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(1)
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:
0001 1
0002 1
0003 2
0004 2
0005 3

0006 3
0007 4
0008 4
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0000 5

(2) .
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(4) , .
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1. .., ..
. ., 1982.
2. .., ..
. ., 1974 .
3. .., .. . .,
1971, 1979 .
4. .. . ., 1985
.
5. .., .. . . :
. ., 1998 .
4

3
3,
:
1. (to be able to, to be to, to have to, to be allowed to).
2. (Participle I; Gerund).
3. .
4. . .

1
. 1.
(A) .
, .

1. The first passenger trains didnt travel very far, but they were able to transport more
passengers over longer distances than any horse-powered wagons.
2. As competition between railways and other means of transport is intensifying now,
railway operators have to increase comfort, speed and safety of rail services.
3. According to the customs regulations, passengers aren't allowed to carry more than ten
packs of cigarettes.
4. As there were some defects in the train power supply system, the train had to be
removed from service.
5. At the terminus, the driver of the emu is to move to the other end of the trainset.
(B)
.

1. You ___ change trains because there is no direct train to Boston.


2. Passengers ___ buy train tickets on the day of departure or
reserve them in advance.
3. The London Underground ___ pump 30,000 cubic meters of
water out of its tunnels each day.
4. No current British high-speed trains ___ run in service above
125 mph (200 km/h).
5. Locomotives and cars for the first Russian railway ___ be
ordered from abroad.

a) are allowed to
b) is to
c) will have to
d) had to
e) are able to

. 2.
.

1. Using special mechanical devices for loading and unloading freight cars at the
railway station resulted in reducing hard manual labor.
2. Before putting the new trains into operation, the engineers are to test them on
specially built track.
3. In 1996, several Asian countries founded the Pan-Asian railway organization with the
aim of uniting their individual railways into a continuous network.
4. On entering the compartment, a man introduced himself to his fellow travelers.
. 3. Ing-
,
-ing. ,
.

1. Double deck passenger cars are used for carrying more commuter passengers in
densely-populated areas while using fewer cars.
5

2. The braking system can bring a train traveling at 300 km/h to a complete standstill in
65 seconds, during which time the train covers about 3.5 km.
3. Stopping fuel supply caused serious trouble in the engine.
4. Network Rail is the company responsible for maintaining and repairing all the
railway tracks, signals and stations, etc. in Britain.
. 4.
,
, .

1.
2.
3.
4.

traffic speed increase


standard length rails
railway bridge renewal
locomotive control system

5.
6.
7.
8.

train departure time


passenger coach repair
engine breakdown
train heating generator

. 5. .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The first steam locomotive moved at a speed of 12 km/h.


Skilled drivers are required to operate modern trains.
This car will be coupled to the train 15 going to the Far East.
The first sleeping car was invented in the USA.
The railways today carry the bulk of passenger and goods traffic in Russia.
Russian engineers have considerably improved the car heating and lighting systems.

. 6.
, , .

LIVERPOOL-MANCHESTER RAILWAY
(1) The Liverpool-Manchester Railway (L&MR) was the worlds first inter-city
passenger railway on which all the trains were timetabled and were hauled by steam
locomotives.
(2) The Stockton-Darlington line opened in 1825 considerably reduced the cost of
transporting coal. It soon became clear that large profits could be made by building railways. A
group of businessmen led by James Sandars recruited George Stephenson to build them a
railway. The main aim was to reduce the cost of transporting raw materials and finished goods
between Manchester, the centre of the textile industry and Liverpool, the most important port in
the north of England. The L&MR was planned as a double-track standard-gauge mainline with
regular passenger and freight trains running to a timetable. According to Stephenson's project,
the length of the railway was to be 35 miles; two tunnels and a nine-arch viaduct were to be
constructed. The track was to cross the 4.75-mile peat bog of Chat Moss.
(3) The directors of the L&MR Company decided to hold an extraordinary locomotive
competition to choose the best machine. The winner was to receive the 500 award. The rules
of the trials were as follows:
The locomotive was to haul a load, three times its own weight, for a distance of 70 miles at
not less than 10 mph.
The locomotive was to consume its own smoke.
The locomotive was not to weigh more than 4 tons (if carried on four wheels) or 6 tons (if
carried on six).
The locomotive was not to cost more than 550 to build.

(4) The so-called Rainhill Trials1 began on the 5 October and ended on the 14 October.
There were 3 main competitors: Rocket built by Stephenson; Sane Pareil2 built by Hackworth,
Novelty3 built by Braithwaite and Ericsson.
(5) The Rocket was the only locomotive to complete the trials successfully. It hauled 13
tons, achieving a top speed of 30 mph. Rocket was declared the winner of the 500 prize. The
Stephensons won the contract to produce locomotives for the Liverpool & Manchester Railway.
(6) The official opening of the L&MR took place on September 15 1830. Many guests of
honor, including the Duke of Wellington (then the prime minister) and many other VIPs
assembled at the Liverpool station for a tour to Manchester. A procession of eight trains
departed from Liverpool. The parade was led by Northumbrian4 driven by Stephenson. Crowds
of spectators gathered along the line. The procession stopped at Parkside for the locomotives to
take on water. During this stop, there was a tragic accident William Huskisson, the MP5 for
Liverpool, fell into the path of Rocket. The locomotive could not stop in time and ran over his
leg, crushing it.
(7) Despite this sorry start, the railway soon proved its worth. Regular passenger services
began on September 17 and trains rapidly became more popular than the competing road
carriages. In December, when several new locomotives had been delivered, freight services
started. The success of the L&MR stimulated railway construction in other parts of the country.
Between 1833 and 1843, 3,680 miles of railway were laid down.
Notes: 1Rainhill Trials
2
Sans Pareil ()
3
Novelty ()
4
Northumbrian
5
MP

. 7. 3, 4, 5
. 8. :

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

. 9. .
, "True", "False".
.

1. The Liverpool to Manchester Railway was the first commercial railway line designed to
carry passengers as well as freight.
2. Two tunnels and a nine arch viaduct were to be constructed on this single-track line.
3. Five locomotives took part in the Rainhill Trials.
4. The railway opened with great ceremony on 15 September 1830 when a procession of
eight of the Stephenson locomotives traveled the length of the line from Manchester to
Liverpool.
7

5. The completion and success of the Liverpool-Manchester Railway stimulated road


construction in Britain.
. 10. ,
.

1. Why did a group of businessmen led by James Sandars decide to build the railway?
a)
b)
c)
d)

to travel more comfortably and quickly from Liverpool to Manchester


to carry workers cheaper and faster
to invest money in profitable business
to reduce the cost of carrying freight between the port of Liverpool and mills in Manchester

2. How many viaducts were to be built according to Stephenson's project?


a) nine
b) one

c) thirty five
d) two

3. What was the length of the L&MR?


a) 26 km 31 m
b) 36 km 31 m

c) 46 km 31 m
d) 56 km 31 m

4. What was one of the rules at the Rainhill trials?


a)
b)
c)
d)

the locomotive was required to haul a load for a distance of 70 km


the locomotive was to cost less than 550 to build
the locomotive was required to haul a load, four times its own weight
the locomotive was not to weigh more than 2 tons

5. What incident overshadowed the opening ceremony of the L&MR?


a)
b)
c)
d)

one of the eight locomotives derailed


it started raining
William Huskisson, the MP for Liverpool, was run over by the Rocket
the Duke of Wellington refused to attend the opening ceremony

2
. 1.
(A) .
, .

1. Since Finland has the same railway gauge as Russia, high-speed trains are able to cross
the border without stopping.
2. We were to leave for England on Saturday but because of the delay with our visas, we
had to book tickets for Monday.
3. Covered hopper cars are used for carrying cargo that is to be protected from the weather
such as grain, sugar or mineral fertilizers.
4. Switches are necessary where trains have to be moved from one track to another.
5. Passengers were reminded that it wasn't allowed to smoke in this carriage.
(B)
.

1. When passing the curve, a tilting train ___ decrease its speed.
2. You ___ transfer to another line at the next Metro station.
3. While building the railway in Siberia, the workers ___
overcome many difficulties.
4. In order to keep a railway track in good condition, ballast ___ be
regularly cleaned.
5. Until the 19th century, people ___ travel freely between most
countries without a passport.
8

a) is to
b) were be able to
c) doesnt have to
d) are able to
e) had to

. 2.
.

1. As all the railways in Britain have a standard gauge now, passengers are able to travel
over several lines without changing trains.
2. Automatic control system makes the drivers work easier, allows reducing the train
crew and ensures high degree of safety.
3. Developing high-speed services by using trains capable of traveling at up to 250-300
km/h is one of the priority tasks of Russian Railways.
4. The cost of transporting passengers and goods can be reduced by means of
increasing the length and weight of trains.
. 3. Ing-
,
-ing. ,
.

1. Running from Moscow to Vladivostok, the Trans-Siberian Express covers the distance
of 9,300 km in eight days, making 91 stops.
2. Around $1.2 billion will be spent on modernizing the 270 km suburban network of Sao
Paolo, Brazil. This includes buying new trains, refurbishing existing rolling stock,
renewing signaling equipment, constructing new railway stations, rebuilding old
ones and laying new tracks.
3. The transport committee studied the problem of increasing the number of trains
operating on the commuter network.
4. On October 11 2008, the Thalys train from Paris to Amsterdam collided with a
departing ICM trainset at the station of Gouda. No people were injured.
. 4.
,
, .

1.
2.
3.
4.

track maintenance cost


train departure time
freight transportation rates
remote control device

5.
6.
7.
8.

two-berth compartment carriage


train power supply system
rolling-stock repair plant
locomotive fleet renewal

. 5. .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

In Britain, creosote-treated wooden sleepers last about 20 years in the main tracks.
The use of multi-cylinder engines greatly increased the speed of cars.
The maintenance team had finished the repair of the track by 6 p.m.
The fare in the London Underground depends on the distance you travel.
The first rails were made of cast iron.
New freight transportation rates have been recently introduced in this country.

. 6.
, , .

