Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

3, Issue 12, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Comparative Studies of Different Theories for Vibration Analysis of


FGM Plate by using Higher Order Shear Deformation Theory
Rahul Kumar1 Manoj Kumar Solanki2 Jeeoot Singh3
1,2,3
Department of Mechanical Engineering
1,3
Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi 2Krishna Engg. College, Ghaziabad, U.P. India
Abstract Using a meshless radial basis function (RBF)
method, functionally graded material is analyzed in this
paper based on higher order shear deformation theory.
Vibration response of functionally graded material plate
(FGM) is presented using four different transverse shear
functions. Hamilton's principle is used for Governing
equation of the plate. Numerical results related to vibration
of FGM plates are presented in the tables and graphs.
Different theories taken here are compared based on the
effect of grading index and span to thickness ratio.
Key words: Meshless, Plate, RBF, FGM, Vibration
I. INTRODUCTION
Functionally graded materials (FGMs) on demand due to
continuously changing the volume fraction of the structures,
material reduces thermal stresses, residual stresses and stress
concentration factors exist. FGM is heterogeneous
composite structures that have discontinuous material
properties in one or more directions. And for analyzing
purpose messless methods are used frequently in past to
avoid the mesh problems. In recent years, the interest of
researchers focuses on analyzing of FGM plates. Aydogdu
and Ece [1] lighted the free vibration analysis of rectangular
isotropic plates using classical plate theory. Rikards et al. [2]
analyzed vibration of plates using triangular element. Hull
and Buchanan [3] introduced vibration analysis of square
orthotropic stepped plates based on finite element method.
Sheikh et al. [4] invented a triangular element based on
ReissnerMindlin plate theory is for the free vibration
analysis of plates. Inverse hyperbolic shear deformation
theory for the free vibration analysis of laminated composite
and sandwich plates using finite element modeling invented
by Grover et al.[5]. Liu and Chen [6] employed free
vibration analysis based on meshless method for thin plates
of complicated shapes.

elastic properties at each material layer. The top surface of


the plate is ceramic rich and the bottom surface is metal
rich.
2z h
Vc ( z )

2h

(1)
Where n is exponent governing the material
properties along the thickness direction known as volume
fraction exponent or grading index, The volume fraction of
the metal phase is obtained by
Vm ( z ) 1 Vc ( z )

(2)
The material property gradation through the
thickness of the plate is assumed to have the following form
n

2z h
E ( z) Ec Em
Em
2h

(3)
n

2z h
(z) c m
m
2h

Here E and denote the modulus of elasticity and


density of FGM structure, while these parameters come with
subscript m or c represent the material properties for pure
metal and pure ceramic plate respectively., h is the thickness
of the plate, Em and Ec are the corresponding Youngs
modulus of elasticity of metal and ceramic and z is the
thickness coordinate.
The displacement field at any point in the plate is
expressed as Singh and Shukla [7]:
w0 ( x, y )

U u0 ( x, y ) z

x
w0 ( x, y )

V v0 ( x , y ) z

f (z) x ( x , y )
f (z) y ( x , y )

W w 0 x, y

Where, transverse shear function f (z) is as under.


Notation

f (z )

T1

1
5
2
z.
z
4 3h 2

Proposed/Used by
Shimpi [8]
Levy [9], Stein
[10],
Touratier
[11]Ghugal [12]

II. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION


A rectangular shape plate of edge length a, b along x, y axes
respectively and thickness h is the thickness along z axis
whose mid plane is coinciding with x-y plane of the
coordinate system is considered. The diagram of rectangular
shaped functionally graded material (FGM) plate in
rectangular coordinate system is shown in Figure 1.

(4)

T2

sin (

(2 z

T3

Aydogdu [13]

log m

z.m

z.sech z z.sech 1 tanh


2
4 2
4
h

T4

Akavci [14]

Table 1: Notation
The governing differential equations of plate are
obtained using Hamiltons principle and expressed as Singh
et al. [15]:
N xx

Fig. 1: Geometry of rectangular FGM plate in rectangular


coordinate system
The homogenization technique considered in this
work is the law of mixtures, which provides the following

N xy
x

N xy
y

N yy
y

I0

I0

u0
w0
x
I1
I3
2
2
2

v0

I1

w0
y

I3

All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com

(5)
(6)

347

Comparative Studies of Different Theories for Vibration Analysis of FGM Plate by using Higher Order Shear Deformation Theory
(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 12/2016/090)
2

Mx
x

My
y

2.

