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By

MIRTA DWI RAHMAH

MAN MACHINE
ENVIRONMENT

Work Environment
The physical aspects of a workplace environment can have a
direct impact on the productivity, health and safety, comfort,
concentration, job satisfaction and morale of the people
within it. Important factors in the work environment that
should be considered include building design and age,
workplace layout, workstation set-up, furniture and
equipment design and quality, space, temperature,
ventilation, lighting, noise, vibration, radiation, air quality.
Ergonomics is the study of the relationship between people,
the equipment they use and the physical environment in
which they work. Applying ergonomic principles to the
design, modification and maintenance of workplace
environments, has a benefit on peoples work performance
and short- and long-term health and safety.

Work system Elements


HUMAN
- Physical
- Mental
- Cogni?ve

MACHINE
- Process
- Equipment
- Task
- Tool

ENVIRONMENT
- Noise
- Temperature
- Vibra?on
- Ligh?ng

! the productivity, health and safety, comfort,


concentration, job satisfaction and morale of the
people

Ergonomics

is the scien;c discipline concerned with the


understanding of interac?ons among humans and
other elements of a system, and the profession that
applies theory, principles, data and methods to design
in order to op;mize human well-being and overall
system performance.

is concerned with the "t" between the user,
equipment and their environments. It takes account of
the user's capabili;es and limita;ons in seeking to
ensure that tasks, func;ons, informa;on and the
environment suit each user.

The Interna;onal Ergonomics Associa;on

Ergonomics or biomechanics
Ergonomics is described as the study of
rela?onship between man and his working
environment. It also deals with man-machine
rela?onship

Eciency of Man Machine System is


aected by the following
Design of physical devices - display panels,
controls i.e. user friendly
Work environment
1) Temperature and humidity
2) Noise
3) Light or illumina;on
4) Color
5) Vibra;on
Ability and mo;va;on of operator
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Working environment
o Physical factors: eect of illumina;on,
temperature, noise and vibra;on
o Chemical factors: chemical substance, gas, vapor,
dust
o Biological factors: infec;ons caused by bacteria,
viruses, fungi and worms
o Physiological factors: aZtudes and ways of
working, the determina;on of working hours and
breaks, shi[ work, over;me
o Psychological factors: the atmosphere of the
workplace, the rela;onship between workers
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Temperature and humidity


Eciency of employees performing physical
works decreases when temperature increases
beyond 80 degree Fahrenheit
Workers not performing physical works tend to
become less ecient at temperatures above 90
degrees Fahrenheit
During cold season, the work environment should
have hea;ng facility
Air condi;oning oce environment reduces
fa;gue and errors
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Temperature and humidity


High humidity level also aects the
performance of the workers
If humidity is very high, then temperature
above 90 degrees Fahrenheit can be s;ing
In less humid condi;ons workers can endure
more heat

Temperature and humidity

A cold dry environment is much more


comfortable than under condi;ons of high
humidity
In produc;on areas it is dicult to control
humidity but not so in oce areas

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Temperature
o Inner body temperature ! 37C
"Equilibrium
"Heat Produc;on ! get from body
metabolism
"Heat Loss ! radia;on, evapora;on
o Environmental temperature
"Hot
"Cold

Extreme Temperatures
Common warning signs:
o Dehydra;on
o Compromised ;ssues
Muscle cramps
Restless leg syndrome
o Poor circula;on
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Heat Stroke
o Mainly caused by changes in the body
temperature.
o Excessive physical work can be a major
cause of heat stress, especially when there
is a disrup;on body thermoregula;on
capabili;es
o Younger people ! hard worker, military
training, athlete.
o Preven;on ! sucient ;me to rest, the
adequacy of body uids, etc.

