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A Seminar Report On
Computer Networking?
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????????????????????????????????ACADEMIC SESSION

2006-2010
BRANCH: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

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This is certified to be the bonafide work entitled ³COMPUTER NETWORKING´ has


been convincible & performed by Ms. Disha Goyal. She is a student of RCEW pursuing
B.Tech here. She is at present in final year with her branch Information Technology. This
project has been prepared as a part of her learning expressly practical learning. The
practical session came into effect in the period of May-June (2009) as announced by the
Rajasthan Technical University. This project covers the entire facets of her analyzing and
reviewing work that she has done in her 35 days training work at a presumed corporation.
This corporation has made her learn the working outs and the processes taking place there
in relation to her learning stream.

Teacher¶s Signature

( )

Date:

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With great leisure and complete pleasure supplemented with full experience, I fail to
find words that would compile a sentence to express my profound gratitude to the college
Rajasthan College of Engineering for Women for providing valuable inputs at the diverse
stages of my practical learning.

I am ever grateful and eternally indebted to the I.T. department for finding the time out
of their busy schedule and extending was also instrumental in providing me with the right
perspective for my training. I am ever grateful to the H.O.D. of I.T department for all the
encouragement that is provided to me for this training.

I am highly gratified with thoughtful assistance of Mr. C.J Patel (Training Head) for
concluding the time out of his busy program that was influential in providing me with the
appropriate perception and outlook for my training. I am ever grateful to him for all the
support that he had given me during the training. This also takes an account of the
superior, virtuous and respectable firm that permitted me to accomplish my training
productively and lucratively.

Conclusively, I admit that it was enormously blissful and exultant experience on


working this project and exploring fresh knowledge. It has helped me to achieve
confidence and maturates me during the problems I faced in the fabrication of my project.
This contributory project has facilitated me to provide liable and accountable contribution
to the manufacture of merchandise. Fair suggestions are summoned for the improvement
of this project.

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Communication is at the core of almost all aspects of modern life. Education and health
care rely upon it, as do everyday work and community life, and democratic governance.
Since new communication technology does offer significant opportunities ²as well as
grave risks²and because the form of the communication infrastructure of tomorrow is
being shaped today, it is critical that people from all walks of life play more active roles in
this crucial transition period.

New computer-networking technology currently has many attributes that could


undergird communication and technology that is truly democratic. Since it supports
"many-to-many" communication, community, regional, national, and even international
"conversations" on any topic are possible. This new media is unlike traditional media like
newspapers and television that are "one -to-many" (broadcast) or telephones, and letter
writing that are usually "one-to-one."

Although I argue for the development of democratic technology in general, this is


focused on the development of community computer networks, a concrete manifestation of
democratic technology that demands our attention right now. These systems are not
utopian pie in the sky. Five hundred thousand people currently use community networks
and people have launched projects in hundreds of cities and regions in the United States
and around the world.

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ONGC (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited) is India's leading oil & gas
exploration company. ONGC has produced more than 600 million metric tonnes of crude
oil and supplied more than 200 billion cubic metres of gas since its inception.

d? Today, ONGC is India's highest profit making corporate. It has a share of 77 percent

in India's crude oil production and 81 per cent in India's natural gas production.

d? The vast sedimentary tract in other parts of India and adjoining offshore were

largely unexplored.

d? In 1955, Government of India decided to develop the oil and natural gas resources

in the various regions of the country as part of the Public Sector development.

d? To achieve this objective an Oil and Natural Gas Directorate was set up in1955, as a

subordinate office under the then Ministry of Natural Resource s and Scientific

Research.

d? The Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956 placed mineral oil industry among the

schedule 'A' industries. In August 1956, to ensure efficient functioning of the Oil

and Natural Gas Directorate, the Directorate was raised to the status of a

commission with enhanced powers.

d? In October 1959, the Commission was converted into a statutory body by an act of

the Indian Parliament, which enhanced powers of the commission further.

