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LAB DYNAMICS OF MACHINE

MEC424

Table of Contents

1)

Title : Physical Pendulum Wooden Pendulum.........................................................1

2)

Background..................................................................................................................1

3)

Objective......................................................................................................................2

4)

Apparatus......................................................................................................................2

5)

Theory :........................................................................................................................3

6)

Experiment Procedure..................................................................................................5

7)

Data Recorded..............................................................................................................6

8)

Sample calculation.......................................................................................................8

9)

Data result.....................................................................................................................8

10) Discussion....................................................................................................................9
8.3.....................Prepare By : Mohammad Faizal bin Indra (2007144863)9
8.4Prepare By : Noridzwan Nordin (2007126793).....................................................10
8.5Prepared By : Mohd Faisal Bin Mohd Yusoff (2007130429).....................................11
11) Conclusion..................................................................................................................12
9.1Prepared by : Noraini Ishak (2007149597)................................................................12
9.2Prepared By : Mohd Faizal b. Abdul Razak (2007284354)......................................13
9.3Prepare By : Mohammad Faizal bin Indra (2007144863)..........................................13
9.4Prepare By : Noridzwan Nordin (2007126793).....................................................13
9.5Prepared By : Mohd Faisal Bin Mohd Yusoff (2007130429)....................................14
12) Reference....................................................................................................................14

LAB DYNAMICS OF MACHINE


MEC424

1.0 Title:
Physical Pendulum Wooden Pendulum

2.0 Background:
Physical pendulum

Figure 1: Forces act through center of


mass.

In this case, a rigid body of point mass is pivoted to oscillate as shown in the figure.
There is no requirement of string. As a result, there is no tension involved in this case.
The nice thing about a physical pendulum is that it is mechanically rigid and stable,
compared to a simple pendulum which is strings can stretch. Besides that, the working
of this wooden pendulum is gravity acts through center of mass of the rigid body.
Hence, length of pendulum used in equation is equal to linear distance between pivot
and center of mass (h). Consider a uniform rigid rod, pivoted from a frame as shown
in the figure. Clearly, center of mass is at a distance L/2 from the point of
suspension.

LAB DYNAMICS OF MACHINE


MEC424
Physical pendulum

Figure 2: Forces act through center of


mass.

The important thing to note about this relation is that time period is still independent
of mass of the rigid body. However, time period is not independent of mass
distribution of the rigid body. A change in shape or size or change in mass distribution
will change MI of the rigid body about point of suspension. This, in turn, will change
time period. Point of oscillation will change if point of suspension is changed.
Further, we should note that physical pendulum is an effective device to measure g.
As a matter of fact, this device is used extensively in gravity surveys around the world.
Another part life practical is pendulum clock.

3.0

Objective:
a. To determine the mass moment of inertia, (IG and Io) by oscillation and
manual calculation.
b. To obtain the relations of the oscillation period of two different
suspension point with a same mass.
c. To discover the variables which effect the oscillation period of physical
pendulum.

4.0 Apparatus:
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Wooden Pendulum

Vee Slot and Rod Support

Stop Watch

Ruler

5.0 Theory:
A physical pendulum is a rigid body suspended from some point
other than its center of mass. It is simply a rigid object which swings freely
about some pivot point. The physical pendulum may compare with a simple
pendulum, which consists of a small mass suspended by a string. In this lab,
his physical pendulum is stick with pivot fixed point at center of mass. For
small displacement, the period T of a physical pendulum is independent of its
amplitude, and

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MEC424

Where I is the rotational inertia of the pendulum about its rotation axis, m is
the total mass of the pendulum, g is the acceleration of gravity and r is the
distance from the rotation axis to the center of mass.
This is the equation of a harmonic oscillator; the solution is

And is related to the period T by

T depends only on the distribution of mass within the object, not on the total
mass. T can be used to compute g, if the moment of inertia I am known. The
moment of inertia I about the pivot point is related to the moment of inertia
about the center of mass Io by the parallel axis theorem, which states
I = Io + mr2

Moment at O :

clockwise direction.

if angle

By using Newtons Law for rotation:

is small.

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**Note that this equation has the same shape with the general
equation of simple

harmonic motion. Furthermore , we can

obtain natural frequency of this system:

Meanwhile, periodic time (T) is the time taken to complete one cycle.(or
2

radian). So that :

LAB DYNAMICS OF MACHINE


MEC424

For this rigid body,moment of inertia at point O is:

where

is the moment of inertia at the center

of
gravity.

where

is the radius of gyration at the center of

gravity.