M xy

I0

xy

w0
t

3
3

3
4
3u
4w
x y
v
w
I
I
I1

x 2 y 2 2 x 2 2 y 2 2 4 x 2 y 2

M xy

M xx

f
M xy

y
f

Q x I3

u 0 , vo , wo , x , y

(7)

u0
w0
x
I4
I5
2
2
2

(8)

2
2
3
y
v0
w0
f
Q y I3
I4
I5
2
2
2

M yy
y

(9)
The force and moment resultants in the plate and
plate stiffness coefficients are expressed as Singh and
Shukla [16]:
h /2

N ij , M ij , M ij

( i j, z i j , f (z ) i j ) dz

h /2

(10)

h /2
f

Qx, Qy

x z , yz z d z

h /2

c
m 2z h
m
Q ij
Q ij Q ij

2h

h /2
h /2

Aij , Bij , Dij , E ij , Fij , H ij

1, z , z 2 , f ( z ), z f ( z ), f 2 ( z )

dz

(11)

i, j = 1, 2, 6

n
2z h
c
m
m
Q ij Q ij
Q ij
2h

h /2
h /2

Aij

f z

dz

(12)

i, j = 4, 5
h2

I 0 , I1 , I 2 , I 3 , I 4 , I 5

( z ) 1, z , z

, f z , zf z , f

z dz

(13)
The boundary conditions for an arbitrary edge with
simply supported conditions are as follows:
h1

x 0, a : v 0; y 0; w 0; M xx 0; N xx 0
y 0, b : u 0; x 0; w 0; M

yy

(14)

0; N yy 0

III. SOLUTION METHODOLOGY


The governing differential equations (5-9) are expressed in
terms of displacement functions. Radial basis function based
formulation works on the principle of interpolation of
scattered data over entire domain. A 2D rectangular domain
having NB boundary nodes and ND interior nodes is shown
in Figure-2.
1
Interior Domain Nodes (NI)
Boundary Nodes(NB)

0.9

u
j

, j , j ,
v

x
j

y
j

) g

X X

,m

j 1

Where, N is total numbers of nodes which is equal


to summation of boundary nodes NB and domain interior
nodes ND. g X X j , m is polynomial radial basis function
expressed as

g r

unknown coefficients.
two nodes.
Where,

j , j , j , jx , j y
u

X X

r X X

j , j , j , jx , j y
u

are

is the radial distance between


x x j

y yj

and m is shape

parameter. The value of 'm' taken here is 5. Polynomial


radial basis function becomes singular, when r = 0 i.e. for
zero distance. In order to eliminate the singularity, an
infinitesimally small value is added into the r2 or zero
distance. Mathematically it is explained as; r 2 r 2 2 ,
when r = 0 or i = j; 2 is small numerical value of the order
10-10.
Free Vibration Analysis, t The discretized
governing equations for vibration analysis can be written as:
[ K ]L
2 [ M ]

0
5 N 5 N
[ K ] B 5 N 5 N

5 N 1 0

(15)
or ([K] + [M]){}=0
(16)
Using standard eigen value solver for equation
(16), the frequency is calculated as:
[V,D] = eig([K], [M]); frequency () = D
(17)
IV. NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
In order to demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of
present formulation, a RBF based meshless code in
MATLAB is developed following the analysis procedure as
discussed above. Several examples have been analyzed and
the computed results are compared with the published
results. Based on convergence study, a 99 node is used
throughout the study. The material properties of FGMs have
been taken as follows:
Ceramic
E c 380 GPa , c 0.3 , c 3800 ,
Aluminum (Al) E m 70 GPa , m 0.3, m 2702
The dimensionless natural frequency parameter is
(1/ 2 )
defined as: a 2 c

h Ec

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Fig. 2: An arbitrary two dimensional domains


The variable u 0 , v 0 , w 0 , x and y can be interpolated
in form of radial distance between nodes. The solution of the
linear governing differential equations (5-9) is assumed in
terms of polynomial radial basis function for nodes 1:N, as;
Abdelkader et al [17]

Hosseini et al [18]

'n'
10

Fig. 3: Convergence study for free vibrations of simply


supported FGM plate (a/h = 10)
Present
Zhao et al [19]
Theory (T1)
a/h
10
20
30
40
50
100