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d? In 1960s, ONGC found new resources in Assam and established new oil province in

Cambay basin (Gujarat). In early 1970s went offshore and discovered a giant oil

field in the form of Bombay High.

d? After liberalization in 1991, ONGC was re-organized as a limited Company under

the Company's Act, 1956 in February 1994. Today, ONGC has grown into a full-

fledged horizontally integrated petroleum company.

d? Recently, ONGC has made six new discoveries, at Vasari West (oil and gas) in

Western Offshore, GS-49 (gas) and GS-KW (oil and gas) in Krishna-Godavari

Offshore, Chinnewala Tibba (gas) in Rajasthan, and Laipling-gaon (oil and gas) and

Banamali (oil), both in Assam.

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i.? Judged as Asia¶s best Oil &Gas Company, as a recent survey conducted by US-
based magazine µGlobal Finance¶.
ii.? Ranked as the 2nd biggest E&P company as9and 1 st in terms of profits0, as per the
Platts Energy Business Technology (EBT) Survey 2004.

iii.? Leads the list of Indian companies listed in Forbes 400 Global Corporate and
Financial Times Global 500 by Market Capitalization.
iv.? Only fully-integrated petroleum company in India, operating along the entire
hydrocarbon value chain.
v.? Holds largest share of hydrocarbon acreages in India.

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d? Water Management
d? Biodiversity
d? CDM Project Activity
d? Methane to Market
d? Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration
d? Carbon Disclosure Project
d? GHG Accounting
d? îHSE Accreditation
d? Corporate Policy on Climate Change and Sustainability
d? Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)
d? Coal Bed Methane (CBM)

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 ?Besides the above, OEC is scanning other projects not only on clean energy sources
but also projects to conserve energy and promote energy efficiency. Examples are
Solid state (LED).
 ?Lighting, biological production of value added products from low rank coals,
alcohols from agriwaste.
 ?OTBL. ONGC-TERI Biotech Ltd. A joint venture has been formed to exclusively
explore the option of Bio-remediation for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Oil spills,
treatment of waste drilling fluids etc.
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3? Introduction To Networking And Its Types.


"? Peer-to-Peer Networking
"? Client-Server Networking
3? Types Of Networks
"? LAN
"? MAN
"? WAN
3? Network Devices And Connectivity Components
"? Routers
"? Repeaters
"? Bridges
"? Switches
"? Gateways
"? Modems
"? Network Cards
"? Servers
3? Network Topologies
3? Concept Of Ethernet Cabling
3? Satellite Communication
3? SCADA System

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?A computer network is a collection of interconnected computing devices which

allows sharing information & resources.

?Exchanging information through computer networks have become important

phenomenon in day to day activities.

?The connection can be done a s peer-to-peer or client/server.

?A computer network allows computers to communicate with many other computers

and to share resources and information.

?Computer networking is the engineering discipline concerned with communication

between computer systems or devices.

?Networking, routers, routing protocols, and networking over the public Internet

have their specifications defined in documents called RFCs.

?Computer networks rely heavily upon the theoretical and practical application of

these scientific and engineering disciplines.

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‘? Some technologies used for this purpose are Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM),
FDDI, and SMDS.
‘? These technologies are in the process of being displaced by Ethernet-based
connections (e.g., Metro Ethernet) in most areas.
‘? MAN links between local area networks have been built without cables using either
microwave, radio, or infra-red laser links.
‘? Most companies rent or lease circuits from common carriers due to the fact that
laying long stretches of cable can be expensive.

2.? WAN (Wide Area Network): A wide area network is a computer network that
covers a broad area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross
metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries).
‘? This is in contrast with personal area networks (PANs), local area networks (LANs),
campus area networks (CANs), or metropolitan area networks (MANs) which are
usually limited to a room, building, campus or specific metropolitan a rea.
‘? Protocols including Packet over SONET/SDH, MPLS, ATM and Frame relay are
often used by service providers to deliver the links that ar e used in WANs. X.25 was
an important early WAN protocol.
‘? WANs are often built using leased lines. At each end of the leased line, a router
connects to the LAN on one side and a hub within the WAN on the other.
‘? Leased lines can be very expensive. Instead of using leased lines, WANs can also be
built using less costly circuit switching or packet switching methods.
‘? Network protocols including TCP/IP deliver transport and addressing functions.

