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CT Convolution

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You are on page 1of 20

Prof. Mark Fowler

Note Set #38

C-T Convolution: The Tool for Finding the

Zero-State Response

1/20

Earlier we introduced the concept of impulse response

what comes out of a system when the input is an impulse (delta function)

Note: If system is causal, then

h(t) = 0 for t < 0

(t)

t

C-T LTI

ICs = 0

h(t)

t

The symbol h(t) means the

impulse response.

Noting that the LT of (t) = 1 and using the properties of the transfer function

and the Z transform we said that

h (t ) L

H ( s)L (t )

h(t ) L 1 H ( s )

h(t ) F

H ( )

Soonce we have either H(s) or H() we can get the impulse response h(t)

Since H(s) & H() describe the system so must the impulse response h(t)

How???

2/20

x (t ) X ( )

x (t ) X ( s )

h(t ) H ( )

h (t ) H ( s )

Weve spent much time using these tools to analyze system outputs this way:

Y ( ) H ( ) X ( )

Y ( s) H ( s) X ( s)

H ( ) X ( )

y[n ] L 1 H ( s ) X ( s )

y (t ) F

The convolution property of the CTFT and LT gives an alternate way to find y(t):

F 1 X ( ) H ( ) x (t ) h(t )

x (t ) * h (t )

L 1 X ( s ) H ( s ) x (t ) h(t )

x(t)

y(t)

h(t)

y (t )

x( )h(t )d

x( )h(t )d

Convolving

input x(t) with the

impulse response

h(t) gives the

output y(t)!

3/20

An arbitrary LTI systems output can be found using the general convolution form:

y (t )

x( )h(t )d

If the system is causal then h(t) = 0 for t < 0. Thus h(t ) = 0 for t > so:

t

y (t )

x( )h(t )d

y (t ) x ( )h(t )d

LTI System

t

y (t ) x ( )h(t )d

0

LTI System

4/20

Convolution Properties

x (t ) h (t ) h (t ) x (t )

1.Commutativity

[ x (t ) h1 (t )] h2 (t ) x (t ) [h1 (t ) h2 (t )]

2. Associativity

order of two cascaded systems.

x (t ) [h1 (t ) h2 (t )] x (t ) h1 (t ) x (t ) h2 (t )

3. Distributivity

4. Derivative Property:

d

[ x (t ) v (t )] x (t ) v (t )

dt

x (t ) v(t )

derivative

t

t

y

(

)

d

x

(

)

d

h

(

t

)

x

(

t

)

h

(

)

d

5/20

y (t ) x ( )h(t )d

1.

2.

Flip just one of the signals around t = 0 to get either x(-) or h(-)

a. It is usually best to flip the signal with shorter duration

b. For notational purposes here: well flip h() to get h(-)

3.

a. Find the left-hand-edge -value of h(-): call it L,0

b. Find the right-hand-edge -value of h(-): call it R,0

4.

Shift h(-) by an arbitrary value of t to get h(t - ) and get its edges

a.

Find the left-hand-edge -value of h(t - ) as a function of t: call it L,t

b.

what the book

uses ... It is not

a big deal as they

are just dummy

variables!!!

Note: If the signal you flipped is NOT finite duration,

one or both of L,t and R,t will be infinite (L,t = and/or

R,t= )

6/20

Steps Continued

5.

a. What you are trying to do here is find intervals of t over which the product

x() h(t - ) has a single mathematical form in terms of

b. In each region find: Interval of t that makes the identified overlap happen

c. Working examples is the best way to learn how this is done

Tips:

6.

Dont worry about < vs. etc.

For Each Region: Form the Product x() h(t - ) and Integrate

a. Form product x() h(t - )

b. Find the Limits of Integration by finding the interval of over which the

product is nonzero

i.

Found by seeing where the edges of x() and h(t - ) lie

ii. Recall that the edges of h(t - ) are L,t and R,t , which often depend on

the value of t

c. Integrate the product x() h(t - ) over the limits found in 6b

i.

The result is generally a function of t, but is only valid for the interval

of t found for the current region

ii. Think of the result as a time-section of the output y(t)

7/20

Steps Continued

7.

Assemble the output from the output time-sections for all the regions

a. Note: you do NOT add the sections together

b. You define the output piecewise

c. Finally, if possible, look for a way to write the output in a simpler form

8/20

y (t )

h() x(t )d

x()h(t )d

By Properties of

Convolution

these two forms are

Equal

This is why we can

flip either signal

x(t)

2

2

h(t)

3

t

9/20

x()

h()

3

x()

2

0

h(-)

3

Usually Easier

to Flip the

Shorter Signal

10/20

x()

2

0

h(-)

3

L,0 = 1

R,0 = 0

11/20

Just looking at 2 arbitrary t values

In Each Case We Get

L,t = t + L,0

R,t = t + R,0

For t = 2

For t = -2

h(t-) =h(2-)

3 h(t-) =h(-2-)

L,t = t + L,0

R,t = t + R,0

L,t = t + L,0

R,t = t + R,0

L,t = t 1

R,t = t + 0

L,t = t 1

R,t = t + 0

L,-2 = -2 1

R ,-2 = 2+0

L,2 = 2 1

R,2 = 2+0

12/20

For Arbitrary Shift by t

h(t )

3

t1

L,t = t + L,0

R,t = t + R,0

L,t = t 1

R,t = t + 0

13/20

2

x()

2

Region I

h(t-)

No -Overlap

t<0

L,t R,t= t

= t -1

Want R,t< 0

t<0

x()

2

Region II

h(t-)

Partial -Overlap

0t1

t -1

t1

Want R,t 0

t0

14/20

x()

Region III

Total -Overlap

h(t-)

3

1<t2

t -1

Want R,t 2 t 2

x()

Region IV

Partial -Overlap

h(t-)

3

2<t3

t -1

t3

15/20

2

x()

2

h(t-)

Region V

No -Overlap

t>3

3

t -1

16/20

2

2

h(t-)

3

t -1

Region I: t < 0

y (t )

x()h(t )d

h(t-) x() = 0

x()

0 d 0

y (t ) 0 for all t 0

Region II: 0 t 1

h(t-) 3

t -1

With 0 integrand

the limits dont

matter!!!

y (t )

x( )h(t )d

6d 6 t0 6t 6 0 6t

h(t-) x()

6

y (t ) 6t for 0 t 1

0 t

17/20

x()

h(t-)

y (t )

t -1

x( )h(t )d

h(t-) x()

6

d

6

t 1 6t 6( t 1) 6

t 1

t -1

x()

h(t-)

y (t )

t -1

x( )h(t )d

h(t-) x()

6d 6 t 1 6 2 6(t 1) 6t 18

2

t 1

y (t ) 6t 18 for 2 t 3

t -1 2

18/20

Region V: t > 3

x()

2

h(t-)

t -1

y (t )

x()h(t )d

h(t-) x() = 0

0 d 0

y (t ) 0 for all t 3

19/20

Region I

t<0

Region II

0t1

Region III

1<t2

Region IV

2<t3

Region V

t>3

y (t ) 0

y (t ) 6t

y (t ) 6

y (t ) 6t 18

y (t ) 0

y (t )

6

20/20

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