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DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF LOW COST AND SODA BOTTLE

WASHING MACHINE
ABSTRACT:
Improper wash of reused bottles in soft drink production plants can result in
high cost of production and potentially dangerous health hazard to customers. In
the conventional methods, the washing is done with the aid of Human Work. This
process is time consuming and repetitive work and also Human effort was needed.
This project presents an Effective way to wash the soda Bottle without the human
intervention. By this proposed process, the inner surface of the soda bottle was
cleaned with effective manner.

CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 OVERVIEW:
To make sure people meeting their daily requirements, many people take
water bottles to work, school and to the gym, and more people are opting for
reusable types to save a few bucks and to help the environment. We are fortunate to
have potable water to refill our bottles but not washing them out regularly could
make you sick.
The people dont know that. No matter how crisp or clear the water, bacteria
can grow in it. especially if youre using a disposable water bottle that isnt really
meant to be used more than once. In an article, experts pointed out that commercial
bottled water manufacturers dont recommend that consumers reuse their
disposable bottles. Thats because everyday wear and tear from repeated washings
and reuse can lead to physical breakdown of the plastic, such as visible thinning or
cracks. Bacteria can harbor in the cracks, posing a health risk. In addition, reuse
of plastic water bottles can lead to bacterial contamination unless washed
regularly, which entails washing the bottle with mild soap, rinsing it well (but not
with extremely hot water) and making sure there is no physical breakdown prior
to use.

1.2 ABOUT THE PROJECT:


Even reusable plastic water bottles could hold bacterial contamination risks,
if you dont wash them or reuse them despite visual evidence of wear and tear,
according to the article. Bacteria that may settle in the cracks and scratches of the
bottle appear to pose a greater health risk than the possibility of chemicals leaching
from the plastic during daily risk. While the researchers did not examine the exact
source of the contamination, the most likely source of enteric bacteria found in
the students water bottles is the hands of the students themselves, according to
the study. Thus these study results, the danger of improper washing of the bottles.
These may cause severe health attacks. Thus by our proposed system, the soda
bottle can be washed in proper manner. Thereby the human effort also can be
reduced drastically.

CHAPTER-2
LITERATURE REVIEW
1) Asaana S. Effect of Pressure, Temperature and Caustic Soda
Concentration on the Performance of an Automated Bottle Washer, Masters
thesis, Dept. of Mechanical Eng., Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and
Technology., Kumasi, Mass., 2007
This project deals with the cleaning of bottles used for the packing soft
drinks. This project will be quite useful when implemented in soft drinks
manufacturing companies as bottles are collected and reused for packing.
Recently cleanliness of the bottles had brought in a quality problem which
leads to the reduction in the sales for these soft drinks. Hence such a project which
automates the cleaning of bottles might be of some help provided the water used
for purpose is frequently changed and checked. This project helps in providing the
fabrication of the simple model for the bottle washing machine. Here the
pneumatic unit, solenoid valve and the control unit is used. Thus this project deals
with the automatic washing of the bottles.

2) Chemical, Nutrients, additives & Toxins: Plastic water Bottles. New


Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries, Retrieved 26 September 2012
This project proposes the reusable of plastic water bottles. A reusable
bottle is a bottle that can be reused, either for multiple trips to a bottler or is reused
by a household. It is a common example of reusable packaging.
Early glass bottles were often reused: milk, water, beer, soft drinks, yoghurt
etc. Mason jars were developed for home canning and reused several times. With
returnable bottles, a retailer would often collect empty bottles or would accept
empty bottles returned by customers. Bottles would be stored and returned to the
bottler in reusable cases or crates. Some regions have a container deposit which is
refunded after returning the bottle to the retailer. At the bottler, the bottles would be
inspected for damage, cleaned, sanitized, and refilled. More recently, many bottles
have been designed for single use. This often allows for thinner glass bottles and
less expensive plastic bottles and aluminum beverage cans. Recycling rates have
been increasing, particularly for aluminum. On a cost basis, the decision has often
been made for non-returnable bottles.

