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Mechanical Lever Jack

MECHANICAL LEVER JACK


Project report submitted
For Design and manufacturing project in partial fulfillment of the
requirement for the degree of

Bachelor of Technology (Mechanical Engineering)

By

Akshay Gare (13103169)


Manesh Sikarwar (13103173)
Anish Dhal (13103174)
Sudhin Poduval (13103180)
Tarang Mehta (13103197)
Nishit Desai (13103205)

Guided By:

Mr. Adil Khan

Department of Mechanical Engineering


School Science and Engineering
Navrachana University, Vadodara
(April 2016)
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Mechanical Lever Jack

CERTIFICATE

It is certified that the work contained in the project report titled Mechanical Lever Jack
by Akshay Gare (13103169), Manesh Sikarwar (13103173), Anish Dhal (13103174), Sudhin
Poduval (13103180), Tarang Mehta (13103197), Nishit Desai (13103205) has been carried
out under my supervision and that this work has not been submitted elsewhere for a degree.

Guide
Mr. Adil Khan
Mechanical Department
School of Science and Engineering
Navrachana University
April 2016

Mechanical Lever Jack

Declaration
We declare that this written submission represents our ideas in our own words and where
others' ideas or words have been included, we have adequately cited and referenced the
original sources. We also, declare that we have adhered to all principles of academic honesty
and integrity and have not misrepresented or fabricated or falsified any idea/data/fact/source
in my submission. We understand that any violation of the above will be cause for
disciplinary action by the Institute and can also, evoke penal action from the sources which
have thus not been properly cited or from whom proper permission has not been taken when
needed.

Akshay Gare (13103169)

Manesh Sikarwar (13103173)

Anish Dhal (13103174)

Sudhin Poduval (13103180)

Tarang Mehta (13103197)

Nishit Desai (13103205)

Date: 20/03/2016
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Mechanical Lever Jack

Acknowledgement
In the journey of the present project work, numerous personalities, directly or
indirectly have extended their support and co-operation. We are truly indebted to them and
hereby acknowledge their contributions.
We acknowledge our delightful thanks to our dean Prof. P Prabhakaran, for his
patronage & encourage in completing the project work successfully.
This journey would have been impossible if we had not received the mentoring and
guidance of Head of the Department and our project guide Mr. Adil Khan. We are deeply
grateful to him for his valuable guidance throughout the course. Every discussion with them
during the course of this work was extremely useful.
We extend our cordial thanks to project coordinator, Mr. Mukesh Keshwani,
Assistant professor for his support and guidance. We acknowledge the support and guidance
of Mr. Ravi Sevak, Assistant professor.
We consider it a privilege to express our thanks to our faculty members of Mechanical
Engineering Department of Navrachana University, Vadodara for their support and
invaluable guidance.

Mechanical Lever Jack

Abstract
With the increasing levels of technology, the efforts being put to produce any kind of work
has been continuously decreasing. The efforts required in achieving the desired output can be
effectively and economically be decreased by the implementation of better designs.
According to Vishnu Mathur (Director General of SIAM), the sales of cars have surged by
8% in 2015-2016. As number of cars is increasing, the problem of changing tyres now and
then has also increased. For this type of situation, the mechanical lever jack can be very
handy and easy to use. The mechanical lever jack is used for such applications as
lifting, winching, clamping, pulling and pushing. In India majority of the time the ground is
uneven and using a standard jack can be quite hazards and most of the time rendered useless.
When your car is bogged, the mechanical lever jack will, in most cases, enable you to get
your car high enough to get something underneath the wheel to help get you out.

Mechanical Lever Jack

Contents
Sr No.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Title

Page No.

Abstract
List of Figures
List of Tables
Nomenclatures
Chapter: 1
Introduction
Chapter: 2
Working of Mechanical Lever Jack
Chapter: 3
Design of major components of mechanical lever jack
3.1 Design of Large Runner

3.2 Design of Small Runner


3.3 Design of Pitman arm
3.4 Design of Lifting Pin
3.5 Design of Foot Rest
Chapter: 4

Manufacturing of mechanical lever jack


4.1 Manufactured Parts
4.2 Manufacturing Processes
Chapter: 5
Costing

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Chapter: 6

11

Summary and conclusions


Chapter: 7

12

References
Annexure 1 : Manufacturing Drawing

List of Figures
1.1

Representation of three main elements of mechanical lever jack

1.2

Assembly made in solid work


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Mechanical Lever Jack

3.1

Large runner shown in solid work as a component labeled with its

subcomponents
3.2

Small runner as component in solid work

3.3

Pitman arm as component in solid work

3.4

Lifting pin as component in solid works

4.2.1 Power Source for SMAW


4.2.2 Clamping for Large Runner
4.2.3 Fixtures for Steel Bar
4.2.4 Cutter Wheels
4.2.5 Cutting for Steel Bar
4.2.7 Grinding Steel Bar before welding the other half of the section

