Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

PRODUCTION OF 100 000 METRIC TONNES PER

ANNUM OF 2-ETHYLHEXYL ACRYLATE

MOHD ASYRAF CHE KAMARLUDIN


NUR AFIQAH MOHD YUSOF
NURUL ALWANI SAMSURE
NOR FAEZA MANSORUDIN
NORSYAZWANI ISMAIL

2007286864
2007286782
2008287574
2007286964
2007286792

SUPERVISOR : P.M DR. MURTHY VPS VELURI


ALLIED SUPERVISOR : MR. SELVAKUMARAN
CHELLIAH

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


2011

PRODUCTION OF 100 000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF 2-ETHYLHEXYL


ACRYLATE PLANT

MOHD ASYRAF CHE KAMARLUDIN

2007286864

NUR AFIQAH MOHD YUSOF

2007286782

NURUL ALWANI SAMSURE

2008287574

NOR FAEZA MANSORUDIN

2007286964

NORSYAZWANI ISMAIL

2007286792

A report in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelor Engineering
(Hons.) in Chemical Engineering

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
SHAH ALAM

APRIL 2011

We declared that this report is the result of our own work except for quotations and
summaries have been duly acknowledged.

MOHD ASYRAF CHE KAMARLUDIN

NOR FAEZA MANSORUDIN

2007286864

2007286964

NORSYAZWANI ISMAIL

NUR AFIQAH MOHD YUSOF

2007286792

2007286782

NURUL ALWANI SAMSURE


2008287574

18 APRIL 2011

We declared that we read this report and in our point of view this report is qualified in
term of scope and quality for the purpose of awarding the Bachelor of Engineering
(Hons.) in Chemical Engineering.

Signed : ..
Date

: ..

Allied Supervisor
Mr. Selvakumaran Chelliah
Senior Plant Manager.OAE
Basf-Petronas Chemicals Sdn.Bhd
Gebeng, Pahang

Signed : ..
Date

: ..

Supervisor
P.M Dr. Murthy VPS Veluri
Faculty of Chemical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Shah Alam, Selangor

Accepted:

Signed :
Date

Coordinator
Puan Nor Hayati Talib
Faculty of Chemical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Shah Alam, Selangor

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, in the name of the Almighty ALLAH S.W.T, the most gracious and
merciful, with his gracing and blessing has led to success be upon this design project.
We would like to take this opportunity to express our sincere thanks and
appreciation to the persons and academician or organization who that have directly or
indirectly give generous contributions towards the success of this academic study.
Primarily, we would like to thank to our supervisor, P.M Dr. Murthy VPS Veluri
for keen, encouragement, motivation, guidance, critics and friendship. Without his
continued support and interest, this design project would not have been the same as
presented here.
We also are grateful to our allied supervisor, Mr. Selvakumaran Chelliah for his
time, assistance, interest, committed and consultations for enabling this project to be
successfully completed.
Not to be forgettable, thanks to Madam Suhaiza Hanim Hanipah who has
contribute directly or indirectly towards the completion of mechanical design for her
keen guidance & commitment.
We gratefully express our thanks to our family and friends who have gave us
substantial moral support to finish the study.
Above all, we thank Allah S.W.T for His grace, mercy and guidance throughout
our life.

CONTENTS

TITLE
CHAPTER 1

PAGE

FEASIBILITY STUDY
1.1

Process Background and Selection

11

1.1.1.

Introduction

11

1.1.2.

Process Chemistry

13

1.1.3.

Reaction Mechanism

13

1.1.4.

Process Background

14

1.1.4.1.

Direct Esterification

15

1.1.4.2.

Transesterification

16

1.1.5.

Process Selection

16

1.1.5.1.

Process Details Descriptions

18

1.1.5.2.

Block Flow Diagram

19

1.1.5.3.

Process Equipment

1 10

1.1.5.4.

Reaction Kinetics

1 11

A) Dimerization of the Acrylic Acid

1 11

B) Formation of Ethylhexyl Acetate

1 12

C) Formation of Octyl Propionate

1 12

1.1.6.

Catalyst

1 13

1.1.7.

Characteristic use for Process Route

1 13

Selection

1.1.8.

1.1.7.1. Safety of the Plant

1 13

1.1.7.2. Economical

1 14

1.1.7.3. Minimum Waste Or By Product

1 14

Process Route Selections

1 14

1.1.8.1. Production of 2-Ethylhexyl

1 15

Acrylate by Producing Acrylic


Acid from Propylene
1.1.8.2. Production Of 2-Ethylhexyl
Acrylate by Producing 2Ethylhexanol from Propylene

1 15

1.1.9.

