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Chapter 1

Introduction
English as a foreign language In Malaysia has an important role for the students.
English has reached almost all aspects of modern life, such as, education, business, trade,
science, technology, and many others. Above all, English has opened up the minds of the
people from different walks of life that speaks different languages to communicate, and to
develop cooperation with each other.
English is taught in most of the schools in the country and it is as the known the
international language for knowledge and communication. To teach English successfully in
schools, factors such as quality of the teachers, pupils interest and motivation, the schools
environment, teaching methods and books have to be considered.
Recently, English is taught at school from Elementary School (SK), secondary
schools and universities. There are four skills of language: Listening, Speaking, Reading and
Writing. Other skills that the students must master in order to understand the language are,
spelling, grammar, and pronunciation must be taught to learners in order to the achievement
of the four skills above
One of the language skills is grammar. Grammar is considered important, because
grammar is a basic knowledge of language to understand English perfectly. But the students
have difficulties in learning grammar. Many students think of grammar as a rather boring
school subject which has little use in real life.
According to Brown, in Communicative LanguageTeaching, grammatical explanation
and terminology are used in classes teach grammar but any grammatical explanation
undertaken may be enhanced, if the English teachers use charts and other visuals aid
whenever possible to graphically depict grammatical relationship.
According to Merriam and Webster, flash card is a card bearing words, number or
pictures that briefly displayed (as by a teacher to a class) use as a learning aid.In addition
flashcards are very simple but very effective way for an individual to study a particular topic.
This study focuses on flashcard as media in teaching Simple present tense. An action
research was conducted by the researcher to improve students understanding on Simple
Present Tense.

By using teaching aids that is the flashcards,it is known students can draw a map in
their mind of the rules of the grammar item by determining the rules by themselves. For the
low proficiency students if it is done frequently, according to the behaviourism theory of
learning by Pavlov, Thorndike and Watson, provided teachers with sets of principles to be
implemented in the class room.
.

Chapter 2
Issues of concern
In this study, researchers will use a qualitative approach in collecting data. Qualitative data
will be used by researchers are pre-test and post-test, document analysis and
questionnaires. Pre-test will be conducted to identify the level of pupils proficiency in writing
simple sentences. Both of these tests (pre and post) will use a scoring scale of percentage
points by rubric standards have been adopted from the KSSR rubrics.
It is undeniable that grammar plays an important role in learning English Language.
Having a good command of the language means not only to master the four language skills
of reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also to achieve grammatical competence.
When students face problems in acquiring the language, teacher should make an attempt to
make their lessons as interesting as possible and not resort to the traditional chalk and talk
method which can be dull and predominantly teacher-centred.
According to Eastern Kentucky University (EKU), a good aid is like a window, it
should not call attention to itself. It should just let in the light. Teaching aids provide a means
of literating lesson and give opportunity to learn in a new light. More than classroom
decoration, they are designed to teach, illustrate and reinforce lesson. They can be broken
down into four board categories, there are bulletin boards, charts, flashcard, manipulative
and experiment
The data gathered in this research could prove flashcards helps the pupils to improve
their understanding on the Simple Presents Tense. It is also important that the use of the
flashcards presents a fun and motivating the pupils in learning the simple present tense and
the grammar rule of the simple present tense.