3) NicoScharnagl*, Ulrike Bunse, Klaus-Viktor Peinemann, Recycling of


washing waters from bottle cleaning machines using membranes. Proceedings
of the Conference on Membranes in Drinking and Industrial Water
Production, ISBN 0- 86689-060-2, October 2000, Desalination Publications,
L'Aquila, Italy Volume 1, pages 8795
Reused bottles could develop bacteria in the bottle between uses. Mouth
contact to the bottle openings can easily transfer bacteria to the water content,
which can contaminate both bottle and water. Contamination will cause bacterial
and fungal growth in the water while kept in storage; if the user cleans the bottle
thoroughly before reuse, the risk is much less. The researchers did not examine the
exact source of the contamination, the most likely source of enteric bacteria found
in the students water bottles is the hands of the students themselves, according to
the study. Thus these study results, the danger of improper washing of the bottles.
These may cause severe health attacks.

4) Permanent Committee on Technology and Safety Japan Soda Industry


Association, Safety Handling of Caustic Soda, Revised Nov., 20, 2006,
published by Japan Soda Industry Association
This project deals about the safety handling of the caustic soda. Caustic soda
(excluding solutions containing not more than 5% caustic soda) is designated as a
deleterious substance under Japanese laws, and is a strongly corrosive substance.
Persons who handle caustic soda should learn about related laws and regulations
(such as the Poisonous and Deleterious Substance Control Law), its properties, and
precautions on handling; and should observe them to ensure safety. This Project
compiles the information that dealers, transporters, and consumers handling caustic
soda need to know as a guideline for the routine prevention of accidents.
Bacteria can harbor in the cracks, posing a health risk. In addition, reuse of
plastic water bottles can lead to bacterial contamination unless washed regularly,
which entails washing the bottle with mild soap, rinsing it well (but not with
extremely hot water) and making sure there is no physical breakdown prior to
use.

CHAPTER-3
PROPOSED SYSTEM
3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

POWER
SOURCE

AC MOTOR

220 AC

SHAFT

BRUSH

3.2 WORKING:
This project presents an design and fabrication of soda bottle washing
machine. The model consists of the AC Motor. The power is supplied to the AC
Motor where the AC motor runs at 220v. Thereby the AC supply Motor input was
connected by means of the shaft. At the end of the shaft, the brush is connected. If
the motor rotates, the shaft rotates and thereby the brush also rotates. The uncleaned bottle is taken near to the brush thereby the inner surface of the bottle is
cleaned at effective manner & quick manner. Because Improper wash of reused
bottles in soft drink production plants can result in high cost of production and
potentially dangerous health hazard to customers. The project presents a cost
effective solution for the washing soda bottles which avoids health hazards.

CHAPTER-4
COMPONENTS REQUIRED
MOTOR
POWER SUPPLY
SHAFT
BRUSH

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CHAPTER-5
COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION
5.1 MOTOR:
An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most
electric motors operate through interacting magnetic fields and current-carrying
conductors to generate force, although electrostatic motors use electrostatic forces.
The reverse process, producing electrical energy from mechanical energy, is done
by generators such as an alternator or a dynamo. Many types of electric motors can
be run as generators, and vice versa. For example a starter/generator for a gas
turbine, or traction motors used on vehicles, often perform both tasks. Electric
motors and generators are commonly referred to as electric machines.
Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans,
blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk
drives. They may be powered by direct current (e.g., a battery powered portable
device or motor vehicle), or by alternating current from a central electrical
distribution grid. The smallest motors may be found in electric wristwatches.
Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide
convenient mechanical power for industrial uses. The very largest electric motors
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are used for propulsion of ships, pipeline compressors, and water pumps with
ratings in the millions of watts. Electric motors may be classified by the source of
electric power, by their internal construction, by their application, or by the type of
motion they give.
The physical principle of production of mechanical force by the
interactions of an electric current and a magnetic field was known as early as 1821.
Electric motors of increasing efficiency were constructed throughout the 19th
century, but commercial exploitation of electric motors on a large scale required
efficient electrical generators and electrical distribution networks.
Some devices, such as magnetic solenoids and loudspeakers, although
they generate some mechanical power, are not generally referred to as electric
motors, and are usually termed actuators and transducers, respectively.
WORKING:
The conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy by an
electromagnetic means was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael Faraday
in 1821. A free-hanging wire was dipped into a pool of mercury, on which a
permanent magnet was placed. When a current was passed through the wire, the
wire rotated around the magnet, showing that the current gave rise to a close
circular magnetic field around the wire. This motor is often demonstrated in school
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physics classes, but brine (salt water) is sometimes used in place of the toxic
mercury. This is the simplest form of a class of devices called homopolar motors. A
later refinement is the Barlow's wheel. These were demonstration devices only,
unsuited to practical applications due to their primitive construction
Although they were used only for instructional purposes, in 1828 Jedlik
demonstrated the first device to contain the three main components of practical
direct current motors: the stator, rotor and commutator. The device employed no
permanent magnets, as the magnetic fields of both the stationary and revolving
components were produced solely by the currents flowing through their windings
5.1.1 DC MOTORS
A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power. Two examples of pure
DC designs are Michael Faraday's homopolar motor (which is uncommon), and the
ball bearing motor, which is (so far) a novelty. By far the most common DC motor
types are the brushed and brushless types, which use internal and external
commutation respectively to periodically reverse the current in the rotor windings.
Permanent-magnet motors
A permanent-magnet motor does not have a field winding on the stator frame,
instead relying on permanent magnets to provide the magnetic field against which
the rotor field interacts to produce torque. Compensating windings in series with
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the armature may be used on large motors to improve communication under load.
Because this field is fixed, it cannot be adjusted for speed control. Permanentmagnet motors are convenient in miniature motors to eliminate the power
consumption of the field winding. Most larger DC motors are of the "dynamo"
type, which requires current to flow in field windings to provide the stator
magnetic field.
To minimize overall weight and size, miniature permanent-magnet motors
may use high energy magnets made with neodymium or other strategic elements.
With the higher flux density provided, electric machines with high energy
permanent magnets are at least competitive with all optimally designed singly-fed
synchronous and induction electric machines .
5.1.2 AC MOTOR:

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An AC Motor converts electric energy into mechanical energy. An AC


Motor uses alternating current - in other words, the direction of current flow
changes periodically. In the case of common AC that is used throughout most of
the United States, the current flow changes direction 120 times every second. This
current is referred to as "60 cycle AC" or "60 Hertz AC" in honor of Mr. Hertz who
first conceived the AC current concept. Another characteristic of current flow is
that it can vary in quantity.
For example, the flow can occur in 5 amp, 10 amp or 100 amp. It would be
rather difficult for the current to be flowing at say 100 amps in a positive direction
one moment and then flow at an equal intensity in the negative direction. Instead,
as the current is getting ready to change directions, it tapers off until it reaches zero
flow and then gradually builds up in the other direction. The maximum current
flow (the peaks of the line) in each direction is more than the specified value (100
amps in this case). Therefore, the specified value is given as an average. What is
important to remember is that the strength of the magnetic field, produced by an
AC electro-magnetic coil, increases and decreases with the increase and decrease
of this alternating current flow.

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5.1.3 TYPES:
POLYPHASE CAGE ROTOR:
Most common AC motors use the squirrel-cage rotor, which will be found in
virtually all domestic and light industrial alternating current motors. The squirrelcage refers to the rotating exercise cage for pet animals. The motor takes its name
from the shape of its rotor "windings"- a ring at either end of the rotor, with bars
connecting the rings running the length of the rotor. It is typically cast aluminum or
copper poured between the iron laminates of the rotor, and usually only the end
rings will be visible. The vast majority of the rotor currents will flow through the
bars rather than the higher-resistance and usually varnished laminates. Very low
voltages at very high currents are typical in the bars and end rings; high efficiency
motors will often use cast copper to reduce the resistance in the rotor.
In operation, the squirrel-cage motor may be viewed as a transformer with a
rotating secondary. When the rotor is not rotating in sync with the magnetic field,
large rotor currents are induced; the large rotor currents magnetize the rotor and
interact with the stator's magnetic fields to bring the rotor almost into
synchronization with the stator's field. An unloaded squirrel-cage motor at rated
no-load speed will consume electrical power only to maintain rotor speed against
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friction and resistance losses. As the mechanical load increases, so will the
electrical load - the electrical load is inherently related to the mechanical load. This
is similar to a transformer, where the primary's electrical load is related to the
secondary's electrical load.
POLYPHASE WOUND MOTOR:
An alternate design, called the wound rotor, is used when variable speed is
required. In this case, the rotor has the same number of poles as the stator and the
windings are made of wire, connected to slip rings on the shaft. Carbon brushes
connect the slip rings to a controller such as a variable resistor that allows
changing the motor's slip rate. In certain high-power variable-speed wound rotor
drives, the slip-frequency energy is captured, rectified, and returned to the power
supply through an inverter. With bidirectionally controlled power, the wound rotor
becomes an active participant in the energy conversion process, with the wound
rotor doubly fed configuration showing twice the power density.
Compared to squirrel cage rotors, wound rotor motors are expensive and
require maintenance of the slip rings and brushes, but they were the standard form
for variable speed control before the advent of compact power electronic devices.
Transistorized inverters with variable-frequency drive can now be used for speed
control, and wound rotor motors are becoming less common.
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Several methods of starting a polyphase motor are used. Where a large


