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Every management tries to coordinate various factor of production in such a way

that their contribution is maximum in achieving organizational goals. The
performance of non-human factors like machines, etc. will depend upon the level
of technology and the competence of those who use them. To improve the overall
performance of persons depends upon two factors, i.e. (i) ability to do a work, and
(ii) motivation. Both these factors taken together will increase the efficiency of
human beings. If a person does not have the capability or ability to do a work then
he cannot increase his efficiency. On the other hand, even if a person has got the
ability but is not properly motivated even then his performance will be low.
Motivation is an important factor which encourages persons to give their best
performance and help in reaching enterprise goals. A strong positive motivation
will enable the increased output of employees but a negative motivation will
reduce their performance. A key element in personnel management is motivation.
According to Likert, It is the core of management which shows that every human
being gives him a sense of worth in face-to-face groups which are most important
to him .. A supervisor should strive to treat individuals with dignity and
recognition of their personal worth.1
Motivation has been variously defined by scholars. Soe definitions are discussed as
Berelson and Steiner. A motive is an inner state that energizes, activates or moves
and or driving it to action.3

The Encyclopedia or Management

Motivation refers to degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some
designated goal and implies the determination of the nature and locus of the forces,
including the degree of readiness.
Dubin. Motivation is the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work
in an organization.
Vance. Motivation implies any emotion or desire which so conditions ones will
that the individual is property led into action.
Vitiles. Motivation represents an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension
or disequilibrium, causing the individual to make in a goal-directed pattern towards
restoring a state of equilibrium by satisfying the need.
Memoria. A willingness to expend energy to achieve a goal or reward. It is a
force that activates dormant energies and sets in motion the action of the people. It
is the fuction that kindles a burning passion for action among the human beings of
an organizations.


Motivation is a psychological phenomena which generates within an individual. A

person feels the lack of certain needs, to satisfy which he feels working more. The

need satisfying ego motivates a person to do better than he normally does. From
definitions given earlier th following inferences can be derived:
1.Motivation is an inner feeling which energizes a person to work more.
2.The emotions or desires of a person promt him for doing a particular work.
3.There are unsatisfied needs of a person which disturb his equilibrium.
4. A person moves to fulfill his unsatisfied needs by conditioning his energies.
5.There are dormant energies in a person which are activated by channelizing them
into actions.

When a manager wants to get more work from his subordinates then he will have
to motivate them for improving their performance. They will either be offered
incentive for more work, or may be in the space of rewards, better reports,
recognition etc., or he may instill fear in them or use force for getting desired
work. The following are the types of motivation:

1.Positive Motivation: Positive motivation or incentive motivation is based on

reward. The workers are offered incentives for achieving the desired goals. The
incentives may be in the shape of more pay, promotion, recognition of work, etc.
The employees are offered the incentives and try to improve their performance
willingly. According to Peter Ducker, the real and positive motivators are
responsible for placement, high standard of performance, information adequate for
self-control and the participation of the worker as a responsible citizen in the plant

community. Positive motivation is achieved by the co-operation of employees and

they have a feeling of happiness.
2. Negative Motivation: Negative or fear motivation is based on force or fear.
Fear causes employee to act in a certain way, In case, they do not act accordingly,
then they may be punished with demotions or lay-offs. The fear acts as a push
mechanism. The employees do not willingly co-operate, rather they want to avoid
the punishment. Though employees work upto a level where punishment is avoided
but this type of motivation causes anger and frustration. This type of motivation
generally becomes a cause of industrial unrest.
In spite of the drawbacks of negative motivation, this method is commonly used to
achieve desired results. There may be hardly any management which has not used
negative motivation at one or the other time.

Management tries to utilize all the sources of production in a best possible manner.
This can be achieved only when employees co-operate in this task. Efforts should
be made to motivate employees for contributing their maximum. The efforts of
management will not bear fruit if the employees are not encouraged to work more.
The motivated employees become an asset to the organization. The following is the
importance of motivation.
1.High Performance: Motivated employees will put maximum efforts for
achieving organizational goals. The untapped reservoirs of physical and mental
abilities are taped to the maximum. Better performance will also result in higher

