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A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

Contents
Machining Design Guidelines ..................................................................................... 6
Drilling Guidelines

Standard Hole Sizes ................................................................................................................................................. 7


Holes with Flat Bottoms .......................................................................................................................................... 8
Holes Intersecting Cavities ...................................................................................................................................... 9
Partial Holes .......................................................................................................................................................... 10
Deep Holes ............................................................................................................................................................ 11
Entry/Exit Surface for Holes .................................................................................................................................. 12

Milling Guidelines

13

Deep Radiused Corners ......................................................................................................................................... 14


Sharp Internal Corners .......................................................................................................................................... 15
Tool Accessibility ................................................................................................................................................... 16
Narrow Regions in Pockets.................................................................................................................................... 17
Side Radius and Bottom Radius ............................................................................................................................ 18
Tool Clearance Check ............................................................................................................................................ 19
Angular Milling Faces ............................................................................................................................................ 20

Turning Guidelines

21

Blind Hole Relief .................................................................................................................................................... 22


Keyways ................................................................................................................................................................. 23
Long - Slender Turned Parts .................................................................................................................................. 25
Minimum Internal Corner Radius .......................................................................................................................... 26
Outer Diameter Profile Relief ................................................................................................................................ 27
Symmetrical Axial Slots ......................................................................................................................................... 28

Casting Design Guidelines ........................................................................................ 29


Fillet Radius ........................................................................................................................................................... 30
Uniform Wall Thickness......................................................................................................................................... 31
Mold Wall Thickness ............................................................................................................................................. 32
Wall Thickness Variation ....................................................................................................................................... 33
Undercuts .............................................................................................................................................................. 34
Draft Angles ........................................................................................................................................................... 35

Injection Molding Design Guidelines ........................................................................ 36


Wall Thickness Design Guidelines

36

Mold Wall Thickness ............................................................................................................................................. 37


A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

Uniform Wall Thickness......................................................................................................................................... 38


Wall Thickness Variation ....................................................................................................................................... 39

Ribs Design Guidelines

40

Recommended Rib Parameters ............................................................................................................................ 41


Minimum Radius at Base of Ribs ........................................................................................................................... 42
Draft Angle for Ribs ............................................................................................................................................... 43
Spacing Between two Parallel Ribs ....................................................................................................................... 44

Bosses Design Guidelines

45

Minimum Radius at Base of Boss .......................................................................................................................... 46


Spacing between Bosses ....................................................................................................................................... 47
Radius at Base of Hole in Boss .............................................................................................................................. 48
Minimum Draft for Boss OD .................................................................................................................................. 49
Minimum Draft for Boss ID ................................................................................................................................... 50
Boss Height to OD Ratio ........................................................................................................................................ 51
Minimum Radius at Tip of Boss ............................................................................................................................. 52
Chamfer at Top of Boss ......................................................................................................................................... 53
Wall Thickness of Boss .......................................................................................................................................... 54
Standalone Boss .................................................................................................................................................... 55

General Design Guidelines

56

Minimum Draft Angle............................................................................................................................................ 57


Undercut Detection ............................................................................................................................................... 58
Sharp Corners ........................................................................................................................................................ 59
Hole Depth to Diameter Ratio ............................................................................................................................... 60

Sheet Metal Design Guidelines ................................................................................. 61


Form Feature Design Guidelines

61

Minimum Distance from Dimple to Bend ............................................................................................................. 62


Minimum Distance from Dimple to Cutout .......................................................................................................... 63
Minimum Distance between Dimples ................................................................................................................... 64
Minimum Distance from Dimple to Hole .............................................................................................................. 65
Minimum Distance from Dimple to Part Edge ...................................................................................................... 66
Maximum Embossment Depth ............................................................................................................................. 67
Gussets .................................................................................................................................................................. 68

Curl and Lance Design Guidelines

73

Curl Radius............................................................................................................................................................. 74
Minimum Distance between Curl and Hole .......................................................................................................... 75
Minimum Depth of Lance...................................................................................................................................... 76
Minimum Distance from Bend to Lance ............................................................................................................... 77
A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

Minimum Distance from Hole to Lance ................................................................................................................ 78


Minimum Spacing between Lances....................................................................................................................... 79

Hem Design Guidelines

80

Open Hem ............................................................................................................................................................. 81


Rolled Hem ............................................................................................................................................................ 82
Tear Drop Hem ...................................................................................................................................................... 83
Rolled Hem to Hole Edge Distance........................................................................................................................ 84
Closed Hem ........................................................................................................................................................... 85
Knife Edge.............................................................................................................................................................. 86

Notch and Tab Parameters

87

Notch Parameters ................................................................................................................................................. 88


Notch to Bend Distance ........................................................................................................................................ 89
Minimum Distance between Notches................................................................................................................... 90
Minimum Distance between Notch to Hole ......................................................................................................... 91
Tab Parameters ..................................................................................................................................................... 92
Minimum Distance between Tabs ........................................................................................................................ 93

Burring Hole Design Guidelines

94

Burring Hole Height ............................................................................................................................................... 95


Burring Hole Inner Diameter ................................................................................................................................. 96
Burring Hole Distance to Bends ............................................................................................................................ 97
Burring Hole Distance to Part Edge ....................................................................................................................... 98
Burring Hole Distance to Cutout ........................................................................................................................... 99
Burring Hole Spacing ........................................................................................................................................... 100

General Design Guidelines

101

Preferred Sheet Sizes .......................................................................................................................................... 102


Minimum Hole Diameter .................................................................................................................................... 103
Interference in Flat Pattern ................................................................................................................................. 104
Half-Shear Parameters ........................................................................................................................................ 105
Hole To Part Edge Distance ................................................................................................................................. 106
Minimum Bend Radius ........................................................................................................................................ 107
Bend Relief .......................................................................................................................................................... 108
Minimum Hole Diameter .................................................................................................................................... 109
Curls Feature ....................................................................................................................................................... 110
Hem Feature........................................................................................................................................................ 111
Notch Feature ..................................................................................................................................................... 112

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

Machining Design Guidelines


Drilling Guidelines

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

Standard Hole Sizes


Specify standard hole sizes as they can be created using a standard drill. Unusual hole sizes are not
recommended as they require custom tools and increase the cost of manufacturing through
purchasing and inventory.
Reducing variations in holes size will further reduce assembly accessories like fasteners, pin, rivets,
etc.
Example

In this example Choose a diameter M9.0 and not M 9.75.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

Holes with Flat Bottoms


It is recommended to make blind holes with conical and not flat bottoms. Flat bottomed holes cause
problems in subsequent operations (for example: reaming). Also, flat bottomed holes require special
tooling operations leading to increase in manufacturing cost and time.
A standard twist drill is used to create a hole with conical bottom.
Example
In this example, hole size is less than 45 mm; preferred operation will be drilling. It is recommended
to use conical bottom holes.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

Holes Intersecting Cavities


In drilling operation, it is recommended to avoid holes intersecting with cavities.
If not, there are chances that the drill tool will wander. This also increases the chances of drill tool
breakage.
Example

In this example, if an intersection is unavoidable, at a minimum, the centerline of the hole should be outside the cavity as
shown in image. Order of machining can also impact the drilling condition.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

Partial Holes
Avoid partial holes as there are high chances that drill will wander if a large portion of the hole is
outside the material. The problem can become even more severe if the axis of hole is on or near the
edge of the material. If partial hole is unavoidable, then ensure that at least 75% of hole area should
be within the material.
Example

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

10

Deep Holes
Deep, small diameter holes should be avoided as they are difficult to machine. Small diameter drills
tend to wander and are prone to breaking. Chip removal also becomes difficult while drilling deep
holes. Therefore it is recommended that the hole diameter to depth ratio should be less than 3.
Example

In this example, recommended hole diameter to depth ratio is less than 3.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

11

Entry/Exit Surface for Holes


Drills should enter and exit surfaces that are perpendicular to the centerline of the hole. If the drill tip
contacts the non-planer surface, then tip will wander as its axis is not perpendicular.
Also exit burrs will be uneven around the circumference of the exit hole, which can make burr
removal difficult.
Example

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

12

Milling Guidelines

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

13

Deep Radiused Corners


Flute engagement in the milling operation is important because it directly influence the forces. When
the axial depth of cut is increased, the length of engaged flutes increases, and the milling forces also
increase.
Longer end mills are prone to breakages and chatter, requires longer machining time and results in
increased tool vibrations.
Vibration creates uneven wear on cutting tools and thereby shortens tool life.
Designers should design milling areas such that longer end mills are not required to machine it.
Example

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

14

Sharp Internal Corners


Rounded corners provides number of advantages such as less stress concentration on part and tool,
few operational steps and reduced scrap rate.
Sharp inside corners cannot be produced by milling and require more expensive machining methods
like EDM. When designing a three-edged inside corner, one of the inside edges should be radiused. It
is advised to avoid sharp corners and use fillets and radii.

If a sharp corner is required for mating clearance, then drilling a separate relief hole as shown below
may serve the purpose.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

15

Tool Accessibility
Features should be accessible to the cutting tool in the preferred machining orientation.
Example

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

16

Narrow Regions in Pockets


It is recommended to avoid features that are too close to each other such that the gap between them
is too narrow to allow milling cutter to pass through them. If narrow regions are unavoidable, then
they should not be very deep.
The size of the milling cutter is constrained by the smallest distance between the faces of the feature.
Small diameter cutters are prone to breakage and chatter. Hence larger diameter, shorter cutters are
generally preferred.
Example

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

17

Side Radius and Bottom Radius


Use of standard side radius and bottom radius for milling features will ease manufacturing of milling
features with standard available milling tools. For reducing, machining cycle time and tool setup cost,
it is recommended to avoid non-standard side radius and bottom radius.
As a general guideline use single standard side radius and single standard bottom radius.
Example

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

18

Tool Clearance Check


Machining Features or slots should be accessible to the cutting tool in the preferred machining
direction and at the same time there should not be any clash between tool holder and component
while machining the feature.
Tool clash with components leads to adverse effect like tool damage, component damage, and it will
be unsafe for machine operator as well.
Example

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

19

Angular Milling Faces


Side and bottom faces of milling features separated by bottom fillet should be at 90 to each other to
allow production with an end mill having bottom corner radius. Machining of angular faces require
multi-axis machining, which leads to higher machining cost.
It is recommended that side and bottom faces of milling features separated by bottom fillet should
be at an angle 90 to each other.
Example

