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MEC424

Table of Contents

1)

2)

Background..................................................................................................................1

3)

Objective......................................................................................................................2

4)

Apparatus......................................................................................................................2

5)

Theory :........................................................................................................................3

6)

Experiment Procedure..................................................................................................5

7)

Data Recorded..............................................................................................................6

8)

Sample calculation.......................................................................................................8

9)

Data result.....................................................................................................................8

10) Discussion....................................................................................................................9

8.3.....................Prepare By : Mohammad Faizal bin Indra (2007144863)9

8.4Prepare By : Noridzwan Nordin (2007126793).....................................................10

8.5Prepared By : Mohd Faisal Bin Mohd Yusoff (2007130429).....................................11

11) Conclusion..................................................................................................................12

9.1Prepared by : Noraini Ishak (2007149597)................................................................12

9.2Prepared By : Mohd Faizal b. Abdul Razak (2007284354)......................................13

9.3Prepare By : Mohammad Faizal bin Indra (2007144863)..........................................13

9.4Prepare By : Noridzwan Nordin (2007126793).....................................................13

9.5Prepared By : Mohd Faisal Bin Mohd Yusoff (2007130429)....................................14

12) Reference....................................................................................................................14

MEC424

1.0 Title:

Physical Pendulum Wooden Pendulum

2.0 Background:

Physical pendulum

mass.

In this case, a rigid body of point mass is pivoted to oscillate as shown in the figure.

There is no requirement of string. As a result, there is no tension involved in this case.

The nice thing about a physical pendulum is that it is mechanically rigid and stable,

compared to a simple pendulum which is strings can stretch. Besides that, the working

of this wooden pendulum is gravity acts through center of mass of the rigid body.

Hence, length of pendulum used in equation is equal to linear distance between pivot

and center of mass (h). Consider a uniform rigid rod, pivoted from a frame as shown

in the figure. Clearly, center of mass is at a distance L/2 from the point of

suspension.

MEC424

Physical pendulum

mass.

The important thing to note about this relation is that time period is still independent

of mass of the rigid body. However, time period is not independent of mass

distribution of the rigid body. A change in shape or size or change in mass distribution

will change MI of the rigid body about point of suspension. This, in turn, will change

time period. Point of oscillation will change if point of suspension is changed.

Further, we should note that physical pendulum is an effective device to measure g.

As a matter of fact, this device is used extensively in gravity surveys around the world.

Another part life practical is pendulum clock.

3.0

Objective:

a. To determine the mass moment of inertia, (IG and Io) by oscillation and

manual calculation.

b. To obtain the relations of the oscillation period of two different

suspension point with a same mass.

c. To discover the variables which effect the oscillation period of physical

pendulum.

4.0 Apparatus:

3

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Wooden Pendulum

Stop Watch

Ruler

5.0 Theory:

A physical pendulum is a rigid body suspended from some point

other than its center of mass. It is simply a rigid object which swings freely

about some pivot point. The physical pendulum may compare with a simple

pendulum, which consists of a small mass suspended by a string. In this lab,

his physical pendulum is stick with pivot fixed point at center of mass. For

small displacement, the period T of a physical pendulum is independent of its

amplitude, and

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Where I is the rotational inertia of the pendulum about its rotation axis, m is

the total mass of the pendulum, g is the acceleration of gravity and r is the

distance from the rotation axis to the center of mass.

This is the equation of a harmonic oscillator; the solution is

T depends only on the distribution of mass within the object, not on the total

mass. T can be used to compute g, if the moment of inertia I am known. The

moment of inertia I about the pivot point is related to the moment of inertia

about the center of mass Io by the parallel axis theorem, which states

I = Io + mr2

Moment at O :

clockwise direction.

if angle

is small.

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**Note that this equation has the same shape with the general

equation of simple

Meanwhile, periodic time (T) is the time taken to complete one cycle.(or

2

radian). So that :

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where

of

gravity.

where

gravity.

**Note that

we can determine the radius of gyration for a rigid body by using this

equation.

6.0 Procedure:

a) Dimensions of the wooden pendulum were taken using a ruler for calculation

purposes.

b) The wooden pendulum was hanged on one end to the Vee slot.

c) The wooden pendulum was then displaced to a 10 degrees angle to the right from its

initial position.