Post-test will be conducted after applying the flashcard method in teaching and
learning process. Post-test is administered to determine the effectiveness of the flashcard
method in improving student achievement in constructing simple sentences. In the document
analysis the researcher will use worksheet as an instrument to observe the effectiveness of
the method in improving the pupils skills to construct sentences. This worksheet will be
provided during the implementation of interventions to ensure the validity of the data
collected. Then, all the worksheets and reflection from the activities are obtained for the
purpose of collecting data related to students' improvements in the learning process using
the method mentioned.
To achieve the goal of this research, researcher will use Kemmis and McTaggar
model to develop the concept of action research. It proposed a spiral model comprising four
steps; planning, acting, observing and reflecting.
The pupils face the issue in understanding the rule to use the s or ies in the verbs for the
simle present tense. The students will always make mistakes writing the correct use s or ies
in their verb in a simple tense. For example ;
It sleep early in the morning.
The S is always missing when it comes to the use of It, He or She. To improve their
understanding the rules of drilling using the flash cards of daily action the students to draw a
virtual mind map in their mind.
According to Kasihani, flashcards are cards have big size, usually it uses paper
rather thick, stiff, and the size is A4. It contains of picture and words. It is classified based on
kind and the class such as the flashcards of daily activities, verbs etc.
The use of big words and pictures on a flashcard makes the pupils attracted and focuses on
the words that is shown. Flashcards are easy to make and obtain from various sources.
Teacher can take examples from the text book or relate the pupils prior knowledge. Other
than that teachers can take samples from the internet that are much more colourful and
have various forms. This is important for the pupils to be able to relate their prior knowledge
to the verbs or action words that is presented or shown on the flashcards. This makes it
easier for them to understand the meaning of the sentences and identify the rules of the
simple present tense.
The use of the flashcards also give the teacher control of what tenses that is focused
in the teaching and learning session. It is important that the teacher planed the words to be
used to make the session more meaningful for the pupils to comprehend.

Chapter 3
3.1

Research Questions

The study is aimed to answer the following question:


1.How does the implementation of flashcard enhances the teaching of Simple Present
Tense?
2. How efficient is the usage of the flashcards in teaching the Simple Present Tenses?
3.2

Objective of the Study

Based on the problem above, the aims of this study are as follows:
1. To describe the implementation of flashcards to enhance the understanding of Simple
Present Tenses.
2. To identify the effectiveness of using flashcards to improve of students understanding on
Present Tense.

Chapter 4
Targeted Group
The research respondents or participants will be 10 students from Primary 5 AF of SK
Merotai Kecil and consist of local students. The school is situated 32km from town and
considered as a rural school because of the problem in water supply and the state of the
school basic necessities. He pre-test was done in the first session and I choose the pupils
randomly as my respondents because they are more from weak to average in the use of the
English language. The 10 students consist of 2 boys and 8 girls. The boys have some
problem in writing and a few of the girls can be considered as weak in the English language
subject.

Chapter 5
5.0 Action
5.1 Implementation of Action
5.1.1 Pre-test
Before planning the first cycle, I had to know the students level of knowledge of the
simple present tense and where students have problems understanding the rules of the
simple present tense. The 20 question pre-test will be made in the first week. Results 10
students will be chosen randomly to be respondents for this research.
The
5.1.2 First Cycle
In the first cycle, after gathering data and determining the level of the pupils
knowledge. I carried out a lesson with the use of flashcards and worksheet. All of the pupils
in the class received the same worksheet as the ten respondents. This is to eliminate the
sense of being observed by the teacher and makes the session a comfortable session for
the respondents. It made them respond naturally to questions and stimulus or the flash
cards
For the introduction of the simple present tense, I showed daily action words that are
printed on the Flashcards. Pupils will read out loud the words. I will then ask the pupils what
type of words that are shown to them. And their answers are the daily actions. This is to
stimulate their prior knowledge of verbs of daily action. This takes about 5-8 minutes of the
class time.
Then I will show another flash card that shows a pronoun. And ask the pupils to say it
out loud. Then I will hold the flashcard with the pronoun in my right and I will pick a flashcard
with the left hand and hold it next to the pronoun. Then I ask the students to read the words
on the cards that certainly will be a sentence.
Example.