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"? Network devices are components used to connect computers or other electronic
devices together so that they can share files or resources like printers or fax
machines.
"? Devices used to setup a Local Area Network (LAN) are the most common type of
network devices used by the public.
"? A LAN requires a hub, router, cabling or radio technology, network cards, and if
online access is desired, a high-speed modem.
"? In a network, one computer is designated as the server, and the others, clients. The
server is connected to an external hub, which the clients are also connected to.
"? Now that the computers each have one foot in a common electronic door (the hub),
they can use the hub to pass signals back and forth.
"? To direct these signals, the hub contains a device known as a router. Computer in
the network must have a network card installed. These network devices each contain
a unique address.
"? In a hard-wired network, special cabling called Ethernet runs from the network card
to the hub. In a wireless network the network cards and router/hub communicate
using radio waves.
"? Online access is optional in a local area network, but if included, a single online
account can be shared by all computers on the network.
"? When online access is available, the router not only directs traffic on the local
network, but also handles requests made to the Internet and subsequent replies.

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"? The router acts as a gateway to the Internet, and also serves as a hardware firewall
to keep unsolicited traffic from flowing back into the network from the wild.
"? One can add online access to a LAN by either attaching a router/hub to a high -speed
modem, or by acquiring a high -speed modem that has a router/hub built -in.
"? The high-speed modem must be compatible with the online service. Most modems
are designed specifically for use with DSL, cable or fiber optics, though some
models might be made to work with more than one technology, such as being DSL
and cable compatible.

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d? Routers
d? Repeaters
d? Bridges
d? Switches
d? Gateways
d? Modems
d? Network cards
d? Servers

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8. Servers: A server is a computer program that delivers a service to clients. The server
and client programs are usually, but not necessarily, running on different computers
communicating over a network. A web server delivers a web page when requested by a
web browser (called client in this context). The predefined way a server and client
communicates is called a protocol. For instance, HTTP is the protocol used between a
browser a?nd a web server.

Services provided by Internet Servers:

1.World Wide Web

2. the domain name system

3. e-mail

4. FTP file transfer

5. chat and instant messaging

6. voice communication

7. streaming audio and video

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--Ethernet: The most popular media access method to desktops. Works in star and/or bus
configurations, Ethernet networks transmit data over utp, thin-coaxial, thick-coaxial and
fiber-optic cables at rates of 10 mbps. Fast Ethernet refers to 100 mbps transfer rate. The
"10" refers to the Ethernet transmission speed - 10 mbps. The "base" refers to baseband.
The last character referred to the maximum cable distance in hundreds of meters. In 10
base t and 10 base f. The t and f refer to the cable types (twisted-pair and fiber-optic).

? A straight-thru cable has identical ends.

--A crossover cable has different ends.

--A straight-thru is used as a patch cord in Ethernet connections.

--A crossover is used to connect two Ethernet devices without a hub or for connecting two
hubs.

--A crossover has one end with the Orange set of wires switched with the Green set.

--Odd numbered pins are always striped, even numbered pins are always soli d colored.

--Looking at the RJ-45 with the clip facing away from you, Brown is always on the right,
and pin 1 is on the left.

--No more than 1/2" of the Ethernet cable should be untwisted otherwise it will be
susceptible to crosstalk.

--Do not deform, do not bend, do not stretch, do not staple, do not run parallel with power
cables, and do not run Ethernet cables near noise inducing components.

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A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to SATCOM) is an artificial satellite
stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications.

{? Modern communications satellites use a variety of orbits including geostationary orbits,


other elliptical orbits and low (polar and non-polar) Earth orbits.For fixed (point-to-
point) services, communications satellites provide a microwave radio relay technology
complementary to that of submarine communication cables .

{? They are also used for mobile applications such as communications to ships, vehicles,
planes and hand-held terminals, and for TV and radio broadcasting, for which
application of other technologies, such as cable, is impractical or impossible.

a. Geostationary Orbits: The concept of the geostationary communications satellite was


first proposed by Arthur C. Clarke, A satellite in a geostationary orbit appears to be in a
fixed position to an earth-based observer.

- A geostationary satellite revolves around the earth at a constant speed once per day over
the equator.

-The geostationary orbit is useful for communications applications because ground based
antennas, which must be directed toward the satellite, can opera te effectively without the
need for expensive equipment to track the satellite¶s motion.