productivity. The cost of production can also be brought down if productivity

The employees should be offered more incentive for increasing their performance.
Motivation will act as a stimulant for improving the performance of employees.
2.Low Employee Turnover and Absenteeism: When the employees are not
satisfied with employees also uincreases absenteeism. The employment training of
new employees costs dearly to the organization. When the employees are satisfied
with their jobs and they are well motivated by offering them financial and nonfinancial incentives then they will not leave the job. The rate of absenteeism will
also be low because they will try to increase their output.
3.Better organizational Image: Those enterprises which offer better monetary
and non-monetary facilities to their employees have a better image among them.
Such concerns are successful in attracting better qualified and experienced persons.
Since there is a better man-power to development programme, the employees will
like to join such organizations. Motivational efforts will simplify personnel
fuctions also.
4.Better Industrial Relations: A good motivational system will create job
satisfaction among employees. The employment will offer them better service
conditions and vaiours other incentives. There will be an atmosphere of confidence
among employers and employees. There will be no reason for conflict and cordial
relations among both sides will create a healthy atmosphere. So motivation among
employees will lead to better industrial relations.
5.Acceptability to change: The changing social and industrial situations will
require changes and improvements in the working of enterprises. There will be a
need to introduced new and better methods of work from time to time. Generally,

employees resist changes for fear of an adverse effect on their employment. When
the employees are given various opportunities of development then they can easily
adapt to new situation. They will think of positive side of new changes and will cooperate with the management. If the employees are satisfied with their work and
are not offered better avenues then they will oppose everything suggested by the
management. Motivation will ensure the acceptability of new changes by the

Significance of the Porter and Lawler Model

Porter and Lawler model is a departure from the traditional analysis of satisfaction
and performance relationship. In practice, we find that motivation is not a simple
cause and effect relationship; rather it is a complex phenomenon. This model is of
great significance to managers since it sensitizes them to focus their attention on
the following points to keep their employees motivated:
1.Match the abilities and traits of individuals to the requirements of the job by
putting the right person on the right job.
2.He should carefully explain to the subordinates their roles or what they must do
to be rewarded. Then he must make sure that they understand it.
3.Prescribe in concrete terms the actual performance levels expected of the
individuals and these levels should be made attainable.
4.To achieve and maintain motivation, the appropriate reward must be associated
with successful performance.
5.Make sure that the rewards dispensed are valued by the employees. Thus, he
should find out what rewards are attractive to the employee and see if such rewards
can be given to him.

Porter and Lawler model has definitely made a significant contribution to the better
understanding of work motivation and the relationship between performance and
satisfaction. But even then, to date, it has not made much impact on the actual
practice of human resource management.
Every management tries to spacing certain motivational techniques which can be
employed for improving performance of its employees. The techniques may not be
similarly useful in all types of concerns. Some techniques may be suitably
employed in one concern, others may be useful in another concern and so on.
Motivational techniques may be classified into two categories i.e., financial and
non-financial. Both the categories of motivators are discussed as under.
A. Financial Motivators
Financial motivators may be in the form of more wages and salaries, bonuses,
profit-sharing, leave with pay, medical reimbursements, company paid insurance of
any of the other things that may be given to employees for performance. The
economists and most managers consider money and financial incentives as
important motivators. Behavioural scientists, on the other hand tnd to place them
low. Neither view is probably right.
Money is the most important motivator to people who are young and are raising
their families than to those who have aligned at a stage when money needs are less.
Money needs go on changing from time to time. A person may be satisfied with a
modest house at one time. He may like to have a comfortable house later on for
some persons money remains to be a motivator and for others it may never be.
According to Gellerman money is actually used to retain people in the organization

the not primarily to motivate them. To attract good persons an organization will
have to offer better wages.
Generally, persons engaged in some types of work are offered equal wages. It is
seen as a practice that persons on comparable levels get the same or usually the
same compensation. Under such circumstances money tends to be diluted as a
motivator. Besides all this money can motivate people if their wages are related to
their performance.
B. Non financial Motivators
These motivators are in the nature of better status, recognition, participation, job
security etc. Some of these motivators are discussed here.
1.Recognition: Every person wants his work to be recognized by his superiors.
When he knows that his performance is know to his boss then he will try to
improve it more and mor. The recognition may be in the form of a word of praise, a
pat on the bak, a word of praise, a letter of appreciation, entry in annual
confidential report etc. There may also be awards, certificates, plaque etc. The
recognition may be for better output, saving in time, improving quality of products,
suggestions for better ways of doing things etc. These types of recognitions will act
as motivator. If the performance of person is not recognized and everybody is
treated on the same footing then good persons will not like to put their best efforts.
2.Participation: Participation has been considered a good technique for
motivation. It implies physical and mental involvement of people in decisionmaking process. It satisfies ego and self esteem of persons. They feel important
when asked to make suggestions in their field of activity. There is no doubt that
most of the people know the problems they will face and their possible solutions.