All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com

348

Comparative Studies of Different Theories for Vibration Analysis of FGM Plate by using Higher Order Shear Deformation Theory
(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 12/2016/090)

0.5
1
2
5
8
10

4.9000
4.9207
4.8209
4.9177 5.0235 5.0428 5.0494 5.0527 5.0685
4.4166
4.4545
4.3474
4.4478 4.5421 4.5596 4.5658 4.5685 4.5809
4.0057
4.0063
3.9474
4.0569 4.1428 4.1601 4.1663 4.1689 4.1710
3.7660
3.7837
3.7218
3.8255 3.9207 3.9385 3.9449 3.9478 3.9517
3.6831
3.6830
3.6410
3.7397 3.8347 3.8533 3.8597 3.8627 3.8668
3.6357
3.6277
3.5923
3.6864 3.7816 3.8001 3.8068 3.8097 3.8138
Table 1: Effect of span to thickness ration on fundamental of a square FGM plate
In order to show the accuracy and efficiency of the
'n'
present solution methodology, detailed convergence studies
Mod
0.5
1
2
5
10
for simply supported plate (a/h=10) is carried out. The
es
convergences of the frequency parameters for different
4.917 4.447 4.056 3.825 3.686
1
theories are shown in Fig. 3. It can be seen that convergence
7
8
9
5
4
all the theories are achieved within 1 % at 99 nodes.
12.07 10.93 9.969 9.352 8.974
2
Table 1 lists the fundamental frequency parameter
36
64
1
9
7
of square FGM plates for different values of the span to
12.07 10.93 9.969 9.352 8.974
3
thickness ratios (a/h = 10 and 20) and with various ceramic
36
64
1
9
7
volume fraction exponent n. The results are compared
17.24 15.97 14.43 12.47 11.36
4
with the results due to Abdelkader et al [17], Hosseini et al
16
89
56
02
94
a/h=1
[18] and Zhao et al [19]. It is clear that the results are in
0
17.24 15.97 14.43 12.47 11.36
5
good agreement with available results and the maximum
16
89
56
02
94
discrepancy is less than 1%. The results are depicted in Fig.
19.84 18.03 16.50 15.46 14.81
6
4 and Fig. 5 to see the nature. It can be seen that effect of
80
64
23
98
03
span to thickness ratio decreases for a/h 40.
21.86 19.82 18.07 16.90 16.21
7
Fig 5. shows that effect of grading index 'n' is
38
45
79
65
61
prominent for lesser values of 'n' and decreases as 'n'
22.91 20.81 19.03 17.79 16.81
8
increases.
13
74
83
66
55
Table 2 shows the results for all 8 modes of
5.068 4.580 4.171 3.951 3.813
1
frequency parameter.
5
9
0
7
8
Further, to compare different theories taken here,
12.93 9.810 10.68 10.13 9.764
results are obtained at a/h=10 and grading index 'n'=1. The
2
49
7
54
05
9
results obtained are shown in Table 3 and same is depicted
18.20 11.70 10.83 10.13 9.764
in Fig. 6 for better comparison. It is observed that effect is
3
63
31
15
05
9
more visible for thick plates while it nullifies as plate
21.36
19.43
17.85
17.26
16.56
becomes thinner.
4
53
47
47
09
71
a/h=1
00
24.05 22.02 20.81 19.67 18.93
5
42
66
50
19
48
26.56 24.10 22.12 20.46 19.63
6
33
47
30
71
41
33.71 33.37 30.74 29.05 27.76
7
49
70
29
22
77
36.56 34.66 34.35 29.05 27.76
8
76
03
68
22
77
Table 2: Effect of span to thickness ration on of a square
FGM plate for 8 modes
a/h
Theories
T1
T2
T3
T4
Fig. 4: Effect of span to thickness ration on fundamental
10
4.4478
4.4334
4.4293
4.4325
of a square FGM plate
20
4.5421
4.5386
4.5383
4.5391
30
4.5596
4.5579
4.5577
4.5580
40
4.5658
4.5646
4.5647
4.5648
50
4.5685
4.5679
4.5679
4.5680
100
4.5809
4.5815
4.5814
4.5820
Table 3: Comparison of different theories for fundamental
of a square FGM plate (a/h=10, 'n'=1)

Fig. 5: Effect of grading index 'n' on fundamental of a


square FGM plate

All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com

349

Comparative Studies of Different Theories for Vibration Analysis of FGM Plate by using Higher Order Shear Deformation Theory
(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 12/2016/090)