**Note that
we can determine the radius of gyration for a rigid body by using this
equation.

6.0 Procedure:
a) Dimensions of the wooden pendulum were taken using a ruler for calculation

purposes.
b) The wooden pendulum was hanged on one end to the Vee slot.
c) The wooden pendulum was then displaced to a 10 degrees angle to the right from its

initial position.
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MEC424
d) The wooden pendulum was then released to let it oscillate due to gravitational force.

Using a stopwatch, the periodic time of 10 oscillations were recorded.


e) The average of the three periods was calculated for each suspension point.
f) The procedure ( c ) until ( e ) was repeated for 15 degrees and 20 degrees. After that,

repeat again by displaced those angle to the left.


g) Then the Vee slot was change to the rod support and tested with same step c) , d), e)

and f). All the results were recorded in a table.


h) Equations from Mathematical and Physical Pendulum were used to determine the
mass moment of inertia (IG1 and IG2).

7.0 Data Recorded

time taken for 10 oscillations (sec)


Point

Avarage Time,
Tave

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T1

T2

T3

(sec)

O1
(Vee support)

14.37

14.43

14.32

14.37

O2
(Rod support)

14.17

14.22

14.18

14.19

8.0 Sample Of Calculation


Theoretical Calculation,
Volume of each component

V1 = 0.08 0.8 0.01


= 0.64 10

V2 = (0.0125) 0.01
= 4.91
m

V3 = 0.01 0.45 0.0 1


= 45
m

Volume of the wooden Pendulum


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Vpendulum = V1 V2 V3
= 0.64 10

- 4.91

= 0.5901 10

Density of Wooden Pendulum


m total
V pendulum

pendulum=

0.6
0.5901 10

= 1016.78 kg/m
Then calculate the mass of each component
m1 = v 1
=

1016.78 (0.64 10 )

0.65 kg
m2 = v 2
6

= 1016.78 (4.91 10
= 4.99 10

kg

m3 = v 3
6
= 1016.78 (45 10 )

10

- 45

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= 45.76 10

kg

Moment of Inertia about Point O1 calculation


I1 = 1/12 ml + md
= 1/12 (0.65)(0.76) + (0.65)(0.38)
= 0.1252 kg m

I2 = 1/2mr + md

= 1/2(4.99 10 )(0.0125) + (4.99

10 )(0)
= 0.3898

Figure 7.0.1.1.1

kg m

I3 = 1/12 ml + md
= 1/12(45.76 10 )(0.45) +
(45.76 10 )(0.482)
= 0.0114 kg m

Figure 8.a
Then,
Io1 = I1 I2 I3
= 0.1252 - 0.3898
= 0.1138 kg m

- 0.0114

The mass center G will be located relative to the point O 1 Assuming this distance
to be

(Figure 8.a)

0.38(0.65) + 0.482(45.76
0.65 + 4.99 10

0.384 m

Therefore,
Io1 = IG1 + md
IG1 = Io1 + md
11

10

+ 45.76 10

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= 0.1138 0.6(0.384)
IG1 = 0.0253 kg m

Moment of Inertia about Point O2 calculation

I1 = 1/12 ml + md
= 1/12 (0.65)(0.707) + (0.65)(0.3535)
= 0.1083 kg m
I2 = 1/2mr + md
= 1/2(4.99 10 )(0.0125) +
(4.99 10 )(0.707)2
= 2.495 10

9.0

-3

kg m

10.0
I3 = 1/12 ml + md
= 1/12(45.76 10 )(0.45)
+ (45.76 10 )(0)
= 0.7722 10 kg m

Figure 8.b
Then,
Io2 = I1 I2 I3

= 0.1083 - 2.495 10

-3

- 0.7722 10

= 0.1050 kg m
The mass center G will be located relative to the point O1 Assuming this
distanceto be
=

(Figure 8.a)

0.3535(0.65) + 0.707(4.99
0.65 + 4.99 10

10

+ 45.76 10

0.333 m
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Therefore,
Io2 = IG2 + md
IG2 = Io2 - md
= 0.1050 0.6(0.707 0.333)
IG2 = 0.0211 kg m

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8.b-Sample Experimental Calculation


Sample data from table
RG = l/ 2
= 0.707/2
= 0.3535m

O1 (vee support) :The average time for angles 10o, 15o, 20o and the wooden starting
hanging from the left hand side.
Tavg(left) =

( 14 +13.9+14.1 ) s
3

= 14.0 s

Tavg(right) =

( 13.9+14 +14.0 ) s
3

= 13.97 s

Tavg(vee support) =

( 14 +13.97 ) s
2

= 13.99 s
14.0 s

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Therefore:
Tave = 14.0 / 10 =1.4 sec
Tave = 2