Participations result in motivation and knowledge valuable for the enterprise

success. Participation gives a sense of affiliation and accomplishment. It certainly
acts as motivator. Participation should not mena that managers should abdicate
their positions. They sould encourage subordinates to participate in matters whre
they can help. Managers should listen various view-point and then take decisions
3. Status: It refers to a social status of a person and it satisfies egoistic needs. A
management facilities to the persons. These may be superior furniture, carpets on
the floor, attachments of peons, personal assistant etc. To get these facilities a
person will have to hshow a certain amount of performance. When a person
achieves certain facilities then he tries to get better status by working more. In this
way status needs act as motivator.
4.Competition: In some organizations competition is used as a motivator. Various
persons are given certain objectives and everbody tries to achieve them ahead of
others.There may be praises appreciation letters, financial incentives to those who
reach the

goals first. The competition encourages persons to improve their

5.Job Enrichment: Job enrichment has been recognized as an important motivator
by various researches. The job is made more important and challenging for the
workers, may be given wide latitude in deciding about their work methods. The
employees will also perform the management functions of planning and control so
far as the work is concerned. According to Herzberg, job enrichment would
provide an opportunity for the employees psychological growth. The employee is
given the dealings and quality standards he must meet. Within a framework he is

given a free hand to decide and perform the work. It begins more job satisfaction
and high morale. So it is recognized device of motivation.

Morale is defined by various terms from different standpoints. In military situation
morale means enthusiasm to accomplish the assigned task or espirt-de-corps, in
sports it may mean self confidence of a team, in education it may be the eagerness
to learn by student, in business it is associated with the desire to achieve the goals.
So it is an overall attitude of an individual or group towards all aspects of their
work e.g., the company, the job, the supervisors, fellow workers, working
conditions, etc.
Flippo has described morale as a mental condition or attitude of individuals
and groups which determines their willingness to co-operate. Good morale is
evidenced by employee enthusiasm, voluntary confirmation with regulations and
orders, and a willingness to co-operate with others in the accomplishment of an
organisations objectives. Poor morale is evidenced by surliness, insubordination, a
feeling of discouragement and dislike of the job, company and associates. In the
words fo Yoder,morale is a feeling, somewhat related to esprit de corps,
enthusiasm or xeal, For group of workers, morale, according to a popular usage of
the word, refers to the over-all tone, climate or atmosphere of work, perhaps
vaguely sensed by the members.
According to Prof. Jucius, morale consists of :

What is it? What does it do? Where does it reside? Whom does it affect? And what
does it affect? He answers his own question as3:
(a)What is it? It is an attitude of mind, an esprit de corps, a state of well being.
And an emotional force.
(b)What does it do? It affects output, the quality of a product, costs, co-operation,
enthusiasm, discipline, initiative and other ingredients of success.
(c)Where does it reside. It resides in the minds and emotions of individuals and in
the reaction of their group or groups.
(d)Where does it affect? It affect the employees and executives in there
interactions. Ultimately it affects consumers and the community.
(e)Whom does it affect? It affects an employees groups will to work and cooperate in the best interests of the individuals or groups and the organizations for
which they work.
Individual and group morale
Individual morale is a single persons attitude towards work, environment etc.
Whereas group morale reflects the general attitude of a group of persons. Group
morale is everybodys concern and may go on changing with the passage of time.
Individual and group morale are interested but not necessarily identical. They have
an effect on each other. The individuals personal perception of the present
conditions may be high but the groups perception may be low or vice-versa.

High or Low Morale


Morale may be referred to high morale. In the words of MeFarland, high Morale
exists when employee attitudes are favourable to the total situation of a group and
to the attainment of its objectives. Low morale exists when attitudes inhibit the
willingness and ability of an organization to attain its objective. The words such as
zeal, enthusiasm, loyalty, dependability denote high morale. Low morale may be
describe by words like lack of interest, laziness apathy, bickering, jealousy,
quarrelsome, pessimism, etc.
Morale and Motivation
Morale and motivation are interred related but differ from each other. Morale refers
to the attitude fo a person towards his work and environment while motivation is a
process to inspire people. Motivation is an inner feeling which energizes a person
to work more for satisfying his unsatisfied demands. Motivation revolves round
needs and incentives while morale will determine the willingness to co-operate.
Morale is a group phenomenon while motivation is an individuals readiness to
work more. Moral is related to the combination of various factors operating at
work but motivation concerns to the job only. Motivation helps in mobilizing
energy while morale is concerned with the mobilization of sentiments.
Following are considered to be causes of low morale in a group ; in addition to the
above mentioned factors affecting the morale of the employees :
1. Morale of the employees will be low if some people are allowed to get
away with insufficient work, if work is inadequately divided, if there is any
hint of partiality or if there are considerable differences of pay among those
with similar length of services and class of work.