STOCKTON-DARLINGTON RAILWAY
(1) Stockton & Darlington Railway (S&DR) was the first railway in the world to operate
freight and passenger service with steam traction.
9

(2) In 1821, a parliamentary bill was passed to allow the building of the S&DR. The 26mile railway was to connect various coal mines. The original plan was to use horses to draw coal
carts on cast iron rails. But George Stephenson, an English mechanical engineer, persuaded
company director Edward Pease to use steam power. He told that a locomotive could pull 50
times the load that horses could draw on iron rails. Impressed, Pease agreed to change his plan.
(3) Stephenson surveyed the line in 1821, assisted by his 18-year-old son Robert. Work
on the track began in 1822. Stephenson used wrought-iron rails instead of cast iron ones. These
rails were more expensive but they were much stronger. On the 12-mile line connecting
Stockton and Darlington, the rails were laid on wooden blocks. The 15-mile track between the
mines and Darlington was laid on stone blocks. The gauge that Stephenson chose for the line
was 4 feet 8 inch (1,435 mm). Later, it became the standard gauge for railways not only in
Britain but also all over the world.
(4) The lines structures included one of the first railway bridges. Designed by architect
Ignatius Bonomi, the bridge over the Skerne river in Darlington is the oldest railway bridge still
in use today. From 1990 until 2003, the bridge appeared on the reverse of 5 notes issued by
the Bank of England, which featured George Stephenson. The bridge is shown with a train
crossing it.
(5) Edward Pease and George Stephenson jointly established a company in Newcastle to
manufacture locomotives for the new line. The company was set up as Robert Stephenson &
Company, and Georges son Robert was the managing director1. In September 1825, the first
locomotive originally named Active was completed; it was soon renamed Locomotion Number
One. It was followed by Hope, Diligence, and Black Diamond.
(6) The official opening of the line was on September 27, 1825. Large crowds of
spectators were watching with interest George Stephenson operating the Locomotion as it
pulled 36 wagons: twelve wagons of coal and flour, six of guests and fourteen wagons full of
workmen. Most of the passengers sat in open-top coal wagons, but 18 visiting dignitaries2
traveled on the passenger coach called The Experiment. This coach resembled a wooden shed3
on wheels and as it had no springs it must have provided an uncomfortable ride. The first train
was not fast; it took two hours to cover the distance of 9 miles. However, on one section of the
line the locomotive could reach a speed of 15 mph.
(7) For the first few years, horse traction dominated on the S&DR because steam traction
was too expensive. But as time went on, steam locomotives proved to be more economic they
could haul more wagons, and haul them faster. In a typical working day the most expensive
steam engine could haul more coal than the cheapest horse!
(8) By 1833, the S&DR had become entirely steam-operated, and it gradually began to
resemble a modern railway. Two parallel tracks were built for trains traveling in different
directions. A simple signaling system was established to prevent collisions. Trains began to run
to timetable. These methods of operation became standard on railways across the world.
(9) The S&DR proved a huge financial success, and paved the way for modern rail
transport development. In 1863, the S&DR company merged with the North Eastern Railway
and in 1922 with the London and North Eastern Railway. Much but not all of the original
S&DR line is still operating today.
Notes: 1managing director
2
visiting dignitaries
3
shed

. 7. 2, 3
10

. 8. :

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

, ,


15


,
()

. 9. .
, "True", "False".
.

1. The S&DR was constructed in the early 1820s and was initially meant to be an ordinary
horse-drawn wagonway, which were then commonplace in England.
2. The permanent way of the S&DR consisted of wrought-iron rails laid on wooden blocks.
3. The first locomotive named Locomotion 1 was completed in September 1825.
4. On the opening day, 27 September 1825, a steam locomotive successfully hauled a heavy
train of 36 loaded freight wagons.
5. At first, horse traction predominated on the S&DR because steam locomotives were then
a new and unproven technology, and were slow, expensive, unreliable.
. 10. ,
.

1. Why did Stephenson use wrought-iron rails rather than cast iron ones?
a)
b)
c)
d)

because wrought-iron rails were more liable to crack under the weight of heavy locomotives
because these rails were more expensive than cast iron ones
because wrought iron was stronger and more durable than cast iron
because Edward Pease (director of the S&DR company) ordered Stephenson to use wroughtiron rails

2. What gauge did Stephenson choose for the line?


a)
b)
c)
d)

standard gauge
broad gauge
narrow gauge
wide gauge

3. What was the forth locomotive manufactured in Newcastle called?


a)
b)
c)
d)

Diligence
Black Diamond
The Experiment
Hope

4. Why was it uncomfortable to ride on the first passenger carriage?


a)
b)
c)
d)

because this coach resembled a wooden shed on wheels


because it had no springs
because it was too small for seating 18 passengers
because it had no roof and windows

5. What was done to prevent train collisions on the S&DR?


a)
b)
c)
d)

the S&DR became entirely steam-operated


horses were used to carry passengers because it was less dangerous
trains moved at a walking speed
a signaling system was established and trains began to run to timetable

11

3
. 1.
(A) .
, .

1. German Rail had to withdraw passenger services on about 30 secondary lines in eastern
Germany because of the poor state of the infrastructure.
2. The Japans fastest trains called Hikari (Light) are able to cover the distance of 1,068
km from Tokyo to Hakata in less than 7 hours.
3. Fifteen 1,800 hp diesel-electric locos produced by the Hungarian plants are to be
delivered to the Brazilian Railways later this year.
4. The attention of the railway authorities of all countries has to be focused on the
development of high-speed passenger and freight service.
5. Steam locomotives weren't able to haul very heavy trains at a high speed.
(B).
.

1. As a rule, passengers ___ enter a baggage car while a train


is in motion.
2. The attendant ___ check up tickets of all the passengers
before the train departure.
3. They ___ leave the day after tomorrow as there are no
tickets for todays train.
4. You ___ call the railway station to enquire about the train
schedule.
5. To get to Edinburgh, we ___ change trains in Birmingham.

a) will have to
b) are able to
c) had to
d) is to
e) arent allowed to

. 2.
.

1. The method of controlling the movement of all trains on a line from a central point is
called Centralized Traffic Control.
2. A long tunnel was bored through the mountain but laying railway tracks in this tunnel
wasnt planned.
3. As the seats in Metro cars are arranged in rows on both sides of the carriage, the
passengers can easily take their seats without causing trouble to other people.
4. Special machines are used for removing old sleepers from the track, preparing ballast
bed and placing new sleepers.
. 3. Ing-
,
-ing. ,
.

1. Russian Railways is one of the worlds biggest railway companies employing 1.2
million people and handling 80% of all passenger transportation and 82% of all freight
in Russia.
2. The Severn Valley Railway boasts one of the largest collections of working steam
locomotives and coaches, including some rolling stock, which is over 80 years old.
3. The cost of operating a railway line depends on the weight of trains, quantity of stops,
frequency of traffic and other factors.
4. Two or more locomotives are used for pulling trains consisting of eighty freight cars.
12

. 4.
,
, .

1.
2.
3.
4.

1,000 horse-power diesel engine


emergency stopping device
freight train tare weight
engine cooling system

5.
6.
7.
8.

steam locomotive efficiency


air brake failure
old marshalling yard reconstruction
train operation safety

. 5. .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The schedule of this train has been changed for the summer period.
Toronto plans to spend $C1.66 billion for expanding the metro and buying new cars.
Construction of new railroads for high-speed passenger trains was pioneered by Japan.
Long-welded rails improve riding qualities of trains.
Rails are affected by temperature changes.
In 1840, the USA had 2,800 miles of railroad tracks consisting mainly of short lines.

. 6.
, , .

ST.PETERSBURG-TSARSKOE SELO RAILWAY


(1) The Tsarskoselskaya Railway is the first Russian public railway running between St.
Petersburg and Tsarskoe Selo. Until 1851 it was the only railway in the country and the 6th in
the world. Its construction started on May 1, 1836 and took 18 months to complete.
(2) On January 6, 1835, Franz Anton von Gerstner, an Austrian engineer sent a letter to
the Russian Emperor Nicholas I proposing to construct a railway network in Russia. Von
Gerstner had perfect qualifications for the project since he had been the engineer of the first
public railway on the European continent the Danube-Moldavia line. He wrote about the
advantages, which railway construction had brought to other countries. Von Gerstner gave the
examples of American railways to show that they could operate under severe weather
conditions in the winter. He also emphasized that due to Russia's geography, railways would
benefit it. The relatively flat terrain made railways easy to build and the large distances made
them profitable to operate. To convince the Emperor, von Gerstner proposed to build an
experimental line from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoe Selo. According to the project, the railway
was to start near the center of the Russian capital, travel along the Obvodnyi Canal and then
lead to Pavlovsk Park in Tsarskoe Selo. The Obvodnyi Canal was to be crossed by a bridge.
The route was to be a straight line with only one curve near a bridge over the Obvodny Canal.
(3) On March 21 1836, the plan was approved. Von Gerstner had promised that the
line would be completed by October 1, 1836. He immediately left for Europe to order
locomotives, cars, rails and other equipment. He chose the best manufacturers and insisted
on high quality despite added costs.
(4) When von Gerstner returned, earthworks were underway and bridges were being
erected. The forest on either side of the line was cleared to 420 feet out, the swampy areas
were drained, and embankments were built. The large bridge over the Obvodniy Canal
went up slowly due to the size and location of the bridge, but the other 34 bridges were
erected rather quickly.
(5) By the end of 1836, eight kilometers of track had been laid down. The track was
constructed with the heaviest cast iron rails available. The wooden sleepers were treated
with tar to prevent them from decay. Special measures were taken to ensure that the tracks
13

would not be damaged by winter freezes and thaws. Everything was done to the highest
possible quality.
(6) Although none of the locomotives had arrived by the October 1 deadline, von
Gerstner demonstrated the line on September 27. Horses were used to pull two trains of two
carriages each along the 3 km. Trials were also held on the two following Sundays with great
success. By November, several locomotives had been delivered and were ready to be tested.
On November 3, 1836, one of the locomotives pulled 5 carriages up and down the completed
sections of the line.
(7) The official opening of the Tsarskoe Selo Railway took place on October 30, 1837.
Many guests of honor, including Emperor Nicholas I, and a crowd of curious spectators
attended the ceremony. Driven by von Gerstner, the Provornyi locomotive pulled 8 passenger
carriages from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoe Selo, reaching the top speed of 64 kmh on one section
of the track. That day, it took a train 35 minutes to cover 23 kilometers.
(8) After the inauguration, regular service between St. Petersburg and Tsarskoe Selo
began. Initially, trains were drawn by horses and only on Sundays by steam engines; but after
April 4, 1838, steam power was used exclusively.
. 7. 3, 4, 5
. 8. :

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.








, 2

. 9. .
, "True", "False".
.

1. In January 1835, Emperor Nicholas I sent a letter to Franz von Gerstner proposing to
build the railway from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoe Selo.
2. According to von Gerstner, no other country could benefit from railways as much as
Russia, due to its climate.
3. The first railway ran along quite a straight line with the sole curvature near a bridge over
the Obvodny Canal.
4. Thirty four bridges were erected on the railway line; the bridge over the Vedenskii Canal
was the largest one.
5. On October 30, 1837, the hooter of a steam locomotive, the Provorny, marked the
inauguration of the country's first, 27-kilometre-long, railway that ran from St Petersburg
to Tsarskoye Selo.
. 10. ,
.
14

1. Why did von Gerstner leave for Europe in March 1836?


a)
b)
c)
d)

to
to
to
to

celebrate the beginning of construction


hire foreign railway builders
order locomotives, cars, rails, and other equipment
raise capital for railway construction

2. What were the rails made of?


a)
b)
c)
d)

steel
wrought iron
wood
cast iron

3. Why were horses used to pull two trains during the track testing in September 27, 1836?
a) because
power
b) because
c) because
d) because

horse power was cheaper and more ecologically friendly than steam
heavy locomotives could damage the newly built track
none of the locomotives was delivered by the deadline
people were afraid of traveling by steam trains

4. Von Gerstner promised that the line would be completed by October 1, 1836. Did he
keep his word?
a) Yes, he did
b) No, he didn't

5. When did regular service between St. Petersburg and Tsarskoe Selo start?
a)
b)
c)
d)

after
after
after
after

October 1, 1836
November 3, 1836
October 30, 1837
April 4, 1838

4
. 1.
(A) .
, .