List of Tables
1.1 Parts of Mechanical Lever Jack
4.1 Details of Manufactured Parts
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Mechanical Lever Jack

5.1 Bill of Materials

Nomenclatures

: Shear Stress, MPa

: Tensile Stress, MPa

Kt

: Stress Concentration Factor

Mechanical Lever Jack

Chapter-1
Introduction

Introduction

Mechanical Lever Jack


Mechanical lever jack is generally used for lifting heavy equipment. Mechanical lever jacks
usually use mechanical advantage to allow a human to lift a vehicle by manual force alone.
Mechanical lever jack has three important elements: - Load end, effort end & fulcrum.
1
2

Fig. 1.1 Representation of three main elements of mechanical lever jack:


1 Load End, 2 Effort End and 3 Fulcrum [3]

Load end is the element on which load is distributed. In effort end, human effort is applied.
The fulcrum is the point against which a lever is placed, or on which it turns or is supported.
The manufacturers of mechanical lever jack are mainly Hi-lift and Pittsburgh.

TABLE1.1: - Parts of Mechanical Lever Jack


Part
No.

Name

Quantity

Material

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Mechanical Lever Jack


1.

Steel standard bar

Mild Steel

2.

Steel handle with cotter pin

Mild Steel

3.

Handle socket

Mild Steel

4.

Pitman pin

Mild Steel

5.

Pitman

Mild Steel

6.

Hex bolt & nut

Mild Steel

7.

Large runner

Mild Steel

8.

Cross pin

Mild Steel

9.

Climbing pin

Mild Steel

10.

Climbing pin spring

EN 9

11.

Small runner

Mild Steel

High Carbon
Steel

Mild Steel

12.
13.

Shear bolt & nut


Foot piece with cotter pin

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Mechanical Lever Jack

Fig 1.2: - Assembly made in solid work

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Mechanical Lever Jack

Chapter-2
Working of Mechanical Lever Jack

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Mechanical Lever Jack

Working of Mechanical Lever Jack

The lever mechanical jack mainly has three main parts. The large runner, small runner
and pitman arm. There are load end, fulcrum and effort end distributed in such a way that
only the force of 200N can lift 10000N.
Working of the jack only aims to constantly move the fulcrum point above each time.
While working, the fulcrum and the load end changes. When the user moves the bar below
(gives clockwise moment), in that case the load end will be the large runner and the fulcrum
will be smaller runner.
While the user when gives anti clockwise moment to the bar the fulcrum point will be
the large runner and the load end will be small runner.
While lowering down the user pushes the leverage bar below which releases the
compressed spring between lowering cam bar. There after the cross pin slides on the
protrusions on the lowering cam bar and thus the sliding pin moves outside the holes on the
steel bar and thus the whole moves down and thus the fulcrum point moves down.

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Mechanical Lever Jack

Chapter-3
Design of Major Components of Mechanical Lever Jack

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Mechanical Lever Jack

Design of Major Components of Mechanical Lever Jack


Design is very crucial part of the project. The Mechanical Lever Jack can also be casted.
In this project, the jack is made by welding for enhancing the knowledge about welding.
There are five major components of mechanical jack are designed: 1. Large Runner
2. Small Runner
3. Pitman Arm
4. Lifting (Sliding) Pin
5. Foot Rest
The capacity of the mechanical lever jack is 1 tonne because it is made by welding
process. Shielded Metal Arc Welding is used for manufacturing the mechanical lever jack.
The static force is considered for designing the mechanical lever jack.