wal

She

walk
s

The pronoun and the verb will be changed and if the prefix s or ies is need I just have to
turn the flash card because the flash card was printed with the same words but with different
spelling for a different pronoun. This makes the grammar rule obvious for the pupils to see
and understand.
This process is repeated for 8 15 verbs. The repetition and the changing of the
words used to form the sentences is good for the students to build a map of the structure of
the sentence that is pronoun + verb to form a simple present tense sentence.
The next step was that I gave a worksheet with 10 sentences that the verbs are
omitted from the sentence. Pupils must write the present tense word or verb in the blanks.
And each correct answer will be a awarded 1 mark. At the end of the session pupils hands in
their worksheet and teacher will check their answer. This was done to reinforce students
memory of the targeted tense.
During the class session I have asked a colleague to observe the teaching and learning
process. I supplied him with a form to be filled while he was observing me and the pupils.
The respond or comments given will be used to make decisions on effectiveness of the
method of flashing the flashcards towards the pupils and see how to improve the teaching
and learning process for the pupils.
5.1.3 Cycle 2
In cycle 2, I have made changes to my approach in using the flashcards. This cycle I
decided to give the students the freedom to form sentences using the flash cards that I have
printed on an A4 paper to help them form a sentence without the use of books and pens.
This was also to give the students the chance to interact with their peers and form sentences
using flash cards given.
In the beginning of the session I divided the students into groups of 4. Students that I
have selected as respondents are grouped into 3 groups with one group only having 2 of the
respondents. An envelope filled with small flashcards was then distributed to all the groups.
Pupils form sentences using the small flashcards. Teacher only observed the groups while
they are forming the sentences. I gave the freedom for the pupils to form sentences using
the flashcards and it was motivating for them since they took it as a game but with the use of

flashcards as their tool to form the sentence. After they finished forming the sentences, the
pupils read their sentences a loud. The pupils then copy the sentences that they have
formed into their exercise book.

5.1.4
The Final step was post-test, a post-test was given and the questions are different
from the pre-test that was done on the first session before the use of the flashcards in
teaching the simple present tense. In this post-test the questions are different to eliminate
the chances of the students remembering the answer to the question rather than
understanding the rules of grammar that was the focus of the research. The questions have
the same quantity as the pre-test so that the result can be seen clearly.

5.2 Data gathering method


5.2.1 Pre test
I carried out a pre-test with the pupils in the classroom. This is done to identify the level of
knowledge of the students in simple present tense. All of the students in the class answered
the test. But to make it easier for me to monitor their progress, I have selected random
pupils test to be evaluated. And as my subject in this research.
The pupils are asked to answer 20 questions. The questions are designed to be in the form
of simple present tense sentences. The pupils must fill in the blanks with appropriate
answers. The verbs are given in the sentences and the students must determine either to
add the suffix s, es or ies.
The omitted words will be the verbs/action words so that the focus is on the verbs. This way I
can see the patterns that the students cant understand or remember the rules of the simple
present tense.
Example:

1. I _______

every day.

This is a practical way for me to collect data of the students prior knowledge. I need to know
the in what extend that the students dont have the knowledge of the present tense rules.

This also an effective way to collect large amount of data for a large class. But in this
research I took data from 10 students. This takes only about 30 minutes of the time to be
done and relatively cost effective way to produce. After answering the questions I collected
the question sheets and checked the papers after class.
After the researcher collected the data through test, the researcher analysed the data using
the percentage descriptive quantitative analysis in giving the test score. This scoring is
aimed at giving description of the students understanding on Present Continuous Tense, the
processes were:
a. After conducting the test, the researcher gave score. Each correct answer was
scored 1 and 0 to each wrong answer. The maximum score was 10.
b. Determining the interval grade of students, the score of the test by counting the
number correct answer. The counted of the percentages of the score test by using
following formula
right answer
Score = _______________ X 100%
items

After giving the result statistically, then the researcher consuls them which used five letters:
A, B, C, D and E that expressed various levels as follows:
The Percentages fo Correct
Answer
90% 100 %
70% 89 %
60% 69%
50% 59%
0% - 49%