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

20

Turning Guidelines

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

21

Blind Hole Relief


Provide tool relief for the bottoms of blind bored holes.
Tool relief at the end of a bored hole will simplify the operation of honing, boring, reaming, and
grinding and reduce costs. The minimum amount of relief is expressed as a percent of the diameter of
the pre-bored.
It is recommended that relief at the end of bored hole should be greater than or equal to 3% of the
diameter of bored hole.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

22

Keyways
The most commonly used type of keys are woodruff, round-end machine and square-end machine.
Out of the three, square-end machine key is most difficult and costly to generate.
For generating radiused keyways, end milling cutter or a slotting cutter has to be used and can be
done much faster compared to other processes. To suit a cutting tool, blind axial keyways should be
radiused at the end.
It is recommended to use radiused keyways at the end of a key-slot. Radiused keyways need to be
milled with end milling cutters, so that the rounded end or ends of the key may fit the ends of the
keyway. The cutters diameter should always be equal to the width of the key.
A blind keyway that is square at the end is very difficult to achieve by milling process.

Keyways should be radiused at the end to suit the cutting tool.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

23

If the end of keyway is radiused in such a way that it could be cut by a slotting cutter it will improve
the speed of machining keyways.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

24

Long - Slender Turned Parts


The axial-length of the part should be proportional to parts minimum diameter to avoid deflection
towards center direction.
For long-slender part, it is recommended to center drill the free end and use a dead or live center in
the tailstock to support it. Without support, the work piece would bend and displace away from the
tool. Also, it may loosen the grip of chuck jaws on work piece and cause injuries or accidents.
However a very long slender part, even if supported by tail stock, may deflect toward the center.
Where possible, turned parts should be designed such that a tail stock support is not required. This is
done by designing the part to be stubby rather than long with a high aspect ratio. It is recommended
that, ratio of total length of part to its minimum diameter should be less than or equal to 8.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

25

Minimum Internal Corner Radius


It is recommended to avoid sharp internal corners and provide large inside radius so that a tool with
large nose radius can enter easily. A tool with large radius is less prone to breakage. A turn-down
surface at right angles to an un-machined (cast) surface might lead to burrs. The minimum radius on
internal corners of a turned part determines the cutting inserts that can be used.
It is always recommended to use cutting inserts with larger radii.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

26

Outer Diameter Profile Relief


Profile relief on the outer diameter of a turned part helps in smooth turn-machining of part.
The turned contour should allow easy tracing with a minimum number of changes of stylus and
cutting tool. Grooves with parallel or steep sidewalls are not feasible in one operation.
Contours inclined upto an angle of 58 from the axis of the part are feasible for a cutting tool (and
stylus). Following image shows feasible contours when they are perpendicular to the axis.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

27

Symmetrical Axial Slots


The width of axial slots and keyways on turned parts should be symmetrical about the turn axis. If
width of axial slots and keyways is not symmetrical about the turn axis, then the part will face
problems while coupling with other turn parts.
It is recommended to design axial slots and keyways such that they are symmetrical about the turn
axis. This guideline identifies whether the width of axial slots and keyways is symmetrical about the
turn axis or not, a condition which is likely a result of an error during modeling.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

28

Casting Design Guidelines

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

29

Fillet Radius
Sharp corners, edges and rapid changes in cross section should be avoided in cast parts. Fillets should
be added to sharp corners and edges.
Inside corners should be designed with fillets and outside corners should have radii as large as
possible. Depending on the casting process, minimum fillet radii should be provided on inside and
outside corners of the components. For example, in die casting, a minimum radius of 1.5 times the
wall thickness should be provided.
Example

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

30

Uniform Wall Thickness


Wall thickness should be kept uniform as it helps to create high quality cast parts. Sudden variations
and geometry changes and in wall thickness affects metal flow, resulting in air enclosures and poor
surface finish of parts.
The recommended range of wall thickness is two times the thinnest wall section. The transition from
thick to thin walls should also be as gradual as possible.
Example

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

31

Mold Wall Thickness


Mold wall thickness is an important aspect to be considered in casting. If the mold wall is too thin and
elongated, stresses are developed in the mold, reducing mold life. Also, special materials are required
to create the molds and they may need regular replacement and service. Ribs and bosses which are
too close to each other can result in thin mold walls.
Hence the minimum allowable mold wall thickness should be decided based on process and material
considerations. The minimum clearance between features of a cast component will be based on the
casting process, component material and tool material.
Example

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

32

Wall Thickness Variation


Wall thickness variations in the casting result in differing rates of cooling, shrinkage, warping and
distortion. Ideally, the wall thickness should be uniform throughout the part (equal to the nominal
wall thickness).
In reality, this variation is unavoidable due to functional and aesthetic requirements. However, the
amount of variation should be minimized and within a certain tolerance limit.
Example

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

33

Undercuts
It is recommended that undercuts should be avoided for ease of manufacturing. Undercuts require
additional mechanisms, adding to mold cost and complexity. Clever part design or minor design
concessions can often eliminate complex mechanisms for undercuts.
Example

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

34

Draft Angles
Draft is the taper given to core and cavity for easy removal of casting (or pattern). Adding proper
drafts on the cast parts improves cycle time and quality of surfaces. The sidewalls of the castings and
other features perpendicular to the parting line must be drafted as much as possible.
The draft angle will depend upon the type of material and varies inversely with height of the wall.
Example

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

35

Injection Molding Design Guidelines


Wall Thickness Design Guidelines

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

36

Mold Wall Thickness


The thickness of the mold wall depends on the spacing between various features in the plastic model.
If features like ribs, bosses are placed close to each other or the walls of the parts, thin areas are
created which can be hard to cool and can affect quality. If the mold wall is too thin, it is also difficult
to manufacture and can also result in a lower life for the mold due to problems like hot blade
creation and differential cooling.
Minimum allowable mold wall thickness needs to be decided based on process and material
considerations.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

37

Uniform Wall Thickness


Non-uniform wall sections can contribute to warpage and stresses in molded parts. Sections which
are too thin have a higher chance of breakage in handling, may restrict the flow of material and may
trap air causing a defective part. Too heavy a wall thickness, on the other hand, will slow the curing
cycle and add to material cost and increase cycle time.
Generally, thinner walls are more feasible with small parts rather than with large ones. The limiting
factor in wall thinness is the tendency for the plastic material in thin walls to cool and solidify before
the mold is filled. The shorter the material flow, the thinner the wall can be. Walls also should be as
uniform in thickness as possible to avoid warpage from uneven shrinkage.
When changes in wall thickness are unavoidable, the transition should be gradual and not abrupt.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

38

Wall Thickness Variation


Wall thickness variation should be within tolerance so as to allow for smooth filling of the mold.
Ideally, the wall thickness should be uniform throughout the part (equal to the nominal wall
thickness). In reality, the variation is unavoidable due to requirements of functions and aesthetics.
However, the amount of variation has to be minimized.
Non-uniform wall thicknesses may cause uneven plastic flow and cause different parts of the part to
cool at different rates. This can cause warpage toward the heavier portion of the model. If an uneven
wall thickness is unavoidable, it may be necessary to provide additional cooling for the heavier
sections. This increases tooling complexity and adds to production costs.
In general, gradual change of 25% and 15% is acceptable in amorphous (PC, ABS, etc.) and semi
crystalline (Nylons, PE, etc.) materials respectively.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

39

Ribs Design Guidelines

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

40

Recommended Rib Parameters


Ribs are used to improve melt flow into sections, like corners or a large boss and to increase stiffness
of the part. The most economical way to increase stiffness of the part is by adding reinforcing ribs.
Ribs should be placed on the mounds opening direction. For parts under bending, ribs should be
placed perpendicular to the bending moment to achieve good stiffness.
However, projections like ribs can create cavity filling, venting, and ejection problems. These
problems become more troublesome for taller ribs. Ribs need to be designed in correct proportion to
avoid defects such as short shots and provide the required strength. Thick and deep ribs can cause
sink marks and filling problems respectively. Deep ribs can also lead to ejection problems. If ribs are
too long or too wide, supporting ribs may be required. It is better to use a number of smaller ribs
instead of one large rib (which can lead to voids or sink marks).
Generally, the rib height is recommended to be not more than 2.5 to 3 times the nominal wall
thickness. Similarly, rib thickness at its base should be around 0.4 to 0.6 times the nominal wall
thickness.
Example

t = Nominal Wall Thickness


W = Width of the Rib
H = Height of the Rib
T = Thickness at base of the Rib

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

41

Minimum Radius at Base of Ribs


A fillet of a certain minimum radius value should be provided at the base of a rib to reduce stress.
However, the radius should not be so large that it results in thick sections. The radius eliminates a
sharp corner and stress concentration. Flow and cooling are also improved.
Fillet radius at the base of ribs should be between 0.25 to 0.4 times the nominal wall thicknesses of
the part.
Example

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

42

Draft Angle for Ribs


Draft angle design is an important factor when designing plastic parts. Such parts may have a greater
tendency to shrink onto a core. This creates higher contact pressure on the core surface and
increases friction between the core and the part, thus making ejection of the part from the mold
difficult. Hence, draft angles should be designed properly to assist in part ejection. This also reduces
cycle time and improves productivity. Draft angles should be used on interior or exterior walls of the
part along the pulling direction.
A general guideline suggests that draft angle for rib should be around 1 to 1.5 deg. Minimum draft
should be 0.5 per side.
Example

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

43

Spacing Between two Parallel Ribs


Mold wall thickness gets affected due to spacing between various features in the plastic model. If
features like ribs are placed close to each other or the walls of the parts, thin areas are created which
can be hard to cool and can affect quality. If the mold wall is too thin, it is also difficult to
manufacture and can also result in a lower life for the mold due to problems like hot blade creation
and differential cooling.
A general guideline suggests that spacing between ribs should be at least 2 times the nominal wall.
Example

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

44

Bosses Design Guidelines

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

45

Minimum Radius at Base of Boss


Bosses find use in many part designs as points for attachment and assembly. The most common
variety consists of cylindrical projections with holes designed to receive screws, threaded inserts, or
other types of fastening hardware. Under service conditions, bosses are often subjected to loadings
not encountered in other sections of a component. Provide a generous radius at the base of the boss
for strength and ample draft for easy part removal from the mold.
A fillet of a certain minimum radius value should be provided at the base of boss to reduce stress. The
intersection of the base of the boss with the nominal wall is typically stressed and stress
concentration increases if no radii are provided. Also, the radius at the base of the boss should not
exceed a maximum value to avoid thick sections. The radius at base of boss provides strength and
ample draft for easy removal from the mold.
It is recommended that the radius at the base of boss should be 0.25 to 0.5 times the nominal wall
thickness.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

