange with other attendees with similar interests and lastly
relaxation cares for the basic human need of changing routine and exiting the daily life with an
opportunity to refresh the mind. These 5 dimensions are commonly organized in a hierarchy
theory of needs Maslow (1954), that is represented as a pyramid structure that puts motivations
into five categories with the most important and most basic at the bottom.

Besides these main 5 dimensions, is also important to note that for events with an specific profile
we will witness an slight change on motivations for example Park et al (2008) investigated what
factors attracted tourists to attend the South Beach Wine and Food festival in Miami Beach,
Florida. Forty-four motivational items were factor analyzed which resulted in seven motivation
dimensions: taste new wine and food, enjoy the event, enhance social status, escape from
routine life, meet new people, spend time with family, and meeting the celebrity and wine
experts.

As we read different results throughout literature review indicate that dimensions of motivation
are similar in all the festival research; however, the specific components of factors may vary
depending on types of festivals and events, therefore visitors cannot be treated as homogenous
groups, this seen as an advantage in the moment of developing marketing campaigns that will
bring a high return on investment.

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In light of these findings when creating business strategy for live events it will be key to separate
potential visitors into groups with different motivations. After possible visitors are separated
specific campaigns or channels can be used to develop marketing campaigns, as well as caring
for their needs while they attended live events will result in to repeaters and word of mouth
ambassadors.

f. Consumers decision making-process

In order to understand the consumers decision-making process for live events as recapitulated by
Bowdin et al (2012, 382) we will look at the PIECE acronym:

Problem recognition the difference between someones existing state and his or her
desired state relative to leisure consumption.

Information search an internal and/or external search; limited or extensive search


processes for leisure (including event) solutions.

Evaluation and selection of leisure alternatives.

Choosing whether to attend an event and which optional purchases to make at the Live
Event.

Evaluation of the post-event experience.

If we take a closer look to each stage of the process we will find that it starts when the possible
attendee will realize or acknowledge they need to satisfy one need that might be the need to
network to develop, the need to learn something, the need to be entertained or the need to meet
new friends or socialize with old friends and family Lavidge, (1961). In some cases we target
audience dont realize that the need is there or are not able to address in a way that will make
them consume the right products (or attend events) so is the job of the marketers to address this
needs and also to create certain urgency.

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After the consumer has clear intentions of satisfying their needs, the process to search for
information begins; before the arrival of Internet this used to be one of the toughest steps for
consumers, now a days as the information is spread widely the new challenge for consumers is to
filter this large amounts of information and the part of the process of evaluate and select has
become more relevant, the consumers needs to know exactly what the are looking for in order to
make a right selection that will bring them the desired satisfaction, when evaluating live events
the most critical factors tend to be price and geographic location, there is always a hidden
evaluation reasoning for example higher costs might mean hidden benefits as for lower costs
events are perceived as lower quality (Solaris, 2012).

When the selection of the live event has been made, the decision to attend the event by relay on
personal choice or influenced by the opinions of friends and family. Once the event is over the
attendees will always evaluate their experience based on the fulfillment of their needs, and the
result of this self-evaluating will have an impact on next year or next edition attendance as well
as will promote the word of mouth or buzz generation. We can see the reflection of the PIECE
theory in the representation of Lavidge and Steiners decision-making process (Figure 1).

Figure 1:
Lavidge and Steiner decision-making process

-Source: Lavidge, (1961).


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Even this theory is still valid we will encounter that with the arrival of Internet and subsequently
Social Networks we are able to identify the needs of the consumers more easily as we ask them to
Describe themselves How much they earn? What do they like? and therefore is easier to
create targeted marketing and also thanks to all these new channels they are able to voice their
desires.

g. Influence factors
i.

Internal influences
Social and personal environments play a key role when a possible attendee is going trough their
decision-making process, these influences include perception, motives, personal traits and
consumer attitudes among these we can summarize the factors as follows (Axelsen and Acordia,
2004):

The need achievement hierarchy, when motives change as each level of need is satisfied.

Push and Pull motives, when push factors (social interaction, novelty, curiosity)
move consumers towards the event and pull factors (as music style, food style) draw
consumer to the event.

Intrinsic motives for leisure, stating that consumers look for a change in their routines, by
changing of environments and relating to new people.

ii.

Word-of-mouth
Word-of-mouth is known in marketing and advertising as an unpaid form of promotion in which
satisfied customers (or attendees in the case of live events) tell other people in their social
environments how much they like a business, product or service, in other words in what amount
their needs were satisfied by consuming certain product.