Hypothermia
Poten;ally dangerous drop in body
temperature, usually caused by prolonged
exposure to cold temperatures.
Extreme environment temperature can also
lead to hypothermia depending on a persons
age, body mass, body fat, overall health and
length of ;me exposed to cold temperatures
Below 35C ! improve probability of death
Below 30C ! sudden death (heart failure)

Other eects of low temperature


o Performance related (behavior disrup;on)

"Motor performance:
#tac;le sensi;vity
#manual performance

"Cogni;ve performance:
#tracking
#reac;on ;me
#complex behavior

Noise
Is the result of varia;ons in air pressure
May result from human speech, machine
opera;on, vibra;ons, and reverbera;on
Employees have the ability to adapt to noisy
environment within reasonable limits
Higher noise levels are annoying and painful

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Noise
Exposing employees to higher noise levels may
impair their power of hearing
Could be reduced by replacing or adjus;ng
moving parts, frequent lubrica;on,
maintenance, installing special devices
carpets, curtains
Beker to isolate noisy machines in separate
buildings
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Noise
Noise is unwanted sound. It is a pollutant and a
hazard to human health and hearing. Noise in our
environment aects physical health. Noise also has
psychological and social implica;ons and aects
our well being and quality of life. Noise can be
reduced by lubrica;on of machine, drapes and ceiling
;les are used to absorb unwanted sound and
eliminate echoes and muers are used to reduce
noise.
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Noise
Painful
150 dB = rock music peak
140 dB = rearms, air raid siren, jet engine
130 dB = jackhammer
120 dB = jet plane take-o, amplied rock music at 4-6 [., car stereo, band
prac;ce
Extremely Loud
110 dB = rock music, model airplane
106 dB = ;mpani and bass drum rolls
100 dB = snowmobile, chain saw, pneuma;c drill
90 dB = lawnmower, shop tools, truck trac, subway
Very Loud
80 dB = alarm clock, busy street
70 dB = busy trac, vacuum cleaner
60 dB = conversa;on, dishwasher
Moderate
50 dB = moderate rainfall
40 dB = quiet room
Faint
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30 dB = whisper, quiet library


Noise

o Excessive noise may increase sta stress and fa;gue. General
o
o

o
o

noise may be reduced by oor carpe;ng and by loca;ng oce


areas away from sources of external noise. The recommended
decibel range for oce work is 55 to 65 dBA.
Hard surfaces such as glass walls or white boards will act to
increase the reec;on of noise.
Telephone or other conversa;ons can be distrac;ng in open
plan oces. Sound absorbing barriers may be considered if
such noise is a problem.
Some oce groups follow their own "low noise rules".
Some oce machines have high noise levels. Supervisors
should ensure their loca;on, pakerns and vicinity to sta are
such as to prevent problems.
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Illumina?on
o Light is energy in the form of electromagne;c
waves are invisible to the 380-750 nm
wavelength. Packets of light called a spectrum
then visually perceived by the senses of sight as
color
o Ligh;ng is one of the factors to get the state of a
safe and comfortable environment and is closely
related to human produc;vity. Good ligh;ng
allows people to be able to see objects clearly
and quickly doing
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Illumina?on
Source of ligh;ng
"Natural: sunlight
"Ar;cial: Required when natural ligh;ng is
insucient

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Illumina?on
Provide adequate light to perform
Various ligh;ng intensi;es have been
recommended for dierent types of jobs
Lower illumina;on levels cause fa;gue and
error
Over illumina;on is a strain to the eyes and
leads to errors
Glare is another problem
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Illumina?on

Brain
Ilumination
( lumen/m2 )
Brightness

Luminance (foot
lambert)

Illumina?on

Light intensity
Reectance
Glare

Illumina?on
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING.-
1. Sucient illumina;on should be provided for each workman irrespec;ve of

his posi;on on the working space.


2. The lamps should be properly selected and so installed as to avoid or
minimize strain on the eyes of the workmen. The type and size of lamp
should be adapted to the par;cular ceiling height and class of work in
ques;on.
3. The lamps should be operated from sources of supply which will insure
con;nuity of service and steadiness of light.
4. Adequate illumina;on should be provided from overhead lamps so that sharp
shadows may be prevented as much as possible, and in such measure that
individual lamps close to the work may be unnecessary except in special
cases.
5. In addi;on to the illumina;on provided by overhead lamps, individual lamps
should be placed close to the work if they are absolutely necessary, and in
such cases the lamps should be provided with suitable opaque reectors.