46

Spacing between Bosses


When bosses are placed very close to each other, it results in creating thin areas which are hard to
cool and can affect the quality and productivity. Also, if the mold wall is too thin, it is very difficult to
manufacture and often results in a lower life for the mold, due to problems like hot blade creation
and differential cooling.
The general guide line suggests that spacing between bosses should be at least 2 times the nominal
wall thickness.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

47

Radius at Base of Hole in Boss


Providing a radius on the core pin helps in avoiding a sharp corner. This not only helps molding but
also reduces stress concentration.
It is recommended that the radius at base of hole in boss should be 0.25 to 0.5 times the nominal wall
thickness.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

48

Minimum Draft for Boss OD


An appropriate draft on the outer diameter of a boss helps easy ejection from the mold. Draft is
required on the walls of boss to permit easy withdrawal from the mold.
It is recommended that minimum draft on outer surface of the boss should be greater than or equal
to 0.5 degree.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

49

Minimum Draft for Boss ID


Designs may require a minimum taper on the ID of a boss for proper engagement with a fastener.
Draft is required on the walls of boss to permit easy withdrawal from the mold.
It is recommended that minimum draft on the hole in boss should be greater than or equal to 0.25
degree.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

50

Boss Height to OD Ratio


A tall boss with the included draft will generate a material mass and thick section at the base. In
addition, the core pin will be difficult to cool, can extend the cycle time and affect the cored hole
dimensionally.
General guidelines suggest that the height of boss should be less than 3 times of outer diameter.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

51

Minimum Radius at Tip of Boss


Bosses are features added to the nominal wall thickness of the component and are usually used to
facilitate mechanical assembly. Under service conditions, bosses are often subjected to loadings not
encountered in other sections of a component.
A fillet of certain a minimum radius value should be provided at the tip of boss to reduce stress.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

52

Chamfer at Top of Boss


Boss should have chamfer on top. A chamfer at top of boss is good lead in for the fasteners.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

53

Wall Thickness of Boss


Wall thicknesses for bosses should be less than 60 percent of the nominal wall to minimize sinking.
However, if the boss is not in a visible area, then the wall thickness can be increased to allow for
increased stresses imposed by self-tapping screws.
It is recommended that wall thickness of boss should be around 0.6 times of nominal wall thickness
depending on the material.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

54

Standalone Boss
Bosses and other thick sections should be cored. It is good practice to attach the boss to the sidewall.
In this case the material flow is uniform and provides additional load distribution for the part.
For better rigidity and material flow, the general guideline suggests that boss should be connected to
nearest side wall.

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

55

General Design Guidelines

A DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING SUCCESS

56

Minimum Draft Angle


Draft angle design is an important factor when designing plastic parts. Because of shrinkage of plastic
material, injection molded parts have a tendency to shrink onto a core. This creates higher contact
pressure on the core surface and increases friction between the core and the part, thus making
ejection of the part from the mold difficult. Hence, draft angles should be designed properly to assist
in part ejection. This also reduces cycle time and improves productivity. Draft angles should be used
on interior and exterior walls of the part along the pulling direction.
It is typically recommended that the draft angle for sidewall should be at least between 0.5 to 2
degrees for inside and outside walls, although a larger angle will make it easier for part release.

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Undercut Detection
Undercuts should be avoided for ease of manufacturing. Undercuts typically require additional
mechanisms for manufacture adding to mold cost and complexity. In addition, the part must have
room to flex and deform.
Clever part design or minor design concessions often can eliminate complex mechanisms for
undercuts. Undercuts may require additional time for unloading molds. It is recommended that
undercuts on a part should be avoided to the extent possible.

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Sharp Corners
Generously rounded corners provide a number of advantages. There is less stress concentration on
the part and on the tool. Because of sharp corners, material flow is not smooth and tends to be
difficult to fill, reduces tooling strength and causes stress concentration. Parts with radii and fillets
are more economical and easier to produce, reduce chipping, simplify mold construction and add
strength to molded part with good appearance.
General design guideline suggests that corner radii should be at least one-half the wall thickness. It is
recommended to avoid sharp corners and use generous fillets and radii whenever required.

In addition inside and outside radii should have same center so as to avoid stresses during cooling as
shown in following image.

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Hole Depth to Diameter Ratio


Core pins are used to produce holes in plastic parts. Through holes are easier to produce than blind
holes which dont go through the entire part. Blind holes are created by pins that are supported at
only one end; hence such pins should not be long. Longer pins will deflect more and be pushed by
the pressure of the molten plastic material during molding.
It is recommended that hole depth-to-diameter ratio should not be more than 2.