Processing Flow Selection Based on Patent

1 15

Invention
1.1.9.1. Esterification of Acrylic Acid and

1 18

2-Ethylhexanol by Using Solvent


(US PATENT: 0192957 A1, Wickens
et. al.,2004)
1.1.9.2. Esterification of Acrylic Acid and

1 20

2-Ethylhexanol Without Using


Solvent (US PATENT: 5883288,
Iffland et al, 1999)
Conclusion

1 20

Market Analysis and Demand

1 21

1.2.1. Global Demand and Supply

1 21

1.2.2. Overview of Global Supply

1 23

1.2.3. Asia Market and Demand

1 24

1.2.4. Malaysia Demand of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate

1 25

1.1.10.
1.2

1.2.4.1. Selling Price in Asia and Malaysia

1 25

1.2.4.2. Potential Buyers in Malaysia

1 26

1.2.5. Conclusion
1.3

Site Selection and Plant Location

1 27

1.3.1. Introduction

1 27

1.3.1.1. Marketing Area

1 28

1.3.1.2. Raw Materials

1 28

1.3.1.3. Transportation

1 28

1.3.1.4. Availability of Labor

1 28

1.3.1.5. Utilities

1 29

1.3.1.6. Environmental Impact and Effluent

1 29

Disposal
1.3.1.7. Local Community Considerations

1 29

1.3.1.8. Availability of Land

1 29

1.3.1.9. Climate

1 29

1.3.2. Facilities Provided At Gebeng Industrial Park

1 38

1.3.2.1. Training

1 38

1.3.2.2. Waste Management

1 38

CHAPTER 2

1.3.2.3. Government Agencies

1 38

1.3.2.4. Safety of the Plant

1 39

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM (PFD)


2.1 Materials Balance

21

2.1.1 Introduction

21

2.1.2 Sample of Calculation

22

2.1.2.1 Assumptions

22

2.1.2.2 Basis of Calculation

23

2.1.3 Description on Each Stream


2.1.3.1 Mass Balance on the Reactor

28
29

(R-101)
2.1.3.2 Mass Balance on the Reactor

2 11

(R-102)
2.1.3.3 Mass Balance on Heavy Removal

2 15

Column (T-102)
2.1.3.4 Mass Balance on Cracking Unit

2 18

(S-101)
2.1.3.5 Mass Balance on Product Column

2 19

(T-103)
2.1.3.6 Mass Balance on Absorber (T-101)

2 21

2.1.3.7 Mass Balance on Separator

2 23

(S-102)
2.1.3.8 Overall Balance
2.2 Energy Balance

2 24
2 29

2.2.1 Method of Calculation

2 29

2.2.2 Equations Used In Calculations

2 29

2.2.2.1 General Equations

2 29

2.2.2.2 Equation for Reactive Process

2 30

2.2.2.3 Equation for Reactive Process with

2 30

Phase Changes
2.2.2.4 Equation for Non-reactive Process

2 30

with Phase Change


2.2.2.5 Equation for Heat Capacity, Cp

2 30

2.2.2.6 Total Energy


2.2.3 Calculations On Energy Balance

2 31
2 31

2.2.3.1 Balance at Reactor (R-101)

2 31

2.2.3.2 Balance at Reactor (R-102)

2 34

2.2.3.3 Balance at Absorber (T-101)

2 37

2.2.3.4 Balance at Heavy Removal

2 41

Column (T-102)
2.2.3.5 Balance at Splitter (S-101)

2 44

2.2.3.6 Balance at Product Column

2 46

(T-103)

2.3
CHAPTER 3

CHAPTER 4

2.2.4 Conclusion

2 48

Hysys Simulation

2 48

PROCESS INTEGRATION
3.1

Introduction

31

3.2

Pinch Technology

31

3.3

The Problem Table Method

35

3.4

The Heat Exchanger Network

3 12

3.4.1 Network Design for Maximum Energy Recovery

3 12

3.4.1.1 The Network Design Above the Pinch

3 12

3.4.1.2 The Network Design Below the Pinch

3 12

3.5

Minimum Number of Exchanger

3 13

3.6

Difference Between Before and After Heat Integration

3 14

3.7

Conclusion

3 15

PROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION


4.1

Introduction

41

4.2

Objectives of Control

42

4.2.1 Safe Operation

42

4.2.2 Production Specification

42

4.2.3 Environmental Constraint

42

4.2.4 Operational Constraint

42

4.3

Classification of Process Variables

43

4.4

Types of Control

43

4.5

4.4.1 Feedback Control

44

4.4.2 Feedforward Control

44

4.4.3 Cascade Control

44

4.4.4 Ratio Control

45

Control System for Major Equipment

46

4.5.1 Esterification Reactor (R-101)

46

4.5.2 Esterification Reactor (R-102)

48

4.5.3 Distillation Column (T-102)

49

4.5.4 Finishing Column (T-103)

4 12

4.5.5 Heat Exchangers

4 14

4.5.5.1 Description of Control Mechanism

4 14

for Heat Exchangers

4.6

4.5.7.2 Heater (E-101 and E-102)

4 14

4.5.7.3 Condenser (E-103)

4 16

4.5.7.4 Cooler (E-104)

4 17

Control System for Other Equipment

4 18

4.6.1 Mixer (M-101)

4 18

4.6.2 Splitter (S-101)

4 19
4 20

Conclusion
CHAPTER 5

CHEMICAL DESIGN
5.1

5.2

Esterification Reactor 1 (R-101)