7

MEC424

d) The wooden pendulum was then released to let it oscillate due to gravitational force.

e) The average of the three periods was calculated for each suspension point.

f) The procedure ( c ) until ( e ) was repeated for 15 degrees and 20 degrees. After that,

g) Then the Vee slot was change to the rod support and tested with same step c) , d), e)

h) Equations from Mathematical and Physical Pendulum were used to determine the

mass moment of inertia (IG1 and IG2).

Point

Avarage Time,

Tave

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T1

T2

T3

(sec)

O1

(Vee support)

14.37

14.43

14.32

14.37

O2

(Rod support)

14.17

14.22

14.18

14.19

Theoretical Calculation,

Volume of each component

= 0.64 10

V2 = (0.0125) 0.01

= 4.91

m

= 45

m

9

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Vpendulum = V1 V2 V3

= 0.64 10

- 4.91

= 0.5901 10

m total

V pendulum

pendulum=

0.6

0.5901 10

= 1016.78 kg/m

Then calculate the mass of each component

m1 = v 1

=

1016.78 (0.64 10 )

0.65 kg

m2 = v 2

6

= 1016.78 (4.91 10

= 4.99 10

kg

m3 = v 3

6

= 1016.78 (45 10 )

10

- 45

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= 45.76 10

kg

I1 = 1/12 ml + md

= 1/12 (0.65)(0.76) + (0.65)(0.38)

= 0.1252 kg m

I2 = 1/2mr + md

10 )(0)

= 0.3898

Figure 7.0.1.1.1

kg m

I3 = 1/12 ml + md

= 1/12(45.76 10 )(0.45) +

(45.76 10 )(0.482)

= 0.0114 kg m

Figure 8.a

Then,

Io1 = I1 I2 I3

= 0.1252 - 0.3898

= 0.1138 kg m

- 0.0114

The mass center G will be located relative to the point O 1 Assuming this distance

to be

(Figure 8.a)

0.38(0.65) + 0.482(45.76

0.65 + 4.99 10

0.384 m

Therefore,

Io1 = IG1 + md

IG1 = Io1 + md

11

10

+ 45.76 10

MEC424

= 0.1138 0.6(0.384)

IG1 = 0.0253 kg m

I1 = 1/12 ml + md

= 1/12 (0.65)(0.707) + (0.65)(0.3535)

= 0.1083 kg m

I2 = 1/2mr + md

= 1/2(4.99 10 )(0.0125) +

(4.99 10 )(0.707)2

= 2.495 10

9.0

-3

kg m

10.0

I3 = 1/12 ml + md

= 1/12(45.76 10 )(0.45)

+ (45.76 10 )(0)

= 0.7722 10 kg m

Figure 8.b

Then,

Io2 = I1 I2 I3

= 0.1083 - 2.495 10

-3

- 0.7722 10

= 0.1050 kg m

The mass center G will be located relative to the point O1 Assuming this

distanceto be

=

(Figure 8.a)

0.3535(0.65) + 0.707(4.99

0.65 + 4.99 10

10

+ 45.76 10

0.333 m

12

MEC424

Therefore,

Io2 = IG2 + md

IG2 = Io2 - md

= 0.1050 0.6(0.707 0.333)

IG2 = 0.0211 kg m

13

MEC424

Sample data from table

RG = l/ 2

= 0.707/2

= 0.3535m

O1 (vee support) :The average time for angles 10o, 15o, 20o and the wooden starting

hanging from the left hand side.

Tavg(left) =

( 14 +13.9+14.1 ) s

3

= 14.0 s

Tavg(right) =

( 13.9+14 +14.0 ) s

3

= 13.97 s

Tavg(vee support) =

( 14 +13.97 ) s

2

= 13.99 s

14.0 s

14

MEC424

Therefore:

Tave = 14.0 / 10 =1.4 sec

Tave = 2

L1

g

L1 = g

Tave

2

= 9.81

1.4

2

= 0.487

Io1 = L1 mrG

= 0.487 0.3535(0.6)

= 0.1033 kg m

IG1 = Io1 - mrG

= 0.1033 0.6(0.3535)

= 0.0283 kg m

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MEC424

O2 (rod support) :The average time for angles 10o, 15o, 20o and the wooden starting

hanging from the left hand side.

