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4.

10

a.
300 gal

b g

m1 lb m

0.750 lb m C 2 H 5OH / lb m
0.250 lb m H 2 O / lb m

b g

m3 lb m

0.600 lb m C 2 H 5OH / lb m
0.400 lb m H 2 O / lb m

b g
m blb g

4 unknowns ( m1 , m2 ,V40 , m3 )
2 balances
2 specific gravities
0 DF

V40 gal
2

0.400 lb m C 2 H 5OH / lb m
0.600 lb m H 2 O / lb m

b.

300 gal

m1

1ft 3
0.877 62.4 lb m
7.4805 gal
ft 3

Overall balance: m1 m2 m3
C2H5OH balance: 0.750m1 0.400m2
m2
Solve (1) & (2) simultaneously
1646 lb m

V40
4.11

a.

n1 mol / s

(1)
(2)

0.600m3
1646 lb m, , m3

ft 3 7.4805 gal
0.952 62.4lb m
1ft 3

3841 lb m

207 gal

3 unknowns ( n1 , n2 , n3 )
2 balances
1 DF

0.0403 mol C3 H8 / mol


0.9597 mol air / mol

2195 lb m

n2 mol air / s

n3 mol / s

0.0205 mol C3H 8 / mol


0.9795 mol air / mol

0.21 mol O 2 / mol


0.79 mol N 2 / mol

b.

Propane feed rate: 0.0403n1


Propane balance: 0.0403n1
Overall balance: 3722 n2

c.

150 n1 3722 mol / s


0.0205n3 n3 7317 mol / s
7317 n2 3600 mol / s

. The dilution rate should be greater than the value calculated to ensure that ignition is not
possible even if the fuel feed rate increases slightly.

4-5

4.12

a.

m kg / h

0.960 kg CH3OH / kg
0.040 kg H 2 O / kg

1000 kg / h
0.500 kg CH 3OH / kg

2 unknowns ( m, x )
2 balances
0 DF

0.500 kg H 2 O / kg
673 kg / h

g
x b kg H O / kgg

x kg CH3OH / kg
1
b.

Overall balance: 1000

m 673

b g

Methanol balance: 0.500 1000

m 327 kg / h

b g xb673g

0.960 327

Molar flow rates of methanol and water:


673 kg 0.276 kg CH3OH 1000 g mol CH3OH
h
kg
kg 32.0 g CH3OH

0.276 kg CH3OH / kg

5.80 103 mol CH3OH / h

673 kg 0.724 kg H 2 O 1000 g mol H 2 O


2.71 104 mol H 2 O / h
h
kg
kg 18 g H 2 O
Mole fraction of Methanol:
5.80 103
0176
. mol CH3OH / mol
5.80 103 2.71 104
c.

4.13

Analyzer is wrong, flow rates are wrong, impurities in the feed, a reaction is taking place, the
system is not at steady state.

a.

Product
Feed

Reactor

2253 kg

Reactor effluent

1239 kg

Purifier

2253 kg

R = 583

W aste

b g

R = 388

m w kg

R = 140

Analyzer Calibration Data


1

xp

x p = 0.000145R

1 .3 64 54 6

0.1

0.01
100

1000

4-6

4.13 (contd)
b. Effluent: x
p

Product: x p

1.3645

1.3645

1.3645

Waste: x p
Efficiency

c.

b g 0.494 kg P / kg
0.000145b583g
0.861 kg P / kg
0.000145b140g
0123
. kg P / kg
0.861b1239g
100% 95.8%
0.494b2253g
0.000145 388

Mass balance on purifier: 2253 1239 mw


mw
P balance on purifier:
Input: 0.494 kg P / kg 2253 kg 1113 kg P

1014 kg

gb
g
Output: b0.861 kg P / kg gb1239 kg g b0123
.
kg P / kggb1014 kg g

1192 kg P

The P balance does not close . Analyzer readings are wrong; impure feed; extrapolation
beyond analyzer calibration data is risky -- recalibrate; get data for R > 583; not at steady
state; additional reaction occurs in purifier; normal data scatter.
4.14

a.

n1 lb- mole/ h

00100
.
lb- mole H2O/ lb- mole
09900
.
lb- mole DA/ lb- mole

b
v dft / hi

n3 lb- mole/ h

0100
. lb- mole H2O/ lb- mole
0900
. lb- mole DA/ lb- mole

n2 lb- mole HO/


h
2
3

4 unknowns ( n1 , n2 , n3 , v ) 2 balances 1 density 1 meter reading = 0 DF


Assume linear relationship: v

v2
R2

Slope: a
Intercept: b

v1
R1
va

b g

aR b
96.9 40.0
1.626
50 15

aR1

b g

40.0 1.626 15

15.61 170 ft 3 / h

v2

1.626 95

n2

170 ft 3 62 .4 lb m lb - mol
h
ft 3
18.0 lb m

589 lb - moles H 2 O / h

DA balance: 0.9900n1 0.900n3


Overall balance: n1 n2 n3
Solve (1) & (2) simultaneously
n1
b.

15.61

5890 lb - moles / h, n3

(1)
(2)
6480 lb - moles / h

Bad calibration data, not at steady state, leaks, 7% value is wrong, v R relationship is not
linear, extrapolation of analyzer correlation leads to error.

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