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Sheet Metal Design Guidelines


Form Feature Design Guidelines

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Minimum Distance from Dimple to Bend


A certain minimum distance must be maintained between dimple and the bend feature to avoid
deformation and fracture of the metal.
It is recommended that the minimum distance between dimple to bend should be two times sheet
thickness plus the inside radius of the dimple plus radius of the bend.

t = Sheet metal thickness

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Minimum Distance from Dimple to Cutout


A minimum distance must be maintained between dimple and cutout edge to avoid deformation and
fracture of the metal.
It is recommended that a minimum distance of four times the sheet thickness plus the inside radius
of each dimple must be maintained between a dimple and cutout edge.

t = Sheet metal thickness

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Minimum Distance between Dimples


Care need to be taken when placing formed features close to each other. If a station does not clear a
form already placed in a part, the form will get flattened out.
It is recommended that the minimum distance between dimples should be four times sheet thickness
plus radius of the dimple.

t = Sheet metal thickness

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Minimum Distance from Dimple to Hole


To avoid deformation and fracture of the metal a certain minimum distance should be maintained
between dimple and adjacent holes
It is commonly recommended that the minimum distance between dimple and hole should be three
times sheet thickness.

t = Sheet metal thickness

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Minimum Distance from Dimple to Part Edge


It is recommended that the minimum distance between dimples to part edge should be four times
material thickness plus radius of the dimple to avoid deformation and fracture of the metal.

t = Sheet metal thickness

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Maximum Embossment Depth


Embosses are small, shallow formed projections on the surface of stamped parts. During this
operation, stretching is the main deformation mode resulting in high tension. Thereby the metal is
subject to excessive thinning or fracturing. Consequently, the depth of the embossed feature is
restricted by the material's thickness and ability to stretch in addition to the emboss geometry.
It is recommended that the maximum depth of embossment be less than or equal to three times
material thickness.

t = Sheet metal thickness

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Gussets
Gussets are used to strengthen a flange without the need for secondary processes such as welding.
A general guideline suggests that the width and depth of gusset at an angle of 45 degrees is directly
proportional to the radius and material thickness.

t = Sheet metal thickness


h = depth of gussets
W = width of gussets

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Minimum Distance from Hole to Gusset


A certain distance must be maintained between a hole and gusset to avoid metal deformation and
fracturing.
It is recommended that minimum distance between hole edge to gusset should be at least eight
times the material thickness.

t = Sheet metal thickness

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Minimum Distance from Extruded Hole to Part Edge


Extruding metal is one of the most extreme pressure applications in press working and generates lot
of friction and heat. If an extruded hole is too close to the part edge, it can lead to deformation or
tearing of the metal.
It is recommended that the minimum distance between the extruded holes to part edge should be at
least three times the thickness of sheet.

t = Sheet metal thickness

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Minimum Distance between Extruded Holes


Certain distance should be maintained between two extruded holes in sheet metal designs. If
extruded holes are too close it can lead to metal deformation.
It is recommended that the minimum distance between two extruded holes should be six times the
thickness of sheet metal.

t = Sheet metal thickness

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Minimum Distance from Extruded Hole to Bend


A certain distance must be maintained between extruded hole to bend to avoid metal deformation
and fracturing.
It is recommended that the minimum distance between extruded hole and bend should be three
times the thickness of sheet metal plus bend radius.

t = Sheet metal thickness

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Curl and Lance Design Guidelines

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Curl Radius
Curling is the process of forming the sheet metal flange into a rolled shape. Curling strengthens the
edges and provides smoothness to the surface. It is commonly used as a means of joining two
components.
Curls are often added to avoid sharp edges and make parts safer for handling and use.
It is recommended that the outside radius of curl should be minimum 2X of the material thickness.

t = Sheet metal thickness


R = Outside radius

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Minimum Distance between Curl and Hole


It is recommended that the minimum distance between a curl and the edge of a hole should be sum
of curl radius and material thickness.

t = Sheet metal thickness


D = Distance

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Minimum Depth of Lance


Lancing is a piercing operation in which the work piece is sheared and bent with strike of a die. In this
process there is no material removal however it only modifies the geometry. Lancing can be used to
make partial contours and free up material for other operations.
Lancing is used to make tabs, vents and louvers.
It is recommended that the minimum depth of lance should be 2X the material thickness.

t = Sheet metal thickness


H = Depth of lance

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Minimum Distance from Bend to Lance


During lancing operation a sufficient degree of clearance should be given around the lance feature
and bend.
It is recommended that minimum distance between lance and bend should be 3X the material
thickness plus bend radius.

d
t = Sheet metal thickness
r = Inside bend radius

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Minimum Distance from Hole to Lance


During lancing operation we need to maintain sufficient degree of clearance around the lance feature.
It is recommended that the distance between lance and hole should be 3X the material thickness.

t = Sheet metal thickness

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Minimum Spacing between Lances


During lancing operation sufficient degree of clearance should be maintained around the lance
feature as the punch and die will need some degree of clearance around the feature in order to hold
down the work piece during operation. If another lance is placed inside this working envelope it will
be crushed by the punch and die, potentially damaging the work piece and tools.
It is recommended to maintain sufficient clearance between two lance features by considering die
and punch clearance allowance.

t = Sheet metal thickness

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Hem Design Guidelines

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Open Hem
A Hem has a full round feature and a return flange. In open hem bend angle is equal to 180 degrees.
It is recommended that the ratio of the open hem radius to the sheet metal thickness should be
greater than or equal 0.5.
Also, the ratio of return flange height to the sheet metal thickness should be greater than or equal to
4.