Tavg(left) =

( 14 +13.9+14 ) s

3

= 13.97 s

Tavg(right) =

( 13.7+ 13.8+13.8 ) s

3

= 13.77 s

Tavg(vee support) =

( 13.97+ 13.77 ) s

2

= 13.87 s

Therefore:

Tave = 13.87 / 10 =1.387 sec

L2

Tave = 2

L2 = g

Tave

2

= 9.81 1.387

16

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2

= 0.478

Io2 = L2 mrG

= 0.478 0.3535(0.6)

= 0.1014 kg m

IG2 = Io2 - mrG

= 0.1014 0.6(0.3535)

= 0.0264 kg m

0.1088

x 100%

= | -5.06 % |

= 5.06 %

For IG1, percentage of error % = (0.0283 0.0338)

0.0338

x 100%

= 16.27 %

For I02, percentage of error % = (0.1014 0.1061)

0.1061

x 100%

= 4.43 %

(0.0264 0.0311)

0.0311

= 15.11%

17

x 100%

MEC424

11.0 Result

Poin

t

Moment of

Inertia

Experimental

Value (kg m)

Theoretical

Value (kg m)

Percentage

Error (%)

Io1

0.1033

0.1088

5.06

IG1

0.0283

0.0338

16.27

Io2

0.1014

0.1061

4.43

IG2

0.0264

0.0311

15.11

O1

O2

18

MEC424

12.0 Discussion

This experiment is objectively to determine the mass moment of inertia, (IG and

IO) by suspending a wooden pendulum to the pivot point using Vee support and rod

support ( both initially be swigged from degree of 10o, 15o, 20o ). It is found that the yield

of IG and IO from both suspension point is absolutely different although they share the

same value of mass of the wooden pendulum.

After data was taken, we calculate the period of oscillation, from those three

different angles. Hence after getting T value, we then measure the value of IG and IO.

By my opinion, there are several factors that influenced these errors. Firstly time

taken for the pendulum to complete 10 complete oscillations may be taken wrongly. This

can happen when time keeper has started the stopwatch slower or faster than the moment

the pendulum start oscillating. When time taken is wrong, the value of mass moment of

inertia will in the calculation. Beside that one of the main factors that often occur in any

experiment including this experiment is inconsistency while values are taken.The angle

where the pendulum is released is not accurate and precise when pendulum is released.

Furthermore the angle of released are not always the same each time, even the angle

supposed to be at 10o, 15o, 20o since the measurement of the angle is only depended on

the protector which is hold next beside the pendulum. The value for IG1, IG2, IO1 and IO2 are

recorded. But when we tried to find the theoretical value for both IG and IO at point 1 and

2 by using an appropriate formula, I only obtain 1 value for each IG and IO. It means that

the value at point 1 and 2 are same for IG and IO

Besides, the discrepancy might be due to air velocity which slightly occurs the

movement of pendulum during swinging process. On top of that, while we set the

angle of 10o, 15o, 20o , the error might occur too. It is because we just randomly guess the

angle by using naked eyes.

19

MEC424

13.0 Conclusion

By the end of the day we managed to find the value of Moment of Inertia and

pertaining to the period of oscillation. After we done this experiment, we

realized that the effect of time taken is not depend on the angle of wooden

pendulum at the initial position but the length of the wooden pendulum will

affect the time when it start to swing. To be more precise, more readings should be

taken for each swing and then the average values are calculated. Furthermore, the person who is

in charge of conducting the experiment must be briefed carefully on how the experiment must be

conducted. If needed, they must be trained in terms of standard of operation. In a nutshell, if

these errors is reduced or eliminate, the experiment might help to achieve its target. The

objective of the experiment is successfully achieved by us. Lastly, we could conclude our

experiment is successful

The average time taken was calculated for two difference suspension point. The value of I G and

IO was measure by this T values. It is found that the yield of I G and IO from both suspension

points is absolutely different although they share the same value of mass of the wooden

were several factors that influenced these errors. Firstly, time taken for the pendulum to complete

10 complete oscillations may be taken wrongly. This can happen when time keeper has started

the stopwatch slower or faster than the moment the pendulum start oscillating. When time taken