-Basically for applications that require a large number of ground antennas .

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b. Low Earth Orbits: A Low Earth Orbit (LEO) typically is a circular orbit about 400
kilometres above the earth¶s surface and, correspondingly, a period (time to revolve
around the earth) of about 90 minutes.

- Because of their low altitude, these satellites are only visible from within a radius of
roughly 1000 kilometres from the sub-satellite point.

- In addition, satellites in low earth orbit change their position relative to the g round
position quickly.

-For local applications, a large number of satellites are needed if the mission requires
uninterrupted connectivity.

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1. Telephony: The first and historically most important application for communication
satellites was in intercontinental long distance telephony.

?The fixed Public Switched Telephone Network relays telephone calls from land line
telephones to an earth station, where they are then transmitted to a geostationary
satellite. The downlink follows an analogous path.

2. Satellite Television: Television became the main market, its demand for simultaneous
delivery of relatively few signals of large bandwidth to many receivers being a more
precise match for the capabilities of geosynchronous comsats.

Two satellite types are used for North American television and radio: Direct Broadcast
Satellite (DBS), and Fixed Service Satellite (FSS) .

a) Fixed service satellites: Fixed Service Satellites use the C band, and the lower portions
of the Ku bands.

?Normally used for broadcast feeds to and from television networks and local affiliate
stations (such as program feeds for network and syndicated programming, live shots,
and backhauls).
?Also used for distance learning by schools and universities, business television (BTV),
Videoconferencing, and general commercial telecommunications.

b) Direct broadcast satellites: A direct broadcast satellite is a communications satellite that


transmits to small DBS satellite dishes (usually 18 to 24 inches or 45 to 60 cm in
diameter).

?Direct broadcast satellites generally operate in the upper portio n of the microwave Ku
band.
?DBS technology is used for DTH-oriented (Direct-To-Home) satellite TV services, such
as DirecTV and DISH Network in the United States.

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3. Military Uses: Communications satellites are used for military communications
applications, such as Global Command and Control Systems.

?Examples of military systems that use use communication satellites are the MILSTAR,
the DSCS, and the FLTSATCOM of the United States, NATO satellites, United
Kingdom satellites.

4. Navigation: One of the fascinating applications of satellites is GPS (Global Positioning


System). Its primary application is navigation.

?There is a network of 24 satellites LEO satellites spaced equally around the world in
overlapping pattern for this purpose.

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‘? For the most part, the brains of a SCADA system are performed by the Remote
Terminal Units (sometimes referred to as the RTU).
‘? The Remote Terminal Units consists of a programmable logic converter.
‘? The RTU are usually set to specific requirements, however, most RTU allow human
intervention, for instance, in a factory setting, the RTU might control the setting of a
conveyer belt, and the speed can be changed or overridden at any time by human
intervention.
‘? In addition, any changes or errors are usually automatically logged for and/or
displayed.
‘? Most often, a SCADA system will monitor and make slight changes to function
optimally; SCADA systems are considered closed loop systems and run with relat ively
little human intervention.
‘? One of key processes of SCADA is the ability to monitor an entire system in real time.
‘? This is facilitated by data acquisitions including meter reading, checking statuses of
sensors, etc that are communicated at regular intervals depending on the system.
‘? SCADA can be seen as a system with many data elements called points. Usually each

point is a monitor or sensor. Usually points can be either hard or soft.


‘? A hard data point can be an actual monitor; a soft point can be seen as an application

or software calculation.

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? Support efficient monitoring of the operational productional & drilling parameters.


? Automatic generation of Logs, Reports and DPRs.
? Better accounting of the products and stricter control wastages etc.
? The data can be provided to other Production and Drilling Appliocations for more
purposeful information. The application such as Mass balancing, Leakage Detection,
Gas Lift Optimization add value to the organization.
? Seamless flow of Realtime Online information into business and scienftific systems
increasing authenticity due to avoiding manual errors.

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"? Computer Networks

By Andrew S. Tanenbaum

"? Computer Networking

By Douglas Comer and Prentice Hall

"? www.ongc.co.in

"? www.amazon.com

"? www.about.com

"? www.tech-ict.in

"? www.wikipedia.com

"? Google Search Engine

"? Bing Search Engine

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