inrush current and high starting torque can be permitted, the motor can be started
across the line, by applying full line voltage to the terminals (direct-on-line, DOL).
Where it is necessary to limit the starting inrush current (where the motor is large
compared with the short-circuit capacity of the supply), the motor is started at
reduced voltage using series inductors, an autotransformer, thyristors, or other
devices.
INDUCTION MOTOR:
An induction or asynchronous motor is an AC electric motor in which
the electric

current in

the rotor needed

to

produce

torque

is

obtained

by electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of the stator winding. An


induction motor can therefore be made without electrical connections to the rotor
as are found in universal, DC and synchronous motors. An induction motor's rotor
can be either wound type or squirrel-cage type.
Three-phase squirrel-cage induction motors are widely used in industrial
drives because they are rugged, reliable and economical. Single-phase induction
motors are used extensively for smaller loads, such as household appliances like
fans. Although traditionally used in fixed-speed service, induction motors are
increasingly being used with variable-frequency drives (VFDs) in variable-speed
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service. VFDs offer especially important energy savings opportunities for existing
and prospective induction motors in variable-torque centrifugal fan, pump and
compressor load applications. Squirrel cage induction motors are very widely used
in both fixed-speed and variable-frequency drive (VFD) applications. Variable
voltage and variable frequency drives are also used in variable-speed service.

In both induction and synchronous motors, the AC power supplied to the


motor's stator creates a magnetic field that rotates in time with the AC oscillations.
Whereas a synchronous motor's rotor turns at the same rate as the stator field, an
induction motor's rotor rotates at a slower speed than the stator field. The induction
motor stator's magnetic field is therefore changing or rotating relative to the rotor.
This induces an opposing current in the induction motor's rotor.

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5.2 BRUSH:
A brush is

tool

with bristles,

wire

or

other

filaments,

used

for cleaning, grooming hair, make-up, painting, surface finishing and for many
other purposes. It is one of the most basic and versatile tools known to mankind,
and the average household may contain several dozen varieties. It generally
consists of a handle or block to which filaments are affixed either parallel- or
perpendicular-wise, depending on the way the brush is to be gripped during use.
The material of both the block and bristles or filaments is chosen to withstand
hazards of its application, such as corrosive chemicals, heat or abrasion.

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5.3 SHAFT
A shaft is a rotating member usually of circular cross section (solid or
hollow), which is used to transmit power and rotational motion. Axles are non
rotating member. Elements such as gears, pulleys (sheaves), flywheels, clutches,
and sprockets are mounted on the shaft and are used to transmit power from the
driving device (motor or engine) through a machine.
The rotational force (torque) is transmitted to these elements on the shaft by
press fit, keys, dowel, pins and splines. The shaft rotates on rolling contact or

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bush bearings. Various types of retaining rings, thrust bearings, grooves and steps
in the shaft are used to take up axial loads and locate the rotating elements.
Shaft Design Procedure
1. Develop the free body diagram; model the various machine elements mounted
on the
shaft in terms of forces and torques
2. Develop the shear and moment diagram; identify bending moment (leads to
normal
stress) and torque (leads to shear stress)
3. Identify critical locations for stress analysis;