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As new means and channels of marketing like Social Networks arise, exploring the impact of
word-of-mouth in brand loyalty and product consumption is key. In the case of YouTube as a
Social Network, advertising is linked to the form of advertising itself whether it is invasive (i.e.
ads on top of videos) or the consumer has sought the content specifically (i.e. exploring the brand
or live event channel).
When the content delivered evokes brand recognition it is most likely to raise word-of mouth
intentions, before the main satisfaction that triggered this behavior was post-purchase satisfaction
but now when there is no need to purchase in order to get buzz going, for example through
YouTubes advertising ability and informative ability, consumers are able to their voice opinions
about a brand without actually purchasing. We can see this behavior in YouTubes brand wordof-mouth impact itself (Nicole, 2007). According to a 2007 UK poll, YouTube is favored as the
third most popular brand from a list of 20, which includes such tangible brands as Aston Martin,
Apple, Nintendo and Prada. YouTube itself, has made itself widely known and popular thanks to
post-use satisfaction and awareness instead of post-purchase content, its important to note that
even when the consumers are not able to attend events (due to financial or geographical reasons)
if they feel engaged by the message or the event itself they will become part of the online buzz.
Ultimately, word-of-mouth is understood by some to be measurable through a persons selfrelevance with a brand or product (Chung and Darke, 2006). Accordingly, it is believed that a
higher level of self-identity leads to a higher propensity to refer a brand. It is important to note
that people will tend to share the content in larger amount when they feel identified by it and also
when they share and they dont see obvious links to corporate engagement.
h. Live events advertising online
Through time marketers have innovative ways to promote and generate success in any sort of
event, and after studying different ventures (Hoyle, 2002) concludes that in all of them are three
elements that shared a common purpose, they are:
-

Entertainment

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Excitement

Enterprise

In the specific case of advertising online for live events we will apply each one of them to
understand how successfully advertise online.

First entertainment, it is mostly available everywhere in our society, but it is important to


emphasize that with options like television, home-movies, video games and Internet, consumers
dont need to go out to experience entertainment or fulfill their needs; therefore live events
should be as appealing to them to make an investment and leave their comfort; and as consumers
spend more time on internet than ever marketers are forced to show the wow factors and the
novelties of live events through online channels, as well as showcase that live events are an
experience more than just an opportunity to listen to music or watch a show, there lies the unique
selling point of live events.

This last point is what generates excitement; in live events is the intangible atmosphere that
triggers satisfaction in the attendees, the larger the wow factor the most memorable the event
will be and loyalty and buzz will be present in the attendees actions. Through online advertising
is possible to create an urgency to attend the events with a small amount of investment, as this
urge needs to be plausible before the event.

And lastly for the Enterprise, even if the consumers and marketing channels are rapidly evolving
the basic need to be a pioneer and deliver something new is still present as well as to be the first
to enjoy those experiences, so live events producers need to constantly reinvent them selves not
only by creating new concepts but portraying this as accurate as possible to generate buzz and
engagement with the brands and events.

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i.

Paradigm: Traditional vs. new advertising channels

In the communications paradigm that includes what channels use to advertise live events, the
heart of the discussion is that in the traditional ways the flow of information generally is limited
to face-to-face encounters, word-of-mouth between individual consumers, and this limits the
dissemination of information (Mayzlin, 2006).

However, in the era of Internet and Social Networks brands and marketers have more control on
how to distribute the information, in what amount the consumer receive it and in which
frequency. Thanks to the Social Networks consumers have experience a power that they didnt
have before, the power to set the information rolling in their networks, and marketers should keep
a vigilant eye on the new communications paradigm (Figure 2).

Figure 2:
The new communication paradigm

Source: (Mayzlin, 2006).


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Consumers are now more than ever turning away from traditional sources of advertising as radio,
television, magazines and newspapers, to the point that Internet represent the number one source
of media for consumers at work and the number two at home, and this is project to remain as the
new generations take part in the decision making process at the moment to acquire a product or
service, this new generation demand immediate access to information and on-demand content.

Another factor to explore is that Social Networks are perceived as much trustworthy source of
information than corporate sponsored messages, as the users gain the feeling that they are in
control of what they will consume (Foux, 2006).

ii.

Social Media Marketing

As we can conclude from the previous chapter the future of traditional channels in advertising is
uncertain, both because the consumer habits are changing and the costs of traditional media are
increasing.

As Social Media has grown as seen in the second quarter of 2008, 75% of all Internet users used
social media by either posting videos to sites as YouTube, joining Social Networks on websites
as Facebook, or even posting blogs, showcasing a 19% increase from the year before (Kaplan &
Haenlein, 2010). Also researches indicate that Americans spend virtually 25% of their free time
on social networks.

Thanks to this a new concept of advertising has been in the rise: Viral Marketing, it is defined
as a marketing technique that use social networks to create brand awareness or to achieve other
marketing objectives, by encouraging individuals to pass on a marketing message to other users
or sites (Wilson, 2005; Hinz, 2012). It became such an attractive way to advertising because of
the rapid result in terms of sharing content and buzz generation, as it uses the free endorsement of
individuals rather than having large budgets for mass media to spread the message.
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It is in Social Media that the word-of-mouth plays an important role, as the consumers will
willingly spread the message through their networks creating a snow ball effect, and when it hits
the right person (the one with a large amount of followers or high level of credibility online) it
will bring the expected results in terms of product consumption. As the viral marketing has
grown the brand have selected ambassadors or message senders to achieve their goals faster but
this as well requires a delicate balance as in the moment the audience feels that the message is
being directly send by corporation this creates an instant buzz killer.