3.1 Design of large runner: -

Fig.3.1: Large runner shown in solid work as a component labeled with its subcomponents
As we can see in the image there are two main welds on which the load is distributed.
Following are the designs:-

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Mechanical Lever Jack

3.1.1 Design of Weld 1: Assumptions:a. Load to be lifted is 1000 kg i.e.; 10000 Newton (N).
b. Distance between two holes on the steel bar is 15mm.
c. Designing part is done by using fundamental equations for static loading.
Maximum load on the foot rest is 10000 N, so, there are two welding on the interference of
foot rest and the large runner. The total load is distributed on two weld surfaces F1 and F2. As
welds are similar and at equidistant from the center of gravity F1=F2=5 KN.
A. Design of WELD 1 considering shear failure: As in welding, melting of parent metal takes place, so, the yield strength in shear of the
weld will be the yield strength of the mild steel.
The yield strength of the mild steel, max = 115 MPa. [4]
Now, Fmax= 0.707 * s * L * max [4]
Here, s= weld leg size (thickness of weld) = 5 mm
L= Length of weld = 70 mm
Thus, Fmax = 0.707 * 0.005 * 0.07 * 115 * 106
Fmax= 28.4 KN.
Now, keeping the leg size of weld as 5mm and the length of weld as 70 mm, its getting
over designed.
The length of weld is found out by keeping F max as 5KN. The length is coming 12.29 mm.
So, Length of weld1 can be considered as 30mm. Now actual = 47 MPa. So, Factor of
safety = max/actual = 115/47 = 2.44

B. Design of WELD 1 considering tensile failure: The upper half portion of the weld will be in tension and remaining half will be in
compression. So, Fmax= 5 KN.
The tension in the upper part will be F= Fmax/2 = 3.6KN

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Mechanical Lever Jack


So,allowable= Fmax/ resisting area = 3600 / s * l/2 = 7200/0 .005*0.03 = 48 MPa
The yield stress in tension for mild steel in 250 MPa so, the WELD is safe in tension.
FOS= max/allowable = 250/48 = 5.

3.1.2 Design of Weld2: A. Design of WELD 2 considering shear failure: We will consider that the leg size of weld is 5mm, we know that max is 115 MPa, and as
we have already considered that Fmax is 5 KN.
So, L= Fmax / (0.707 * s *max)
= 5000/ (0.707*0.005*115*10^6)
= 13 mm
As this weld is more critical so, we will consider L as 30 mm to make it more strong.
B. Design of WELD 1 considering tensile failure: Upper half weld will be in tension and the lower will be in compression.
So, F= Fmax/2= 5000/ 1.414 = 3.6 KN
Actual = 3600 / .5* .005* .03 = 48 MPa. So, the WELD 2 is safe in tension.

3.1.3 Design of support for load end: From the figure 3, this part is exposed only to shear stress. As the specification of the hex
bolt which will penetrate from the hole on the support for the load end is (16A- 17). So,
this means that the nominal diameter of the hex bolt will be 10 mm.

Stress concentration will come in picture here. Here stress concentration factor=
Kt = 1.25: I.e.; max/nominal = 1.25
Here critical section area = ((30-10)*10) mm2 = 200 mm2
Thus, actual = 5000/200 = 25 MPa. So, = actual*Kt= 25*1.25 = 31.25 MPa andmax = 115
MPa. Hence the support for load end is safe in shear.

3.2 Design of small runner: -

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Mechanical Lever Jack

Fig.3.2: Small runner as component in solid works


The small runner is an important part of the jack, as it acts as the support for the fulcrum
while the load is lifted upwards. The most critical part in small runner is the weld part
which supports the fulcrum.

3.2.1 Design of Weld 1: A. Design of WELD 1 considering shear failure: Finding the length of weld,
L= Fmax / (0.707*0.005*115*10^6)
L= 13 mm. So, for increasing the safety the length of weld is considered as 30 mm.
B. Design of WELD 1 considering tensile failure: We will find actual shear stress keeping length of weld as 30 mm.

Actual = 5000/ (0.707 * 0.005*0 .03)actual = 47 MPa


As we can see from the above values that the weld is safe in tension.

3.2.2 Design of fulcrum support material: At the weld, the weld length will be 30 mm, so the tapper area where the hole or pitman
pins will be 20 mm. So, the critical area will be ((20-10)*10) = 100 mm2

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Mechanical Lever Jack


As here hole is considered we need to consider stress concentration factor Kt for 10 mm
diameter will be 1.25.Actual= Fmax / Resisting area
Actual = 5000 / 100 = 50 MPa
= 1.25*50 = 62.5 MPa
As <max, its safe in shear stress.