5.2.2 Students Work

Grade
A = Excellent
B = Good
C= Fair
D= Less
E=Poor

Level
Outstanding
Above average
Above average
Below Average
Insufficient

In this stage I used the innovation of using the flash cards in my lessons. I will show students
flashcards with action verbs written on it. The verb will not have any suffixes on one side and
with suffix the other side, this way I can tell the pupils that the words without suffix are the
basic words.
I made another flashcard with pronouns on it, I then show the pupils a pronoun and ask
pupils to say it out loud. Then I will hold the verb flashcard next to the pronoun flashcard to
form a sentence. I will show the verb that it correct with that pronoun either it is with the
suffix or not with the suffix. And pupils will read the sentence.
I will then change the pronoun but still with the same verb. And repeat the same process
until all the intended pronouns are all done.
Example:
Pronoun/ subject

Verb

like

I like

He

likes

He likes

5.2.3 Peer Observation


Another method to collect data is a peer to peer observation by a colleague during
the T&L process. Peer observation is the observation of teachers by teachers, usually on are
basis. Pairings maybe mentor or experienced teacher. This way the focus will be more
clearly on helping me to develop my teaching skills both by comments from being observed
by an experienced colleague.
The comments are considered as data to triangulate the findings of the focused
language to be taught and the effectiveness of the method used by the researcher. A form
has been given to observer to help in the identifying of the elements that are used in the T&L
process.
5.2.4 Post Test
I did a post-test as a measurement of the learning received during the class as a
result of comparing what the student knew before in a pre-test and after the class experience
in a post-test. It is to quantify the knowledge attained in the class from a group of students
with diverse learning styles and educational backgrounds. More specifically, the tests
indicates how the students improved in learning with the help of the Flashcards. The data
will target students requiring extra help and will identify teaching and learning methods that

need to be changed or developed for the future lesson. The same calculations of the pre-test
is use in the post-test analysis.
Chapter 6
Analysis and Interpretation Of Data
Pre test
Done on the 25th March 2015, Before carrying out the 1st cycle or activity using the flash
card, I carried out a pre -test in the first day I entered the class. The test took about 30
minutes. The respondents were seated in their own seats to make them feel comfortable to
do the task given in their comfort zone.
I used a 20 question worksheet as the pre-test to determine the prior knowledge of
the students in present tense. The pupils answered the worksheet without discussing with
their friends.

This for me to identify the level of the students knowledge of the present

tense before the use of flash cards in their learning process. With the information I formed an
activity that can accommodate their level and knowledge of the intended form of language.
This way the activity will be more understandable for the students.

MARKS

Q20

Q19

Q18

Q17

Q16

Q15

Q14

Q13

Q12

Q11

Q10

Q9

Q8

Q7

Q6

Q5

Q4

Q3

Q2

Q1

Pupils

Results of pre-test.

8/20

7/20

10/20

13/20

9 /20

10/20

5/ 20

15/20

17/20

12/20

Diagnostic test result

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30

correct
wrong

20
10
0

Here is the result of the Pre-test that show the percentage of the correst and the
wrong answers of the respondents in the test. It shows the

18
16
14
12
10
8
Correct

Wrong

4
2
0

Diagnostic test results

Percentage

Correct Answer

Wrong Answer

Percentage of Correct Answers and Wrong Answers

Cycle 1
Done on the 1st April 2015, After identifying the students have problem in the use of the
simple present tense, I ran my 1st cycle by using the flashcards as my teaching aid.
For the first 30 minutes, I will explain to the students the rules of the simple present tense
with the help of flashcards with action / daily routine words printed on it. The students that
are picked as the research subjects are seated in a close group to make it easier for the
teacher to distribute activity cards and worksheet.
I taught the students the words (verb @ action) that are going to be used. Then I
wrote he pronouns I, you, It, he, she, we and they on the board. Then the flashcards a
placed next to the words. Teacher will place the verbs with s at the end of the pronoun that
needs to have an S at the end of the word. Or verbs with no s at the end of the word next
to the pronoun.
This way the pupils will see the rules in using the simple present tense. The pupils
will discover the rules by looking at difference between the basic word with an S and
without an S.
A worksheet was distributed to the all of the pupils and they will answer the questions
or fill in blanks with suitable verbs or action words. The worksheet has only 10 questions for
the pupils to do.
During this cycle, if asked a colleague to observe the session. I have supplied him
with an observation form to be filled with comments. There are about 10 review section in
the observation. The observer was given the freedom to go around the class and observe
the pupils while they were doing the activity given by the teacher.