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Ligh?ng Op?ons

Glare

SOURCE: American Journal of Public Health

29

General Oce Ligh?ng



" In all working environments the ligh;ng situa;on needs to be
considered.
" Illumina;on is measured in units of LUX - lumens per square
meter
" "Ordinary" visual tasks should be in range 300 to 400 lux [320
lux (task) and 160 lux (Background)].
" Op;ons for adjus;ng ligh;ng include(eg: computer)
" Posi;oning of the monitor to the side of window light and/or
in between overhead light sources.
" "An;-glare" Screen Filters- Where all other eorts to correct
ligh;ng have not succeeded, use of a screen lter may be
necessary.
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Recommended Ranges of Ilumina?on


Aplication
General lighting for
area used
infrequently or
having simple visual
demands

Public area with dark


surroundings

ISO
(lux)

Example

BS 8206
(lux)

20-50

Area for occational


access

50100

Walkways, cable tunnels

50

100200

Storage areas, entrance hall

100

20200 lux

Rooms not used for


continuous work

General lighting for


working interior

Task with limited visual


requirements

200500

Rough machining, lecture


theatres

300

2002.000 lux

Task with normal visual


requirements

5001.000

Medium machining, office

500

Tasks with special


visual requirements

1.0002.000

Hand engraving, drawing


office

750

Very prolonged
exacting visual tasks

2.0007.500

Electronic or watch
assembly

1.000

Exceptionally exacting
visual tasks

5.00010.000

Micro-electronic assembly

2.000

Very special visual


tasks

10.00020.000

Surgical operations

Additional lighting
for visually exacting
task
2.00020.000 lux

Visual Work

CS

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Color
Colors used in working environment aect the
performance
Light colors are advisable for walls and ceiling
Colors have a remarkable eect on human
behavior
Green and Blue are cool colors
Red and Orange are warm colors
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Color
Dull colors are used in machines to reduce glare
Light green is the favorite color for machine
manufacturers as it is akrac;ve and relaxing
Color is also used for plant safety and coding
Fire ex;nguishers are painted red
Poten;al danger areas are outlined in yellow
Color coding helps to dis;nguish between similar
devices hot water value is painted red, cold
water valve is painted blue
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Vibra?on
Can lead to injury when you are:

"

Using reciproca;ng tools


Using grinding or impact tools

"

Using vibra;ng tools

"

Working in or on motorized vehicles

"

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Vibra?on

Vibra?on refers to mechanical oscilla;ons about an equilibrium point. The


oscilla;ons may be periodic such as the mo;on of a pendulum or random such as
the movement of a ;re on a gravel road.
vibra;on is undesirable, was;ng energy and crea;ng unwanted sound noise. For
example, the vibra;on mo;ons of engines, electric motors, or any mechanical
device in opera;on are typically unwanted. Such vibra;ons can be caused by
imbalances in the rota;ng parts, uneven fric;on, the meshing of gear teeth, etc.
Careful designs usually minimize unwanted vibra;ons.
Vibra;ons can be reduced by machine balancing, machine over hauling and
material selec;on.
Machine casing, ear plugs, absorp;on materials and dampers have to be provided
to reduce vibra;on.
Vibra;on can be source of fa;gue.
The most serious eect of vibra;on, especially in the case of machinery, is that
suciently high alterna;ng stresses can produce fa;gue failure in machine and
structural parts. Less serious eects include increased wear of parts, general
malfunc;oning of apparatus, and the propaga;on of vibra;on through founda;ons
and buildings to loca;ons where the vibra;on of its acous;c realiza;on is
intolerable either for human comfort or for the successful opera;on of sensi;ve
measuring equipment.
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Vibra?on
o Have serious inuences to human body
"Visual percep;on
"Psychomotor performance
"Musculature
"Blood circula;on
"Respiratory
"Nervous system

REFFERENCES
Ergonomic models of anthropometry, human biomechanics, and operator ...
By K. H. E. Kroemer, Thomas B. Sheridan, Na;onal Research Council (U.S.). Commikee on Human
Factors, Na;onal Research Council (U.S.). Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and
Educa;on

Person-Centred Ergonomics: A Brantonian View Of Human Factors


edited by D J Osbourne, F. Leal, R Saran, P Shipley, T Stewart
A Guide to Human Factors and Ergonomics (2005)
by Mar;n Helander.
The Occupa?onal Ergonomics Handbook (1998)
Edited by Waldemar Karwowski, William S. Marras.
CCOHS, Working in the cold temperatures