3.3 Design of pitman arm: -

Fig 3.3: Pitman arm as component in solid work


This is the main component for mechanism of jack. As we can see from the figure the
pitman arm will be in compressive stress.
Design of pitman arm under compressive force: For safety reason the maximum force is considered as 10 KN, in actual the force will be
distributed between the pitman pin, lifting pin etc. So, Resisting area will be the rectangular
section= (25-10)*5mm2
Actual = Fmax/ (Resisting area)
=10000 / 75
= 133 MPa
= actual Kt
=133 * 1.25 (Kt =1.25 for 10mm dia. Hole) [4]
=167 MPa.
As actual<max, pitman arm is safe under compression.
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Mechanical Lever Jack

3.4 Design of lifting pin: -

Fig 3.4: Lifting pin as component in solid works


The most critical stress on the lifting pin will be shear stress. So, the material used in the
pin will be mild steel EN9 which has shear stress higher than the shear stress in normal
mild stress.
The flat surface is given at the leading edge for giving it strength in shear. But the size of
the flat surface is to be determined by considering,max = 155 MPa
So, D2 = 10000 / (7853* 155)
D = 9.06mm
Thus, the size of the flat surface is considered as 10 mm.

3.5 Design of foot rest: Here the foot rest is mainly exposed to shear stress. So, design for foot rest is done by
considering shear stress.
Critical section = width of the foot rest * average distance where the load is going to rest
on the foot rest.
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Mechanical Lever Jack


So, Critical section= (0.05*0.01) m2
Actual = Fmax/ resisting area = 10000 / (.05*.01) = 20 MPa
And the max is 115 MPa. So, its clear that the foot rest is safe under shear stress.

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Mechanical Lever Jack

Chapter-4
Manufacturing of Mechanical Lever Jack

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Mechanical Lever Jack

Manufacturing of Mechanical Lever Jack

The Mechanical Lever Jack can be manufactured by casting. The pattern is made for
jack and mould is prepared. Then, the metal is poured. Other than casting, it can be made by
welding process.
First of all parts are manufactured by different processes (e.g. Cutting, Drilling,
Grinding, Cutting). Then, different parts of jack are welded. Detailed manufacturing of the
mechanical lever jack is discussed below: -

4.1 Manufactured Parts: -

Table 4.1: - details of manufactured parts


Part
No.

Name

Description

Manufacturing Process

Material

Foot Rest

Provides support to
steel bar

Cutting, Grinding,
Welding

Mild Steel

Steel Bar

Provides motion to
Large Runner and
Small Runner

Cutting and Drilling

Mild Steel

Large
Runner

Absorbs all the load


and supports in the
lifting mechanism

Cutting, Welding,
Grinding

Mild Steel

Small
Runner

Support to the large


runner for lifting,
takes the entire load
when the large runner
is lifting.

Cutting, Welding,
Grinding

Mild Steel

Pitman arm

Provides linking
motion between large
runner, small runner
and handle

Drilling, Cutting and


Grinding

Mild Steel

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Mechanical Lever Jack

Lifting Pin

Holds the large runner


and small runner with
the steel bar.

Drilling

EN9

Cross Pin

Restricts the motion


of the pin

Mild Steel

Spring

Helps in retraction of
pin to its original
position

Spring Steel

10

Handle

Human effort end

Grinding, Welding

Galvanized Iron

4.2 Manufacturing Processes: Welding: Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) is carried out for welding parts. It is also known
as manual metal arc welding (MMA or MMAW), flux shielded arc welding or informally as
stick welding. It is a manual arc welding process that uses a consumable electrode covered
with a flux to lay the weld.
An electric current, in the form of alternating current from a welding power supply, is
used to form an electric arc between the electrode and the metals to be joined. The work piece
and the electrode melt forming the weld pool that cools to form a joint. As the weld is laid,
the flux coating of the electrode disintegrates, giving off vapors that serve as a shielding gas
and providing a layer of slag, both of which protect the weld area from atmospheric
contamination.
Because of the versatility of the process and the simplicity of its equipment and
operation, SMAW is chosen for our project manufacturing.

Current(Amp)
111

Voltage(Volt)
8

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Mechanical Lever Jack

Fig 4.2.1 Power Source for SMAW


The major part while welding was creating jigs and fixtures before welding. Right
angle fixtures and using clamp for fixtures were an integral part of the welding process.

Fig 4.2.2 Clamping for Large Runner

Fig 4.2.3 Fixtures for Steel Bar

Cutting: Cutting is the separation of a physical object, into two or more portions, through the
application of an acutely directed force. Cutting is a compressive and shearing phenomenon,
and occurs only when the total stress generated by the cutting implement exceeds the ultimate
strength of the material of the object being cut.
The stress generated by a cutting implement is directly proportional to the force with
which it is applied, and inversely proportional to the area of contact. Hence, the smaller the

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Mechanical Lever Jack


area (i.e., the sharper the cutting implement), the less force is needed to cut something. Most
of the Cutting was done using Cutter Wheels in Hand Grinding Machines.