Social Media itself is considered as an inexpensive, effective and powerful tool to be used in
order to create first time and repeaters consumption, and in times when there are no novelties in
terms of products it keeps the brand alive and always present in the minds of consumers.

Marketing trough Social Media may come in different forms such as video clips, images, flash
games, but their effectiveness will depend on their multiplication that it can go from thousand
shares in a couple of days to a million shares in a couple of hours, It will be the level of wow
that will help the message spread. Brands might use their own social media pages (i.e. Twitter,
Facebook, YouTube); to get the message across or go for more specific campaigns where at the
beginning the brand has no obvious link with the product, marketers will create interactive online
campaigns in which they try to create messages so fascinating, funny or evocative that the
consumers spontaneously want to share them with friends in the viral environment. If the
consumer gets involved in the ad, it is more likely that the consumers will share message (Ives,
2005).

Even if viral marketing seems the ultimate solution to advertising its biggest challenge is to
make and keep the message creative and attractive for the selected target audience, otherwise the
consumer will loose their interest in sharing the message; the contrary effect when a campaign is
so successful the consumers expect the next campaign avidly to be the first to experience and
share it.
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After expressing the importance of Social Media in todays advertising strategies its significant
to know can be measured, the main categories that determine effectiveness of a Social Media
Advertising Campaign are quantitative metrics, qualitative metrics, and return-on-investment
metrics, Turner (2010). Some empirical studies as the one conducted by Syncapse, a social media
management company show that an average Facebook fan is worth approximately $136.38
(Syncapse, 2010). This value was obtained from the proposal that a Facebook fan has various
aspects that contribute to the outcome of a Social Media Campaign: product spending, loyalty,
inclination to contribute to word-of- mouth advertising, brand affinity, media value, and
acquisition cost.

iii.

Social networks: Facebook


Facebook was created in 2004 and actually is the number one competitor to Google and has
positing itself as the giant of social media as it is the number one site where the most users spend
more time than in any other social networking site. Facebook provides basic networking services
as well as the possibility of making common-interest user groups and different platform for
organizations and companies.
With over 850 million users Facebook has proved to be an important platform to market products
and services, as the way it is engrained allow the rapid spread of messages trough targeted
networks both by paid or free advertising options.

iv.

Social networks: YouTube

YouTube is a video-sharing portal purchased by Google in 2006. Even though it started as a


simple platform to share content online now it allows its users to create channels to form
relationships between the content creators and the content consumers, it is the base of this
relationship that create advertising opportunities for marketers.

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So far various forms of advertising have been experimented with on YouTube. At the beginning,
there were no advertisements at all on the website, yet then companies saw the large amount of
potential commercial viewers. The result was an incursion into participatory video ads, which run
on the front page, and actual brand channels created by various advertisers.

The major question regarding YouTube is: if it is possible to generate revenue through online
video sharing? This question is briefly answer by the premise that brands hope to engage
prospective and existing consumers in active dialogue rather than simply dictating what to
consume (Mills, 2007).

1. YouTubes Advertising Formats


a. Text Advertisements
YouTube a Social Network owned by Google, it is only natural that the first advertising efforts in
this platform were in the form of AdSense text ads, as they have been an important revenue
generator for Google.
Many detractors stated that simple text on the sides of the videos do not capture audiences
attention, but researchers (Vakratsas and Ambler, 1999) have concluded that for an advertising to
be effective it doesnt need to be only verbal or informative, it can be emotional and with visual
elements and it will call attention to the viewer. More over this ads are clicked and are
accomplishing brand awareness, recognition effects and product purchase.
Another point of argument regarding the text advertisements in the form of text or banners
(Figure 3) is that this becomes annoying for the users, turning in to something counterproductive
to the result that the brand or marketer is looking for. Initially this type of advertising was new
and had the ability to capture attention most of the times due to its visual qualities, but both

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subconsciously (Not paying attention even thought the information is on screen) or consciously
(By closing or blocking the ads) it has lost its attention-grabbing features. In an study (Drze and
Hussherr, 2003) it was determined that only half of the user recalled ever seeing a banner.

Figure 3:
Example of YouTube Banner advertising

Source: youtube.com
In this study we aim to see the impact of YouTube advertising as a global approach, though the
assumption is that the impact of the Text Advertising will be low and might affect the overall
result, it is important to acknowledge that most of the advertising used now trough YouTube is
via Video Advertising.

b. Video Advertisements
As YouTube has increased its role as a Social Network where advertising plays an important role,
the evolution of how marketers use has also changed trough the years. Internet is considered to
be an internally paced medium, meaning users have control over the amount of time spent

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looking at an advertisement, in traditional media as television consumer were exposed to a 30


seconds spots with no opportunity to bypass it, this reality has utterly changed with the use of
video advertisements in YouTube.

The Video Advertisements must have a shorter duration and in many cases the first couple of
seconds will make the difference whether the user skips it or stays till the end of it, this ads need
to be original, comical and have high novelty factor.