1. Passengers traveling from Moscow to Vladivostok have to move the hands of their
watches seven times because the Trans-Siberian Mainline crosses seven time zones.
2. The new British train will be able to develop a very high speed since it is equipped
with powerful engines.
3. For increased corrosion protection, the carbodies are to be sprayed on the inside with a
special antirust compound.
4. Passengers werent allowed to get off the car because the train stopped for 2 minutes only.
5. To make the Moscow-St. Petersburg line as straight and level as possible, builders had to
construct a lot of bridges and viaducts.
(B).
.

1. Next year, the railway ___ increase the train fares because of
inflation.
2. Many railways ___ start dieselization only after World War II.
3. On this dangerous section of the line, the trains ___ move at the
speed of 60 kmh.
4. John ___ leave his luggage in the Left-Luggage Office.
5. To finish the journey on time, the driver ___ increase the train
speed.
15

a) had to
b) is able to
c) will have to
d) are to
e) were able to

. 2.
.

1. Automatic train signaling is a system used for controlling railway traffic to prevent
trains from colliding.
2. New track machines purchased from Great Britain by Mozambique will be used for
upgrading the Limpopo line in that country.
3. The bi-level car increases the passenger or freight capacity of a train without
lengthening a set.
4. The underground railway helps to solve the problems of carrying large numbers of
passengers, as well as the problems of traffic jams, air contamination and noise.
. 3. Ing-
,
-ing. ,
.

1. In India, foreign tourists are able to buy an Indrail Pass permitting unlimited travel for a
specific time period.
2. Having worked at the railway for several years, Paul gained much experience in
driving electric locomotives.
3. New models of lightweight rail cars consuming 50% less power than old models have
been introduced on the Japanese Railways.
4. Fences and other devices are built for protecting the tracks against snow and for
keeping the livestock away from the railway.
. 4.
,
, .

1.
2.
3.
4.

traffic speed increase


railway bridge pile
motion characteristics improvement
iron ore train

5.
6.
7.
8.

aircraft-type seats
passenger information system
track repair team
locomotive service life

. 5. .

1. Railway cars have a very long service life from 30 to 40 years.


2. The daily service between Moscow and St.Petersburg consists of more than 20 trains.
3. By the middle of the 20th century, diesel-electric locomotives had replaced steam
locomotives on most railroads.
4. The speed of tunneling was raised by using modern machines.
5. The invention of the steam engine aroused great interest in Britain.
6. A considerable increase in freight and passenger volumes is expected in Russia over the
next few years.
. 6.
, , .

ST.PETERSBURG-MOSCOW RAILWAY
(1) The St. Petersburg-Moscow Railway is a 650 km railway running between the two largest
Russian cities and through four regions: Moscow, Tver, Novgorod and Leningrad. It is the leading
traffic artery for the whole of the north-west region of Russia, operated by the Oktyabrskaya Railway.
16

(2) This railway was a project of Pavel Melnikov, an engineer who was in charge of its
construction. According to Melnikov's project, chugunka was planned as a double-track line,
664 km long, steam-powered. Melnikov insisted that gauge of railway should be 1,524 mm.
This was to become Russias national standard for all railways. The speed of passenger and
freight trains was to be 34 km and 16 km respectively. 278 constructive works were to be built,
including 34 stations, 184 railway bridges, 19 viaducts, 69 cast iron and masonry conduit pipes.
It should be said that all the stations were to have the same style and even the same color
scheme. Railway stations in both capitals (Moskovsky in St. Petersburg and Leningradsky in
Moscow) were designed by K.A. Ton in the style of classical architecture.
(3) Some reactionary officials opposed to the idea of a railway connecting the two
capitals. They predicted public disorder if the masses were allowed to travel. It was decided
that only the wealthy would be allowed to use the line. Every passenger was to pass strict
passport and police control.
(4) Emperor Nicholas I issued a decree ordering its construction on 1 February 1842. The
construction began in 1843 and lasted about 10 years. More than 50,000 serfs did the actual
construction work, using only spades and axes. They worked from sunrise to sunset, every day
including Sundays and holidays. Only when the rain was extremely heavy, they were given the
day off. The serfs were constantly ill. Terrible working and housing conditions as well as
illnesses and bad food made people complain, but they were severely punished. P.P. Melnikov's
proposal to mechanize the construction wasn't supported, as it required great costs. Only four
excavators were bought in the USA. (At that time, there were seven excavators in the world
three other machines operated in the U.S. and Great Britain.)
(5) The inauguration of the St. Petersburg-Moscow Railway took place on November 1,
1851. The first train departed from St. Petersburg at 11.15 a.m. In 21 hours 45 minutes, the train
arrived safe and sound at its destination. There were 17 passengers in the first-class carriages,
63 in the second-class carriages and 112 in the third-class carriages. Tickets had been sold
out 4 months before. The speed of the first trains was 40 kmh. Two years later, it was increased
up to 60 kmh. It was the worlds record in the speed of passenger trains.
(6) It is interesting to note that the railway was completely straight and level apart from a
7-km curve near the city of Novgorod. According to the legend, when Nicholas I was shown
the plans for a rail link between the northern capital and Moscow, he took a ruler and drew a
straight line between the two cities. Accidentally, he drew around his own finger on the ruler,
breaking the straight line on the map. Another version is that there was a small notch in the
ruler. Construction workers were too afraid of mentioning the mistake to the Tsar and included
a 7-km curve into the line known ever since as the Tsar's Finger.
(7) However, the truth is more prosaic. The curve, also called the Verebinsky1 bypass,
was actually built in 1877 to circumvent a 17-km steep gradient. Russian steam locomotives of
the time were not powerful and trains heading for Moscow needed four locomotives to get up
the hill. In 2001, after 150 years of continuous use, the curve was finally straightened out
reducing the entire length by 5 km.
Note: 1Verebinsky

. 7. 4, 5 .
. 8. :

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

,
,



17

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

. 9. .
, "True", "False".
.

1. The St. Petersburg-Moscow Railway is the leading traffic artery for the whole of the
north-east region of Russia, operated by the Oktyabrskaya Railway.
2. According to Melnikov's project, the railway was constructed to standard gauge.
3. All the stations on the line were designed in the style of classical architecture.
4. Both officials and the public supported the idea of a railway connecting the two capitals.
5. There is a legend that the railway was built according to the line drawn on the map by the Tsar.
. 10. ,
.

1. Why were some officials against the construction of the line connecting the two major
cities of Russia?
a)
b)
c)
d)

because
because
because
because

they
they
they
they

were afraid of social disorder


opposed to technological advance
were afraid of industrial revolution
didn't like the idea of people travelling from one city to another

2. Who issued an ukase to build the railway?


a)
b)
c)
d)

the government
the Railway Ministry
Melnikov
emperor

3. Why wasn't P.P. Melnikov's proposal to mechanize the construction supported?


a) because it was impossible to use machines and mechanisms
geographical conditions
b) because serfs couldn't operate excavators and other equipment
c) because it required great costs
d) because there were no machines at that time

due

to

4. What was a 7-km curve called?


a)
b)
c)
d)

the
the
the
the

Tsar's
Tsar's
Tsar's
Tsar's

Hand
Finger
Head
Arm

5. How many passengers travelled on the first St. Petersburg-Moscow train?


a)
b)
c)
d)

17
45
192
200

5
. 1.
(A) .
, .

1. The damaged train will have to be shunted onto a side line.


18

2. In Japan, the passengers on the commuter trains arent allowed to use their cellular
telephones as they are shouting too loud and disturbing others.
3. Dining cars first appeared in the late 1870s. Until this time, the trains had to stop for
meals at restaurants along the way.
4. All the materials used for the interior finishing of railway cars are to comply with fire
safety standards.
5. At the large railway terminal, passengers are able to book hotel or transport; to buy
tickets for sporting and cultural events; to telephone or send mail to anywhere in the
world; to hold a business meeting; to obtain information of interest, etc.
(B).
.

1. Tomorrow I ___ get up early in the morning to catch the 6.00


train.
2. As the stop was a long one, the passengers ___ get off the train.
3. The new passenger car ___ begin its service in several months.
4. In some luxury trains, passengers ___ order dinner or supper
directly to their compartments.
5. To stop the car, the driver ___ use the hand brake.

a) is to
b) are able to
c) had to
d) will have to
e) were allowed to

. 2.
.

1. An unusual locomotive designed for running on ice was developed in Great Britain in
the 18th century. It was sent to Russia for carrying freight on sledges across frozen lakes.
2. Diesel locos are capable of working for a long time without refueling.
3. The first steps in designing automatic engine driver for heavy high-speed trains were
made in 1960s.
4. The method of joining the rails together by means of welding is used for reducing the
number of joints.
. 3. Ing-
,
-ing. ,
.

1. Switches are used for directing a train onto another section of track, for example, a
siding line or a parallel running line.
2. Engineers are trying to find the ways of reducing the cost of electrifying railways.
3. The Moscow railway junction, the largest terminal in our country, is equipped with upto-date devices providing coordinated operation of all the services.
4. While testing the new locomotive, both driver and the engineer noticed
malfunctioning of the motor.
. 4.
,
, .

1.
2.
3.
4.

traffic control center


fuel clean-up system
railway construction cost
track carrying capacity

5.
6.
7.
8.
19

train weight increase


high-quality steel production
railway tunnel length
goods delivery deadline

. 5. .

1. James Watt invented the first stationary steam engine in 1763.


2. Tank cars are divided into several types depending on the number of axis, load capacity
and tank volume.
3. The departure of the train had been delayed because of the accident.
4. The construction of the first railway lines in Japan was guided by English engineers.
5. The government plans to increase the amount of freight carried by rail.
6. The next train to arrive at platform 2 will be the 7:00 to Chicago.
. 6.
, , .

THE FIRST TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD


(1) Talk of a transcontinental railroad started in 1830, shortly after steam-powered
railroads were invented in Great Britain and began to be introduced into the United States. This
talk intensified as railroad technology advanced.
(2) In 1862, Congress passed a bill that called for two railroad companies to build a
railroad that stretches across the entire continent, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific. This
railroad was to promote growth of settlements in the western United States. Before the railroad
was built, people had to travel to the west on horseback or in horse-drawn wagons. This journey
took months. After the completion of the transcontinental railroad, people could travel across
the United States in a matter of hours. The Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroad
Companies were to build the first transcontinental railroad. The Central Pacific was to start
construction of the railroad in Sacramento, California, and build east. The Union Pacific was to
start construction in Omaha, Nebraska and build west. When the two railroad companies met,
the transcontinental railroad would be completed.
(3) To build the railroad, the two companies had to raise enormous sums of money. The
government lent them millions of dollars. It also gave them twenty miles of public land for
every mile of track they laid. With the guarantees of money from the government and the
chance to get free land, the railroad companies attracted many investors. The Central Pacific
began construction in 1863. The Union Pacific laid its first rail in July 1865.
(4) The Central Pacific Railroad Company faced a problem. They didnt have enough
employees to build the railroad. Many of their railroad workers had left their jobs to try to find
gold during a gold rush. Although the companies preferred American workers, they had to hire
several Chinese workers. They found that the Chinese were efficient, fearless, and hard
working. They also followed their own customs, which ended up being good for the railroad
company. They boiled water and drank hot tea. The American workers drank cold water, which
was often plague-infected1. Because the Chinese boiled their water to make tea, the bacteria
were killed and they rarely got sick. Pleased with the Chinese workers, the railroad companies
hired thousands of them from China.
(5) By May 1869, the Central Pacific Company had laid 690 miles of track and 1,086
miles of track had been laid by Union Pacific. Only a short distance separated the two tracks
from their meeting place in Promontory, Utah. On May 10, about 3,000 government and
railroad officials, railroad workers, spectators, and journalists attended the ceremony of the
completion of the first transcontinental road. A band played as a Chinese crew and an Irish
crew laid the last section of the track. The last railroad spike was set in place, completing the
railroad. It was called the golden spike, and was actually made of pure gold.
20

(6) However, although eastern and western railroads had met, the transcontinental
railroad was not yet coast-to-coast. It was not until September 1869, that the Mossdale bridge
across the San Joaquin River, California was completed. This drawbridge was the final section
of the Union Pacific-Central Pacific line, the first railroad crossing the entire country. By 1895,
four more U.S. lines stretching across the continent had been built. Now people could travel
across the nation at an incredible speed.
Note:

plague-infected

. 7. 2, 3
. 8. :

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

. 9. .
, "True", "False".
.