20

MEC424

is wrong, the value of mass moment of inertia will in the calculation. It is the main factor of error

made by human. Since the time experiment was taken five times, there might be a huge error

made by human. The angle where the pendulum is released is not accurate and precise when

pendulum is released. Furthermore the angle of released are not always the same each time, even

the angle supposed to be at 150 since the measurement of the angle is only depended on the

protector which is hold next beside the pendulum. Besides, the discrepancy might be due to air

velocity which occurs in movement of pendulum during swinging process. On top of that, while

setting the angle of 15O, the error might occur too. It is because the angle were randomly guess

by using naked eyes.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, all three objectives were achieved. Although there were several errors occur

mostly made by human in order to take time value and angle set up, it can be recovered. In

recommendation, less reading should be taken to avoid more time differential value. Besides

that, a permanent of 15 angle must tag at the frame so that it is more accurate to start the swing.

A person who in charge to start the swing must be tall since the frame is high. Furthermore, the

person must be trained in terms of standard of operation to avoid mistake in following

experiment standard. If these errors is reduced or eliminate, the experiment might help to

achieve its target.

21

MEC424

5.0

Discussion

5.3

This experiment is objectively to determine the mass moment of inertia, (IG and IO) by

suspending a wooden pendulum to the pivot point using Vee support and rod support ( both

initially be swinged from degree of 150 ). It is found that the yield of IG and IO from both

suspension point is absolutely different although they share the same value of mass of the

wooden pendulum.

From the experiment, the suspension points one, 01 was where we used the vee support

and 02 when used rod support. The value of time obtained is different between both

suspensions where the time, t average for suspension 1 was 14.15 and the suspension 2 was

14.07. The period, T obtained from calculation for suspension 1 is 1.415 and for suspension 2

was 1.407. The result was from the time average, over the oscillations. In the experiment, we

took the time for 10 oscillations. From the L 01 and L 02 calculated above, we get the force due to

the weight applied with the lever arm rG. The rG1 obtained was 0.3535 m while, value of rG2 is

0.378 m. Value for I01 and I02 that were obtained is 0.1053 kgm2 and 0.1115 kgm2 respectively.

For the theoretical calculation, we calculated using the formula to find the moment of

inertia. The value we get was different because in the theoretical, we assumed that all the

apparatus were in perfect condition and contained no defect. But in the experimental all the

defects were not negligible. Then, the theoretical value obtained using the formula but the

experimental value using the result from the experiment itself.

22

MEC424

There were some error when we took the time, where the time was took a bit late from

the pendulum released. So it affects the value of time taken for 10 oscillations. The thing goes

the same where we took the time first from released the pendulum.

Other than that, the pendulum was released not perfectly at angle 15 o because the

suspensions used is not show vividly at the line of angle that we made and then the pendulum

was high so we could not see clearly the angle.

6.0

Conclusion

6.3

At the end of the experiment, we realised that all the objectives of the experiment was

achieved. We could determine the mass moment of inertia by oscillation and manual

calculation. The value from the theoretical was different from the experimental and we have

discussed it in the discussion above. The difference was the result from the uncertainties when

the measurement was taken.

There were some precautions that we have to follow to obtain a precise result. Firstly,

while taking the reading for the angle, make sure the eye level of the observer is parallel with

the reading scale. Besides, it is recommended to put magnifying glass so the scale can be

clearly see. Secondly, when adjusting the angle; make sure the angle is scale using the

protector. Next, when taking the time using the stopwatch, make sure that the pendulum was

released at the instant as the time taken.

23

MEC424

14.0 Reference

1. Engineering Mechanics Dynamics, J.L Meriam, L.G. Kraige, Wiley, Fifth

Edition2002.

2. Engineering Mechanics Dynamics, R.C.Hibbeler, Prentice Hall, Third Edition, 2002.

3. Mechanical Vibrations, S Ingiresu, S Rao, Addison Wesley Publishing Company.

4. Application of Pendulum Method to UAV Momental Ellipsoid Estimation

(Sumit S. Patankar,Dale E. Schinstock,Robert M. Caplinger).

5. Kansas State University (2006).

24

MEC424

6. http://www.idspackaging.com/packaging/us/tinius_olsen/testing_machines/12342_0/

g_supplier.html

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