We can find two main kind of advertisement in YouTube, the Video Advertisement that can be
skipped after a certain amount of time (Figure 4) and the one that needs to be fully consumed to
allow the users to move along their desired content, the second normally will be perceived as the
one being the riskier one (Chang- Hoan, Jung-Gyo et al., 2001) as it was hypothesized that the
greater the forced exposure, the less favorable the attitude toward the ad would be. Surprisingly,
the hypothesis was not supported, once again indicating a discrepancy between notions and
evidence of online advertising methods.
Figure 4:
Example of YouTube Skip after time advertising

Source: youtube.com

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After awareness is established the new challenge will be the loyalty towards repetition and
congruency in the message portrayed; that will be the main reason as the advertisements will
need to be more dynamic compared to their predecessor the television video advertisement, the
marketers have more opportunities to showcase the message but a balance is needed in order to
prevent users from having a negative impact by the brand.

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3. Chapter 3: Research Methodology


a. Research Design

In this chapter we will introduce the methodology that will be used to answer this dissertations
research question that is if marketing a Live Event trough YouTube has an impact on attendance.

As the literature review showed there are several motivational factors that affect the decision
making process on deciding whether to attend or not a particular event, and in this case we want
to study in what amount a YouTube Banner or a YouTube promotional video affects this process.
Therefore this research will be a research focused on a case study that meets the desired criteria,
taking in to account a sample and different sources of evidence to prove the hypothesis (Gillham
2010, 2).

There are several possibilities on research study design, surfacing two types of research:
qualitative approach and quantitative approach. A qualitative approach is generally used when a
question needs to be deeply investigated or the answer to it might lie in the deep studies of its
actors insights as their descriptions and quotes, also it might not be possible to answer it with the
use of statistics, for this approach the type of data collection are regularly face to face interviews.
In the other hand a quantitative approach is generally used when measures are needed or come
useful, the sample is broader as the success of the analysis will depend on quantity; as for this
approach the type of data collection are generally questionnaires and surveys. In some cases
when both types of approach are mixed in the same study these are called Mixed-method
studies (Bryman & Bell, 2011) generally the researcher conducts a number of interviews with
key actors and a smaller survey to a desired sample.

i. Type of investigation
To determine whether YouTube advertising is more effective that other marketing tools the
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selected research approach will be a quantitative approach, with the use of questionnaires or
surveys in a selected sample. The event Caracas Comic Con 2014 selected for this study its an
event that for the first time uses banner marketing in the aims to reach a younger audience, they
selected YouTube as in 2008 the percentage of Latin American users identified by
Nielsen/NetRatings in the group age of 18-24 was 54% and the group of 25-34 to be 18%. And
they have developed promotional videos in previous editions but they havent strongly advertised
them trough social media.
b. Sample Elements
In order to collect data there are two main types of data collection, primary data from primary
sources that is the information collect specifically for the present study such as questionnaires or
surveys; and secondary data from secondary sources this one is generally data previously
collected by external researchers the benefits is that is readily available and tends to be cheaper
and the main disadvantages is that might be subjectively influenced or have low quality (Fisher,
2010). For this research we will only use primary data to conduct the study.
The foremost advantages of using primary data for the study, is that the data collected will be
unique to this study, and will reflect consistency and coherence with the research problem and the
research question.
i.

Sample Selection

As it was developed in the Literature, Live Events producers have two main means to advertise
their events using YouTube, firstly as a banner over the video desired by the user and secondly as
a video promoting the event itself, normally the video is shared through the events social media
channels including a YouTube Channel.

It is interesting for this research to take a look at both means of advertising, as the results might
bring a clearer light on witch of the advertising mean brings a larger return on investment.
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Consequently we need a sample that meets specific requirements in order to meet the criteria of
this research they most have contact with either the YouTube channel of the event or be inside
the criteria where the advertisement was placed. First for the marketing strategy using YouTube
that is the use of a banner on top of the videos, the sample will be people that attended the event,
after contacting a number of event producers that were using banner ads for their events we
selected Caracas Comic Con 2014 for two main reason the demography that will attend match the
demographic of YouTube viewers and also the event producer was able to provide the
information concerning the preferred parameters selected to display the advertisement (for
example: localization, gender, age) in YouTube, with this we will be able to cross reference with
the information gather from the surveys. The survey will be released through the social media
channels of the event the day after the event and will be available during 5 consecutive days.

For the second marketing strategy using YouTube dedicated videos through the YouTube
channel of the event, we will give the survey in the media platforms of the event after the event,
to see if there was an impact on the attendance. The event selected for this will be the same the
Caracas Comic Con 2014 as they have a YouTube channel and other social networks dedicated to
the event, and they used a campaign to promote the event.

c. Survey Elaboration
i.

Questionnaire Preparation

In order to carry out this research a survey was selected as an appropriate mean of data collection.
This questionnaire will be the same for all the participants, and will be given before attending the
Live Event to take a deep look in the motivations that the participant wants to fulfill and the
relationship with the events YouTube channel and after the Live Event to see if there is a
correlation between the decision to attend the event and the campaign develop through YouTube.

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ii.