calculate stresses (known

diameter)
4. Determine diameter or select material based on failure theories.
5.3.1 DRIVE SHAFT:
A drive shaft, driveshaft, driving shaft, propeller shaft, or Cardan shaft is a
mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation, usually used to
connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly
because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them.
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Drive shafts are carriers of torque: they are subject to torsion and shear stress,
equivalent to the difference between the input torque and the load. They must
therefore be strong enough to bear the stress, whilst avoiding too much additional
weight as that would in turn increase their inertia. Drive shafts frequently
incorporate one or more universal joints or jaw couplings, and sometimes a splined
joint or prismatic joint to allow for variations in the alignment and distance
between the driving and driven components.
5.3.2 LINE SHAFT:
A line shaft is a power driven rotating shaft for power transmission that was
used extensively from the Industrial Revolution until the early 20th century. Prior
to the widespread use of electric motors small enough to be connected directly to
each piece of machinery, line shafting was used to distribute power from a large
central power source to machinery throughout an industrial complex. The central
power source could be a water wheel, turbine, windmill, animal power or a steam
engine. Power was distributed from the shaft to the machinery by a system of belts,
pulleys and gears known as millwork.
A typical line shaft would be suspended from the ceiling of one area and
would run the length of that area. One pulley on the shaft would receive the power
from the a parent line shaft elsewhere in the building. The other pulleys would
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supply power to pulleys on each individual machine or to subsequent line shafts. In


manufacturing where there were a large number of machines performing the same
tasks, the design of the system was fairly regular and repeated. In other
applications such as machine and wood shops where there was a variety of
machines with different orientations and power requirements, the system would
appear erratic and inconsistent with many different shafting directions and pulley
sizes.
Shafts were usually horizontal and overhead but occasionally were vertical
and could be underground. Shafts were usually rigid steel, made up of several parts
bolted together at flanges. The shafts were suspended by hangers with bearings at
certain intervals of length. The distance depended on the weight of the shaft and
the number of pulleys. The shafts had to be kept aligned or the stress would
overheat the bearings and could break the shaft. The bearings were
usually friction type and had to be kept lubricated. Pulley lubricator employees
were required in order to ensure that the bearings did not freeze or malfunction.
In the earliest applications power was transmitted between pulleys using
loops of rope on grooved pulleys. This method is extremely rare today, dating
mostly from the 18th century. Flat belts on flat pulleys or drums were the most
common method during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The belts were generally
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tanned leather or cotton duck impregnated with rubber. Leather belts were fastened
in loops with rawhide or wire lacing, lap joints and glue, or one of several types of
steel fasteners. Cotton duck belts usually used metal fasteners or were melted
together with heat.
The leather belts were run with the hair side against the pulleys for best
traction. The belts needed periodic cleaning and conditioning to keep them in good
condition. Belts were often twisted 180 degrees per leg and reversed on the
receiving pulley to cause the second shaft to rotate in the opposite direction.
Pulleys were constructed of wood, iron, steel or a combination thereof.
Varying sizes of pulleys were used in conjunction to change the speed of rotation.
For example a 40" pulley at 100 rpm would turn a 20" pulley at 200 rpm. Pulleys
solidly attached to the shaft could be combined with adjacent pulleys that turned
freely on the shaft (idlers). In this configuration the belt could be maneuvered onto
the idler to stop power transmission or onto the solid pulley to convey the power.
This arrangement was often used near machines to provide a means of
shutting the machine off when not in use. Usually at the last belt feeding power to
a machine, a pair of stepped pulleys could be used to give a variety of speed
settings for the machine. Occasionally gears were used between shafts to change

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speed rather than belts and different sized pulleys, but this seems to have been
relatively uncommon.

5.4 POWER SUPPLY:


Block diagram for power supply:
5V/12V Regulated DC Power Supply
A Direct Current (DC) supply is needed by most circuits as a constant
reference voltage. Also, some components would be damaged by the negative
half-cycles of an AC supply. A DC supply, stays at a fixed, regular, voltage all of
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the time, like the voltage from a battery. Following is a block diagram of a power
supply system which converts a 230V AC mains supply (230V is the UK mains
voltage) into a regulated 5V DC supply.