51

5.1.1

Selection of Reactor

51

5.1.2

Sizing of the Reactor

53

5.1.2.1 Assumptions in Calculations

53

5.1.2.2 Determination of Reaction Rate

54

5.1.2.3 Determination of Reactor Volume

58

5.1.2.4 Determination of Space Time

5 17

5.1.3 Summary of Chemical Design

5 18

Esterification Reactor 2 (R-102)

5 19

5.2.1

Introduction

5 19

5.2.2

Selection of Reactor

5 19

5.2.3

Reactor Sizing

5 20

5.2.4

Determination of Reaction Rate, R

5 20

5.2.5

5.3

5.2.4.1 Inlet of Reactor R-102 (S6)

5 22

5.2.3.2 Outlet of Reactor R-102 (S8)

5 23

Determination Reactor Volume and Dimensions

5 24

5.2.6 Determination of Space Time

5 26

5.2.7 Summary of Chemical Design

5 27

Distillation Column (T-102)

5 28

5.3.1

Introduction

5 28

5.3.2

Chemical Design Calculation

5 29

5.3.2.1

Estimation of the Number of Stages

5 30

5.3.2.2

Minimum Number of Stages

5 32

5.3.2.3

Average Relative Volatility

5 32

5.3.2.4

Minimum Reflux Rate

5 34

5.3.2.5

Operating Reflux Rate and Number

5 36

of Theoretical Stages
5.3.2.6

Feed Point Location

5.3.2.7 Approximate Column Sizing

5.4

5 37
5 38

5.3.3 Summary of Distillation Column (T-102) Design

5 47

Finishing Column (T-103)

5 48

5.4.1

Introduction

5 48

5.4.2

Determine the Number of Plate

5 50

5.4.2.1

5 50

Determination of Bubble Point and


Dew Point

5.4.2.2

Calculate the Relative Volatility,

5 52

5.4.2.3

Calculate Minimum Reflux Ratio, Rm

5 53

5.4.2.4

Determining the Minimum Stages

5 55

5.4.2.5

Determining the Feed Location

5 56

5.4.2.6

Pressure Drop

5 57

5.4.2.7

Calculation for Density and Relative

5 57

Molar Mass (RMM)


5.4.2.8

Determination of Column Dimensions

5 59

5.4.2.9

Check Entrainment

5 68

5.4.2.10 Trial Layout

5 68

5.4.2.11 Column Size

5 70

5.4.2.12 Plate Specification

5 70

5.5

5.4.3 Summary of Chemical Design

5 71

Heat Exchanger (E-104)

5 72

5.5.1

Introduction

5 72

5.5.2

Selection of Equipment

5 72

5.5.3

Selection of Shell-Tube Type of Heat Exchanger

5 72

5.5.4

Selection of Shell or Tube side for the Fluids

5 73

5.5.5

Selection of Tubes

5 74

5.5.6

Assumption for Heat Exchanger Calculation

5 74

5.5.7

Calculation of Heat Exchanger

5 75

5.5.7.1

Overall Coefficient, U

5 75

5.5.7.2

Exchanger Type and Dimensions

5 75

5.5.7.3

Heat Load in Shell and Tube Side

5 77

5.5.7.4

Heat Transfer Area

5 77

5.5.7.5

Number of Tubes

5 78

5.5.7.6

Bundle and Shell Diameter

5 78

5.5.7.7

Tube-side Heat Transfer Coefficient

5 79

5.5.7.8

Shell side Heat Transfer Coefficient

5 80

5.5.7.9

Overall Coefficient

5 82

5.5.8

5.5.9
CHAPTER 6

Pressure Drop

5 83

5.5.8.1

Tube side

5 83

5.5.8.2

Shell Side

5 83

Summary of Heat Exchanger Design

5 85

MECHANICAL DESIGN
6.1

Mechanical Design Of Reactor (R-101)

61

6.1.1 Determination Of Orientation Of Reactor

61

6.1.2 Determination Of Material Of Construction

61

6.1.3 Selection Of Impeller Arrangement

61

6.1.3.1 Shaft Design

63

6.1.3.2 Speed Impeller

63

6.1.4 Cooling Elements Of The Reactor

67

6.1.4.1 Selection of Cooling Element and Utility

67

6.1.4.2 Determination of Coils Dimension and

67

Heat Transfer

6.1.5 Determination Of The Thickness Of Wall Vessel

68

6.1.6 Head and Closure

6 10

6.1.7 Determination of Pipe (Nozzle) Size

6 12

6.1.8 Determination Of Bolt & Flange Joint

6 13

6.1.9 Design Of Vessel Subject To Combined

6 15

Loading

6.2

6.1.10 Reactor Support

6 20

6.1.11 Base Ring and Anchor Bolts

6 22

6.1.12 Gasket

6 24

6.1.13 Summary Of The Reactor Design

6 26

Mechanical Design Of Reactor R-102

6 28

6.2.1

Material of construction

6 28

6.2.2

Thickness of the vessel

6 29

6.2.3

Insulation of the Vessel

6 30

6.2.4

Heating element inside the vessel

6 31

6.2.5

Head and Closure

6 33

6.2.6

Pipe Size Selection

6 34

6.2.7

Bolt Flanged Joint

6 35

6.2.8

Design of Vessel Subject To Combine

6 37

Loading

6.2.9

6.3

6.2.8.1 Dead Weight of Vessel

6 37

6.2.8.2 Wind Loading

6 39

Analysis of Stress

6 39

6.2.9.1 The resultant longitudinal stress

6 40

6.2.10 Check Elastic Stability (Buckling)

6 40

6.2.11 Vessel Support Design

6 40

6.2.12 Base Rings and Anchor Bolts

6 43

Mechanical Design of Distillation Column (T-102)

6 44

6.3.1 Introduction

6 44

6.3.1.1 Design Pressure

6 44

6.3.1.2 Design Temperature

6 44

6.3.1.3 Material of Construction

6 45

6.3.1.4 Design Stress

6 45

6.3.1.5 Wall Thickness

6 45

6.3.1.6 Welded Joint Efficiency

6 46

6.3.1.7 Analysis of Stresses

6 46

6.3.2 Mechanical Design Calculation

6 47

6.3.2.1 Column Design Specification

6 47

6.3.2.2 Dead Weight of Vessel

6 49

6.3.2.3 Weight of Plates

6 49

6.3.2.4 Weight of Insulation

6 50

6.3.2.5 Wind Loading

6 51

6.3.2.6 Analysis of Stresses

6 51

6.3.2.7 Design of Domed End and Wall

6 53

Thickness

6.4

6.5

6.3.2.8 Design for the Skirt Support

6 54

6.3.2.9 Base Ring and Anchor Bolts

6 56

6.3.2.10 Piping and Flange Design

6 58

Mechanical Design of Distillation Column (T-103)

6 62

6.4.1

Introduction

6 62

6.4.2

Column Design Specification

6 62

6.4.3

Design Pressure

6 63

6.4.4

Design Temperature

6 63

6.4.5

Material of Construction

6 64

6.4.6

Vessel Thickness

6 64

6.4.7

Head and Closure

6 64

6.4.8

Dead Weight of Vessel, W v

6 65

6.4.9

Weight of Plate, W p

6 65

6.4.10 Weight of insulation, W i

6 66

6.4.11 Wind Loading

6 67

6.4.12 Analysis of stresses

6 68

6.4.13 Design for the Skirt Support

6 70

6.4.14 Base Ring and Anchor Bolts Design

6 72

6.4.15 Design of Stiffness Ring

6 75

6.4.16 Piping Sizing

6 76

6.4.17 Flange Design

6 78

Mechanical Design Of Heat Exchanger (E-104)

6 80

6.5.1

6 80

Design Pressure

6.5.2

Design Temperature

6 80

6.5.3

Exchanger Type

6 81

6.5.4

Material of Construction

6 81

6.5.5

6 82

6.5.6

Welded Joint Efficiency and Corrosion


Allowance
Design Stress

6.5.7

Design Criteria

6 82

6.5.7.1 Minimum Practical Wall Thickness

6 82

6.5.7.2 Head and Closure

6 83

6.5.7.3 Baffles

6 83

6.5.7.4 Nozzle (Branches)

6 84

6.5.7.5 Flanged Nozzle

6 86

6.5.7.6 Weight Load

6 87

6.5.8

Vessel Support

6 90

6.5.9

Summary of Heat Exchanger Design

6 91

6.5.10 Specification sheet of Heat Exchanger (E-104)

CHAPTER 7

6 82

6 92

WASTE MANAGEMENT
7.1

Environmental Considerations

71

7.1.1

Environmental Regulations

7-1

7.1.1.1

General Information

71

7.1.1.2

Discharges To Navigable Waters

72

7.1.1.3

Discharges To Municipal Sewers

72

7.1.1.4

Emissions To Air

72

7.1.1.5

Removal Of 2-EHA Vapors From

73

Contaminated Air

7.2

7.3

7.1.1.6

Release To Land

74

7.1.1.7

Disposal Of Wastes

74

Introduction To Wastewater In 2-EHA Plant

75

7.2.1

Rules And Regulations Used

75

7.2.2

Wastewater From Process Plant

77

7.2.3

Calculations Of BOD5

78

7.2.4

Wastewater Temperature

7 10

Wastewater Treatment Plant Unit

7 11

7.3.1 Aerobic Wastewater Treatment Plant System

7 11

7.3.2

7 11

Wastewater Treatment Plant Process Flow


Diagram

7.3.3

Microorganisms Used In The Waste Treatment

7 13

Process

CHAPTER 8

Design Of Holding Tank

7 13

7.3.5

Designing The Activated Sludge Reactor

7 14

7.3.6

Design For Secondary Clarifier

7 16

7.3.7

Mass Balance Of The Treatment Unit

7 17

7.3.8

Power Used In The System

7 19

7.3.9

Cost Of The Waste Treatment

7 19

7.4

Incinerator

7 20

7.5

Plant Layout

7 21

PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
8.0

Introduction

81

8.1

Specification of 2-EthylHexyl Acrylate Plant

81

8.2

Capital Cost

82

8.2.1 Grass Root Cost

82

8.2.2 Fixed and Total Capital Investment Cost

84

Manufacturing Cost Estimation

85

8.3.1 Cost of Operating Labor

86

8.3.2 Cost of Raw Material and Revenue

88

8.3.3 Cost of Utilities

88

8.3.4 Summary of Manufacturing Cost

8 10

Profitability Analysis

8 11

8.4.1 Cash Flow and Cash Flow Diagram

8 11

8.4.2 Discounted Cash Flow

8 12

8.4.3 Net Present Value

8 17

8.4.4 Sensitivity Analysis

8 18

8.4.5 Payback Period

8 19

Conclusion

8 21

8.3

8.4

8.5
CHAPTER 9

7.3.4

SAFETY AND LOSS PREVENTION


9.1

Introduction

91

9.2

Regulations Related To 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate Plant

92

9.2.1 Occupational Safety and Health Regulations

92

1997
9.2.2 Occupational Safety and Health Regulations

92

1996
9.2.3 Occupational Safety and Health Regulations

92

2000
9.3

Safety Consideration in Chemical Plant

93

9.3.1 Exposure Limits To Chemicals Used In Plant

94

9.3.2 Toxicology Profile Of Chemical Presence In

96

Plant
9.3.3 Safety of Volatile Organic Compounds (Vocs)

9 10

9.3.3.1 How to Handle VOC and HAPs

9 13

Emmisions

9.4

9.3.4 Incinerator in 2-EHA-Plant

9 13

Process Analysis

9 14

9.4.1 Polymerization of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate

9 14

9.4.2 Possible Any Accident Occur Inside of

9 15

the Plant
Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOP)

9 17

9.5.1 HAZOP Study Procedure

9 17

9.5.2 HAZOP Team

9 18

9.5.3 HAZOP Studies for Major Equipment

9 20

9.6

Plant Start Up

9 34

9.7

Plant Shut Down

9 36

9.7.1 Introduction

9 36

9.7.2 Plant Shutdown

9 36

Start Up and Shut Down Procedure for Main

9 37

9.5

9.8

Equipment
9.8.1 Start-Up and Shut Down Procedure For

9 37

Esterification Reactor
9.8.2 Start-Up and Shut Down Procedure

9 39

Esterification Column
9.8.3 Start-Up and Shut Down Procedure for Heat

9 39

Exchanger
9.9

Plant Layout

9 40

9.9.1 Plant Layout Consideration

9 40

9.9.2 Utilities

9 41

9.10 Emergency Response Planning (ERP)

REFERENCES
APPENDICES

9 44

9.10.1 Emergency Response Team (ERT)

9 46

9.10.2 Emergency Action Plan (EAP)

9 47

9.10.3 Plant Alarm/Alert

9 48

9.10.4 Total Plan Evacuation

9 49

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE

TITLE

PAGE

1.1

Physical properties of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate

11

1.2

Summary of process selection

17

1.3

The equipment used in the production of 2-EHA

1 10

1.4

Comparison of process route selection

1 17

1.5

Summary of comparison

1 18

1.6

The advantages & disadvantages of producing 2-

1 19

EHA by addition of solvent


1.7

Advantages & disadvantages of the production of 2-

1 20

EHA without addition of external solvent.


1.8

Trend of World demand by Region

1 23

1.9

Global Capacity by regions in 2009 and forecast

1 23

2012
1.10

Comparison of Site selection with Characteristics

1 31

1.11

Factors being considered according to the location

1 37

2.1

Chemical Formula and Molecular Weights of

23

Components in the Production of Ethylhexyl Acrylate


2.2

Mass Flow Rate of Raw Material at Feed Stream

25

2.3

Summary of Mass and Molar Flow Rate of Each

27

Component in Stream 1
2.4

Summary of Mass and Molar Flow Rate of Each

27

Component in Stream 16
2.5

Summary for Molar Flow Rate on the Reactor Input

28

2.6

Summary for the Mass Flow Rate and Molar Flow

2 10

Rate Balance on the Reactor Outlet (R-101)


2.7

Summary for the Mass Flow Rate Balance on the

2 11

First Reactor (R-101)


2.8

Summary for Molar Flow Rate and Mass Flow Rate

2 12

for Stream 6
2.9

Summary for the Mass Flow Rate and Molar Flow

2 14

Rate Balance on the Reactor Outlet (R-102)


2.10

Summary for the Mass Flow Rate Balance on the

2 17

Heavy Removal Column (T-102)


2.11

Summary for the Mass Flow Rate Balance on the

2 18

Cracking Unit (S-101)


2.12

Summary of Mass Flow Rate into the Refining

2 19

Product Column (T-103)


2.13

Summary for the Mass Flow Rate Balance on the

2 21

Refining Product Column (T-103)


2.14

Summary of Mass Flow Rate into the Distillation

2 22

Column
(T-102)
2.15

Summary of Mass Flow at the Absorber (T-101)

2 22

Outlet
2.16

Summary of Mass Flow Rate of the Separator (S-

2 23

102)
2.17

Error Calculation of HYSIS and Manual Calculation

2 28

2.18

Properties of the Streams at the Esterification

2 32

Reactor (R-101)
2.19

Energy of the Streams at the Esterification Reactor

2 34

(R-101
2.20

Properties of the Streams at the Esterification

2 35

Reactor (R-102)
2.21

Energy Streams at Second Esterification Reactor (R-

2 36

102)
2.22

Properties Streams at Absorber (T-101)

2 37

2.23

Energy Streams at Absorber (T-101)

2 38

2.24

Properties Streams at Heavy Removal Column (T-

2 42

102)
2.25

Energy Streams at Heavy Removal Column (T-102)

2 43

2.26

Properties Streams at Splitter (S-101)

2 44

2.27

Energy Streams at Splitter (S-101)

2 45

2.28

Properties Streams at Reflux Absorber (T-103)

2 46

2.29

Energy Streams at Reflux Absorber (T-103)

2 47

2.30

Summary of Energy Stream

2 48

3.1

Stream Data for Heat Integration Problem (Hysys)

32

3.2

Values of Tmin for the Respective Industries

35

(Cheresources, 2011)
3.3

Interval Temperature

36

3.4

Problem table

39

3.5

Difference between Before and After Heat

3 14

Integration
4.1

Control System of Esterification Reactor (R-101)

47

4.2

Control System of Esterification Reactor (R-102)

48

4.3

Control System of Distillation Column (T-102)

4 10

4.4

Control System of Finishing column (T-103)

4 12

4.5

Control System of Heater (E-101)

4 14

4.4

Control System of Heater (E-102)

4 15

4.7

Control System of Condenser (E-103)

4 16

4.8

Control System of Cooler (E-104)

4 17

4.9

Control System of Mixer (M-101)

4 18

4.10

Control System of Splitter (S-101)

