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NON-UNIFORM BENDING BETWEEN LATERAL SUPPORTS

P1

P2
X: denotes
lateral
support

B.M.D.

Lb1

Lb2

Lb3

For uniform moment (elastic behavior):


Mn @ LTB = Mcr

For non-uniform moment, i.e., when a moment gradient exists:


Mn @ LTB ? Mcr

Consider the case of uniform moment again:


entire length of top flange in
compression

With moment gradient:


max. compression occurs only
at one location

M1

M
M1

comp.
decreases

Mn with moment gradient > Mn with uniform moment

AISC PROVISIONS - NON-UNIFORM MOMENT

Mn [non-uniform moment] = Cb Mn [uniform moment]


where:

Cb =

2.5 M max

12.5 M max
Rm 3.0
+ 3M A + 4 M B + 3MC

(F1-1)

MC

MA Mmax
Lb / 4

Lb / 4

MB

Lb / 4

Lb / 4

Mmax

= absolute value of maximum moment in the unbraced segment

MA

= absolute value of moment at quarter point of the unbraced segment

MB

= absolute value of moment at center line of the unbraced segment

MC

= absolute value of moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced segment

NOTE:
Rm
= 1.0 for doubly-symmetric members (e.g., W-shapes)
Cb is has no units and is a function of only the shape of the B.M.D.
See AISC - F1 for singly symmetric members.

COMMON Lb and Cb VALUES

EXCEPTION:
For cantilevers with an unbraced free end, Cb = 1, irrespective of the shape of the
bending moment diagram.

And, for INELASTIC LTB (L b < Lr)?

AISC uses the same factor Cb

Good fit to experimental data and easy to use.

Design based on LTB including moment gradient:

M nLTB = Cb M nLTB ( Cb = 1)

(for any Lb)

where
M nLTB (Cb = 1) = lateral torsional buckling strength under uniform moment.

EXCEPTION:
For cantilevers with an unbraced free end, Cb = 1, irrespective of the shape of the
bending moment diagram.

INELASTIC LTB (L b < Lr)

AISC uses the same factor Cb

Good fit to experimental data and easy to use.

Design based on LTB including moment gradient (elastic and inelastic):

M nLTB = Cb M nLTB ( Cb = 1)

(for any Lb)

where
M nLTB (Cb = 1) = lateral torsional buckling strength under uniform moment.

AISC PROVISIONS
(COMPACT SECTIONS WITH MOMENT GRADIENT)

Mn

CbMp

Mp
CbMr
Mr
Cb>1

Plastic
design

Cb=1
Lpd Lp

Lm Lr

Lb

where

Lm = maximum unbraced length that will allow the beam


to reach Mp (Lp no longer has physical significance)

or Lb # Lp
Mn = M p

but 15
. My

(F1-1)

For Lp < Lb # Lr

Lb L p
M p
M n = Cb M p ( M p M r )
L

L
r

(F1-2)

For Lr < Lb
M n = Cb [ M cr ] M p

(F1-12, 13)

where
Lm = maximum unbraced length that will allow the beam to reach Mp (Lp has

CHECKING BEAM FLEXURAL STRENGTH FOR LTB

Factored loads
X: lateral support

Cb1
Lb1

Cb2
Lb2

Cb3
Lb3

Cb4
Lb4

4 spans to check!

PROBLEM

Given Mu , W-shape, and Lb

SOLUTION
For each span check that:
Mu bMn

Find bMn

Note:
Generally, need to check only one span
Largest Mu
Controlling span

Smallest Cb
Largest Lb

HOW?
Use equations

cumbersome; avoid if
possible

Use beam design charts:


o Enter with Lb and read [bMn]Cb =1 for constant moment
o Adjust for moment gradient, i.e., compute Cb
o Compute bMn = Cb [bMn]Cb =1
o Check that bMn bMp