Pupils

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6

Q7

Q8

Q9

Q10

MARK

Analysis of students worksheet answer

10

10

10

10

./

10

Pupil J

Pupil I

Pupil H

Pupil G

Pupil F
CORRECT

WRONG

Pupil E

Pupil D

Pupil C

Pupil B

Pupil A

Students Worksheet

10

CYCLE 2
Students Work
On the 8th April 2015, In the beginning of the session I divided the students into
groups of 4. Students that I have selected as respondents are grouped into 5 groups with 1
group only having 2 of the respondents.
An envelope filled with small flashcards was then distributed to all the groups. Pupils
form sentences using the small flashcards. Teacher only observed the groups while they are
forming the sentences.
I gave the freedom for the pupils to form sentences using the flashcards and it was
motivating for them since they took it as a game but with the use of flashcards as their tool to
form the sentence. I took the liberty to check the pupils (that are the respondents for the
research) and took notes of their correct or wrong sentences and used it as data analysis.

After they finished forming the sentences, pupils read their sentences aloud. The pupils then
copy the sentences that they have formed into their exercise book.
Post-test
The last 30 minutes, a post-test was given and the questions are different from the
pre-test that was done on the first session before the use of the flashcards in teaching the
simple present tense. In this post-test the questions are different to eliminate the chances of
the students remembering the answer to the question rather than understanding the rules of
grammar that was the focus of the research. The question has the same quantity that is 20
question or blanks just like the pre-test so that the result can be seen clearly.

MARKS

Q20

Q19

Q18

Q17

Q16

Q15

Q14

Q13

Q12

Q11

Q10

Q9

Q8

Q7

Q6

Q5

Q4

Q3

Q2

Q1

Pupils

Post-Test Result

17
A

/
20
18

/
20
20

/
20
17

/
20
16

/
20
18

/
20
18

/
20
17

/
20
20

/
20
18

/
20

Post-Test Result

20
18
16
14
12
10
8

Correct
Wrong

6
4
2
0

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Correct
Wrong

Percentage of the Correct and Wrong Answer

Corect Answer
Wrong Answer

Chapter 7
Findings
Based on the data, I concluded that, The implementation of flash cards to improve students
understanding on the Simple Present Tense are;
a. The improvement of the learning tools for teaching improved by each cycle as the use of
the flashcards in every cycle performed was appropriate in order to make the pupils
interested in the learning of Present Tense.
b. The use of the Flashcards motivates the pupils to discuss in groups when they are
assigned to form sentences using the flashcards in cycle 2. This helps to get passive pupils
to involve themselves in interaction with their peer to obtain information and learn the rules
of the tense from them. The involvement of the pupils in the activities are crucial because it
shows that the pupils effort to understand te rules of the Simple Present Tense. Referring to
the peer observation form, the observer commented on the high interaction and participation
of the pupils in the activities done in their class holds their attention to the learning process.
c. The use of the flashcards to improve pupils understanding on teaching Simple Present
Tense could be applied by using more methods and more creative activities such drilling,
playing games using the flashcards, guessing games of the base words and more. The
understanding of the teacher on the method used and focus of the language that was used
in the session with the pupils to achieve the goal or objective of the lesson.
d. The use of the flashcards gives a good idea of the sentence structure of the simple
present tense. The pupils were able to form a mind image of the rule. Even when the flash
cards are jumbled up, the pupils were able to form sentences. the teacher doesnt have to
explain the rules everytime and this makes the teacher as an observer rather than a walking
rule book. This was supported by the comment in the peer observation form.
Referring to the data from the pre-test and observation of the pupils understanding of
the Simple Present Tense before the use of Flashcards which have been done inn the
previous chapter, showed that the percentage of wrong answer was 47% percent and 53%
correct. It can be summed that the pupils are below average in the understanding of the
Simple Present tense. The researcher concluded that the pupils need improvements by
using the flashcards method.

