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Schottky defect

A Schottky defect is a type of point defect in a crystal lat- 1 Denition

tice named after Walter H. Schottky. In non-ionic crystals it means a lattice vacancy defect.
If in an ionic crystal of type A+ B an equal number of
In ionic crystals, the defect forms when oppositely cations and anions are missing from their lattice sites so
charged ions leave their lattice sites, creating vacancies. that electrical neutrality as well as stoichiometry is mainThese vacancies are formed in stoichiometric units, to tained, then, this defect is called a Schottky Defect.
maintain an overall neutral charge in the ionic solid. The It is a vacancy defect (due to missing ions) and also a stovacancies are then free to move about as their own enti- ichiometric defect, as the ratio of the number of cations
ties. Normally these defects will lead to a decrease in the and anions remains the same.
density of the crystal. The followings are the chemical
equations in Krger-Vink Notation for the formation of It occurs only when there is small dierence in size between cations and anions. This is produced as the result of
Schottky defects in TiO2 and BaTiO3 .
the thermal incorporation of unoccupied lattice sites from

i + 2VO
the exterior of the crystal. The lattice undergoes thermal

vibration and thermal expansion when the temperature is

+ VT
raised above 0K. When it happens the pair of vacancies
This can be illustrated schematically with a twoare incorporated in the crystal.So electrical neutrality is
dimensional diagram of a sodium chloride crystal lattice:
maintained inside the crystals.

2 Examples


This type of defect is shown in highly ionic compounds,

highly coordinated compounds, and where there is only a
small dierence in sizes of cations and anions of which
the compound lattice is composed.



The defect-free NaCl structure


3 Eect on Density


Since, the total number of ions in a crystal with this defect

is less than the theoretical value of ions, the density of
the solid crystal is less than the theoretical density of the

4 See also
Schottky defects within the NaCl structure

Frenkel defect

Wigner eect
Crystallographic defects

Kittel, Charles, Introduction to Solid State Physics 8th ed. Wiley, 2005. ISBN 0-471-41526-X.

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