2. If one employee is getting higher emoluments but doing less important

work compared to one who is doing more important and quality work but is
receiving less salary, the morale of the latter is definitely going to be
adversely affected.
3. If the supervisor makes a big fuss over a little fault of the worker, the
moral is definitely being undermined. This is the one of the most frequent
cause of lowering the moracle of employees.
4. If a worker is not well, physically or mentally, it is always a cause of
discomfort, especially when it is due to maladjustments in the work.
5. Morale may be seriously affected if the lines of authority which have been
established are not adhered to. If the superior short circuits his immediate
subordinate and gives orders directly to his subordinates subordinate, it
violates a fundamental principle of management when this thing happens
repeatedly it undermines the morale of the subordinate who is shifted to the
position of a figure head only.
6. When there is no chance of promotion and the employee feels that while
remaining in the same organistion, there are no future prospects he loses a
sense of belongingness.
7. If the employee does not get any sense of achievement while working in
the organization, his morale tends to be low. This, usually happens in the
situations where a person feels that the underlying aim of building morale
and team work is personal advancement of the superiors or maximum profits
for the organization, they will consider themselves fools for working harder
than they have to.



Perceptive managers are constantly on the look out for clues to any deterioration in
the morale of the employees Signs of low morale are, generally, not noticed till it is
obviously how or when something has gone amiss. Among the more significant of
the warning signals of how morale are

High rate of absenteeism

High labour turnover
Strikes and sabotage
Lack of pride in work and
Wastage and spoilage


Following are some of the significant signs of high morale of a group :

A tendency for the group to hold together not merely as a result of external


pressures but rather through internal cohesiveness.

A lack of tendency of its members to divide into sub-groups.
An ability of the group to adapt itself to changing circumstances and to handle


internal conflicts.
A feeling of belongingness and togetherness among the members of the group.
A commonness of goals among the members of the group
A passive attitude of the members with respect to the objectives of the group


and to its leaders.

A desire on the part of the members to retain the group and a regard for its
positive value.

Factors Improving Morale

Morale building is very important for an organization. The manager should
constantly make efforts to improve the morale of employees. Although it may be

done either on individual basis or on group basis, the letter is always prefersable.
This is because, the management can easily influence the group morale by
understanding the group dynamics, which in turn, can automatically achieve the
individual morale. Following suggestions can help in improving the morale of
1. Two way communication: There should be proper communication between
management and employees. All policies and programmes should be
explained to the employees through down ward communication. The feelings,
reactions of the employees should regularly reach management in an upward
communication. The feed-back from employees will help the management in
required changes in policies etc. Two-way communication will help in
improving the morale of employees.
2. Proper Incentive System : There should be proper system for monetary and
non-monetary benefits for the employees. The employuees showing better
performance should automatically be given incentives. There should be proper
promotional awareness for employees who can under take higher
3. Human Relation Approach: This approach suggests that employees should
be treated as human beings. Their feelings and emotions should be given due
weight age. There should not be any discrimination among employees and
groups. The contribution of every employee to the organization should be
recognized and adequate incentives rewards should be offered for higher
4. Welfare Schemes: There should be proper welfare schemes for the employees
and their families. There should be housing facilities, medical facilities,
schools for the children, recreation facilities, social security etc. All these


measures will develop positive attitudes in employees, such schemes will also
show managements concern for the employees welfare.
5. Participation in Management: Workers should be made a part of
management by opting them in decision making bodies. It will encourage
industrial democracy in the organization. The periodical consulation with
workers for making any changes will help in proper implementation. The
workers will bhe able to understand the viewpoint of the management on
important decision concerning the workers. Once workers are associated with
decision making then they will feel it as their responsibility to help in
implementing them. Such a step will enhance the prestige of workers and their
morale will improve.
6. Improve workers Training: The workers should be given proper training so
that their performance on jobs is better. This will give satisfaction and
pleasure for working on their jobs. If a worker is not suitable for a job or he is
deficient in working on a job then it will bring frustration and tension to him.
So better training helps in improving morale of employees.


Having studied this course you should be able to discuss what is meant by the term
motivation and the situational and trait-centred views of motivation. You have
examined two of the theories of motivation to develop your understanding more

The main learning points for this course are:

People will be motivated by a range of factors and these are different for

Personality and the environment both need to be considered when

motivating people.

Need achievement theory explains why high achievers choose difficult or

challenging tasks and why low achievers choose easier tasks at which they are
less likely to fail.

Attribution theory shows that what we attribute our success or failure to will
have an effect on our motivation.