1. In 1862, Congress passed a bill that called for the Central Pacific Company to build the
high-speed Boston-Washington railroad.
2. The new railroad was to promote economic development in the western US.
3. To build the Union Pacific-Central Pacific line, a lot of money had to be raised.
4. Crowds of people attended the ceremony of the completion of the Mossdale bridge on
May 10, 1869 in Promontory, Utah.
5. The Union Pacific-Central Pacific line was the first railroad to connect the country's
southern and northern parts.
. 10. ,
.

1. When was the idea of a transcontinental railroad proposed?


a)
b)
c)
d)

after steam powered railways appeared in the old world


after the U.S. Congress passed a bill to construct the railway
after the first steam locomotives were brought to California
after the Central Pacific Railroad Company was founded

2. Why could the transcontinental railroad promote growth of settlements?


a)
b)
c)
d)

because there would be more goods to sell and buy


because people could quickly travel across the continent
because horses could be used on the farms more efficiently
because people could choose various means of transport to travel from coast to coast

3. What major problem did the Central Pacific Railroad Company face?
a)
b)
c)
d)

the government refused to invest money in construction


railways engineers had no experience in laying railway tracks
there were not enough workers to build the railroad
they didn't have track machines used in railway construction

21

4. Why did the companies hire the Chinese to work on the railroad?
a)
b)
c)
d)

because they didnt speak English


because they were not afraid of difficulties and were hard-working
because they didnt complain about working and housing conditions
because they followed their customs

5. Why was the last railroad spike called the golden spike?
a)
b)
c)
d)

because it looked like gold


because it was covered with gold
because it was made of gold
because it was very expensive

22

4
4,
:
1. (The Infinitive).
2. (The Complex Object)
(The Complex Subject).
3. to be to have.
4. (Conditional Sentences).

1
. 1.

.

1. To protect wooden sleepers against decay, they are treated with creosote.
2. The most difficult problem to be solved by a survey party is to find a suitable strip of
land for building a railway.
3. It is impossible to increase train speed without improving the stability of track.
4. The function of the automatic engine driver is to start and stop the train, to select the
speed of running and to keep strictly to the schedule.
5. Australia was one of the first countries to introduce piggy-back service on its TransAustralian Railway.
. 2.
(A) ,
Complex Subject.
.

1. The train timetable is known to be compiled for a long period.


2. The French tilting train Aquitaine was reported to cover the 580 km distance from
Paris to Bordeaux non-stop in 4 hours.
3. Wear and tear of rolling stock is supposed to be reduced if longer rails are used.
(B) ,
Complex Object.
.

1. A lot of people saw the accident occur at the level crossing.


2. Engineers expect automatic engine drivers to be followed by more advanced automatic
control systems.
3. Satellite navigation system enables passengers to get precise train arrival information and
to see where vacant seats are located in the approaching train.
. 3. to be to have
.
to be to have.

1. Both suburban and metro cars have wide sliding doors to speed up the exit and entrance
of passengers.
2. As soon as snow melts away, the road master is to inspect the railway line to prepare a
schedule for repair work in summer.
3. The Blue Train has run between Cape Town and Pretoria, South Africa, since 1939. In
1997, it was upgraded to include televisions and phones in all of its first-class
compartments.
23

4. To carry more goods and passengers, railways have to raise their efficiency and
improve the quality of work.
5. The precursors of modern railroads were the wagonways built in England in the 16th
century for carrying coal, ore, or stone from mines and quarries to ports.
. 4.
.
, .

1. Had I known of his arrival,


2. If the track were not repaired and
properly maintained,
3. If there were no electricity,
4. If he had received the train ticket in
time,
5. If the transportation costs are
reduced,

a) he would have gone with others.


b) we would have no radio, telephone,
television or computers.
c) the total costs of the commodity will be
reduced too.
d) I would have met him at the railway station.
e) it would soon become so rough that it would
be dangerous for trains to run upon it.

. 5. , ,
.

1. The Kuibyshev Railway carries about 80 million passengers annually.


2. The railway tunnel linking Great Britain and France was officially opened for traffic on
May 7, 1994.
3. The engineers continue to work on the problem of increasing passenger trains speed.
4. A new bi-level dome car has been designed specially for tourists.
5. Yartsev suggested using cast iron rails instead of wooden ones in 1788.
. 6. .

RIO REVIVES

THE

COMMUTER RAIL NETWORK

In the 1990s, Rio de Janeiros state-owned commuter rail network had been going from
bad to worse1. The number of passengers reduced from 1.2 million a day in 1985 to 145,000 a
day in 1998. One governor even proposed to pave over the tracks and replace the trains with
trolleybuses. Fortunately, rail network was privatized.
SuperVia, the new private owner of the Rio commuter network, faced a lot of problems.
Signaling did not work properly. Only 35 out of a fleet of 180 trains were operational. The
condition of the track was very poor. SuperVia began the slow process of reviving rail network.
Delivery of 20 new four-car emus started on January 7, 2005. These trains have been
purchased by the state of Rio de Janeiro. Each car costs $US 1.15 million. The emus are airconditioned and sound-proofed. In all the coaches, there are upholstered reclining seats as well
as seats for the disabled. Cars are equipped with a system of electronic door control. Together
with rebuilt 18 trains, SuperVia has now a fleet of 38 four-car trains, providing a carrying
capacity of 600,000 daily passengers.
Besides that, 20 km of rails, 50,000 sleepers and 83 switches have been replaced. The
system of power supply is being upgraded. Drainage system has also been improved to
overcome serious flooding problems, which have stopped traffic in the past. Stations are being
rebuilt to make them safer and more attractive.
One of the main challenges for SuperVia was to convince the public that the days when
the trains were unsafe, dirty, overcrowded and ran late had gone. Trains now run mostly on
24

time and their number has increased. One key result is that the number of passengers has grown
by 150% from the dark days of 1998!
During state-owned operation, the poor were the main passengers of Rios suburban
trains. A survey by the Ibope Institute shows that 58% of SuperVias passengers are now from
the middle-class, while the poor make up only 17% of its passengers. The survey also showed
that 46% of the passengers are female, 16% have a college degree and 31% began using the
trains in 2005.
Notes: 1had been going from bad to worse

2
. 1.

.

1. The aim of a tilting mechanism is to ensure fast and smooth running of the train on
curves.
2. To carry all kinds of bulk materials that cannot be exposed to the weather, railroads use
covered hopper cars.
3. Its impossible to move at the same speed along the whole route as it has some curves and
up-grades.
4. A luxury train, the Desert Express, has been launched in Namibia to show tourists the
scenic beauties of the countrys harsh desert terrain.
5. In planning a railway route, the main factors to be taken into account are the cost of
constructing a line, the cost of operating it and the probable volume of traffic.
. 2.
(A) ,
Complex Subject.
.

1. In 1829, two locomotives were imported from England to the U.S., but they were found
to be too heavy for the existing tracks.
2. The electric locomotives service life is supposed to be about 30 years.
3. The Pendolino tilting trains are reported to be introduced on this section of the mainline
early next year.
(B) ,
Complex Object.
.

1. The application of the air brake causes the train to stop rather quickly.
2. A taxi driver refused to take a check; he wanted the passenger to pay in cash.
3. The chief engineer supposes emergency repairs of the damaged braking system to take
several days.
. 3. to be to have
.
to be to have.

1. In the 19th century, the railway tunnels were made as small as possible to reduce
construction costs.
2. At the terminus of the Underground, the engine driver is to move to the other end of the train.
25

3. The Waldenburg railway built in 1880 has the narrowest gauge of all the railways in
Switzerland: 750 mm.
4. James Watt was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer, who was famous for his
improvements of the steam engine.
5. Passing the curve, freight trains have to decrease their speed.
. 4.
.
, .

1. If Russia had a large fleet of highcapacity containers,


2. Provided the tunnel will be bored,
3. Had you caught the earlier train,
4. If this railway were reconstructed,
5. If he had used new materials,

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

track maintenance cost would be reduced.


the railroad will be 30 km shorter.
the device would have been more reliable.
we could have traveled together.
the freight turnover would be greatly
increased.

. 5. , ,
.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Our best diesel locomotive develops a speed of 170 km per hour.


About 60 % of the world's railroad network has been built to standard gauge (1,435 mm).
The first refrigerated cars in Japan entered service in 1908 for fish transport.
Tunnels are built for direct movement of automobiles or trains through mountain ranges
or under rivers.
5. These express buses stop only at the subway stations.
. 6. .

CHANNEL TUNNEL
Since 1802 there have been various proposals to connect the British and French coasts
separated by the English Channel (or La Manche as they call it in France). For several reasons,
these proposals were rejected. Only in the late 1980s, it became possible to realize the project.
The prime contractor for the construction was the Anglo-French TransManche Link, a
consortium of 10 construction companies and 5 banks of the two countries. Tunneling started in
1988 and lasted for two years. 15,000 workers were employed to accomplish this
unprecedented project. Tunneling operations were conducted simultaneously from the French
and British coasts. A tunneling rate was 426 m a week. The total length of the tunnel is 50 km,
of which 39 m are undersea.
The tunnel was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II and French President Franois
Mitterrand in a ceremony held in Calais (France) on May 6, 1994. But regular services began
only in December 1994.
The Channel Tunnel consists of three parallel tunnels: two 7.6-metre diameter rail tunnels
and a 4.8-metre diameter service tunnel between the two main tunnels. By means of passages, it
is connected to the main tunnels at regular intervals. It allows maintenance workers to access
the tunnel complex and provides a safe route for escape during emergencies.
Four types of trains operate on the Tunnel:
Eurostar, a high speed passenger train. It connects London with Paris and Brussels.
Shuttle trains. They carry cars, coaches, and vans; passengers stay with their vehicles. It
takes about 8 minutes to roll the vehicle onto the railcar.
26

Freight shuttle trains. They carry trucks on open railcars, with the lorry drivers traveling
in separate passenger coaches. Freight shuttles can carry 28 automobiles.
Freight trains. These trains carry conventional rail freight or containerized freight between
Great Britain and the Continent.
In 2009, over 9 million passengers traveled through the tunnel on Eurostar and 7 million
people on shuttle trains. Rail freight carried through the Channel Tunnel was over 15 million
tons in 2009. A journey through the tunnel by Eurostar lasts about 20 minutes; a shuttle train
journey totals about 35 minutes. Each train travels at 130 kmh when under the sea.

