Application of artificial neural networks in defense textiles

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Application of artificial neural networks in defense textiles

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Protective Textiles for Defense Applications

By Gurumurthy B. Ramaiah and Radhalakshmi Y. Chennaiah, Central Silk Technological Research

Institute (CSTRI); and Gurumurthy K. Satayanarayanarao, Bangalore University

Abstract

Kevlar is a well-known component of bulletproof vests and bulletproof facemasks. Helmets reinforced

with Kevlar fabric offers 25% to 40% better fragmentation resistance than comparable steel helmets. An

artificial neural network study on properties of Kevlar 29 fabric is reported in this paper. The objective

is to compare physical models and artificial neural network models, since the latter have proved to be a

powerful tool to model predictive non-linearities and complexities. Fragment simulation projectile data for

ballistic penetration measurements at 244 m/s was used to demonstrate the modeling aspects of artificial

neural networks. Predicted values gave excellent correlation with experimental values of penetration depth

and dissipated energy. The results prove the superiority of neural network models used in this study over

theoretical models.

Key Terms

Anti-ballistics, Backpropagation, Cut Resistant, Expert System, Fragment Simulation, Kevlar,

Neural Networks, Protective Textiles, Puncture Resistant

Introduction

Previous Work

that provide protection against bullets and fragmentation at velocities above 244 m/s. Until now,

ballistic armor has been evaluated for its ability to

provide ballistic protection using destructive tests

under simulated conditions. Modern concealable

body armor provides protection at different levels

designed to defeat most common low- and mediumenergy handgun rounds. Body armor designed

to defeat rifle fire is of either semirigid or rigid

construction, typically incorporating materials made

from different configurations of fibers, yarns, and

constructions. Typically, concealable body armor is

constructed of multiple layers of ballistic fabrics.

enhanced material properties for fabric ballistic

penetration resistance after treatment with colloidal

shear thickening fluids (STFs) under conditions of

low velocities and small target sizes.15 Multi-objective optimization of composite laminate analysis

based on classical laminate theory and prediction

of analysis output using radial basis function neural

networks (RBFNN) has been explored.16 However, a

study on the properties of single layer para-aramid

fabrics using ANNs is a new idea explored in this

paper by building a predictive model enabling

design, development, and diversification of these

protective fabrics.

Kevlar 29 (para-aramid) are used in this study as

model inputs and outputs. Theoretical models were

reviewed and artificial neural network (ANN) model

creation was proposed for determining performance

parameters like penetration depth and dissipated

energy. In addition, outputs from the ANN model

were compared with specimen data. The results

of these comparisons gave excellent correlation

between specimen data and network predicted data.

Background information on artificial neural network methodology and application is given in the

following references.1-14

proposed by Weaver.17 Nested neural networks

(NNNS) were used to develop the regression model.

Case studies using NNNS indicate a robust methodology applied to ballistic missile defense systems

(BMDS) studies. However, applying backpropagation neural networks for predictive study and

analysis is a new approach.

Theoretical Models

Pressure waves can injure neural cells.18 How impact

pressure waves reach the brain and cause injury are

AATCC Review January/February 2011 www.aatcc.org

| 75

an open question. In theoretical models, it is important to determine how this physical mechanism

works so that exposure risks can be assessed and

effective preventive measures can be implemented.

Many theoretical models were proposed. A simple

estimate of the peak pressure p (kPa) at distance r

(cm) from the bullet path is given by Eq. 1.

p|

10 E

d 4S r 2

Eq. 1

the penetration distance.

According to external ballistics of a bullets path,

which can be determined by several formulas, the

simplest Newtonian expression (Eq. 2) is used to

determine E.

E = 1/2 mv2

available to do work creating forces and pressures

in behind armor tissues. This model is physically

reasonable.17 It has the expected monotonic and

limiting behaviors, giving zero work for body armor

that stops the projectile with zero armor deformation and approaching the maximum possible work

as the armor deformation becomes very large.

However, Eq. 3 does not take into account the effect

of protective materials on injury to the subject.

ANN Study

Model Variables

Various model variables used for the artificial neural

network model in this study are shown in Fig. 1.

Eq. 2

Note that, in Eq. 1, the pressure wave magnitude

decreases as the square of the distance from the

bullet path, so accurate distance measurements are

necessary. Eq. 1 is approximate. Another simple

model of behind armor mechanical work, W, as a

function of armor deformation, d, is given in Eq. 3.

1

W ( d ) = E 1

3

d

1 + d

0

Eq. 3

is an adjustable parameter that sets the armor defor-

property defined as the elastic modulus per mass

density of a material. It is also known as the

stiffness to weight ratio or specific stiffness. High

specific modulus materials find wide application

in aerospace applications, where minimal

structural weight is required.

Specific tenacity (cN/Tex): Force required to

break the fabric during tensile testing is called

tenacity. Specific tenacity is the force divided by

the linear density of the material at break.

Density (g/cm3): Fiber density is the ratio of

mass to volume of the fiber. Fiber density is

determined by using a psychometer, density

balance (Archimedes principle, ASTM D3800),

or density gradient method (ASTM D1505).

Impact velocity (m/s): The velocity of a

projectile or missile at the instant of impact.

This is also known as the striking velocity.

Penetration depth (cm): Penetration depth is a

measure of how deep the projectile or missile

can penetrate into a material.

Dissipated energy (J): The energy dissipated

through protective cloth layers due to projectile

or missile impact.

Specimen data from a series of test targets

composed of various para-aramid fabrics with different configurations were obtained and processed.

Specimen data from similar experiments performed

at v = ~244 m/s with 5.08- 5.08-cm clay-witness

backed targets were used.15 Material properties of

para-aramids from similar sources were collected

and used as model inputs. Specimen data from ballistic experiments, conducted using a smooth-bore

helium gas gun with 0.22 caliber-like NATO

propagate through the network

layer-by-layer (Fig. 2), producing a

response at the network output. This

phase of backpropagation is called

the forward phase. The output of

the network is compared with the

target response, generating error

(E) signals. These E signals propagate in a backward

direction through the network. In this phase, the

network weights are adjusted to minimize the sum

of squared errors (Eq. 4).

fragment simulation projectiles (1.1 g, chiselpointed metal cylinder) were selected for this study.

Time of flight chronograph measurements were

used to determine impact velocities and dissipated

energies for fixing neural network targets. One

critical issue when using neural networks is how to

select appropriate samples and network architectures. If sample information criteria are not clear,

over-parameterized models may result, leading

to overfitting and poor ex-post forecast accuracy.

Moreover, since model selection criteria depend on

sample information, their actual values are subject

to statistical variations. Here the sample information was subjected to statistical tests (e.g., mean and

standard deviation) for retaining model accuracy at

its input level. This avoids the possibility of satisfactory results due to chance rather than to any merit

inherent in the model. The sample data and their

information representing a true population are

shown in Table I.

1

E= (ti yi)2

2i

Eq. 4

output. The weights were updated using the delta

function12 and each hidden layer was appropriately

updated with the activation function. In this study,

the training data was exposed to the neural network

with epoch-based training and the weights were

automatically updated. The architecture of the neural network consisted of eight inputs, four hidden

neurons, and two output neurons (Fig. 3). The input

and output layers consisted of neurons with the

linear activation function (Eq. 5).

I (v ) = v

Eq. 5

function (Eq. 6).

Backpropagation Algorithm

Backpropagation is typically used to generalize a

wide variety of problems. These training methods

are called supervised training because they use both

Table I.