L1
g

L1 = g

Tave
2

= 9.81

1.4
2

= 0.487
Io1 = L1 mrG
= 0.487 0.3535(0.6)
= 0.1033 kg m
IG1 = Io1 - mrG
= 0.1033 0.6(0.3535)
= 0.0283 kg m

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O2 (rod support) :The average time for angles 10o, 15o, 20o and the wooden starting
hanging from the left hand side.
Tavg(left) =

( 14 +13.9+14 ) s
3

= 13.97 s

Tavg(right) =

( 13.7+ 13.8+13.8 ) s
3

= 13.77 s

Tavg(vee support) =

( 13.97+ 13.77 ) s
2

= 13.87 s

Therefore:
Tave = 13.87 / 10 =1.387 sec
L2

Tave = 2

L2 = g

Tave
2

= 9.81 1.387
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2
= 0.478

Io2 = L2 mrG
= 0.478 0.3535(0.6)
= 0.1014 kg m
IG2 = Io2 - mrG
= 0.1014 0.6(0.3535)
= 0.0264 kg m

8.c -Sample Result Calculation

For Io1, percentage of error % = (0.1033 0.1088)


0.1088

x 100%

= | -5.06 % |
= 5.06 %
For IG1, percentage of error % = (0.0283 0.0338)
0.0338

x 100%

= 16.27 %
For I02, percentage of error % = (0.1014 0.1061)
0.1061

x 100%

= 4.43 %

For IG2, percentage of error % =

(0.0264 0.0311)
0.0311

= 15.11%
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x 100%

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11.0 Result

Poin
t

Moment of
Inertia

Experimental
Value (kg m)

Theoretical
Value (kg m)

Percentage
Error (%)

Io1

0.1033

0.1088

5.06

IG1

0.0283

0.0338

16.27

Io2

0.1014

0.1061

4.43

IG2

0.0264

0.0311

15.11

O1

O2

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12.0 Discussion

This experiment is objectively to determine the mass moment of inertia, (IG and
IO) by suspending a wooden pendulum to the pivot point using Vee support and rod
support ( both initially be swigged from degree of 10o, 15o, 20o ). It is found that the yield
of IG and IO from both suspension point is absolutely different although they share the
same value of mass of the wooden pendulum.
After data was taken, we calculate the period of oscillation, from those three
different angles. Hence after getting T value, we then measure the value of IG and IO.
By my opinion, there are several factors that influenced these errors. Firstly time
taken for the pendulum to complete 10 complete oscillations may be taken wrongly. This
can happen when time keeper has started the stopwatch slower or faster than the moment
the pendulum start oscillating. When time taken is wrong, the value of mass moment of
inertia will in the calculation. Beside that one of the main factors that often occur in any
experiment including this experiment is inconsistency while values are taken.The angle
where the pendulum is released is not accurate and precise when pendulum is released.
Furthermore the angle of released are not always the same each time, even the angle
supposed to be at 10o, 15o, 20o since the measurement of the angle is only depended on
the protector which is hold next beside the pendulum. The value for IG1, IG2, IO1 and IO2 are
recorded. But when we tried to find the theoretical value for both IG and IO at point 1 and
2 by using an appropriate formula, I only obtain 1 value for each IG and IO. It means that
the value at point 1 and 2 are same for IG and IO
Besides, the discrepancy might be due to air velocity which slightly occurs the
movement of pendulum during swinging process. On top of that, while we set the
angle of 10o, 15o, 20o , the error might occur too. It is because we just randomly guess the
angle by using naked eyes.

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13.0 Conclusion
By the end of the day we managed to find the value of Moment of Inertia and
pertaining to the period of oscillation. After we done this experiment, we
realized that the effect of time taken is not depend on the angle of wooden
pendulum at the initial position but the length of the wooden pendulum will
affect the time when it start to swing. To be more precise, more readings should be
taken for each swing and then the average values are calculated. Furthermore, the person who is
in charge of conducting the experiment must be briefed carefully on how the experiment must be
conducted. If needed, they must be trained in terms of standard of operation. In a nutshell, if
these errors is reduced or eliminate, the experiment might help to achieve its target. The
objective of the experiment is successfully achieved by us. Lastly, we could conclude our
experiment is successful

