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Physics 143a

Prof. Gerald Gabrielse

CA: Achilleas Porfyriadis

Lecture Summary

Learn how to use CG coefficient table. (For exam)

Perturbation expansion.

Energy eigenstate first and second-order correction and eigenket first-order correction

(Non-degenerate case).

2-state nearly-degenerate perturbation.

~ and S

~ and Clebsch-Gordon coefficient as change of basis matrix elements.

Coupling of L

Questions

1. What is the probabilistic interpretation of changing between coupled and de-coupled eigenstates (using CG coefficients)?

2. What happens if you change basis twice?

3. How are we able to assume small , do a power series in , and then plug in = 1 to get

the fully perturbed state?

Answers

1. What is the probabilistic interpretation of changing between coupled and de-coupled eigenstates (using CG coefficients)?

e.g.) If two particles of spin 2 and spin 1 are at rest in a box, and the total spin is 3, and

its z component is 0:

r

1

1

3

|(2, 1), 3, 0i = |2, 1i |1, 1i +

|2, 0i |1, 0i + |2, 1i |1, 1i

5

5

5

(1)

Then, the measurement of Sz yields value 1 with probability 1/5, the value 0 with

(2)

probability 3/5, and the value 1 with probability 1/5. (Same thing holds with Sz )

Conversely, for a system of two particles with (s1 , m1 ) = ( 32 , 21 ) and (s2 , m2 ) = (1, 0), the

total angular momentum yields:

r

r

r

3 1

3

3

3

5

1

1

3

1

1 3

1 1

,

2 2 |1, 0i = 5 2 , 1 , 2 , 2 + 15 2 , 1 , 2 , 2 3 2 , 1 , 2 , 2

which means that if you measure the total spin, you get value 5/2 with probability 3/5,

value 3/2 with probability 1/15, and value 1/2 with probability 1/3.

Lets work it out, for example, for state coupling |1, 0i |2, 0i:

r

r

2

3

|1, 0i |2, 0i =

|(1, 2), 1, 0i +

|(1, 2), 3, 0i

5

5

Changing basis to each coupled eigenket:

r

r

r

3

2

3

|1, 1i |2, 1i

|1, 0i |2, 0i +

|1, 1i |2, 1i

|(1, 2), 1, 0i =

10

5

10

r

r

r

1

3

1

|(1, 2), 3, 0i =

|1, 1i |2, 1i +

|1, 0i |2, 0i +

|1, 1i |2, 1i

5

5

5

Plugging them in:

|1, 0i |2, 0i = |1, 0i |2, 0i

and we get the original ket back, which is as expected.

3. How are we able to assume small , do a power series in , and then plug in = 1 to get

the fully perturbed state?

Assuming small such that H = H0 + H 0 is equivalent to assuming H = H0 + H 0 with

small H 0 : H0 H 0 .

Taking that approach, we make the expansion of the perturbed wavefunction as a linear

combination of unperturbed wavefunctions:

X

|m i =

an n0

n

X

X

H |m i =

an (H0 + H 0 ) n0 =

an (En0 + H 0 ) n0

n

= Em |m i = Em

an n0

which means:

X

X

an (Em En0 ) n0 =

an H 0 n0

Taking the inner product with k0 :

X

an (Em En0 ) k0 n0 = ak (Em Ek0 )

n

an k0 H 0 n0

Or:

0

n an Hkn

Em Ek0

P

ak =

0

an Hkn

since we have:

X

0

0

an Hkn

= ak Hkk

+

0

an Hkn

n6=k

re-ordering, we have:

ak =

X

1

0

an Hkn

0

0

Em Ek Hkk

n6=k

The first-order perturbation is when we assume m m

approximation, am = 1 and all other an = 0 for n 6= m.

Therefore, we have the approximation:

0

0 0

am (Em Em

) m = am H 0 m

0

0

=0

am (Em Em

H 0 ) m

0

0

am (Em Em

Hkm

)=0

0

0

Em Em

+ Hkm

Further degree approximations can be made by iterations of this: for example, the secondorder perturbation is when we use:

ak =

0

X

X

X

Hkn

1

1

0

0

=

a

H

an0 Hnn

0

n

kn

0

0

0

Ek En0 Hnn

Ek Ek0 Hkk

Ek Ek0 Hkk

0

n6=k

n6=k

Since

X

0

0

an0 Hnn

0 = ak Hnk +

0

a0n Hnn

0

n0 6=n,k

n0 6=n

we have:

0 H0

X

H

1

kn nk

= ... 0

ak 1

0

0

Ek En0 Hnn

Ek Ek0 Hkk

n6=k

Hence, we have:

0

Ek Ek0 Hkk

=

X

n6=k

0 H0

Hkn

nk

0

Ek En0 Hnn

0

Ek Ek0 + Hkk

+

X

n6=k

0 |2

|Hnk

0

Ek En0 Hnn

n 6=n

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