Fig. 6: Comparison of different theories for fundamental


of a square FGM plate (a/h=10, 'n'=1)
V. CONCLUSION
Free vibration response of functionally graded material plate
(FGM) is presented using different shear deformation
theories. It is observed that effect on frequency parameter is
more visible for thick plates while it nullifies as plate
becomes thinner for different theories. The effect of span to
thickness ratio decreases for a/h 30. The effect of grading
index 'n' is prominent for lesser values of 'n' and decreases
as 'n' increases
REFERENCES
[1] Aydogdu M, Ece MC. Buckling and vibration of nonideal simply supported rectangular isotropic plates,
Mech Res Commun 33,53240,2006.
[2] Rikards R, Chate A, Ozolinsh O. Analysis for buckling
and vibrations of composite stiened shells and plates,
Compos Struct.51,36170,2001.
[3] Hull PV, Buchanan GR. Vibration of moderately thick
square orthotropic stepped thickness plates, Appl
Acoust 64,75363,2003.
[4] Sheikh AH, Dey P, Sengupta D. Vibration of thick and
thin plates using a new triangular element, ASCE J
Eng Mech,129:123544, 2003.
[5] Grover N, Singh BN, Maiti DK. Analytical and finite
element modeling of laminated composite and sandwich
plates: an assessment of a new shear deformation theory
for free vibration response. Int J Mech Sci 67, 8999,
2013.
[6] Liu GR, Chen XL. A mesh-free method for static and
free vibration analysis of thin plates of complicated
shape, J Sound Vib 241, 83955,2001.
[7] Singh J and Shukla K K. Nonlinear flexural analysis of
laminated composite plates using RBF based meshless
method. , Composite Structures 94, 17141720, 2012.
[8] Shimpi R.P. Patel H.G. Free vibrations of plate using
two variable refined plate theory. , J Sound Vib 296,
979999,2006
[9] Levy M. Memoire sur la theorie des plaques elastique
planes. , J Math Pure Appl. 30, 219306,1877
[10] Stein. M. Nonlinear theory for plates and shells
including effect of shearing, AIAA J 24, 153744,
1986.
[11] Touratier M. An efficient standard plate theory, Int J
Eng Sci. 29(8), 901916,1991

[12] Ghugal Y.M. and Sayyad A.S. A static flexure of


thick isotropic plates using trigonometric shear
deformation theory, J Solid Mech. 2(1), 7990,2010
[13] Aydogdu M. A new shear deformation theory for
laminated composite plates, Compos Struct. 89, 94
101,2009.
[14] Akavci SS. Two new hyperbolic shear displacement
models for orthotropic laminated composite plates.
Mech Compos Mater, 46, 215226,2010.
[15] Singh J, Singh S and Shukla K. K. RBF Meshless
Analysis of Functionally Graded Plate with Different
Hyperbolic Shear Deformation Theories, World
Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
79,347-352,2011
[16] Singh J and Shukla K K. Nonlinear flexural analysis of
functionally graded plates under different loadings
using RBF based meshless method, Engineering
Analysis with Boundary Elements 36,18191827, 2012.
[17] Abdelkader Benachour et al. A four variable refined
plate theory for free vibrations of functionally graded
plates with arbitrary gradient. , Composites: Part B .
42, 13861394.2011
[18] Hosseini-Hashemi Sh, Rokni Damavandi Taher H,
Akhavan H, Omidi M. Free vibration of functionally
graded rectangular plates using first-order shear
deformation plate theory, Appl Math Modell
34(5),127691,2010.
[19] Zhao X, Lee YY, Liew KM. Free vibration analysis of
functionally graded plates using the element-free kpRitz method, J Sound Vib .319,91839,2009.
[20] G. Eason, B. Noble, and I.N. Sneddon, On certain
integrals of Lipschitz-Hankel type involving products of
Bessel functions, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, vol.
A247, pp. 529-551, April 1955.
[21] J. Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and
Magnetism, 3rd ed., vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892,
pp.68-73.
[22] I.S. Jacobs and C.P. Bean, Fine particles, thin films
and exchange anisotropy, in Magnetism, vol. III, G.T.
Rado and H. Suhl, Eds. New York: Academic, 1963,
pp. 271-350.
[23] K. Elissa, Title of paper

All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com

350