Where,
H = Return flange height
D = Open hem diameter
T = Sheet metal thickness

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Rolled Hem
It is recommended that the ratio of the external radius of a rolled hem to material thickness should
be greater than or equal to 2.
Also, the ratio of the rolled hem opening to material thickness should be greater than or equal to 1.

R = Rolled hem's external radius


D = Rolled hem's opening

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Tear Drop Hem


In tear drop hem the bend angle is greater than 180 degrees. It is recommended to consider the
following guidelines while designing a tear drop hem The ratio of the radius of a tear drop hem to the sheet metal thickness should be greater than or
equal to 0.5
The ratio of the return flange height to the sheet metal thickness should be greater than or equal to
4.0
The ratio of the hem opening (spacing between the hem edge and the part) to the sheet metal
thickness should be greater than or equal to 0.25

Where,
d = Diameter of a tear drop hem.
H = Return flange height of the tear drop hem.
D= Hem Opening
T = Sheet Metal Thickness

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Rolled Hem to Hole Edge Distance


The ratio of the distance between the rolled hem and the edge of a hole to the sheet thickness
should be greater than or equal to 1.

T = Sheet metal thickness


D = Distance

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Closed Hem
Hems without any inside radius are called as closed hem. Closed hems are not recommended if the
hem geometry is to be painted or if the material used is SST or Aluminum.
In closed hems, return flange length from outside the bend should be equal to or greater than four
times the material thickness.

H = Return flange height of the tear drop hem


T = Sheet Metal Thickness

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Knife Edge
Knife edge features on sheet metal parts should be avoided for ease of manufacturing. To achieve
knife edges on sheet metal parts, additional operations may be required which increases the cost of
the product. Knife edge conditions can also lead to fatigue failures in certain conditions.
It is recommended to avoid knife edge conditions as it can either increase the manufacturing cost and
complexity or lead to fatigue failures.

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Notch and Tab Parameters

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Notch Parameters
Notching is a shearing operation in which a section is removed the outside edge of metal strip or part.
Notching is typically manual and low-cost process performed with a small range of standard punches.
Appropriate notch parameters results in use of standard punch sizes
Notch Width ( W) should not be narrower than 1.5 x t
Notch Length (L) should be maximum up to 5 x t
Recommended corner radius for notches should be 0.5 x t

t = Sheet Metal Thickness


L = Length/ Depth of Notch
W = Width of Notch

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Notch to Bend Distance


In case distance between notches to bend is very small then distortion of sheet metal may take place.
To avoid such condition notch should be placed at appropriate distance from bend with respect to
sheet thickness.
It is recommended that minimum distance from notch to bend should be 3 times the material
thickness plus inside bend radius.

t = Sheet Metal Thickness

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Minimum Distance between Notches


It is recommended that minimum distance between two Notches should be two times the material
thickness.

t = Sheet Metal Thickness


D = Distance between Notches

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Minimum Distance between Notch to Hole


It is recommended that minimum distance between Notch and Hole should be 1.2 times the material
thickness.

t = Sheet Metal Thickness


D = Distance between Notch and Hole

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Tab Parameters
A protrusion from an edge of the sheet metal part is called a tab.
It is recommended that Tab Width [C] should be greater than two times the sheet thickness.
It is recommended that Tab Depth [B] should be less than or equal to five times the tab width.

t = Sheet Metal Thickness


B = Tab Depth
C = Tab Width

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Minimum Distance between Tabs


It is recommended that minimum distance between tabs should be 1.5 times the sheet metal
thickness.

t = Sheet Metal Thickness


D = Tab Distance

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Burring Hole Design Guidelines

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Burring Hole Height


Sufficient burring holes height is needed to accommodate the stress during loading. It is
recommended that the minimum burring height should be at least 2 times the sheet metal thickness.

Where,
h = Burring hole height
t = Sheet metal thickness

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Burring Hole Inner Diameter


Burring hole inner diameter should be sufficient enough to accommodate the pins, bolts etc.

Where,
d1 = Burring hole inner diameter

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Burring Hole Distance to Bends


Burring holes that are too close to the bend will distort during the bending process. Distortion will be
minimal if the distance between the edge of the hole to the beginning of the inside bend radius is at
least four times the material thickness.
It is recommended that the minimum distance between the burring hole edge and the bend should
be at least 4 times the sheet thickness.

Where,
A = Minimum distance from a burring hole edge and bend
t = Sheet metal thickness

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Burring Hole Distance to Part Edge


If the distance from a burring hole edge and the part edge falls below a minimum value, then it can
lead to distortion or breaking of the sheet. If a burring hole is too close to an edge, the edge can
distort, forming a bulge.
It is recommended that the minimum distance from a burring hole edge and the part edge should be
at least 4 times the sheet thickness.

Where,
B = Minimum distance from a burring hole edge and the part edge
t = Sheet metal thickness

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Burring Hole Distance to Cutout


If the distance from a burring hole edge and the cutout edge falls below a minimum value, there is a
chance of distortion or cracking of the sheet in the area under consideration. If a burring hole is too
close to an edge, the edge can distort, forming a bulge.
It is recommended that the minimum distance from a burring hole edge and the cutout edge should
be at least 4 times the sheet thickness.

