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Syllabus

Wave-particle duality, deBroglie waves; Quantum


mechanical operators; Schrodinger equation, Wave
function, Statistical interpretation, Superposition Principle,
Continuity Equation for probability density; Stationary
states, Bound states, Free-particle solution, 1-D infinite
potential well, Expectation values and uncertainty
relations; 1-D finite potential well, Quantum mechanical
tunneling and alpha decay, Kronig-Penny model and
emergence of bands

PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

Quantum Mechanics:
Books

Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei and


Particles 2 Edition By: Robert Eisberg, Robert Resnick,
Publisher: Wiley (2006), Approx. Rs. 500/-

Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 2 Edition by: David J.


Griffiths, Publisher: Pearson (2005) Approx. Rs. 605

Lecture Materials at

Moodle

PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

Youngs Double Slit experiment


Maxwells theory describes light as electromagnetic waves
I1

I1+I2
Reduce
Intensity

S1

Particles
Hit the
Screen ?

S2
I2

PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

Light as particles
Certain amount of momentum and energy hit the screen at
this point

Momentum: = =
Energy: = = (2)
Is identical for each particle as long as wavelength is
fixed.
Since = , E=pc

From relativity, E 2 = c 2 p2 + m2 4

These are mass less particles

Shock: Light consists of particles. In order to see them, your light source
has to be extremely weak.

PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

The problem

S1

How can you have no hits, when both slits


are open?

Particles normally either take path through


S1 or S2.
=> Waves are needed !

S2

Photons were not found this way !

Photons were predicted by Einstein based on fairly complicated


thermodynamical and statistical arguments
PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

Photoelectric effect
In metals Some electrons are communal.
Light
W, work function: energy required for the electron
to be removed from the metal

K= Energy given to electron -W


K.E.

Einstein showed that:


Light consists of photons each carrying
Energy

W
High Intensity low
frequency light
Millions of photons

K= -W

Can not lift the electrons out of atom

PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

Compton's Scattering
When light of wavelength bounces o a static electron, it is found that its
wavelength gets altered
+

Can be explained from energy and momentum conservation


in a collision between electron and photon
Momentum: =
Energy: =

Conclusively proved that light consists of particles, called photons


PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

Wave-particle duality
If light consists of particles called photons Particles may have wave
associated with them.
de Broglie postulated that with every electron of momentum p there is an
associated wave with wavelength : = 2/

This is unexpected ?
S1

Electron
S2

Why these electrons show an


Interference pattern ? ( in contrast
To bullets)
(Hint: the separation of the minima
Depends on wavelength)

Array of electron detector


PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

Example of wave nature of electrons

Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED)


pattern of Si(111)7 7 surface
PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

Act of Measurement in Quantum mechanics


If all electrons are
catched
I1

If 10 % of electrons are
missed

I1+I2
S1

Electron
S2

I2
1. An electron acts like it went through one particular slit if we see it doing that
2. The electron acts like it did not have a specic path (through a specic slit) when it
is not seen.
PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

The wave function


The double slit experiment tells us that electrons do not follow Newtonian
trajectories.
Instead their fate is determined by a wave function (x, y, z).
Born's statistical interpretation of the wave function:

Probability is the area under the graph

PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

Collapse of the wave function


Quantum Mechanics only offer statistical information.
Suppose I do measure the position of the particle, and I find it to be at point C.
Question: Where was the particle just before I made the measurement?
Immediately after measurement

The particle is at point C.


The particle wasn't really anywhere. It is the
act of measurement that forced the particle to
"take a stand" .

PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

Collapse of the wave function

Probability P (x)

Role of Probability in QM

PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

Some Postulates of Quatum mechanics


Postulate 1 The complete information on the state of the particle is
encoded in a complex function (x) called the wave function.
Postulate 2 The probability of nding the particle between x and x + dx is
given by |(x)|2 dx.
Postulate 3 If x is measured, will collapse to a spike at the measured
value of x .
Postulate 4 The evolution of with time is given by the Schrdinger
equation

PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

PROBABILITY
one person aged 14,
one person aged 15,
three people aged 16,
two people aged 22,
two people aged 24.
five people aged 25.

N(l4) = 1,
N(15) = 1,
N(16) = 3,
N(22) = 2,
N(24) = 2,
N(25) = 5,

The total number of people in the room is


Question 1. If you selected one individual at random from this group,
what is the probability that this person's age would be 15?
Answer: One chance in 14
In general,
PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

=>

PROBABILITY
one person aged 14,
one person aged 15,
three people aged 16,
two people aged 22,
two people aged 24.
five people aged 25.

N(l4) = 1,
N(15) = 1,
N(16) = 3,
N(22) = 2,
N(24) = 2,
N(25) = 5,

The total number of people in the room is

Question 2. What is the most probable age?


Answer: 25, obviously; five people share this age, whereas at most
three have any other age.
In general, the most probable j is the j for which P(j) is a maximum.
PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

PROBABILITY
one person aged 14,
one person aged 15,
three people aged 16,
two people aged 22,
two people aged 24.
five people aged 25.

N(l4) = 1,
N(15) = 1,
N(16) = 3,
N(22) = 2,
N(24) = 2,
N(25) = 5,

The total number of people in the room is

Question 3. What is the median age?


Answer: 23, for 7 people are younger than 23, and 7 are older.
In general, the median is that value of j such that the probability of
getting a larger result is the same as the probability of getting a
smaller result.
PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

PROBABILITY
one person aged 14,
one person aged 15,
three people aged 16,
two people aged 22,
two people aged 24.
five people aged 25.

N(l4) = 1,
N(15) = 1,
N(16) = 3,
N(22) = 2,
N(24) = 2,
N(25) = 5,

The total number of people in the room is

Question 4. What is the average (or mean) age?


Answer:

In general, the average value of j


PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

is called expectation value in QM.

PROBABILITY
one person aged 14,
one person aged 15,
three people aged 16,
two people aged 22,
two people aged 24.
five people aged 25.

N(l4) = 1,
N(15) = 1,
N(16) = 3,
N(22) = 2,
N(24) = 2,
N(25) = 5,

The total number of people in the room is

Question 5. What is the average of the squares of the ages?


Answer:
In general,
2

PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

PROBABILITY

They have the same median (5), the same average, the same most probable
value, and the same number of elements (10).
We need a numerical measure of the amount of "'spread" in a distribution,
with respect to the average
Find out how far each
individual deviates from the
average
and compute the average :
PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics

is as often negative as positive

PROBABILITY

We define the variance of the distribution;


standard deviation.

Usually,
PYL100 Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics