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CHAPTER 5: INDICES

5.1 Indices and Law of Indices

Positive index

When a real number a is multiplied by itself in n times, the result is the a to


the power of n.
In general,
an = a a a a

Zero index

The zero index of any number is equal to zero.


a0 = 1, where a 0

Negative index
a-n is a reciprocal of an
1
an = n
a

Fractional index
1

an

is a nth root of a.
1

a n =n a , where a
0

m
n

is a nth root of am.


m
n

a =( n a) = am , where a 0

Law of indices
am an = am + n
am an = am n
(am)n = amn

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5.2 Logarithms and Law of Logarithms

Logarithms
N = ax loga N = x
where a > 0 and a 1.
Example 1
Find the value of each of the following:
1. log2 64
2. log3 1
3. log5 5
log 1 4
4.
2
5. log8 0.25
Example 2
Solve the following equations.
1. log3 5x = 2
2. logx + 1 81 = 2
3. logx 5x 6 = 2

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Law of logarithms
loga xy = loga x + loga y
x
log a
=log a xlog a y
y

()

loga xm = m loga x
Example 3
Express the following in term of loga x and loga y.
1. loga 3x
x
log a
2.
5
3. loga y5
4. loga xy3
2
x
5. log a y
6.

log a

y
a x3
2

Example 4
Find the value of the following.
1. log2 7 + log2 12 log2 21
2. 3 log10 5 + 2 log10 2 log10 5
3. 2 log10 3 - log10 3 + log10 3

1
3

4. log3 3p + log3 3q log3 pq


Example 5
Given that log7 4 = 0.712 and log7 5 = 0.827, evaluate the following.
1. log7 20
2. log7 1
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

1
4

log7 0.8
log7 28
log7 140
log7 100
log7 0.25

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8. log7

35
64

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5.3 Change of Base of Logarithms


log a b=

log c b
log c a

log a b=

1
, when c=b
log b a

Example 6
Find the value of the following.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

log25 100
log3 0.4
log4 8
log125 5
log81 27
log16 64

Example 7
Given that logp 3 = h and logp 5 = k, express the following in terms of h and/or k.
1. logp

5
3

2. log15 75
Example 8
Given that log3 x = b, express logx 9x in terms of b.
Example 9
Given that log2 3 = 1.585 and log2 5 = 2.322, evaluate the following.
1.
2.
3.
4.

log8 15
log5 0.6
log15 30
log16 45

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5.4 Equation Involving Indices and Logarithms

Equation involving indices

If the base are the same,


When ax = ay, then x = y

If the index are the same,


When ax = bx, then a = b

If the base and index are not the same,


ax = b
log ax = log b
log b
x=
log a

Example 10
Solve each of the following.
1. 16x = 8
2. 9x. 3x 1 = 81
1
n+1
5 =
3.
125 n1
4.
5.

81n+2=
8

x1

1
3 27n1
n

4
2 x+3

6. 27(813x) = 1
Example 11
Solve the following simultaneous equations.
2x . 42 y =8
3x 1
=
9 y 27
Example 12
Solve each of the following.
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1. 3x 1 + 3x = 12
2. 2x + 2x + 3 = 72
3. 4x + 1 + 22x = 20

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Example 13
Solve each of the following.
1.
2.
3.
4.

3x + 1 = 7
2(3x) = 5
2x.3x = 9x 4
5x 1.3x + 2 = 10

Equation involving logarithms

If the base are the same,


If loga m = loga n, then m = n

Convert to index form,


If loga m = n, then m = an

Example 14
Solve the following equation.
1.
2.
3.
4.

log3 2 + log3 (x + 5) = log3 (3x 1)


log2 8x 3 = log2 (2x 1)
3logx 2 + 2logx 4 logx 256 = -1
logy 81 3 = logy 3
x
2 log 2 xlog 2 1 4=0
5.
2

( )

Example 15
Solve the following equation.
1. log3 [log2 (2x 1)] = 2
2. log16 [log2 (5x 4)] = log9 3
3. log9 (x 2) = log3 2
3
4. log 4 x= 2 log 2 3
5. log4 x = 25logx 4
6. log2 5x + log4 16x = 6

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