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ENERGY TRANSFER IN BUILDINGS

Heat losses in building

Heat energy flows out from the building when the temperature inside is higher
than the temperature inside.
Heat is transferred through an elements of a building (such as wall), by a
number of mechanism (conduction, convection and radiation) within an
element.

Measuring insulation and heat loss

Overall thermal transmittance coefficient or U-Value is a measure of the


overall heat transfer by all mechanism under standard condition, through a
particular section of section. The unit measurement is W/m 2K.
The coefficient or U-Value is measure as the rate of heat flow in watts through
1m2 of the structure when there is a temperature difference across the
structure of 1 Degree (K or C).
An R-Value is measure of the opposition heat transfer offered by a particular
building elements, such as wall or by parts of that elements. The Unit
measurement is m2K/W.

Factor affecting heat loss

Insulation in the building shell


Expose area in the building shell
Temperature difference between inside and outside
Air change rate
Exposure to external climate
Efficiency of service in the building
Patterns of use for the building

Insulation in the building shell


Elements of
the building
Walls
Roof
Windows

Type of construction
Min insulation
Modern common practice
High performance
Min insulation
Modern common practice
Older single glazing
Modern double glazing
High-performance triple
glazing

U-Value
(W/m2K)
2.5
0.25
0.15
1.9
0.15
4.8
2
0.8

R-Value
(m2K/W)
0.4
4
6.67
0.53
6.67
0.21
0.37
1.25

Expose area in the building shell


The greater the area of external source, the greater is the rate of heat loss
from the building.
Table 2.9 Exposed Area of the dwelling
Type of dwelling
Detached house
Semi-detached house
Terraced house
Flat on the middle storey (2 external
wall)

Exposed perimeter area (%)


100
81
63
32

Temperature difference between inside and outside


A large difference between temperature inside and outside the building
increase the rate of heat lot by conduction and ventilation.

Air change rate


A typical design limit for air permeability in a dwelling is a maximum of 10
m3/h/m2 at 50Pa and a high performance house can perform 10 times
better than this limit

Exposure to external climate

Efficiency of service in the building

Patterns of use for the building

Heat gain for Building


The factor affecting heat gain are shown in Figure 2.2, but can be considered
under the two following categories
1. Solar Heat gain from the sun
2. Casual heat gain from occupants and equipment in the building

1. Solar Heat Gain


The heat gain in a building by radiation from the sun depends upon the
following factor
a. The geographical latitude of the site, which will determine the height of
the sun in the sky
b. The season of the year, which will determine the height of the sun in
the sky
c. The orientation of the building on the site
d. The local cloud condition
e. The angles between the sun and the building surface
f. The nature of window glass and whether it absorb or reflects the
radiation
g. The nature of the roof and material
2. Casual Heat Gain
This heat gain arise from the heat given off by various activities and
equipment in a building that not primarily designed to give heat. The
major source are
a.
b.
c.
d.

Heat
Heat
Heat
Heat

from
from
from
from

people
lighting
cocking
machinery , refrigerator and electrical appliances

ENERGY BALANCE IN BUILDING


ENERGY USES
HEAT ENERGY GAIN
HEAT ENERGY LOSSES
BY HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS
FABRIC LOSS AND VENTILATIONSOLAR
LOSS GAIN AND CASUAL GAIN

ENERGY REGULATION
Building regulation or building codes are rules that specify minimum levels of
performance for construction and use of buildings
For example the thermal insulation section of the Building Regulations in the
United Kingdom originally restricted themselves to the control of thermal
insulation in domestic building and the early aim was to ensure minimum
standard of health and comfort and to reduce condensation in the building.
Typical building regulation achieve their objectives by controlling the following
areas of building design and performance;
a. The annual rate of CO2 emission by the completed building is kept to
minimum
b. Thermal insulation of the fabric is maximum
c. Airtightness is maximum
d. Summer overheating is limited by shading and other measures
e. Performance of fixed services such as heating, ventilation, and lighting is
optimized
f. The actual quality and performance of construction is verified
g. Operation and maintenance instruction are available