3
. 1.

.

1. To control the operation of trains moving in different directions and at different speeds,
railroads have developed complex systems of communications and signaling.
2. In the U.S., the Baltimore Railway Company was the first to put forward the idea of
centralized traffic control.
3. The main function of ballast is to drain the water away and to distribute the load
evenly over the track.
4. To convey fresh meat, fruits, vegetables and other food products over long distances
became possible with the invention of the refrigerator car.
5. New passenger cars to be introduced by the end of the year will be equipped with an
up-to-date system of air-conditioning.
. 2.
(A) ,
Complex Subject.
.

1. At a large railway terminal, there are so many tracks that trains seem to be arriving or
departing every minute.
2. The introduction of tilting trains is sure to reduce journey time on this mainline.
3. The railways are known to carry 80 % of all freight because only the railways can
transport anything, almost anywhere and do it without thinking of weather conditions.
(B) ,
Complex Object.
.

1. The railwaymen expect the passenger turnover to be reduced because of a considerable


increase in train fares.
2. Modern machinery enables a small group of workers to maintain a relatively long section
of railroad track.
3. The special commission set up after the train accident required the railway operator to
improve safety measures at the level crossings.
. 3. to be to have
.
to be to have.

1. Special snow-cleaning machines have been developed for clearing the tracks of snow.
2. The engineers had to take the whole device apart to discover the cause of the trouble.
27

3. Although the railways are the main cargo haulers, motor transport carries the greatest
number of passengers.
4. Periodically, ballast is to be removed and replaced with clean ballast to ensure adequate
drainage, especially if wooden ties are used.
5. The first double-deck buses appeared in London in 1851 but at that time, the upper deck
had no roof and the passengers were given raincoats to put on if it started to rain.
. 4.
.
, .

1. The construction of the new railway line


would have been finished much earlier
2. Were the mechanic here,
3. The train will cover the distance from
Moscow to St. Petersburg in 3 hours
4. Had you planned your time better,
5. If they received all the necessary
equipment,

a) they would be able to carry out their


experiment.
b) if it moves at a speed of 250 km/h.
c) you wouldn't have come at the station
one minute before the train departure.
d) if the weather conditions had been
favorable.
e) he would repair the engine.

. 5. , ,
.

1. In 2007, high-speed trains traveling at 350 km/h were introduced in Spain.


2. British Railways operate more than 30,500 containers with an average tonnage capacity
of 3-4 tons.
3. The rails are called T-rails because of their shape.
4. Separate compartments in passenger carriages first appeared in Europe in 1873.
5. A project to connect Thailand to Laos by the high-speed railway has been delayed for an
indefinite time because of a lack of funds.
. 6. .

Q UINGHAI -T IBET

RAILWAY

The Quighai-Tibet railway (QTR) is a high-altitude railway that connects Xining2,


Qinghai Province, to Lhasa3, Tibet Autonomous Region, in China. The total length of the QTR
is 1,956 km. Construction of the 815 km section between Xining and Golmud4 was completed
by 1984. The 1,142 km section between Golmud and Lhasa was inaugurated on 1 July 2006 by
president Hu Jintao. This worlds highest railway5 is considered one of China's major
accomplishments of the 21st century.
More than 960 km, or over 80% of the Golmud-Lhasa section, runs at altitudes in excess
of 4,000m above sea level. There are 44 railway stations, among them Tanggula6 Mountain, at
5,068 m the world's highest station. 675 bridges, totalling 160 km are built and about 550 km of
the railway is laid on permafrost.
A lot of technical difficulties connected with building railroad tracks at this altitude and
on permafrost area had to be overcome. Among them were freezing temperatures all year
round, lack of oxygen, fierce sandstorms, frozen soil and strong ultraviolet radiation.
The Tibet Railway project involved more than 20,000 workers and over 6,000 pieces of
equipment. Construction workers were supported by more than 600 medical staff. Workers
were often sent for breaks in lowland areas. 17 oxygen tents were provided along the length of
28

the line. In the Kunlun7 Mountain tunnel, workers had to carry 5kg oxygen cylinders to assist
breathing. In the Fenghuoshan8 tunnel, an oxygen-producing station was specially built.
The railway was opened to regular service in October 2006. Since that time, 5 passenger
trains have run between Golmud and Lhasa, and one more train between Xining and Golmud.
The operational speed is 120 kmh, 100 kmh over sections laid on permafrost. The trains are
specially built for high-altitude environment. The air-conditioned carriages are equipped with
special enriched-oxygen9 and UV-protection systems. Besides that, there is an individual
oxygen mask for each passenger.
A Passenger Health Registration Card10 is required to take the Golmud-Lhasa train. The
card can be obtained when purchasing the ticket. Passengers must read the health notice11 and
sign the agreement on the card. On 28 August 2006, a 75-year-old Hong Kong man was
reported to be the first passenger to die on the train. He had suffered heart problems but insisted
on travelling to Xining.
Notes: 1Quighai-Tibet railway -
2
Xining
3
Lhasa ( )
4
Golmud
5
the highest railway
6
Tanggula ()
7
Kunlun
8
Fenghuoshan
9
enriched-oxygen system
10
Passenger Health Registration Card
11
health notice ,

4
. 1.

.

1. The train was too heavy to be hauled by one locomotive.


2. One of the problems to be solved by State Railway of Thailand is to improve
passenger service through modernizing its wagon fleet.
3. George Pullman not only invented the sleeping car, he also was the first to design and
build the restaurant car.
4. To speed freight transportation over long distance, more and more freight is carried in
special unit trains especially by railways linking the Far East, Siberia and Volga regions.
5. The engine drivers work on the automatically controlled trains is to supervise that the
equipment operates properly and to take over manual control in case of emergency.
. 2.
(A) ,
Complex Subject.
.

1. When container cars were first introduced, they were thought to be used only for
carrying valuable goods.
2. The share of railway transport in carrying freight and passengers is unlikely to be
reduced in the near future.
3. Russian railways are known to run a transcontinental passenger service across two
continents Europe and Asia.
29

(B) ,
Complex Object.
.

1. We know Rio de Janeiro to have become the second Brazilian city having the Metro.
2. In Britain students, pensioners and disabled people are able to buy railcards. These cards
allow them to buy train tickets at a reduced price for a period of one year.
3. Most specialists consider all the trains of the future to be operated by automatic drivers.
. 3. to be to have
.
to be to have.

As the Tokaido mainline in Japan had been overburdened with passenger and freight
trains, a new line was to be constructed to take over some part of its traffic and for running trains
at higher speeds. The new line called Shinkansen was opened to service between Tokyo and
Osaka in 1964. This high-speed mainline is 553 km long and has the 1,435 mm gauge. The
Shinkansen Railway has no level crossings throughout the route. Train sets of 16 cars equipped
with the Automatic Train Control system are to run at the top speed of 210 km/h, covering the
distance between Tokyo and Osaka for 3 hours and 10 min.
. 4.
.
, .

1. The fast train from Manchester would


have arrived on time
2. It will take you only 3.5 hours to get
to Moscow from St. Petersburg
3. Were the new high-capacity container
cars introduced,
4. If the internal combustion engine
hadn't been invented,
5. If ballast weren't renewed from time
to time,

a) the railway track would sink in many places.


b) the automobile industry wouldn't have
started to develop so rapidly all over the
world.
c) if you go by the 'Red Arrow' passenger train.
d) if it hadn't been held up by the track repair
work.
e) it would enable the railway to increase the
freight turnover considerably.

. 5. , ,
.

1. In Spain, double-deck trains are used on several commuter rail lines to carry more
passengers.
2. Concrete sleepers last long because this material isnt subjected to corrosion.
3. At the time of the crash, the train was traveling at full speed.
4. The railways have played an important role in the development of industries and
agriculture in India.
5. Rudolf Diesel took his first patent for designing the internal combustion engine.
. 6. .

INAUGURATION

OF

LIGHT RAIL

IN

DALLAS

The first stage of Dallas light rail network was inaugurated in June 1997. Marching bands,
balloons, free rides created a lively atmosphere in Dallas, when the city and its surrounding
region celebrated the Grand Opening of the first modern light rail line in Texas. The ceremonies1
were held in the city centre as well as at all 14 stations along the initial 16 km route.
30

More than 4,000 local officials and citizens from across the region gathered in
temperatures of over +37 to witness the opening of the light rail.
The Grand Opening, a five-day period of public celebrations, included a gala dinner, art
program and parties at eight of the fourteen stations. Thanks to sponsorship from over 80
corporations, passengers were also able to ride free of charge for the whole of the following
week in a "Try-it-you'll-like-it" campaign. The names of the biggest sponsors were written on
some of the cars exteriors.
Approximately 8,600 passengers rode the light rail line on the first afternoon. Regular
commercial services began on June 24. The standard fares are $1 for a single ticket and $2 for a
return ticket, apart from the city centre zone where there is a 50 cent single ticket. Different
discounts are proposed. Passengers can buy 11 tickets for the price of 10. There is also a day
pass offering unlimited travel on light rail and bus services for just $3 a day.
Dallas light rail network has purchased 40 Light Rail Vehicles (LRV). Able to
accommodate 160 passengers each, the cars have a top speed of 105kmh. The air-conditioned
LRVs can operate singly or in trains of up to three depending on demand. Traffic frequency on
the city centre section is 5 minutes and 10 minutes during the peak hours and off-peak hours
respectively.
Capital Program of the Dallas light rail network development envisages construction of
additional light rail and commuter rail routes over the next 15 years, creating a 145 km network
by 2012.
Note:

ceremonies

5
. 1.

.

1. Japan was the first country to introduce the system of automatic ticket selling.
2. In Hong Kong, the trains carrying passengers to and from the airport are equipped with
TV sets to give information on flights, news, tourist information and weather.
3. The aim of using several locomotives in one train is to carry extremely heavy loads.
4. To maintain the required temperature when transporting perishable goods, the
refrigerator car is equipped with refrigerating-heating system, which can be operated
automatically or manually.
5. Designed by Peter Cooper in 1830, the Tom Thumb was the first American-built steam
locomotive to be operated on a common-carrier railroad.
. 2.
(A) ,
Complex Subject.
.

1. The VL80 Locomotive is known to be designed for hauling trains of up to 4,500 tons on
sections with steep gradients at speeds up to 110 km/h.
2. The Chinese and Japanese governments were reported to have signed an agreement to
cooperate on the construction of railways and railway equipment in China.
3. Japan is expected to provide technological aid for development of a high-speed train to run
between Beijing and Shanghai.
31

(B) ,
Complex Object.
.

1. The engineers consider their discovery to produce great changes in the field of electronics.
2. Since the beginning of the 1990s, new high-speed rail lines in Spain have been built to
standard gauge to allow these lines to link to the European high-speed network.
3. People believed James Watt to be the inventor of the first steam engine because the work
of Polsunov remained unknown for more than a century.
. 3. to be to have
.
to be to have.

1. According to Charles Pearsons project, the first lines of the London Underground were
to be laid down close to the ground surface.
2. A special committee has been set up to examine the details and causes of the freight
train derailment.
3. A robot engine driver is a small-size computer with transducers. All the necessary data
of train operation distance, time of covering each section of the route, speed limits, etc.
is programmed and fed into the computers memory.
4. The builders had to explode the rock to construct the railway in this district.
5. India has some of the lowest train fares in the world, and passenger traffic is subsidized
by freight.
. 4.
.
, .