Transformer
A transformer consists of two coils (often called 'windings') linked by an
iron core, as shown in figure 1. There is no electrical connection between the coils,
instead they are linked by a magnetic field created in the core. Transformers are
used to convert electricity from one voltage to another with minimal loss of power.
They only work with AC (alternating current) because they require a changing
magnetic field to be created in their core. Transformers can increase voltage (stepup) as well as reduce voltage (step-down).
Bridge Rectifier
A diode bridge or bridge rectifier is an arrangement of four diodes in
a bridge configuration that provides the same polarity of output voltage for either
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polarity of input voltage. When used in its most common application, for
conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output, it is
known as a bridge rectifier.
In the diagrams below, when the input connected to the left corner of the
diamond is positive (Fig. A), and the input connected to the right corner
is negative, current flows from the upper supply terminal to the right along
the red (positive) path to the output, and returns to the lower supply terminal via
the blue (negative) path.
When the input connected to the left corner is negative (Fig. B), and the
input connected to the right corner is positive, current flows from the lower
supply terminal to the right along the red path to the output, and returns to
the upper supply terminal via the blue path. In each case, the upper right output
remains positive and lower right output negative. Since this is true whether the
input is AC or DC, this circuit not only produces a DC output from an AC input, it
can also provide what is sometimes called "reverse polarity protection". That is, it
permits normal functioning of DC-powered equipment when batteries have been
installed backwards, or when the leads (wires) from a DC power source have been
reversed, and protects the equipment from potential damage caused by reverse
polarity.

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Smoothing
Most circuits will require 'smoothing' of the DC output of a rectifier, and this
is a simple matter since it involves only one capacitor.
Regulator
Voltage regulator ICs are available with fixed (typically 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15,
18 and 24V) or variable output voltages. They are also rated by the maximum
current they can pass. Negative voltage regulators are available, mainly for use in
dual supplies. Most regulators include some automatic protection from excessive
current ('overload protection') and overheating ('thermal protection').

CHAPTER-6
ADVANTAGES & APPLICATIONS
6.1 ADVANTAGES:
1. The Bottle can be easily washed.
2. Handling is easy
3. Less Manual power
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4. Time Saving and High Production System.


5. Replacement of parts are easy

6.2 DISADVANTAGES:
One bottle only washed at a time.
Care must be taken for the handling the Motor equipment such as for proper
wiring connection, etc.
Less Manual work is needed.

6.3 APPLICATIONS:
Mineral Water Plant Industries
Cool Drinks Industries
Factory, etc
CHAPTER-7
CONCLUSION
This project presents an Effective way to wash the soda Bottle without the
human intervention. By this proposed process, the inner surface of the soda bottle
was cleaned with effective manner. In the conventional methods, the washing is
done with the aid of Human Work. This process is time consuming and repetitive
30

work and also Human effort was needed. This project presents an process of
washing bottles in the most cost effective manner and also it reduces the human
effort at maximum.

REFERENCES:
[1] Asaana S. Effect of Pressure, Temperature and Caustic Soda Concentration
on the Performance of an Automated Bottle Washer, Masters thesis, Dept. of
Mechanical Eng., Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.,
Kumasi, Mass., 2007

31

[2] Capobianco, D.J. And F.C. Blanc, 1990, Treatment of Softdrink Syrup and
Bottling Wastewater using Anaerobic Upflow Packed Bed Reactors, in Proceedings
of the 44th Industrial Waste Conference May 9-11, 1989 Purdue University.
Michigan: Lewis Publisher

[3] Chemical, Nutrients, additives & Toxins: Plastic water Bottles. New Zealand
Ministry for Primary Industries, Retrieved 26 September 2012

[4] Fisher, R. A., 1994, The Design of Experiments, 4th ed., Oliver and Boyd,
Edinburgh

[5] Montgomery, Douglas, C. Process Design and Improvement with Designed


Experiments Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, Sixth Edition 978-0-47016992-6 pp547- 690, Printed in the United States of America, 2009 by John Wiley
& Sons, Inc.

[6] NicoScharnagl*, Ulrike Bunse, Klaus-Viktor Peinemann, Recycling of


washing waters from bottle cleaning machines using membranes. Proceedings of
32

the Conference on Membranes in Drinking and Industrial Water Production, ISBN


0- 86689-060-2, October 2000, Desalination Publications, L'Aquila, Italy Volume
1, pages 8795

[7] Neil Ranklin, Mans Soderbom and France Teal, (2002), The Ghanaian
Manufacturing Enterprise Survey 2000 Centre for Study of Africa Economics
(CSAE), University of Oxford.

[8] Permanent Committee on Technology and Safety Japan Soda Industry


Association, Safety Handling of Caustic Soda, Revised Nov., 20, 2006,
published by Japan Soda Industry Association

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