Where,
D = Minimum distance from a burring hole edge and cutout edge
t = Sheet metal thickness

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Burring Hole Spacing


Sufficient, space should be mentioned between the two adjacent burring holes to avoid distortion or
else harder materials may crack during fabrication.
It is recommended that the minimum distance between the burring hole edge and other burring hole
edge should be greater than or equal to 4 times the sheet metal thickness.

Where,
C = Burring hole spacing
t = Sheet metal thickness

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General Design Guidelines

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Preferred Sheet Sizes


Length and width of a flattened sheet metal part should be as per the standard sheet sizes that are
available in the inventory.
Each organization has its standard or preferred sheet sizes which are in accordance with the
machines capability and setup. At the initial stage of the design, designer should be aware of
unfolded sheet size and availability of corresponding appropriate sheet sizes in the inventory. This
will help designer to take decision related to inventory management. Indirectly it helps to reduce
inventory of non-standard sheet sizes and cost of manufacturing.
Length and width of the flattened sheet metal part should be within the preferred sheet sizes used
for manufacturing, depending on the material and sheet thickness.

L = Sheet metal length


W = Sheet metal width
CL = Trimming clearance on length side
CW = Trimming clearance on width side
Note: For nested components, additional considerations will be required.

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Minimum Hole Diameter


If the punch diameter becomes too small to bear the shear force required to punch the hole over a
small area, it may lead to failure.

Where,
d1 = Hole diameter
t = Sheet metal thickness

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Interference in Flat Pattern


It is not feasible to manufacture a sheet metal part when its design involves interference during
unfolded state of sheet metal.
Interference in flat pattern should be avoided for ease of manufacturing as there should not be any
interference in sheet metal component design when sheet metal part is unfolded.

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Half-Shear Parameters
A Semi-shear or half-shear is a blind hole that is punched on the sheet metal surface. The ratio of
half-shear depth to sheet metal thickness should not be too large to avoid deformation and fracture
of the metal.
It is recommended that a maximum ratio of half-shear depth to sheet metal thickness should be less
than or equal to 0.6 times the sheet metal thickness.

t = Sheet metal thickness


h = Half-shear depth

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Hole To Part Edge Distance


To prevent distortion or tearing, hole should be sufficiently away from the part edge. It is
recommended that minimum distance from a hole to edge of a part should be at least 2 times sheet
thickness

T= Sheet metal thickness

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Minimum Bend Radius


Minimum bend radius is a function of the ductility and thickness of the material being worked. The
minimum bend radii requirements can vary depending on applications and material. For aerospace
and space applications, the values may be higher. When the radius is less than recommended, this
can cause material flow problems in soft material and fracturing in hard material. Localized necking
or fracture may also occur in such cases.
It is recommended that minimum inner bend radius should be at least 1 * material thickness.

r = Inside Bend radius


t = Sheet metal thickness

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Bend Relief
Bend relief is the notch that needs to be created for sheet metal bending. Bend relief helps control
the sheet metal material behavior and prevents unwanted deformation.
The flange which does not have relief will result in a greater amount of distortion or tearing of the
adjacent material.
It is recommended that the depth of bend relief should be greater than or equal to the inside bend
radius of the bend and also width of the bend relief should be equal to or greater than the sheet
metal thickness.

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Minimum Hole Diameter


The diameter of the hole in sheet metal part should not be very small, small holes are created by
piercing operation and for manufacture small holes, small sizes punches are required.
Small hole size in sheet metal requires smaller size punching tool which may leads to break during the
operation.
It is recommended that the diameter of the hole should be equal or more than the thickness of the
sheet metal.

A = Minimum Hole Diameter


t = Sheet metal thickness

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Curls Feature
Curling sheet metal is the process of adding a hollow, circular roll to the edge of the sheet. The curled
edge provides strength to the edge and makes it safe for handling. Curls are most often used to
remove a sharp untreated edge and make it safe for handling.
It is recommended that:
The outside radius of a curl should not be smaller than 2 times the material thickness.
A size of the hole should be at least the radius of the curl plus material thickness from the curl
feature.
A bend should be at least the radius of the curl plus 6 times the material thickness from the curl
feature.

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Hem Feature
Hemming is nothing but to fold the metal back on itself. In Sheet Metal Hems are used to create folds
in sheet metal in order to stiffen edges and create an edge safe to touch.
Hems are most often used to remove a sharp untreated edge and make it safe for handling. Hems are
commonly used to hide imperfections and provide a generally safer edge to handle. a combination of
two hems can create strong, tight joints with little or minimal fastening. Hems can even be used to
strategically double the thickness of metal in areas of a part which may require extra support.
It is recommended that:
For Tear drop hems, the inside diameter should be equal to the material thickness.
For Open hem the bend will lose its roundness when the inside diameter is greater than the
sheet metal thickness.
For bends, the minimum distance between the inside edge of the bend and the outside of the
hem should be 5 times material thickness plus bend radius plus hem radius.

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Notch Feature
Notching is a shearing operation that removes a section from the outer edge of the metal strip or
part. In case, distance between the notches to bend is very small then distortion of sheet metal may
take place.
To avoid such condition notch should be placed at appropriate distance from bend with respect to
sheet thickness.
Notching is a low-cost process, particularly for its low tooling costs with a small range of standard
punches.
Recommendations for Notch Feature:
Notch Width should not be narrower than 1.5 * t
Length of notches can be up to 5 * t
Recommended corner radius for notches should be 0.5 * t

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