1. If electric motors were used,


2. Had she gone there by air,
3. Provided the weather conditions are
favorable,
4. The train derailment would not have
taken place
5. If the refrigerator car were not
invented,

a) if the track had been maintained properly.


b) she would have come on time but there were
no tickets available.
c) automobiles would not contaminate the air,
would be practically noiseless and very easy to
control.
d) the construction of the railway bridge will be
completed in a month.
e) it would be impossible to convey perishable
goods over long distances.

. 5. , ,
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

On the Moscow-Irkutsk route, the train stops for 20-30 minutes every 3-4 hours.
All the railways are divided into sections to handle traffic more efficiently.
The first Stephensons steam locomotive drew a 20-ton train 35 miles in two hours.
In many countries, traditional long-distance trains have disappeared entirely.
The first mainline locomotive for standard gauge called 'Ampere' was built in U.S. in
1883.

32

. 6. .

TURKISH RAILWAYS
Turkish State Railways (TCDD) is a corporation, which plays an important role in the
Turkish economy's development.
The history of the railways in Turkey began on 23 September 1856 when, by a decree of
the Ottoman Sultan1, a British company won the contract for constructing and operating a 130
km line between Izmir and Aydin. The corporation National Railways was established in
1923, when the country became a republic. Today, the length of the railway network is 10,361
km, including 8,430 km of main lines and 1,931 km of secondary lines.
In almost 150 years of their history, Turkish Railways have undergone a number of
changes. The new development strategy includes plans for upgrading the existing lines and
stations, modernizing rolling stock. Much is done to create a positive image among the public
and attract customers to the railways. As a part of a new strategy, TCDD has purchased and put
into operation new, more comfortable passenger cars.

Fatih Expresi are new high comfort coaches equipped with aircraft-type seats, airconditioning and a modern lighting system.

New sleeping cars designed for modern business travelers consist of three double-berth
compartments, a sitting room, a toilet, a bath and an American bar. Such facilities as
interurban telephones and computers having Web access are also available to passengers.
These cars are justly called five stars hotels on wheels.

Restaurant cars with delicious Turkish food uphold the railway tradition of hospitality.
A system of various tariffs has been introduced for the different market segments to
attract potential customers to the railways. Price reductions are offered for students, teachers,
and children.
TCCD has paid much attention to tourist transport, working in close cooperation with
tourist agencies. Special sightseeing tours on steam trains have been organized through some
cities of historic interest and through country's sites of natural beauty.
Notes: 1the Ottoman Sultan

33


1
. 1.
(A) .
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

This railway line is to be converted from diesel to electric traction next year.
If the train comes in time, I will be able to watch the football match.
I lost my train ticket so I had to buy another one.
For more than a hundred years, railways were able to maintain their dominant position
in the field of transportation.
If the signal is red, the train isn't allowed to continue its running.
In Japan, passengers have to go through a gate to enter the platform area. Passengers
have to show their tickets to a station clerk at the gate and they will also have to show
their tickets at a ticket gate after they deboard a train and exit the platform area.
Trains can travel at very high speed but they are heavy, arent able to deviate from the
track and require a great distance to stop.
Dry chemicals are to be transported in covered hoppers.
The suitcase was so heavy that Robert had to change it from hand to hand all the time.
A dome car is a passenger car that has a glass dome on the top of the car where
passengers are able to ride and see in all directions around the train.
If passengers buy train tickets in advance, they have to pay some surcharge.
Following a winter storm, a mudslide covered the tracks. The driver of the 0649 TGV out of
Brest, headed for Paris, saw the slide about 300 m ahead and was able to slow to 120
km/h before hitting the mud. A minor derailment of the power car ensued due to the
emergency stop.
(B)
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Several passengers missed the train and ___ wait another two hours.
To get to New Orleans, he ___ change trains in Birmingham.
He ___ repair the engine himself.
In England, the speed of the first cars ___ surpass 4 miles per hour.
To get to Moscow from St. Petersburg, passengers ___ choose either
the day- or night-time train.
6. Such long and heavy container train ___ be powered by several locos.

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

had to
was able to
will have to
is to
are able to
wasnt to

. 2.
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Laying rails took much time before inventing a track-laying machine.


I don't see why the machine stopped working.
I cant insist on your staying a little longer because you risk missing the last train.
Remote control is a system for controlling machinery from a distance by radio signals.
Crane is a mechanical device, which is used for lifting freight.
Using long-welded rails allows reducing wear and tear of vehicles.
They decided to reconstruct the new terminal instead of building a new one.
One of the very first railways in the U.S., which was 3 miles in length, used horses for
pulling wagons.
9. After laying sleepers upon the roadbed, the workers began fastening the rails to them.
34

10. Containers can be divided into two categories, a large type capable of taking a load of
up to 5-7 tons and a small type suitable for a load of approximately 1 tone in weight.
. 3. Ing-
,
-ing.

1. The Rio de Janeiro Metro began operating in March of 1979. At the beginning, there
were only five stations operating from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m.
2. The number of workers was minimized after installing the new equipment.
3. Russian trains run on 76 direct international lines linking Moscow with Paris, Berne,
Copenhagen, Rome, Berlin and so on.
4. Railway transport is one of the cheapest ways of hauling freight over long distances.
5. Moscow State University of Railway Engineering is the leading and largest transport
institution of Russia with more than 17,000 undergraduate and postgraduate students.
6. Much attention is paid to planning the rail approaches to the station for the departing
and arriving trains to interfere with each other as little as possible.
7. On many US railroads handling freight traffic, trains become longer and less frequent.
8. Mobile cranes having a great lifting capacity are used for laying down track units.
9. In Russia, many people had doubts about the possibility of using steam locomotives in winter.
10. Railroads grew quickly in the 19th century, becoming a driving force of the economic
and social development of countries all over the world.
11. While running over the railway line between Moscow and St. Petersburg, the train
reaches the speed of 180 km/h.
12. The motor has broken from overheating.
. 4.
,
, .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

train tickets
high-speed train movement
powered car bogie
electronic passenger information system
car-repair plant modernization
200 miles long railway
engine trouble

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

railway transport exhibition


freight and passenger transportation
steam locomotive efficiency
wagon washout facility
passenger service quality
train speed restriction
freight train derailment

. 5. .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

The old railway terminal will be upgraded next year.


The plant produces engines for power cars.
The very first railways were used for transporting coal.
Freight electric locos develop a speed of 100 km/h.
The new car has been tested on the mountain railway.
All the long-distance trains are equipped with dining cars.
Amtrak reported 60-minute train delays on its Northeast Corridor line.
Many new electronic devices have been designed to provide the safety of high-speed traffic.
Oil is transported in tank cars.
Paul knows a schedule of this suburban train.
35

2
. 1.

.

1. To use electric locos for shunting operation is not economic. (= It is not economic to
use electric locos for shunting operation).
2. The task of the section gang is to maintain the railway track in good condition.
3. Suddenly, the engine began to make a strange noise.
4. In 2008, the New Zealand government proposed to spend $150m to enlarge tunnels
for the bigger ISO containers now operating.
5. Tank cars to be filled with milk will be put in the middle of the train.
6. Russia was the first country to create an automatic engine driver.
7. The new branches of industry to be developed in this part of the country are metallurgy
and radio engineering.
8. Freight cars to be sorted and loaded are situated on the reception lines.
9. To put this train into service will be possible only after a series of special tests.
10. The new tunnel to be constructed here will be the longest in the country.
11. A design office in St. Petersburg was the first in the world to develop the production of
super-long escalators.
12. The railways continue to increase their speed to compete with air and road transport.
13. The function of railway signals is to keep the trains at some distance from one another.
14. The ties to be used in the track must be treated with creosote.
15. It is dangerous to stand on the step of a moving train.
16. The new carriages to be produced for the international lines consist of 10 two-berth
compartments.
17. To use steel rails instead of wooden ones was a great step forward.
18. In the 1980s, the major western European countries began to develop high-speed
passenger systems to compete with air travel.
. 2.
(A) ,
.

1. The new high-speed line is reported to be opened for traffic next year.
2. Passenger traffic on Vietnam Railways is expected to grow by 5-9 % a year and freight
traffic by 15 %.
3. The U.S. is known to have some of the world's longest freight trains, some stretching for
miles in length.
4. Train fares are said to be raised by 7 % in summer.
5. All passengers are sure to enjoy riding on a new high-speed train.
6. You are certain to miss the train unless you hurry.
7. She is likely to have left her umbrella on the train.
8. The St. Petersburg underground system is planned to have 2 more lines in the next decade.
9. The labor of a man with secondary education was found to be 108 % more efficient than
that of a man without education. Moreover, the work of a university graduate proves to
be 300 % more efficient than that of specialists with secondary education.
10. Proposals to link Moscow with the European high-speed network through Warsaw,
Poland, are likely to remain proposals because of a lack of funds.
36

(B) ,
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

We didn't expect him to put off the discussion of this project.


Do you want a porter to carry your luggage to the compartment?
The road master ordered the track to be repaired as soon as possible.
Scientists believe new laser devices to be widely used in medicine.
We saw the new train start from the station.
Everybody knows the electric current to be the motion of electrons through an electric
conductor.
Nowadays people can watch on television the cosmonauts work in space, Lunokhod
move on the surface of the Moon and Olympic Games take place on the other side of the
globe.
Very high temperatures often cause certain materials to break.
I know him to carry out research work in the field of chemistry.
The use of the new equipment enabled us to minimize the number of workers.

. 3. to be to have
.
to be to have.
to be

1. Some trains are to make stops at all railway stations.


2. Repair shops are mechanized to speed the repair of the demanded cars.
3. All underground stations are of the same size: 6 m high, 100 m long and 18 m wide.
1.
2.
3.
4.

The gondola car is a low-sided wagon without a roof.


The track gang is to inspect a railway track and track structures all year round.
The aim of reconstructing this railway is to increase the train speeds up to 240 kmh.
The Russian Railways Company is divided into 17 territorial railway companies.