Input and Output Ranges of Data Set

Variable

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

SD

Unit

T1

T2

T1

T2

T1

T2

T1

T2

Specific modulus

Input

3800

3900

3850

4150

4000

4050

3978.4

3954.17

3966.2

85.84

17.38

74

cN/Tex

Specific Tenacity

Input

182

190

190

198

198

198

192.24

195.5

192.8

4.7

2.88

3.89

cN/Tex

Density

Input

1.42

1.42

1.43

1.46

1.45

1.46

1.44

1.44

1.44

0.01

0.05

g/cm3

Extension to Break

Input

3.6

3.8

3.9

4.3

4.2

3.96

3.96

0.15

0.14

0.05

Modulus

Input

54

54

54

58

58

56

55.4

55.3

55

1.29

1.63

GPa

Tenacity

Input

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.9

2.9

2.92

2.68

2.65

2.74

0.138

0.164

0.15

GPa

Sample Weight

Input

1.9

5.6

1.9

13.9

13.9

13.9

11.52

11.28

9.68

3.644

3.63

5.87

g/cm2

Impact Velocity

Input

242

244

243

289

253

259

250.96

249.5

249.4

9.91

4.18

6.66

m/s

Penetration Depth

Output

0.673

0.673

0.673

2.34

2.12

1.72

1.263

1.25

1.312

0.469

0.49

0.455

cm

Dissipated Energy

Output

25.1

26

28

32.9

32.9

32.9

29.556

29.63

30.34

2.100

2.32

2.37

| 77

1

1 + e av

Eq. 6

function. Before modeling, the data base is divided

into three parts (sets): training set, validation set

(to prevent model overfitting), and test set. First,

the relationship of variables between para-aramid

material properties and performance characteristics

must be understood and analyzed to eliminate faulty

data points. A model can then be constructed based

on these data. Four main techniques were used to

identify the faulty data points.

filtering the data base and choosing the most significant variables, the results are presented in Table I.

These variables are the input and output vectors of

the model. Several configurations were tested and

the best is given in the neural network structure diagram (Fig. 1). The simulation was carried out using

36 data numbers which is distributed as follows and

would represent a true sample of the population:

25 data numbers for training set, five data numbers

for validation set, and six data numbers for test set.

After training, network capacity was examined

using other data in the test set. The network was presented new examples, which also contained output

information (as in training). The procedure corresponded to the training phase, but the data were not

used for learning. In this test, the error generated

by the network was observed. If this was too large,

training was continued. If the results achieved by

problem solving. The data used here no longer contain desired output values. The network now only

consists of input information. This action on the

network is called test. Optimal values for momentum factor and learning rate were 0.3 and 0.1.

An important consideration is neural network

performance in comparison with measured results.

Figs. 3 and 4 show prediction model performance,

with excellent correlation between predicted and

measured values.

Network architecture configuration 8-4-2

(input neurons, hidden neurons, and output neurons

respectively) was chosen after carefully observing

Bayesian factors (e.g., number of effective parameters and error terms from model optimization

studies). Prediction models and their test data errors

confirm the reliability of the methodology. The

output parameters of training with Bayesian regularization, with respect to epoch number, indicated that

training of neural networks can be achieved quickly

The errors reported on the validation set of the

Training SSE = 1.77658

10

Tr-Blue

I (v ) =

10

10

SSW

10

# Parameters

40

30

20

10

0

8

16 Epochs

10

12

14

16

of 1.78, and the effective number of parameters is

1.608, with the neural network being trained quickly

at 16 epochs (Fig. 5). This confirmed the effectiveness of the methodology followed.

Conclusions

The objective of this study was to develop a

model based on backpropagation neural networks

for predicting dissipation energy and penetration

depth during firing and resistance offered by single

layer bulletproof vests made from para-aramid

fibers. The developed prediction model in this study

gave excellent correlations with the samples selected.

The optimized networks can be used for design

and development of ballistic protection fabrics

without further destructive tests. This therefore

represents a very significant development in ballistics simulations. Performance of the developed

model, strengthened with the Bayesian information criterion coupled with the gradient descent

algorithm, overcomes the problem of determining

the optimal number of neurons in hidden layer and

shows satisfactory results. A mixed neural network

would create a knowledgebase on current materials.

Studying new designs may lead to improvements

over existing ones.

The present study proposes to overcome the

limitations of conventional fiber science and theoretical analytical models by analyzing ballistic fabric

properties using newer techniques and methods of

simulation to evaluate their structural behavior

during ballistic tests.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the CSIR-India, Central

Silk Board/Central Silk Technological Research

Institute, the Ministry of Textiles, the Indian Government, and K. S. Gurumurthy, Department of

Electronics and Communication Engineering, Bangalore University for providing financial assistance

to carry out this research.

References

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Author

Gurumurthy B. Ramaiah has an M.Tech degree in

textiles and has worked in both academia and industry. Ramaiah is currently lecturer in the Department

of Fashion Technology, Acharya Institute of Graduate Studies, Bangalore, India. He has authored

books, presented research papers at international

conferences, and has received several awards

for his work.

Gurumurthy B. Ramaiah, Dept. of Fashion and

Apparel Design, Oxford College of Science,

#235/2, 2nd D Cross, 6th Main, III Block, III Stage,

Basaveshwaranagar, Bangalore-560079, India;

phone +91 89 51440759; brgmurthy@live.com.

| 79

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