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Topic 9 and 19: Acids and bases

8.1.1 Define acids and bases according to the BrØnsted-Lowry and Lewis

theories. BrØnsted-Lowry Acids: proton donor Bases: proton acceptor

Lewis Acids: electron-pair acceptor Bases: electron-pair donor

8.1.2 Deduce whether or not a species could act as a BrØnsted-Lowry and/or a Lewis acid or base. Figure out if the species fits any of the definitions.

8.1.3 Deduce the formula of the conjugate acid (or base) of any BrØnsted-

Lowry base (or acid). If originally as acid, remove a H + , if originally a base, add a H + .

8.2.1 Outline the characteristic properties of acids and bases in aqueous

solution.

Acids and bases can be distinguished using indicators

Acids react with metals, bases and carbonates to form salts

8.3.1 Distinguish between strong and weak acids and bases in terms of

the extent of dissociation, reaction with water and electrical conductivity.

Strong acids dissociate fully while weak acids only partially dissociate. This occurs when dissolved in water. Strong acids are better conductors than weak acids as there is a higher concentration of ions.

8.3.2 State whether a given acid or base is strong or weak.

Common Strong Acids and Bases

Hydrochloric acid

 

HCl

Lithium hydroxide

LiOH

Nitric acid

HNO 3

Sodium hydroxide

NaOH

Sulphuric acid

H

2 SO 4

Potassium hydroxide

KOH

   

Barium hydroxide

NA(OH) 2

Most of the acids and bases will be weak.

Topic 9 and 19: Acids and bases

8.3.3 Distinguish between strong and weak acids and bases, and

determine the relative strengths of acids and bases, using experimental

data.

Test electrical conductivity

Test rate of reaction

Measure pH

8.4.1 Distinguish between aqueous solutions that are acidic, neutral or

alkaline using the pH scale.

Alkaline > pH 7 Neutral = pH 7 Acidic < pH 7

8.4.2 Identify which of two or more aqueous solutions is more acidic or

alkaline using pH values. The higher the pH the more acidic a solution is, the lower the pH the more alkaline a solution is.

8.4.3 State that each change of one pH unit represents a 10-fold change in

the hydrogen ion concentration [H + (aq)]. Each change of one pH unit represents a 10-fold change in the hydrogen ion concentration [H + (aq)].

8.4.4 Deduce changes in [H + (aq)] when the pH of a solution changes by

more than one pH unit. Example: If the pH decreases 2, [H + (aq)] has increased ×100.

18.1.1 State the expression for the ionic product constant of water (K w ). = [ ][ ] = 1.00 × 10 25°

18.1.2 Deduce [H + (aq)] and [OH - (aq)] for water at different temperatures

given K w values.

[H + (aq)] and [OH - (aq)] will always equal which will be given for certain

temperatures.

18.1.3 Solve problems involving [H + (aq)], [OH - (aq)], pH and pOH.

pH = -log [H + ], pOH = -log [OH - ]

[H + ] = 10 -pH , [OH - ] = 10 -pOH

Topic 9 and 19: Acids and bases

18.1.4 State the equation for the reaction of any weak acid or weak base

with water, and hence deduce the expressions for K a and K b .

Acids + [ ][ ]

=

Bases + + [ ][ ]

=

[ ]

[

]

18.1.5 Solve problems involving solutions of weak acids and bases using

the expression:

K a × K b = K w

In questions, figure out what you have, what you need and then figure out what

expressions will allow you to get there.

pK a + pK b = pK w

pH + pOH = pK w .

Other useful equations:

pK a = -log K a , pK b = -log K b

K a = 10 -pKa , [OH - ] = 10 -pKb

18.1.6

Identify the relative strengths of acids and bases using values of

K a , K b ,

pK a and pK b .

Strong acids and bases: High K and low pK

Weak acids and bases: Low K and high pK

18.2.1 Describe the composition of a buffer solution and explain its action.

A buffer solution is a solution that resists pH change when small amounts of acid or

alkali are added. It contains a weak acid or base and the salt of that weak acid or

base. Usually buffer solutions are created by adding a strong acid together with a weak base or vice versa, where the strong acid or base is the limiting reagent. An example of the composition of a buffer solution is ethanoic acid and sodium ethanoate.

If an acid is added, the proton is absorbed by the negative ion of the salt

e.g. CH 3 COO - + H + CH 3 COOH

If an alkali is added, the hydroxide ion is absorbed by the undissociated acid

e.g. CH 3 COOH + OH - CH 3 COO - + H 2 O

18.2.2 Solve problems involving the composition and pH of a specified

buffer system. Use the same techniques as in 18.5.1

Topic 9 and 19: Acids and bases

18.3.1 Deduce whether salts form acidic, alkaline or neutral aqueous solutions. Dependent on whether they can absorb H + or OH - from the dissociation of water. Strong acid + strong base = neutral salt Weak acid + strong base = basic salt Strong acid + weak base = acidic salt Weak acid + Weak base = cannot generalise

18.4.1 Sketch the general shapes of graphs of pH against volume for titrations involving strong and weak acids and bases, and explain their important features.

Strong acid and strong base

Weak acid and strong base

Strong acid and weak base

Weak acid and weak base

Topic 9 and 19: Acids and bases

18.5.1 Describe qualitatively the action of an acid-base indicator.

Example of indicator: HIn H + + In - HIn reflects colour A while In - reflects colour B. The more acidic a solution is, the more the equilibrium will move to the reactants, and the more basic a solution is, the more the equilibrium will shift to the right. Whichever side the equilibrium favours will determine which colour is dominant.

18.5.2 State and explain how the pH range of an acid-base indicator

relates to its pK a value. The pK a value of and indicator indicates at what pH the end point of an indicator is

reached at.

18.5.3 Identify an appropriate indicator for a titration, given the

equivalence point of the titration and the pH range of the indicator. An indicator is appropriate from a titration if the pH range of the equivalence point

of the titration includes the pK a value of the indicator. For weak acid/weak base titrations, indicators are never appropriate .