1. The first attempts in designing a robot engine driver were made in 1960s.
2. We were to meet under the Big Clock at the station.
3. The first steam locomotives were not strong and they often broke down.
1. The top speed of the first steam locomotive was 13 mph.
2. The train was to arrive at 5 oclock but it hasn't appeared yet.
3. Construction of new railroads for high-speed passenger trains was pioneered by Japan.
to have

1. A lot of various railroad cars have been developed to transport freight and passengers.
2. Most passenger trains in Europe have coaches equipped for passengers in wheelchairs.
3. Rails have to be of such lengths that they can be carried in the longest standard wagons.
1. Canada has a large and well-developed railway system that today transports mainly freight.
2. The engine has to be dismantled to repair the damage.
3. The flood has caused considerable damage to the railway track.
1. The first self-propelled vehicle had to stop every 90 meters to make more steam,
because the supply of steam lasted only 15 minutes.
2. They had an unpleasant voyage from New York to Liverpool because of the storm.
3. An experimental undersea telephone cable in the Canary Islands had to be lifted from
the ocean floor three times because it had been damaged by sharks.
37

Ex. 4. ,
.
1

1. If containers are used more widely, the freight rates will be greatly reduced.
2. It will take you 7 hours to get from Moscow to St. Petersburg if you go by the
overnight Red Arrow passenger train.
3. If he leaves for London by train, he will get there on Friday.
4. If you dont write down this formula, you will forget it.
5. If he repairs his car, we'll be able to drive to the country.
2

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

If the travelers had cameras with them, they would take photos of the beautiful scenery.
If there were no railways, it would be much more difficult to travel.
If we didn't have so heavy luggage, we wouldn't take a taxi.
Were I a scientist, I would invent a time machine.
If we could make a non-stop flight around the sun in an airplane at a speed of about 300
km/h, it would require 565 days to encircle it at the equator.
3

1. I would have gone on an excursion with you, if I had known about it beforehand.
2. The new operator wouldn't have broken this device if you had instructed him how
to operate it
3. If various machines hadn't been used in railway construction, it would have taken
much more time and efforts to lay down the track.
4. If you had come a minute later, you wouldn't have caught the train.
5. Had you informed me of John's arrival, I would have met him.
. 5. , ,
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

One trip in the New York subway costs between 85 cents and $2.25.
Our train is standing at the platform 4 ready to leave.
The train accident happened on the bridge.
Special cars must be used for transporting oil and other liquid goods.
At the weekend, extra commuter trains run on this route.
Train fares have been increased by 10 per cent in recent years.
Plans for a new bridge were dropped due to the lack of funding.
The plant will produce a new type of the engine next year.
She left for London on the 9 oclock train.
The number of passengers traveling between Helsinki to St. Petersburg will increase to 6
million in 2010.

38


1.
Equivalents of Modal Verbs
Verb

Present

Past

Future

must =
to have to

have to
has to
,

had to
,

will have to
,
.

am to
is to
are to
,

was to
were to
,

___

can =
to be able to

am able to
is able to
are able to
,

was able to
were able to
,

will be able to
,

may =
to be allowed to

am allowed to
is allowed to
are allowed to
,

was allowed to
were allowed to

will be allowed to
,

must =
to be to

I missed the commuter train and I had to go by bus. ,


.
The management was to take measures to reduce the power consumption.
.
You are able to go by train or rent a car.
.
Passengers aren't allowed to smoke in the compartment.

:
to have to (dont have to; doesnt have to;
didnt have to; wont have to) , .

Since the tape-recorder is still under guarantee, you dont have to pay for the repairs.
, .

2.
Gerund
,
, .
-ing. ,
39

, ,
.
:
Function

Example

Translation

Flying is better for long journeys


but traveling by train is much
more interesting.


,

.

The main purpose of the project is


reducing power consumption.

They finished installing the


apparatus only on Sunday.

:
()
()

The engineer has suggested


developing new devices for
measuring these values.
.
Fog prevented the plane from
landing at this airport.

.
There is a way of reducing power
consumption.
.
The cost of repairing
equipment is very high.

this
.

instead of reading

after reading

,
;

before reading

,
;

without reading

in (by) reading

,
,
;

for reading

,
;

on reading

,
,
.

:
, :
(1) , .
.
(2)
to start, to begin, to continue, to go on, to finish - to be.
.
40

(3) .
, .
(4) of ( for),
. .
(5) (before, after, on,
by, instead of, in, without), .
, , .

3. -ing
Function

Example

Translation

Combining work and study isnt


easy.

The train was moving at a top


speed.

Their aim was increasing the


engine power.

The engineer insisted on testing a


new device once more.

,
.

The cost of transporting


passengers and freight can be
reduced by means of increasing
the weight and length of trains.

The railway linking the airport with


the railway terminal was
constructed two years ago.

,

, 2
.

A crane is the mechanical device


used for lifting freight.


,
.

The scientists processed the


obtained data, using the new
computer program.


,
.

Gerund

Participle I

Gerund
Gerund

Gerund
Participle I

Gerund
Participle I

4.
Infinitive
,
, . to.

Active
Simple
Continuous
Perfect

Passive

to do
to be done
to be doing

to have done to have been done


41

:
Function

Example

To replace wooden rails by cast


iron ones was a great step
forward. = It was a great step
forward to replace wooden rails
by cast iron ones.

His task was to complete the


work in time.

,
.

The railway operator plans to


modernize its wagon fleet.

Translation

To fasten rails to ties, different


types of fastenings are used.
,
.
This device is used to detect
hidden defects in rails.


We have enough raw materials to
.
complete the work.
,
.
The locomotive to be tested is
on the siding line.

,
,
.

The new metro station to be put


into operation soon is near my
house.

,

,
.

:
, :
(1)
, .
(2) - to
be to mean, to start, to end, to begin, to continue.
, , ;
, + .
(3) , : to prepare, to
decide, to demand, to expect, to forget, to learn, to like, to offer, to plan, to
remember, to promise, to refuse, to want, to ask, to wish;
, : afraid, glad, prepared, proud, ready, sorry, surprised.
, .
(4)
, enough ; too .
Infinitive in order to , .
42

(5) the
first ; the last ; the only ..
(to be tested, to be built, to be read)
, .
Infinitive
( , , , ).

5.
Complex Object
The Complex Object ( )
, ( )
.
,
, , .
:
to want, to wish ,
would like
to suppose ,
to expect ,
to consider, to believe, to think , ,
to require
to watch
to notice
to see
to hear
to make, to force, to cause
to order ,
to enable, to let, to allow , , .

We know him to be a good specialist. , .


They expected the train to arrive on time. , .
I thought you to be late. , .

, :
(a) to see, to hear, to watch, to notice
to make, to let to.

I heard her go abroad. ,

(b) to make, to cause, to force, to allow, to


order, to enable .

He enabled us to repeat the experiment. .

43

6.
Complex Subject
The Complex Subject ( )
, (
) to. ,
:
(a) :
to know
to expect ,
to find ,
to suppose
to report
to consider, to think ,
to say
to hear
(b) :
to seem, to appear , -,
to happen
to prove, to turn out
(c) :
to be likely ,
to be unlikely , , ,
to be sure, to be certain , , .
,
- (, ;
, ; , ; , ).

The train was reported to have arrived. , .


The new methods of work seem to be very effective. ,
.
He is unlikely to be able to get tickets for this train.
.

7. to have
Functions


have +


have + II
[Perfect Tenses]


have +
to

Example

Translation

This repair shop has the most


modern equipment.

The most modern equipment has


been bought for this repair shop.

The damaged car has to be


repaired as soon as possible.

44

8. to be
Function

Example

-
be +
;
;
;
to;


be + I
[Continuous Tenses] ;
be + II
[Passive Voice]

Translation

The length of the Kuibyshev


Railway is 4,800 km.


4,800 .

The speed of the steam locos


was not high.

The aim of their work is to


ensure / ensuring longer lifetime
of the device.

,

.

Do not alight while the train is


still moving.

,
.

At first, coal gas was used as


fuel for diesel engines.

.
The train is to arrive in an hour.

be +
to

:
, to be :
(1) ,

The productivity is to increase by 7 percent. 7%.

(2) / , ( , : aim,
purpose , task , problem , intention , plan ;
function )

The function of the computer is to process data. ,


.

9.
onditional sentences
if ; unless
; provided / , .
3 :
(1) , ,
.

The engine driver will stop the train, if he sees some obstacle on the track.
, .

,
, ,
.
(2) ,
. .
45

If I were you, I would buy the train ticket in advance. ,


.
I would meet him at the station if he came on Sunday. ,
.

(3) , ,
.
.

The engineer wouldn't have made the mistake, if he had used the correct formula.
, .
Provided the load been calculated correctly, there would have been no failure.
, .

:
if .
(could, had, were)
.

Had everybody come in time, we should have started out at 7 sharp.


, 7.

If you hurry up,


(Present Simple)
,

you will catch the train.


(Future Simple)
.

II

If you hurried up,


(Past Simple)
,

you would catch the train.


(would + Infinitive)
.

III

If you had hurried up yesterday,


(Past Perfect)
,

you would have caught the train.


(would+ perfect Infinitive)
.

10.
Noun as Attributive
,
.
, , ,
.
:
9
passenger train
steam engine

46


train speed
remote control device

9
car keys
standard-gauge railway

11.
: (A) ; (B)
; (C) ; (D) .
(A) ,
.
. :

9 , to do:
do I s [ask, write];
does I s [asks, writes];
did II [asked, wrote].
I s.

They speak English. Do they speak English?

She lives in London. Does she live in London?

He bought a new computer. Did he buy a new computer?

9 , / ,
, ,
.

The company has designed a new car. Has the company designed a new car?

The cars were produced in Germany. Were the cars produced in Germany?

She can speak English. Can she speak English?

( B ) ,
.
:
+

+ + ?

:
who
whom , ,
whose , ,
when
why ,

where ,
wherefrom
what ,
what kind of
whatfor
47

which
how
how long
how often
how many / much

The train arrived at 5 p.m. When did the train arrive?

A dispatcher controls the train movement. What does a dispatcher control?

The devices were produced in Japan. Where were the devices produced?

The engineers have improved the design of the car. What have the engineers improved?

:
(1) what?
? how many (much)? ? whose? ?,
.

They study at the University of Transport. What University do they study at?
The first computers weighed 30 tons. How many tons did the first computers weigh?

(2) who?
? what? ?, , ,
3- .

I write. Who writes?


I am writing. Who is writing?
They are writing. Who is writing?
We were writing. Who was writing?
I have written. Who has written?
The books are written. What is written?
The books were written. What was written?
The books are being written. What is being written?
The books were being written. What was being written?
The books have been written. What has been written?

(3) there+to be to be
to have . 2, 3, 4.

( C ) .
( ), ,
, ,
? ?

, .
to be to have, .

Helen met you at the station, didn't she?

The train must arrive at 7 p.m., mustn't it?

You are an engineer, aren't you?

He has a map of the London Underground, hasn't he?


, .
, .

She lives in London, doesn't she?

She doesn't live in London, does she?

48

( D ) ,
( ) .
, or .

Will we go by bus or by train? ?

Do you live in London or Manchester? ?