DISCUSSION MADE BY SITI NORBAEYAH BTE ABD LATIFF 2008793503


The average time taken was calculated for two difference suspension point. The value of I G and
IO was measure by this T values. It is found that the yield of I G and IO from both suspension
points is absolutely different although they share the same value of mass of the wooden

pendulum. The percentage error for

is -5.77%. Negative sign indicated that the theoretical

value is much higher than the experimental. Same goes to

, the error is -12.5%. As usual, there

were several factors that influenced these errors. Firstly, time taken for the pendulum to complete
10 complete oscillations may be taken wrongly. This can happen when time keeper has started
the stopwatch slower or faster than the moment the pendulum start oscillating. When time taken
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is wrong, the value of mass moment of inertia will in the calculation. It is the main factor of error
made by human. Since the time experiment was taken five times, there might be a huge error
made by human. The angle where the pendulum is released is not accurate and precise when
pendulum is released. Furthermore the angle of released are not always the same each time, even
the angle supposed to be at 150 since the measurement of the angle is only depended on the
protector which is hold next beside the pendulum. Besides, the discrepancy might be due to air
velocity which occurs in movement of pendulum during swinging process. On top of that, while
setting the angle of 15O, the error might occur too. It is because the angle were randomly guess
by using naked eyes.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, all three objectives were achieved. Although there were several errors occur
mostly made by human in order to take time value and angle set up, it can be recovered. In
recommendation, less reading should be taken to avoid more time differential value. Besides
that, a permanent of 15 angle must tag at the frame so that it is more accurate to start the swing.
A person who in charge to start the swing must be tall since the frame is high. Furthermore, the
person must be trained in terms of standard of operation to avoid mistake in following
experiment standard. If these errors is reduced or eliminate, the experiment might help to
achieve its target.
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5.0

Discussion

5.3

Discussion from Nor Fadzilah Barkawi (2008407442)


This experiment is objectively to determine the mass moment of inertia, (IG and IO) by

suspending a wooden pendulum to the pivot point using Vee support and rod support ( both
initially be swinged from degree of 150 ). It is found that the yield of IG and IO from both
suspension point is absolutely different although they share the same value of mass of the
wooden pendulum.
From the experiment, the suspension points one, 01 was where we used the vee support
and 02 when used rod support. The value of time obtained is different between both
suspensions where the time, t average for suspension 1 was 14.15 and the suspension 2 was
14.07. The period, T obtained from calculation for suspension 1 is 1.415 and for suspension 2
was 1.407. The result was from the time average, over the oscillations. In the experiment, we
took the time for 10 oscillations. From the L 01 and L 02 calculated above, we get the force due to
the weight applied with the lever arm rG. The rG1 obtained was 0.3535 m while, value of rG2 is
0.378 m. Value for I01 and I02 that were obtained is 0.1053 kgm2 and 0.1115 kgm2 respectively.
For the theoretical calculation, we calculated using the formula to find the moment of
inertia. The value we get was different because in the theoretical, we assumed that all the
apparatus were in perfect condition and contained no defect. But in the experimental all the
defects were not negligible. Then, the theoretical value obtained using the formula but the
experimental value using the result from the experiment itself.
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There were some error when we took the time, where the time was took a bit late from
the pendulum released. So it affects the value of time taken for 10 oscillations. The thing goes
the same where we took the time first from released the pendulum.
Other than that, the pendulum was released not perfectly at angle 15 o because the
suspensions used is not show vividly at the line of angle that we made and then the pendulum
was high so we could not see clearly the angle.
6.0

Conclusion

6.3

Conclusion from Nor Fadzilah Barkawi (2008407442)


At the end of the experiment, we realised that all the objectives of the experiment was

achieved. We could determine the mass moment of inertia by oscillation and manual
calculation. The value from the theoretical was different from the experimental and we have
discussed it in the discussion above. The difference was the result from the uncertainties when
the measurement was taken.
There were some precautions that we have to follow to obtain a precise result. Firstly,
while taking the reading for the angle, make sure the eye level of the observer is parallel with
the reading scale. Besides, it is recommended to put magnifying glass so the scale can be
clearly see. Secondly, when adjusting the angle; make sure the angle is scale using the
protector. Next, when taking the time using the stopwatch, make sure that the pendulum was
released at the instant as the time taken.

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14.0 Reference
1. Engineering Mechanics Dynamics, J.L Meriam, L.G. Kraige, Wiley, Fifth
Edition2002.
2. Engineering Mechanics Dynamics, R.C.Hibbeler, Prentice Hall, Third Edition, 2002.
3. Mechanical Vibrations, S Ingiresu, S Rao, Addison Wesley Publishing Company.
4. Application of Pendulum Method to UAV Momental Ellipsoid Estimation
(Sumit S. Patankar,Dale E. Schinstock,Robert M. Caplinger).
5. Kansas State University (2006).

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6. http://www.idspackaging.com/packaging/us/tinius_olsen/testing_machines/12342_0/
g_supplier.html

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