4 19

5.1

Comparison on the Type of Reactor with its Criteria

51

Evaluation
5.2

Properties of the Inlet and Outlet Stream

54

5.3

Constant Value for Density Calculation at Various

55

Temperatures
5.4

Ratio of Length to Diameter of Vessel as a Function

5 17

of Pressure
5.5

Summary of Chemical Design of Esterification

5 18

Reactor 1 (R-101)
5.6

Properties of the Inlet and Outlet Stream of R-102

5 21

5.7

Volume and Concentration of Component in S4

5 22

5.8

Volume and Concentration of Component in S8

5 23

5.9

Reaction Rate for Each Component

5 24

5.10

Volume of Component in Reactor R-102

5 25

5.11

Ratio of Length to Diameter of Vessel as a Function

5 26

of Pressure

5.12

Space Time Required for Each Component

5 27

5.13

Summary of Esterification Reactor 2 Design

5 27

5.14

Boiling Point of Each Component

5 29

5.15

Constant for Antoines Equation

5 30

5.16

Composition of Outlet and Inlet Streams

5 33

5.17

Composition, K values and Relative Volatility of

5 35

Components
5.18

Summary of Chemical Design

5 47

5.19

Condition and Composition of Each Stream

5 49

5.20

The Antoine Constant of Each Component

5 50

5.21

The Compositions in Feed Stream

5 51

5.22

The Compositions in Top Stream

5 - 51

5.23

The Compositions in Bottom Stream

5 52

5.24

Relative Volatility of Each Component

5 53

5.25

Summary of Data to Calculate the Minimum Reflux

5 53

Ratio
5.26

Summary of Calculation of the , Using Try and Error

5 54

Method
5.27

Summary of Calculation the Rm Value

5 55

5.28

Molecular Weight, Density and Composition of Each

5 57

Component in Each Stream


5.29

Summary of Chemical Design of Distillation Column

5 71

(T-103)
5.30

Selections on Types of Shell

5 73

5.31

Selection of Tube

5 74

5.32

Shell and Tube Process Condition

5 75

5.33

Summary of Heat Exchanger Design

5 85

6.1

Thickness of Insulation as a Function of Process

69

Temperature
6.2

Values for Bolt and Flange of the Inlet Pipe

6 13

6.3

Values for Bolt and Flange of the Vent Pipe

6 13

6.4

Values for Bolt and Flange of the Outlet Pipe

6 14

6.5

Summary of Mechanical Design

6 26

6.6

Reactor Specification Sheet (R-101)

6 27

6.7

Minimum Thickness Required Corresponds to

6 30

Vessel Diameter
6.8

Thickness of Insulation as a Function of Process

6 30

Temperature
6.9

Values for Bolt and Flange of the Inlet Pipe (S6)

6 36

6.10

Values for Bolt and Flange of the Outlet Pipe (S7)

6 36

6.11

Values for Bolt and Flange of the Outlet Pipe (S8)

6 36

6.12

Standard Flange Size

6 61

6.13

Summary of Mechanical Design

6 61

6.14

Summary of Mechanical Design of Distillation

6 79

Column (T-103)
6.15

Design Pressure

6 80

6.16

Design Temperature

6 81

6.17

Design Stress

6 82

6.18

Fluid: Chilled water

6 85

6.19

Properties of Steel Pipe for Inlet and Outlet of Chilled

6 85

Water
6.20

Fluid: Hydrocarbon Mixture

6 85

6.21

Properties of Steel Pipe for Inlet and Outlet of HC

6 85

Mixture
6.22

Design of Flanged Joint

6 86

6.23

Total Weight of Heat Exchanger

6 89

6.24

Design of Saddle for Vessel

6 90

6.25

Summary of Mechanical Heat Exchanger Design

6 91

7.1

Chemical Exists in Plant and its Hazardous

75

Categories
7.2

Acceptable Condition o Sewage Discharge of

76

Standard A and B, for New Sewage Treatment


System ( Environmental Quality Act (Sewage)
Regulation 200)
7.3

Composition of Waste After Mixing

78

7.4

Simplified Calculation

79

7.5

Summary of the Calculation of BOD5 in Wastewater

79

Stream

7.6

Simplified Mass Balance in Reactor

7 18

7.7

Simplified Mass Balance in Clarifier

7 19

7.8

Cost Estimated for Waste Treatment Unit

7 19

8.1

Grass-Roots Capital (GRC)

82

8.2

Estimation of Gross Root Capital, GRC

83

8.3

Total Capital Investment Cost

85

8.4

Estimation of Operating Labor

86

8.5

Annual Cost of Raw Material and Revenue of

88

Product
8.6

Cost of Water

89

8.7

Cost of Electricity

88

8.8

Cash flow Analysis

8 11

8.9

Discounted (10%) Cash Flow Analysis

8 14

8.10

Discounted (20% and 50%) Cash Flow Analysis

8 15

8.11

Sensitivity Analysis

8 17

8.12

Simple Payback Period Analysis

8 19

8.13

Discounted (10%) Payback Period Analysis

8 20

9.1

Type of Chemical with Its Health Effects

96

9.2

Typical VOC and Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs)

9 12

9.3

List of guide words

9 18

9.4

Words that are used in HAZOP study

9 19

9.5

HAZOP for Esterification Reactor

9 21

9.6

HAZOP For Distillation Column (Feed Stream)

9 24

9.7

HAZOP For Distillation Column (Distillate Stream)

9 25

9.8

HAZOP For Distillation Column (Bottom Stream)

9 26

9.9

HAZOP For Heat Exchanger (Chilled Water Stream)

9 28

9.10

HAZOP For Heat Exchanger (Process Fluid Stream)