After the 1st cycle was done, the results of the post tests shows that the pupils
improved their understanding of the simple present tense. This can be seen in the increase
of coorect answer from 53% to 75% overall. It proves that the Pupils were improving.

According to the data from result of tests and observation of teacher on the
understanding on Simple Present Tenses after the use of flashcard which have been done
and analysed in the previous chapter, it showed indicators that the use of flash cards to
improve the students understanding on Present Continuous Tense was effective. It could be
seen that using flashcards in teaching Present Continuous Tense was more interesting to the
students. Flash cards could reduce students feeling of boredom, and stimulated pupils who
have low motivation in learning the English language. there was an improvement on
students score Even after the first cycle. The Use of the Flashcards was proven effective
even only in one cycle. The repeatition of the use of flashcards may help the pupils to master
the simple present tense and any other grammar item if it use to perfection.
The understanding of the simple present tense was increased significantly after the
treatments usng the flashcards. It is proven by comparing the percentage of wrong and
correct answer in the Pre-Test and the Post Test. This showed that flashcards really could
improve the pupils understanding of the Simple Present Tense.
Suggestions
There were some suggestion for the students and the English Teacher. The
suggestions were as follows:
Tenses are known to be the most difficult subject, the use of flashcard in teaching
learning was an interesting tool because it could attract the pupils interest. It is easy to
memorize the material and motivation the pupils in learning the English Language. English
teacher should create activities for teaching and learning process as an enjoyable and fun
session, because students loved to play around Pupils or young learners are known best to
learn something quickly when they are enjoying themselves.
I suggested to the teachers to use flash cards as teaching aid. Teachers can use
several flashcard in any subject, they can choose the appropriate flashcard that are
appripiate with the material. They can find the flashcard by buying them, make them
themselves, student can help make them or by downloading the flashcards from the internet.

There are thousands of site that supplies flashcards to help teachers teaching the English
Language.
Tenses are important subject to be learnt. But, most of students have difficulties in
learning tenses because there are some tenses in English and there are no tenses in the
Bahasa Melayu. Therefore, Teachers need to intensify the use of flashcards in learning the
English grammar and should develop pupils knowledge by giving grammar activities using
interesting media such as flashcard because flashcard can attract the students interest and
motivation in learning process. And most of all it is easy to obtain and manage since the ICT
can help by flashing the words on powerpoint slides.
Students in SK Merotai Kecil have the motivation in learning, but there were limited
facilities such as limited library collection and there was no language laboratory. The School
management should prepare and design the material based on the students need and their
competence. School also had to provide interesting learning environment to the students
such as providing language laboratory and teaching media such as Projectors.

References
1.

Douglas Brown, Teaching by Principles an Interactive Approach to Language


Pedagogy, (New York: San Frasisco State University) P.365

2.

Kasihani K.E Suyanto, English for Young Learners Melejitkan Potensi Anak Melalui
English Class yang Fun, Asyik, dan Menarik, (Jakarta : Bumi Aksara, 2007), Page
109

3.

http :// www ciao.co.UK /Early Learning Fun Flashcards 6635751 Assessed on
22/12/2009

4.

Akhiar Pardi & Shamsina Shamsuddin. (2012). Pengantar penyelidikan tindakan


dalam penyelidikan pendidikan. Selangor: Penerbitan Multimedia Sdn. Bhd.

5.

Noraini Idris. (2010). Penyelidikan dalam pendidikan.Kuala Lumpur: McGraw-Hill.

6.

Othman Lebar. (2009). Penyelidikan kualitatif: Pengenalan kepada teori dan metod.
Selangor: Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris.

Students Work

Appendix