Fig 4.2.4 Cutter Wheels

Fig 4.2.5 Cutting for Steel Bar

Drilling: Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut a hole of circular cross-section
in solid materials. The drill bit is a rotary cutting tool, often multipoint. The bit is pressed
against the work piece and rotated at rates from hundreds to thousands of revolutions per
minute. This forces the cutting edge against the work piece, cutting off chips from the hole as
it is drilled.
Drilling was one of the most crucial processes as it holds the pins, which in return
hold the Large Runner and Small Runner. Drilling process was completed in different
sections. It is inappropriate to drill a hole directly using a 13mm drill bit directly on to the
work piece. Hence the process was carried out in 3 stages. Firstly, a hole using a 7mm drill
bit, then a 10mm drill bit and finally the required 13mm drill bit. The overall process took
nearly 3hours on machine time which included drilling 30 holes.

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Mechanical Lever Jack


Fig 4.2.6 Holes drilled on to the Steel Bar

Grinding: Grinding is an abrasive machining process that uses a grinding wheel as the cutting
tool. Grinding is a subset of cutting, as grinding is a true metal-cutting process.
Each grain of abrasive functions as a microscopic single-point cutting edge and shears
a tiny chip. Surface grinding uses a rotating abrasive wheel to remove material, creating a flat
surface.
For proper welding, it is necessary to have proper grooves and proper surface finish.
The entire surface before welding was properly grinded to have a cleaner surface for welding.
Hand Grinder was used for grinding and for intricate shapes bench grinder was used.

Fig 4.2.7 Grinding Steel Bar before welding the other half of the section

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Mechanical Lever Jack

Chapter-5
Costing

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Mechanical Lever Jack

Costing
5.1 Bill of Material: Table 5.1: - Bill of Material
Part
No.

Material

Quantity

Price

Mild Steel Plate


1.
(250mm X 110mm X 15mm)

110

70

Mild Steel Plate


2.
(90 X 110 X 20)
Mild Steel Plate
3.

100
(250 X 150 X10)

Plates for I-Section


4.
(80mm X 33mm X 10mm)

300

5.

Welding Rods

28

90

6.

Cutter Wheel

15

250

7.

Grinding Wheel

60

100

8.

30

Mechanical Lever Jack


Handle

EN9 Rod
9.

100

(500mm)

10.

Scrap Plates

11.

Spring

100

M6 Nut & Bolt

20

M10 Nut & Bolt

20

12.

Total

1320

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Mechanical Lever Jack

Chapter-6
Summary and Conclusions

Summary & Conclusion

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Mechanical Lever Jack


The manufacturing process was carried out in the university workshop, the main processes
involved were cutting, grinding, drilling and welding.
After the first review, it was advised that we may have to include welding distortion, which if
not included may create issues and it was also advised that casting could be feasible for the
same, but after considering the limitations of our workshop, it was mutually decided that
welding is to be carried out and some factors have to be considered while welding them.
The importance of fluctuating the voltage and current with change in material was
understood.
It is also proved from the weld stress analysis; the weld strength is above the safe limit. All
the actual stresses are above the allowable stresses, which mean it is safe in the static loading.

We have selected Mild Steel as it is machinable and has better weld ability. We have designed
all the elements keeping allowable stresses in mind and designed in the Solid Works for better
understanding of shapes and its manufacturing feasibility. Although a few parts are yet to be
designed, we have a clear idea about how to start manufacturing and will begin soon.

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Mechanical Lever Jack

Chapter-7
References

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Mechanical Lever Jack

References

1. Wandering

Tail.

Hi-Lift

Jack

Rebuild

(web).

Available

from:

http://www.wanderingtrail.com/Repairs_Rebuilds/Hilift_Rebuild/Hilift_rebuild.htm
(Accessed 02 March 2016).
2. MACCABEE

ARMS

LTD.

Hi-Lift

Rebuild

(web).

Available

from:

http://www.reno4x4.com/showthread.php/49606-Hi-Lift-Rebuild (Accessed 02 March


2016).
3. Hi-Lift Jack Company. Accessories (web). Available from: http://www.hi-lift.com/
(Accessed 02 March 2016).
4. Bhandari V.B. Design of Machine Elements. 3rd ed. New Delhi: McGraw Hill
Education (India) Private Limited, 2010. Print.

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