12.
according to , -.
almost
along with
already
although ; ,
apart from
as ;
asas possible
as long as
as soon as
as well ;
as well as ,
as to / for
because of -,
besides
both ,
bothand ,
by means of ,
despite , -.
due to ; -;
during , ;
eitheror
for ; ; ;
however ,
in order to/for

if
in spite of
instead of , ; -.
moreover ,
neither nor
nevertheless ,
no longer ,
provided ();
rather than
since ; ;
so as + Infinitive
such as ; ,
the, the ,
the same as
though ,
through , ,
throughout ;
towards ,
unless
unlike
until
within ; ;
whether
while ;

49


Infinitive

Past Simple

Participle II

be
become
begin
break
bring
build
burn
buy
catch
choose
come
cost
cut
do
draw
drive
fall
feed
find
fly
forbid
forget
get
give
go
grow
have
hear
hold
keep
know
lay
lead
learn
leave
let
lie
light
lose
make
mean
meet
pay

was, were
became
began
broke
brought
built
burnt
bought
caught
chose
came
cost
cut
did
drew
drove
fell
fed
found
flew
forbade
forget
got
gave
went
grew
had
heard
held
kept
knew
laid
led
learnt
left
let
lay
lit
lost
made
meant
met
paid

been
become
begun
broken
brought
built
burnt
bought
caught
chosen
come
cost
cut
done
drawn
driven
fallen
fed
found
flown
forbidden
forgotten
got
given
gone
grown
had
heard
held
kept
known
laid
led
learnt
left
let
lain
lit
lost
made
meant
met
paid

,
,

,
, ;

,
,

, ,
,
,
,

,
,
,
, ,
,

,
;
,
, ;

50

put
read
ride
ring
run
say
see
sell
seek
send
set
show
shut
sit
sleep
speak
spend
spread
stand
steal
take
tell
think
wear
win
write

put
read
rode
rang
ran
said
saw
sold
sought
sent
set
showed
shut
sat
slept
spoke
spent
spread
stood
stole
took
told
thought
wore
won
wrote

put
read
ridden
rung
run
said
seen
sold
sought
sent
set
shown
shut
sat
slept
spoken
spent
spread
stood
stolen
taken
told
thought
worn
won
written

, ;
,

,
,
, ,

c
c
,
, ()
, ()
; ;
,
,
, ,
,
,

51

- C
A
abroad ,
access
accident , , ;

accidentally
accommodate
accomplish ,
accomplishment ,
achieve
actually
add
additional
adequate ,
advance ,
advanced , ,

advantage
affect ,
afraid ,
agree
agreement , ,
agriculture
aim
air brake ,

aircraft
aircraft-type seat
allow ,
altitude
annually
another
antirust compound
anywhere , ,
appear

application ,
approach ,
approve
approximately
arch
area ,
arrange
arrival
arrive ,
art program
assemble
assist
attend
attendant
attention
attract
attractive
authority
automatic control system

automatic engine driver
automatic train control
;

automatic train signaling


,
, (
)
available ,
,
average
award ,
axe
axis
B

baggage car
ballast bed ,
band
bath
be in charge of ,
benefit
berth
bi-level ,
bill
boast
boil
book , ,

border
bore a tunnel /
braking system
breakdown
breathing
bring to a standstill
bulk ,
bulk material
business traveler -, (,
)
bypass , ,
C

call
call for ,
capable -.
capacity ,
capital
carbody

careful ,
cargo
carriage
carry ,
carry out ,
carrying capacity
52

cart ,
case of emergency
,
cash
cast iron ,
catch the train
cause , ; ,

celebrate
centralized traffic control

challenge
change , ;
change trains
cheap
check up
chief engineer
choose (chose, chosen)
circumvent
citizen ,
clean-up
clear ,
clear out
coach ( ); ;
,
coal
coal mine
coast
collide
collision
color scheme
commodity ,
common-carrier railroad

communication
commuter passenger ,
;

commuter rail network

compartment
compete
competition ,
competitor , ,
compile
complain

complete , ; ,
,
completely ,
completion ,
complex
comply
compound
concrete
condition ,
conduct
conduit pipe
connect ,
consider
considerable
considerably
consist of
constantly
constructive work
consume , ,
containerized freight
contaminate
contamination
continue
continuous ,
control ;
conventional ,
convey ,
convince
cost ;
costs ,
couple ,
cover , ()
covered hopper car -
crash ,
create
creosote
crew
cross , ,
crowd
curious
current ;
curvature , ,
curve
custom ,
customer
customs regulations
D

daily ,
damage ;
dangerous
data ,
day off
deadline -. ,
,
decay , ,
decide
declare
decrease ,
degree

delay ,
delicious
deliver ,
delivery ,
demand
densely-populated area
depart ,
departure
depend
depending on
derailment
desert
53

design , ; ,

design for
destination ,
develop ,
development ,
development strategy
device ,
diesel-electric locomotive -
dieselization
different
difficulty
dining car -
direct
direct train
direction
directly ,
dirty
disabled
disabled people

disappear

discover
discovery
disorder ,
distribute the load
district ,
divide
dome car -
domestic ; ,

double deck ,
double-berth
double-track railway

drain
drain the water away ,

drainage system
draw (drew, drown) ; ,
drawbridge
drive (drove, driven) , ,

E

each
early ,
earthworks ,

easy ,
efficiency
efficient ,
,
electronic door control

embankment
emergency ; ;

emergency repair ;

emperor
emphasize
employ , ,

employee
emu ,
en route
enable ,
engine
enormous
enough ;
enquire , ,
ensure ,

enter
enter service
entire ,
entirely , ,
entrance
environment ,
envisage
equip
equipment
erect ,
escape
especially
establish ,
even
evenly ,
event ,
examine ,
example
excess
exclusively ,
exist
exit
expand ,
expensive ,
explode
expose
extremely ,
F

face a problem
facilities ,
failure ,
fare ,

fast ,

favorable
fearless ,
feed into ()
fellow traveler
fence ,
fertilizer
54

few
field ,
fierce
find (found, found) ,
finger
finished goods
fire safety
flat
fleet ( )
flood ,
flour
focus ,
follow ;
food products ,

foreign ,
fortunately
found ,
free (of charge)
freeze (froze, frozen) ;
freezing temperature ,

freight
freight capacity ,

freight turnover
frequency
fuel
funds ,
G

gain experience
gala
gather
gauge ,
generally ,
get off the train
get to
get up ,
gold rush
goods
government

governor
gradient ,
gradually
grand opening
greatly
grow (grew, grown) , ,

growth ,
guests of honor
guide ,
H

handle
hard
hard-working
harsh
haul , ,
hauler
head for -.
heating ,
heavy , ,
high-altitude
high comfort coach

high-capacity
hill ,
hire
hold (held, held) (,
, )
horse-powered wagon ,

hospitality
housing conditions
huge

I
illness
immediately ,
impossible
impress ,
improve ,
improvement ,
in advance ,
inaugurate ,

inauguration ,

inch
include ,
increase , ; ,

incredible

indefinite
infrastructure
initial ,
initially
injure , ,
inside
insist
intensify ()
inter-city
interfere
interior finishing
internal combustion engine

interurban
introduce , ;

55

invent
invention
involve ,

iron ore
issue
issue a decree
J

job ,
join ,
joint
jointly ,
key ,

journey , ; ,
journey time
justly
K
L

lack ,
last , ; ; ,

launch
lay down (laid, laid)
lead (led, led) , -.;
,
left-luggage office
lend (lent, lent) ,

length ,
lengthen ,
level
level crossing
light rail
light rail vehicle
lighting system
lightweight ,
limit

link , ;
,
lively
livestock
load ,
load capacity
loading ,
local official
locate ,
location
long distance
long-distance train
long-welded rails ,

lorry
lowland ,
luggage
luxury train
M

main ,
mainline
mainly ,
maintain , ,
;
,
maintenance
, ,
maintenance cost ,

maintenance team ;

maintenance workers
major , , ,
make ;
malfunction
manual control
manual labor
manually ,
manufacture , ;
,
manufacturer ,
map

market segment
marshalling yard
masonry ,
means of transport
measure
mechanical engineer -
medical staff ,

meeting place ,
melt away
mention
merge ( )
mine
most
mostly ,
motion
motion characteristics
move (), (), ,

movement
multi-cylinder engine

multiple-unit train

56

N
narrow
nation
national
necessary
network
noise ,

noiseless ,

notch ,
note ,
notice ; ,
number ,
O

obtain
occur ,
offer ,
official
off-peak hours
open railcar
open-top coal wagon
operate , , ,
, ,
operation , , ,

operational

operational speed
operator ,
oppose ,
order , , ;
,
ore
originally
overburden
overcome
overcrowded
own , ; ,
owner ,
P

pass , ;
,
pass a bill
passage
passenger capacity

passenger turnover
pave
pave the way
pay attention to -.
peat bog
perfect qualifications

periodically
perishable goods
permafrost
permafrost area
permit ,
persuade
piece of equipment
piggy-back service
,


pile
place , ,
plant ,
pleased
poor
possibility
possible
power , ,
power supply
powerful
precise
precursor

predict ,
prefer
prepare ,
prevent , ,

prime contractor
private
probable ,
produce ,
production ,
profit
profitable ,
promise
promote ,
properly ,
proposal
propose
protect
protection
prove ,
provide , ,
public ;
public celebration ,
public celebrations
public land (,

)
public railway

pull ,
pump
punish
purchase ,
pure
put forward ,
put into operation
57

Q
quality
quantity

quarry
R

railcar
railcard "",
railway operator
raise , ,
raise money ,
rapidly
rarely
rate , ;
rather ,
raw material
reach
reach a speed ,

realize ,
reason
receive
recently
reclining seat
recruit
reduce ,
reduction , ,
refrigerating-heating system

refrigerator car -;

refuel ,
refurbish ,
refuse
reject ,
relatively
reliable
remind
remote control
remove ,

remove from service ,



renew , ,

renewal , ,

repair ;
replace
report
require
required ,
resemble ,
reserve ,
respectively
responsible ,
,
result in -.
return
return ticket " "
reverse (, )
revive
ride ;
riding qualities
road carriage ,
roadmaster
robot engine driver
roll ,
rolling stock
rough ,
route , ,
row
rule
ruler
run late ,
S

safe
safe and sound
safety
safety measures
sandstorms
satellite navigation system

scenic , ( ,
);
( , )
schedule ,
secondary line

section
select
separate , ;
serf
service , ,
service life

service tunnel
services
set up , ,
settlement ,
several
severe
severely
share
shunt (
)
shuttle train
sick
side line
siding line ;
sightseeing tour
sign
sign an agreement
signaling ; ,

58

signaling device
signaling system
simultaneously
single ticket
singly , ,
sink ,
site of natural beauty ,

sitting room
skilled
sledge
sleeper
sleeping car
sliding door
slow
smoke
smooth ,
snow-cleaning
so-called
soil
solve
soon ,
sound-proofed ,

spade
specific ,
spectator
speed up
spike ( )
sponsorship
spring
stability ,
standard-gauge railway

state ; ;

state-owned ,

stay
steam ;
steam engine
steam-powered
steep
steep gradient
stone ;
straight
straighten out
stretch ,
strict
strictly
strong ,
structure
subject to -.
subsidize ,
suburban
suburban network /
success
successfully
suffer ,
suggest
suitable
supervise ,
supply ,
support ,
surface
surrounding
survey ,
survey a line

swampy
switch ;
T

take apart
take into account
take measures
take over , ,

take place ,
take the train ,
tank car
tar
tare weight
task
tent
terminal
terminus
terrain
terrible
test ,
thaw
throughout
tie
tilting mechanism
tilting train ,

timetable ;

together
tonnage capacity ,

too
total , ; , ,
tour
track
track machine
traction
traffic ,
traffic artery ,

traffic frequency
traffic jam ;
T-rail , -

trainset
transducer
transfer ,
treat ,
trial
trip ,
trouble ,
truck
59

truth
try ,
tunneling ,

tunneling operations

Turkish food
typical
U

undersea
unit train
unite
unprecedented ,
unsafe ,
unusual
up-grade
upgrade ,

upgrading , ,

uphold
upholstered seat
upper
up-to-date
use ,
V

valuable
van
various
vehicle ; ,

vehicles
viaduct
volume
W

wagonways
way ,
wealthy ,
wear and tear
weigh
weight
weld
wide
win (won, won) the contract

winner
withdraw
witness
wheel
whole , ;
work out
worth ,
wrought-iron

60

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