Question Selection

The first main section of the questionnaire was to measure the involvement of the participants on
YouTube as a social network and how they respond to advertisement on the site; in order to
understand their involvement with this platform, the participants of the questionnaire were asked
to answer a set of 11 questions listed on a 7 point Likert-Type scale where 1 = Strongly disagree
and 7 = Strongly agree, going trough a 4 = Neutral point. The questions included firstly 6 items to
measure the relationship as a hole between the user and YouTube with statements such as Do
you use YouTube as a primary source of entertainment, Being involved with YouTube
channels help me kill time when Im bored and Being part of a YouTube channel helps me stay
in touch with people with alike interests and later 5 questions to see how the participants
respond to advertisement on YouTube with statements such as When you see a banner ad you
keep it under your video, When a video is prompt before your selected video you wait for it to
end. To finish this section we asked also in range groups how much time the participant spend
on YouTube and the number of YouTube Channels were subscribed to.

The second part of the questionnaire was to understand the motivations of the participants to
attend the event; a list of 15 motivations items was elaborated based on (Nicholson and Pearce,
2001) also to be answer in a 7 point Likert-Scale where 1=Strongly disagree and 7=Strongly
agree, going trough a 4 = Neutral point. The beginning of the question was marked by the
statement I attend the Caracas Comic Con 2014. The items listed included Because I
encounter people with the same interests I like to share a moment among friends I enjoy
attending Special Events.

The third part is to overlook their satisfaction after they attended the event and if they will have a
larger involvement with the social networks of the event, the main questions of this section were
overall satisfaction, recommendation to a friend, attending future editions of the event, future
subscription to the YouTube channel, future subscription to other social networks of the event.

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To finish the questionnaire, we will ask questions to describe the sample such as age, gender,
education level and occupation; to develop the demographics of the sample afterwards. The
questionnaire was made in Spanish as the event takes place in a speaking Spanish country, a
translated copy of the questionnaire can be found in the appendices of this research.

iii.

Analysis Procedures

The questionnaire was distributed both at the exit of the event and through the events social
networks, as the producers of the event were contacted before they understood the aims and
objectives of the research and granted permission to address the participants. As the message on
social networks was prompted to a broad audience this guarantee the random factor of the
previous attendees of the event, is important to mention that for the questionnaire prompt online a
first question was included as Did you attend the Caracas Comic Con 2014 in order to have
answers valid for analysis, for the questionnaires given on site this question was not included.

A total of 315 questionnaires were answer, a 63% from the call on social networks and 37% on
site to participants exiting the site, of this a total of 289 were valid for analysis noting that of the
26 questionnaires that were not valid 85% percent (21 questionnaires) were from the on site
participants.

The data gathered from the questionnaires was analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics
(Statistical Package for the Social Sciences); this software is widely used by researchers to do
their own statistical analyses.

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4. Chapter 4: Results and Discussion


a. Results Presentation
i.

Demographics
After receiving the results of the questionnaire made to the attendants to the Caracas Comic Con
2014, the result was that 315 questionnaires were answer, where 199 questionnaires where
answer online (Participants were request to participate by Social Networks) representing a 63%
and 116 questionnaires were answer on site representing 37% of the sample.
Following the review of the questionnaires only 289 were valid, 26 were not fully answered, out
of these 26, 21 were from the onsite inquiry representing 89% and the remaining 5 from the
online questionnaire. Its important to bring this up as this gives an input to which method of
surveying is more effective.
Figure 5
Distribution of the surveys participants

37%

Online

63%

Onsite

The first demographic characteristic of the sample that we took in to consideration was the age,
and the results showed that 22% of the respondents were 15 years old or younger, 35% ranged
from 15 to 18 years old, 23% ranged from 18 to 21 years old, 12% ranged from 22 to 25 years
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old, and finally 8% were 25 years old or older. We can see this result in the Table 1.
Table 1
Survey participants age distribution
Age

Number of Participants

Percentage

Less than 15

64

22%

15 18

101

35%

18-21

66

23%

22 -25

35

12%

More than 25

23

8%

Total

289

100%

The second demographic characteristic was gender an the results were that the sample was
formed by 61% males and 39% females, this result is inline with the overall demographic of this
type of events (Glazner, 2012).
Table 2
Survey participants gender distribution
Gender

Number of Participants

Percentage

Male

176

61%

Female

113

39%

Total

289

100%

The third demographic characteristic was the occupation of the participants, we gave four
different broad options and the results showed that our sample was comprised by a 52% of high
school students, 34% of university students, 10% of employed (non students) and lastly a 4% of
unemployed (non student). We can see that the large majority of the attendees are students both
EM Normandie 2013-2014

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high school and university this is in line with the age distribution of our sample. We can see the
distribution by occupation in the Table 3.
Table 3
Survey participants occupation distribution
Occupation

Number of Participants

Percentage

High school student

150

52%

University student

98

34%

Employed (Non student)

29

10%

Unemployed (Non student)

12

4%

Total

289

100%

The last demographic characteristic asked in the questionnaire was education level. The results
show that the sample is formed in 63% by participants that have obtain a high school level or
less, this relates logically to the sample occupation and age demographic as the majority are
persons still doing high school or university studies, 23% have obtained technical level, 12%
have obtained an university bachelor degree and lastly a 2% have a postgraduate level.
Table 4
Survey participants education level distribution
Education Level

Number of Participants

Percentage

High school level or less

150

52%

Technical level

98

34%

University level

29

10%

Postgraduate level

12

4%

Total

289

100%

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ii.