9 30

9.11

HAZOP For Absorber

9 32

9.12

Items for consideration in an emergency action plan

9 45

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE
1.1

TITLE
Paint & adhesive application of 2-EHA (Google

PAGE
11

images)
1.2

General structure formula of an ester

13

1.3

The reaction mechanism of acid catalyze hydrolysis &

14

esterification
1.4

Reaction of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate

15

1.5

Block flow diagram of production of 2-EHA

19

1.6

The mechanism of dimerization process

1 12

1.7

Mechanism of producing 2-ethylhexanol by propylene

1 16

1.8

Global demand of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate

1 22

1.9

Acrylic Acid and Acrylic Esters Capacity Growth

1 24

1.10

AA and AE end uses in Asia

1 24

1.11

Trend selling price in Asia January-May, 2009 and

1 26

2010
1.12

Gebeng Industrial Area

1 39

1.13

Gebeng Industrial Park Area

1 40

1.14

Available land at Gebeng Industrial Park 2

1 40

(starproperty.com)
1.15

The proposed land for industrial at Gebeng 2

1 41

(starproperty.com)
1.16

The proposed land for industrial at Gebeng 2

1 41

(starproperty.com)
2.1

Overall Mass Balances on the Ethylhexyl Acrylate

26

Plant
2.2

Inputs and Output of the Reactor (R-101)

28

2.3

Esterification Reactor (R-102)

2 11

2.4

Heavy Removal Column (T-102)

2 15

2.5

Cracking Unit (S-101)

2 18

2.6

Refining Product Column (T-103)

2 19

2.7

Absorber (T-101)

2 21

2.8

Separator (S-102)

2 23

2.9

Overall Mass Balances on the Ethylhexyl Acrylate

2 24

Plant
2.10

Inlet and Outlet Streams of the Reactor (R-101)

2 30

2.11

Inlet and Outlet Streams of the Reactor (R-102)

2 34

2.12

Inlet and Outlet Streams of the Absorber (T-101)

2 37

2.13

Inlet and outlet streams of the Heavy Removal Column

2 41

(T-102)
2.14

Inlet and outlet streams of the Splitter (S-101)

2 44

2.15

Inlet and Outlet Streams of the Refining Product

2 46

Column
(T-103)
3.1

Hot Streams Plotted Separately

33

3.2

The Composite Hot Stream

33

3.3

Cold Stream Plotted Separately

34

3.4

Composite Cold Stream

34

3.5

The Hot and Cold Composite Curve Plotted Together

35

at Tmin =10C
3.6

The Grand Composite Curve

35

3.7

Rank the Interval Temperature in Order of Magnitude

37

3.8

Rank the Interval Temperature with Heat Balance

38

3.9

Heat Cascade Before and After

3 10

3.10

Flow of Heat Cascade

3 11

3.11

Grid for Streams Problem

3 12

3.12

Network Design

3 14

3.13

PFD Before Heat Integration

3 16

3.14

PFD After Heat Integration

3 17

4.1

Control System Design for R-101

47

4.2

Control System Design for R-102

48

4.3

Control System Design for T-102

4 11

4.4

Control System Design for T-103

4 13

4.5

Control System Design for E-101

4 14

4.4

Control System Design for E-102

4 15

4.7

Control System Design for E-103

4 16

4.8

Control System Design for E-104

4 17

4.9

Control System Design for M-101

4 18

4.10

Control System Design for S-101

4 19

5.1

Components at Outlet Stream 8

5 20

5.2

Erbar-Maddox Correlation between Reflux Ratio and

5 36

Number of Stages
5.3

Selection of liquid-flow arrangement

5 40

5.4

Relationship Between Downcomer Area and Weir

5 42

Length
5.5

Flooding Velocity, Sieve Plate

5 44

5.6

Entrainment Correlation for Sieve Plates

5 45

5.7

Distillation Column (T-103)

5 49

5.8

Trial layout of plate

5 68

6.1

Flanged Joint Standard (R.K.Sinnot,1999)

6 14

6.2

Spigot and Socket Flange (R.K.Sinnot,1999)

6 25

6.3

Spiral Wound Gasket (Bikudo.com)

6 25

6.4

The Cross-Sectional Area of Esterification Reactor

6 26

6.5

Reactor Cross Sectional Area of R-102

6 31

6.6

Typical Standard Flange Design

6 36

6.7

Typical Standard Flange Design

6 60

6.8

Flanged Joint Standard

6 87

6.9

Standard Saddle for Vessel

6 91

7.1

Process flow diagram of the wastewater treatment unit

7 12

7.2

System Boundary of Completely Mixed Reactor

7 14

7.3

Typical diagram of incinerator

7 20

7.4

Plant layout of the wastewater treatment unit.

7 21

8.1

Cumulative Cash Flow Diagram For a New Project

8 12

8.2

Discounted Cumulative Cash Flow Diagram using

8 16

Different Discount Rates


9.1

Possibility Of The Accident Occur

9 16

9.2

Plant Layout

9 43

9.3

Plant Evacuation Route during Emergency

9 50

Оценить