Reliability

The reliability of the measures taken in this study, can be understand as the degree to which the
measurement can be depended upon secure consistent results upon repeated application. In order
to evaluate the reliability of our measurement we will rely on Cronbachs coefficient or Alpha
statistic, its defined as reliability coefficient that indicates how well the items in a set are
positively correlated to one another (Sekaran, 2003) it ranges from 0 to 1 and when its value is
greater than 0.7 is adequate for group comparisons and greater than 0.9 its adequate for
individual monitoring. (Weiner, J, 2007). For this research the reliability was measure in two
major scales motivations to attend the event and the relationship with YouTube.

From the 289 valid surveys, the Cronbachs Alpha of the motivations to attend the event are
show in the Table 5 equals 0.754, meaning the scale in reliable for the study.

Table 5
Cronbachs Alpha for attendance motivation
Cronbachs Alpha

N of items

0.754

11

For the second scale, the relationship between the attendants and YouTube the results are show in
the Table 6 and the coefficient equals to 0.651, giving an acceptable scale for the study.
Table 6
Cronbachs Alpha for the relationship between the attendants and YouTube

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Cronbachs Alpha

N of items

0.651

15

34

iii.

Factor analysis

The results of the surveys were exposed to a Varimax rotation with Kaiser Normalization, to keep
the factors that contain Eigen values greater than one.

For the motivations to attend the event the factor analysis showed a pattern of loading that
suggests that four factors exist as main reasons for participating in the event. We can see the
factor loading in the Table 7.
Table 7
Factor Loading of the attendance motivation
Component
1
Family Relationships 1

0.783

Socialization 3

0.685

Socialization 4

0.680

Socialization 1

0.539

Socialization 5

0.535

Socialization 2

0.426

Excitement 3

0.856

Novelty 1

0.792

Excitement 2

0.659

Excitement 1

0.678

Novelty 2

0.539

Escape 1

0.498

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Shopping 2

0.872

Shopping 1

0.726

Novelty 3

0.722

In the table 8 we can see the four extracted factors: Social sharing and engagement,
entertainment factor, events in general, specific content, with their related item and statement.
Table 8
Extracted Factor of the attendance motivation
Extracted
Factor

Statements
Items
I attend the Caracas Comic Con . .
So I can do activities with my family or

Family Relationships 1

friends
Because I encounter people with the

Socialization 1
Social Sharing

same interests

Socialization 2

I like to share a moment among friend

Socialization 3

So I can meet new people

& Engagement
To observe other people who are in the

Socialization 5

event

Socialization 4

To reencounter people Ive met online


I enjoy looking at the participants in

Excitement 3

costumes

Entertainment
Factor

Events in

Excitement 2

Because I like the entertainment options

Novelty 1

Because is exiting

Escape 1

To experiment different in my routine

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36

general

Excitement 1

I enjoy attending Special Events


Because these types of events are not

Novelty 2

frequent
Because I want to meet comic important

Novelty 3
Specific

personalities

Shopping 1

Content

To buy new merchandise


So I have an opportunity to exchange

Shopping 2

collectable items

For the relationship between the participants and YouTube the factor analysis showed a pattern of
loading that suggests that 3 factors exist We can see the factor loading in the Table 9.
Table 9
Factor Loading of the relationship between the participants and YouTube
Component
1
Informative 5

0.879

Informative 4

0.456

Socialization 2

0.435

Socialization 1

0.432

Entertainment 2

0.727

Entertainment 4

0.678

Entertainment 1

0.539

Entertainment 3

0.879

Informative 1

0.739

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37

Informative 2

0.561

Informative 3

0.402

In the table 10 we can see the four extracted factors: involvement and socialization, entertainment
factor and content awareness, with their related item and statement.
Table 10
Extracted Factor of the relationship with YouTub e and the participants
Extracted Factor

Items

Statements
Being part of a YouTube channel helps

Socialization 1

me stay in touch with people with alike


interests

Involvement &

Being part of YouTube channel helps me

Socialization 2

make new friends

Socialization
I watch video advertising so Im aware of

Informative 5

the latest content


When a video is prompt before my

Informative 4

selected video I wait for it to end


If a video advertising calls my attention I

Entertainment 4
Entertainment
Factor

dont skip it
Do you use YouTube as a primary source

Entertainment 1

of entertainment
Being involved with YouTube channels

Entertainment 2

help me kill time when Im bored


When you see a banner ad you keep it

Entertainment 3

under your video

Content Awareness
Informative 3
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I always pay attention to videos prompt


38

before my content
YouTube channels are my main source of

Informative 1

information
Being part of YouTube channels help me

Informative 2

keep informed of the latest news of my


interests

iv.

Cluster Analysis
Cluster analysis is taken into account to classify the attendances motivations; the Table 11 shows
the 6 clusters or groups with the highest regression score.

Table 11
Cluster according to attendance motivation
Clusters
1

Social Sharing & Engagement

1.503

1.006

0.392

0.347

Entertainment Factor

0.789

-0.765

0.590

1.905

Events in general

0.492

0.942

-0.769

0.492

Content factor

0.850

-0.962

-0.615

0.104

Following this analysis we saw how the sample was divided among the clusters, the Table 12
shows the number of cases by group.

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39

Table 12
Division of the sample by clusters
1

69.00

75.00

83.00

62.00

Valid

289.00

Missing

0.00

Cluster

To go into further detail into each group, using the software a cross-tabulation was made between
each cluster and the demographic characteristics. In the following tables each cluster will be
described according to age, gender, occupation and education background.

Table 13
Clusters Age
Clusters
Age

Total
1

Less than 15

15

12

32

60

15 18

31

10

17

61

18-21

12

12

15

39

22 -25

15

15

11

55

More than 25

25

24

13

74

98

60

56

75

289

Total

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Table 14
Clusters Gender
Clusters

Gender

Total

Female

1
41

2
39

3
34

4
35

Male

37

33

33

37

140

78

72

67

72

289

Total

149

Table 15
Clusters Occupation
Clusters

Occupation

Total

High school student

27

39

35

54

155

University student

22

37

22

12

93

Employed (Non student)

15

11

40

Unemployed (Non student)

64

83

65

77

289

Total

Table 15
Clusters Education Level
Clusters

Education Level

Total

High school student

19

19

27

36

101

University student

18

12

35

29

94

Employed (Non student)

27

16

32

15

90

Unemployed (Non student)

65

47

96

81

289

Total

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v.

Correlations
Two sets of Correlations were drawn upon the following factors; the first one to see how previous
social engagement affects the attendance of the participants we compared these factors:
satisfaction based on the participants overall satisfaction, loyalty based on the intention to attend
the event again, recommendation if the participants intent to invite their friends between social
engagement based on the participants previous subscription status to the YouTube channel. The
table 16 shows the first correlation. The second correlation was drawn between the effects of
attending the effect of the engagement with the YouTube channel of the event; the comparison
was between the satisfaction, recommendation and loyalty to future social engagement with the
intention to subscribe to the YouTube channel. This correlation is shown in table 17.

Table 16
Correlations between Previous Social Engagement vs. Satisfaction, Recommendation and
Loyalty
Previous Social
Engagement
Satisfaction

Pearson
Correlation

0.129

P-Value

0.008

Pearson
Recommendation Correlation

Loyalty

Recommendation

0.016

0.416

P-Value

0.213

0.001

Pearson
Correlation

0.089

0.324

0.693

P-Value

0.546

0.569

0.219

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Satisfaction

42

Table 17
Correlations between Satisfaction, Recommendation and Loyalty vs. Future Social
Engagement

Pearson
Future Social
Engagement

Correlation
P-Value

Satisfaction

Loyalty

Recommendation

0.476

0.281

0.018

0.301

0.407

0.319

b. Discussion
i.

Motivations to attend the Caracas Comic Con


The motivations items to attend this event that came out of this research are the following Social
sharing and engagement, Entertainment factor, Events in general and Specific content. Three out
of this four correspond to the ones expressed in previous studies they are social sharing and
engagement are linked to the family factor and Specific content and entertainment factor
corresponds to specifics/entertainment as expressed by Nicholson and Pearce (2001).
The fourth item that did not match the previous research portrait in the review is Events in
general that is related to the desire to experiment different experiences and have fun, is highly
linked to excitement and novelty as expressed once more by Nicholson and Pearce (2001).

ii.

Effects of YouTube advertising


The most relevant result towards this matter was that the participants are highly seeking for
engagement and involvement. As was expressed the new generations are deeply motivated to be
part of a network there for this can come advantageous in the future of marketing through social
media specifically YouTube.

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43

Thanks to the results we could see that the younger audience spends a larger amount of time in
YouTube, from the group of less that 15 to 18, 85% of them spent more than 5 hours in YouTube
per week.
Regarding the content awareness in 64% of the cases when the participant was engaged during
the first 5 second (When the video ad cant be skip) the remain till the end of the advertisement.
iii.

Cluster Analysis
The 5 groups that were extracted from the analysis have the following classification based on
their characteristics

Group 1 Engagers (Social Sharing and Engagement): the people from this group come
either with their friends and family or come to reencounter previous friends, they have a
regular motivation towards the specifics of the event. Most of this group was between the
ages of 22 and more than 25. The gender distribution was fairly even. The gender
distribution was fairly even 52% females vs. 48% males. This group is well distributed
between the students and the employed participants. The education level of this group is
mostly high with a majority with a technical degree or higher.

Group 2 Experiencers (Entertainment): people looking for general entertainment mainly


constitute this group; they are not highly motivated by the specifics of this type of event.
Most of this group was between the ages of 22 and more than 25. The gender distribution
was fairly even 54% females vs. 46% males. This group is well distributed mostly
between the high school students and university students. The education level of this
group is mostly high with a majority with a technical degree or higher.

Group 3 Fun seekers (Events in general): this groups motivations attend the event to
vary their routine by attending events out of normal, they are not motivated by the content
in the event. This group was evenly distributed between all the group ages. The gender

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44

distribution was fairly even 51% females vs. 49% males. This group is mostly distributed
between the high school students and university students. The education level of this
group is mostly high school level or less.

Group 4 The fans (Content factor): this group is mainly composed by people that follow
this type of events all along the year, the come for the specific entertainment and the
specific merchandise. Most of this group was between the ages of less than 15 and 18.
The gender distribution was fairly even 49% females vs. 51% males. This group is mostly
distributed between the high school students and university students. The education level
of this group is mostly high school level or less.

iv.

Correlations
The correlations clearly show the following results:

There is no correlation between the satisfaction, loyalty and recommendation and the fact
of being part of the YouTube channel, this is expressed in values close to 0.

The overall satisfaction has a clear relation ship with the intention to revisit the event and
the intentions to recommend the event, with correlations greater than 0.5.

Regarding to the future engagement with the YouTube channel the factor that will
influence this decision the most is the event satisfaction with a correlation of 0.476,
followed by loyalty that represents the intention to assist again with a correlation of 0.281.
Whatsoever the intention to recommend the event has no impact on social engagement.

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5. Chapter 5: Conclusions
a. Conclusions
For the first conclusion of this research we found that for this particular event the motivations are
Social sharing and engagement, Entertainment factor, Events in general and Specific content,
that relate to the ones expressed in previous studies in 75% (3 out 4 motivations). After the
analysis we were able to group the participants in 4 cluster groups, the engagers that are mostly
drown by belonging to a group or sharing experiences with family and friends, the experiencers a
group that dont mind the specific content but look for an option different from the routine, the
fun seekers with a desire to engage in a different activity and finally the fans this group is mainly
attending the event because of the specific in entertainment and ambiance.

Regarding the relationship between the participants and YouTube, we found out that the
motivations for the participants to join or participate in this platform are Involvement and
Socialization, Entertainment Factor and Content Awareness. So marketers should keep in mind
these three factors and create engaging content with a high level of novelty and with a quota of
information, so they can capture the audience in the few seconds they are obliged to look at the
advertisement videos.

This research is not conclusive whether YouTube advertisement affects the attendants
motivations; and neither if video ads are more effective than banners. Even thought we concluded
that the new generations are more engaged with this social network, and the younger the person is
the longer it spends in YouTube per week. Thanks to the correlations we determined that being
part of the YouTube channel of the event has no direct effect on the satisfaction, loyalty or
recommendation of the event, on the side of this finding we could see some relation between the
possibilities of joining the YouTube channel of the event if the satisfaction level is high.

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b. Managerial Implications
A number of practical suggestions can be derived from the results obtained in this research, is
clear that YouTube is a social platform that is constantly updating itself according to the
consumers behaviors as we can see in their layout evolution (Figure 6), that also affects the way
marketers can advertise their products, as the placement of video advertisements, the removal of
them or the introduction of overly banners has changed through time.
Figure 6
YouTubes layout evolution

Source: youtube.com

Regarding to the decision between banners or videos before the desired content the study has
shown that videos before the users desired content have a higher rate of engagement this could
be linked to the fact that during the first 5 non skippable seconds of the interest is created the user
will see the video all the way to the end, as the user my encounter the same video several times it
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is suggested that the automatic play option be randomized in order to reduce annoyance among
the audience.

Also to reach the desired target audience and display the videos tailored to the users profile they
need to be logged in their account this represents a challenge for marketers as if the user is not
logged in the only parameter they will be able to control is the geographical factor that is linked
to the users IP address. In the other hand if the user is logged YouTube can recognize previous
search and show videos linked to this information.

c. Research Limitations

The main limitation of this research was time limitation that resulted in the study of only one
event, also as the event producer was needed to be contacted this was an influence factor. The
number of subscribers to the YouTube channel at the moment is not large so this limited the
analysis in order to make cross-references between the participants that were members already
and the new subscribers.

Another limitation is that the event selected takes part in Caracas, Venezuela and even though the
Internet penetration of the country is 50% and the active social media users are 39% of the total
population the consumers dont have a strong behavior of subscribing to YouTube channels (We
Are Socials Snapshot of Key Digital Statistics and Data, 2014, 223-228).

d. Suggestions for Future Research

After completing this study we can see various opportunities to have a better understanding and a
more accurate responses to our research question. The main suggestions will be to perform
studies in events where their social networks including their YouTube channel have a large

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48

number of subscribers and a dynamic community; another suggestion related to this fact is to
select an event that takes place in a city or country where the audience is highly engaged to
YouTube and also to subscribe to YouTube channels, for example the United Kingdom or The
United States as they have a larger YouTube audience with different consuming habits towards it
in comparison to Venezuela. (We Are Socials Snapshot of Key Digital Statistics and Data,
2014).

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